WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-first century boaventura

  1. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  2. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  3. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  4. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  5. Approaching Twenty-First Century Education from a Cosmopolitan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2018-01-01

    All over the world, educators and policy-makers are concerned about how best to prepare students to engage actively in an increasingly interconnected world. In this paper, I begin by arguing that twenty-first century education policies have largely been articulated in response to the exigencies of economic globalization. Further, a survey of the…

  6. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  7. University medical education in the twenty first century: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University medical education in the twenty first century: Challenges of social determinants of health and noncommunicable diseases. ... Conclusion: The curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand SDHs and their role in NCDs. The Bio medical model addresses secondary causes ...

  8. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  9. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  10. Membership, belonging, and identity in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations emerging from the first survey which were implemented to enable members to engage more fully in the organization. The article shows that a combination o...

  11. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Globalization has increased the sharing of technology and boosted the world markets. It also brings with it perils to the international community. NATO’s...the desire of states and non-actors to obtain them, especially nuclear weapons technology . Chemical, biological and radioactive weapons are cheap and...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  12. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  13. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  14. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  15. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  16. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  17. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK)

  18. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  19. Children's environmental health in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronczuk, Jenny; Surdu, Simona

    2008-10-01

    In the twenty-first century, the global burden of disease trends are the result of complex interaction among rapid industrialization and urbanization, unsustainable use of natural resources, and population growth. In addition, global environmental changes due to climate change, ozone depletion, desertification/deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and increased used of some biotechnologies are having an important impact on human health. Many other factors also play an important role in the population's health response to global environmental threats, including poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and infectious diseases. Worldwide, the burden of environmental disease is much higher for children than adults, especially in young children under 5 years of age. Quantification of the burden of diseases attributable to environment shows that environmental risk factors can contribute to more than one-third of the disease burden in children, a fraction of disease that could be prevented. Children are often exposed to multiple environmental threats combined with other behavioral, social, and economic risk factors. Many of the environmental health risk factors are shared among children's home, school, and community. Therefore, an integrated approach should be considered in order to create healthy environments for children. The promotion of safe environments for children has to involve decision makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), families, and various sectors including health, education, housing, environment, agriculture, industry, transport, and energy. Multiple initiatives have been proposed from collection, evaluation, and dissemination of information on children's health and the potential environmental threats to research, monitoring, risk assessment, and policies to improve the environmental conditions and ultimately children's growth and development.

  20. Globalisation drivers in the Twenty First Century | Ramakrishina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a global manager it is said that twenty first centenary offers an exciting and challenging atmosphere to work. Does it mean a big change in the way the business has been conducted so far as far or simply means a change in emphasis on certain ways. These currently, are some of the issues which are currently engaging ...

  1. Preparing for China in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Brian

    1998-01-01

    With China's emergence in the next century as a world economic and military power, it is imperative that the United States continue an engagement approach to assist with China's continued development...

  2. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  3. Engagement and the Twenty-First Century University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, C. Peter

    1999-01-01

    Argues for redefining the mission of the 21st-century university in order to focus on one overriding objective serving the public. Effective, expanding engagement with communities provides expertise and service to communities in ways in which universities are co-equal partners with other organizations and interests; it also provides rich…

  4. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  5. Digital Systems Supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Twenty-First Century: Guest Editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2016-01-01

    Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning, teaching and assessment towards offering unique learning experiences to the twenty-first century learners. This Special Issue on "Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in twenty-first century" aims to…

  6. Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    September–October 2015 | 85 Views Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War Strategic Agility Maj Michael W. Benitez, USAF America’s... gap between the dynamic 21st-century environment and our 20th-century bureaucracy. Their initiative and perse- verance allow us to succeed in our...SUBTITLE Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  8. Nuclear power in the twenty-first century - An assessment (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power was one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century, and it continues to play an important role in twenty-first century discussions about the future energy mix, climate change, innovation, proliferation, geopolitics, and many other crucial policy topics. This paper addresses some key issues around the emergence of nuclear power in the twentieth century and perspectives going forward in the twenty-first, including questions of economics and competitiveness, the str...

  9. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging

  10. Book Review: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Author: Osita C. Eze and Amadu Sesay. Publisher: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2010, xvi + 397pp, Tables, Index. ISBN: 978-002-102-7 ...

  11. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  12. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  13. The conundrum of religious schools in twenty-first-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Merry examines in detail the continued - and curious - popularity of religious schools in an otherwise ‘secular’ twenty-first century Europe. To do this he considers a number of motivations underwriting the decision to place one's child in a religious school and delineates what are

  14. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  15. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Chris

    2012-01-01

    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

  16. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  17. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  18. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  19. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  20. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  1. Twenty First Century Education: Transformative Education for Sustainability and Responsible Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many ministries of education focus on twenty-first century education but unless they are looking at this topic through a sustainability lens, they will be missing some of its most important elements. The usual emphasis on developing skills for employability in the current global economy begs the question whether the global economy is itself…

  2. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  3. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  4. Building Collective Leadership Capacity Using Collaborative Twenty-First Century Digital Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Freddy; Figaro-Henry, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The current research explores how using collaborative twenty-first century digital tools developed the collective leadership capacity among participants in an educational leadership course. A qualitative interpretive approach was used. The data show how learning within the digital collaborative spaces was multidirectional and enhanced the…

  5. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  6. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  7. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  8. 76 FR 56658 - Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 79 Video Description Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 Action: Final rules; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In... issues relating to the video description rules. The final information collection requirements were...

  9. 76 FR 68117 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... No. 11-43; FCC 11-126] Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... September 8, 2011, a document concerning implementation of the Video Description elements of the Twenty...

  10. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  11. Twenty-first century relevance of Soyinka's A dance of the forests : a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article embarks on a re-reading of Wole Soyinka's A Dance of the Forests in order to determine the relevance of the play to the twenty-first century Nigerian cum African society. The re-reading is cast in a postmodern conceptualization because it attempts a deconstructive reading procedure, which reassesses and ...

  12. Complex responsive processes: a new lens for leadership in twenty-first-century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra Jean

    2010-01-01

    Health care is currently in the midst of an age change. Leadership styles and organizational structures that were prevalent in the twentieth century no longer apply in twenty-first-century health care. Leaders of health care must embrace and help others to embrace new ways of being and relating in twenty-first-century organizations. This paper introduces a new framework through which leaders can see their organizations differently. Complex responsive processes (CRPs) focus on the interactions between people that take place in the living present as the building block of transformative organizations. This paper also introduces the seven da Vincian principles as a personal tool that twenty-first-century leaders might use to increase their capacity for creativity and to develop their ability to thrive in uncertainty. The power to shape the preferred future of health care lies within our relationships with others that take place locally and in the living present. Viewing organizations through the lens of CRPs and developing practices around the seven da Vincian principles provides directions and a starting point for traditional leaders to move away from rationalist, twentieth-century practices toward transformative leadership practices.

  13. New Poetics of the Film Body: Docility, Molecular Fundamentalism and Twenty First Century Destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Susan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty first century film evokes a new topology of the body. Science and technology are the new century’s ‘sovereign power’ which enforces biopolitics through bodies which, by virtue of being seen at their most fundamental level, have become docile surfaces. The film body is at once manipulated and coerced into an ethos of optimization; a thoroughly scientific and ‘molecular’ optimization which proffers ‘normalization’ and intimately regulated bodies. In the film bodies of this millennium, bodily intervention results in surveillance becoming internalized. Now the body is both a means and an end of social control. This essay applies the philosophies Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose to twenty first century Hollywood film, elucidating a new tropos, a new film body/body of film.

  14. Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David S G; Knight, Melanie; Wiggs, Giles F S

    2005-06-30

    Although desert dunes cover 5 per cent of the global land surface and 30 per cent of Africa, the potential impacts of twenty-first century global warming on desert dune systems are not well understood. The inactive Sahel and southern African dune systems, which developed in multiple arid phases since the last interglacial period, are used today by pastoral and agricultural systems that could be disrupted if climate change alters twenty-first century dune dynamics. Empirical data and model simulations have established that the interplay between dune surface erodibility (determined by vegetation cover and moisture availability) and atmospheric erosivity (determined by wind energy) is critical for dunefield dynamics. This relationship between erodibility and erosivity is susceptible to climate-change impacts. Here we use simulations with three global climate models and a range of emission scenarios to assess the potential future activity of three Kalahari dunefields. We determine monthly values of dune activity by modifying and improving an established dune mobility index so that it can account for global climate model data outputs. We find that, regardless of the emission scenario used, significantly enhanced dune activity is simulated in the southern dunefield by 2039, and in the eastern and northern dunefields by 2069. By 2099 all dunefields are highly dynamic, from northern South Africa to Angola and Zambia. Our results suggest that dunefields are likely to be reactivated (the sand will become significantly exposed and move) as a consequence of twenty-first century climate warming.

  15. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  16. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  17. Estimates of twenty-first century sea-level changes for Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Matthew J. R.; Breili, Kristian; Kierulf, Halfdan P.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we establish a framework for estimating future regional sea-level changes for Norway. Following recently published works, we consider how different physical processes drive non-uniform sea-level changes by accounting for spatial variations in (1) ocean density and circulation (2) ice and ocean mass changes and associated gravitational effects on sea level and (3) vertical land motion arising from past surface loading change and associated gravitational effects on sea level. An important component of past and present sea-level change in Norway is glacial isostatic adjustment. Central to our study, therefore, is a reassessment of vertical land motion using a far larger set of new observations from a permanent GNSS network. Our twenty-first century sea-level estimates are split into two parts. Firstly, we show regional projections largely based on findings from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4) and dependent on the emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1. These indicate that twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway will vary between -0.2 to 0.3 m (1-sigma ± 0.13 m). Secondly, we explore a high-end scenario, in which a global atmospheric temperature rise of up to 6 °C and emerging collapse for some areas of the Antarctic ice sheets are assumed. Using this approach twenty-first century relative sea-level changes in Norway are found to vary between 0.25 and 0.85 m (min/max ± 0.45 m). We attach no likelihood to any of our projections owing to the lack of understanding of some of the processes that cause sea-level change.

  18. Managing the twenty-first century reference department challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Learn the skills needed to update and manage a reference department that efficiently meets the needs of clients today?and tomorrow! Managing the Twenty-First Century Reference Department: Challenges and Prospects provides librarians with the knowledge and skills they need to manage an effective reference service. Full of useful and practical ideas, this book presents successful methods for recruiting and retaining capable reference department staff and management, training new employees and adapting current services to an evolving field. Expert practitioners address the changing role of the r

  19. A Tale within a Tale: Mise en Abyme Adaptations of the Twenty-first Century

    OpenAIRE

    Željka Flegar

    2017-01-01

    In accord with the promise made by Henry Jenkins that “old and new media will interact in ever more complex ways” (Convergence Culture 6), this research observes metamodern fairy tale adaptations of the twenty-first century in light of Christina Bacchilega’s construct of the fairy-tale web and Henry Jenkins’ theory of convergence culture and transmedia storytelling. The research will address the growing trend of embedding “wonder tale” collections within the context of a larger narrative as a...

  20. Neurogenetics in Child Neurology: Redefining a Discipline in the Twenty-first Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Walter E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing knowledge on genetic etiology of pediatric neurologic disorders is affecting the practice of the specialty. I reviewed here the history of pediatric neurologic disorder classification and the role of genetics in the process. I also discussed the concept of clinical neurogenetics, with its role in clinical practice, education, and research. Finally, I propose a flexible model for clinical neurogenetics in child neurology in the twenty-first century. In combination with disorder-specific clinical programs, clinical neurogenetics can become a home for complex clinical issues, repository of genetic diagnostic advances, educational resource, and research engine in child neurology.

  1. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  2. The American dentists: ethics, technology and education for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, dentistry has been answering a powerful call to embrace science-driven oral health care, and align dental education with interdisciplinary biomedical training. Now, as we enter the twenty-first century, "evidence-based practice" has raised new challenges for scientific collaboration and professional education. Central to this new landscape is the task of realigning the vision of oral health science to provide a more comprehensive view of how dental science and technology can best serve the health of expanding populations, the underserved and global cultures. This article discusses examples of how educational challenges are beginning to be addressed, and how new technologies like teledentistry, while helping solve certain problems of outreach, raise their own challenging ethical questions of professional obligation and responsibility.

  3. The changing motives of cesarean section: from the ancient world to the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel

    2005-04-01

    Cesarean delivery has been practiced for ages, although originally as a universally postmortem procedure. It is referred to in the myths and folklore of many ancient societies, for some of the infants delivered in this way survived, even though their mothers did not. Since the Renaissance, the objective of the procedure has gradually shifted towards saving the lives of both the mother and the child, and this has become ever more possible, as maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity decreased dramatically during the twentieth century. Today (at the beginning of twenty-first century), we are not only concerned with the safety and health of the mother and the child, but also with mother's desires and preferences and the child's rights.

  4. New and newer[The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. [Electron and Optical Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)]. E-mail: clark@mail.nist.gov

    2006-09-15

    Stephen Hawking's inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1980 caused quite a stir. Its title - 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics?' - raised the prospect of a unified 'theory of everything'. Hawking suggested that there was a good chance of resolving the remaining inconsistencies between the two big 'theories of something' - quantum mechanics and general relativity - before the turn of the century. My first impression on reading The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century, a collection of essays edited by science journalist Gordon Fraser, is that a theory of everything may still be attainable by the turn of the century. However, there is now 20 times more of everything in the universe than there was in the past century, 95% of which no-one has ever actually seen, or had even heard of until a few years ago - as summarized in articles by Wendy Freedman, Edward Kolb and Ronald Adler. Despite this, Michael Green describes amazing developments in string theory that could tie everything together, if one could just figure out which, if any, of the apparently infinite varieties of string theory applies to our world, and why. (U.K.)

  5. Little Dorrit’s Fourth Volume. Twenty-first Century Remediation of a Victorian Classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Falchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current interest in the Victorian period is particularly evident in the multitude of successful period dramas and cinema productions deriving their inspiration from Victorian history and culture. Dickens’s Little Dorrit, generated by the difficulties of understanding a ‘new’ world dominated by more and more complicated machines, and markets, is possibly the ideal paradigm to explore this ‘Victorianomania’ because this novel strikes us “no less forcefully today in its indictment of society's ability to destroy through greed and crushing self-interest” (Kirschner 2009. This study carries out a threefold analysis of Little Dorrit's remediation in the twenty-first century: visual remediation – Xue’s 2012 Little Dorrit; audio-visual remediation – the BBC series; and web remediation – fan fiction – in order to investigate Dickens’s appeal and longevity in contemporary media.

  6. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  7. ISLAMIC AND RELIGIOUS STUDIES: Challenges and Opportunities for Twenty-First Century Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Woodward

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores challenges and opportunities for Religious and Islamic Studies in the opening years of the twenty first century. It is especially concerned with relationships between the Indonesian, North American and Global contexts in which the two disciplines are located and the ways in which scholarly discourse can be enriched by trans-national cooperation and discourse. It is argued that Religious Studies should be understood as an academic discourse about religion and must be clearly distinguished from religious discourse internal to and across confessional lines. In a more concrete way, the paper is concerned with the epistemological foundations of the academic study of religion and with the issue of pluralism. It is argued that in today’s globalized world pluralism is a fact that cannot be ignored or eliminated. Discussion on what Eck has identified as three dimensions of pluralism, civic, theolo­gical and academic.

  8. Niels Bohr and the philosophy of physics twenty-first century perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Folse, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Niels Bohr and Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives examines the philosophical views, influences and legacy of the Nobel Prize physicist and philosophical spokesman of the quantum revolution, Niels Bohr. The sixteen contributions in this collection by some of the best contemporary philosophers and physicists writing on Bohr's philosophy today all carefully distinguish his subtle and unique interpretation of quantum mechanics from views often imputed to him under the banner of the “Copenhagen Interpretation.” With respect to philosophical influences on Bohr's outlook, the contributors analyse prominent similarities between his viewpoint and Kantian ways of thinking, the views of the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding, and themes characteristic of American pragmatism. In recognizing the importance of Bohr's epistemological naturalism they examine his defence of the indispensability of classical concepts from a variety of different perspectives. This collection shows us that Bohr's int...

  9. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  10. Globalisation and Social Imaginaries: The Changing Ideological Landscape of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred B. Steger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of prefixes like ‘neo’ and ‘post’ that adorn conventional ‘isms’ has cast a long shadow on the contemporary relevance of traditional political belief systems like liberalism, conservatism, and Marxism. This article explores how the thickening of global consciousness finds its expression in the growing capability of today’s political ideologies to translate the rising global imaginary into concrete political programs and agendas. But these subjective dynamics of denationalization at the heart of globalisation have not yet dispensed with the declining national imaginary. The twenty-first century promises to be an ideational interregnum in which both the global and national stimulate people’s deep-seated understandings of community. The essay also offers a rough outline and basic features of a new classification scheme that divides contemporary political ideologies into ‘market globalism’, ‘justice globalism’, and ‘religious globalism’.

  11. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  12. Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David P

    2006-01-01

    A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century.

  13. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  14. Climate change: a crop protection challenge for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David I

    2011-06-01

    Convincing data now show that temperatures are increasing, and that changing precipitation patterns are already affecting agriculture. Predicted future impacts vary by region, but all are projected to suffer productivity declines by the late twenty-first century unless successful mitigation measures are implemented soon. Exacerbating the climate change challenge, doubling of overall crop productivity will be required by mid-century. Clearly, crop protection will become increasingly difficult as higher-yielding varieties present a larger and more tempting target to all pests, and the pests themselves extend their ranges poleward and into other new geographies owing to reduced winter kill and longer growing seasons. Fortunately, good progress on enhancing crop protection technology to meet these challenges is already being made, but the scope of this climatic provocation is such that complacency is not an option. Increased investment into new technologies and adoption of new agricultural practices with improved adaptive and mitigation potential are both essential. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Between vanguard and exclusion- young people of the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been narrowed down to reveal a paradox. Here the vanguard of culture and civilization - which is regarded as young people of the twenty-first century – is embroiled in a discourse of exclusion: economic, political and cultural life. In secondary school programs and high schools we do not find specific references and studies, primarily based on the needs of students, about the theory of popular culture and cultural education in the area of pop culture. The paradox of exclusion of mainstream culture from educational discourse is schizophrenic. The political exclusion of young people of the XXI century I consider all the disparaging scientific discourse, which skips the actual media and communication competence of young people. Prosumers, cognitarchy, digital natives, C-generation – they are for the modern economy “Silicon Valley” - their market power to exclude is already unstoppable. In other areas it remains to be considered whether excluding young people from the cultural discourse will not deprive our future teachers and translators of the next civilization revolution of social reality...

  16. Inviting Twenty-First Century Students to the Eighteenth-Century Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Strong Hansen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a classroom activity that increases students’ connection to literary characters, and by extension, texts. The activity, constructed as a party attended by literary characters, tasks students with taking on the point of view of one character in an assigned novel. This can encourage a student to see the viewpoint of a character that differs from him or her in gender, social status, or any other category of difference. In heightening students’ relationship to eighteenth-century characters, I argue, instructors can bring the eighteenth century closer to contemporary students as well as increase students’ sensitivity to viewpoints that differ from their own. A post-activity writing assignment extends the activity to encourage student analysis and reflection.

  17. Digital Nineteenth-Century Serials for the Twenty-First Century: A Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Brake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this conversation, Laurel Brake and James Mussell discuss journals and digitization. They were both editors of the Nineteenth Century Serials Edition (ncse, a digitized edition of six nineteenth-century newspapers and periodicals published in 2008. The conversation takes in the digitization of historical periodicals in the broader context of contemporary, born-digital periodical titles. Nineteenth-century newspapers and periodicals present particular challenges: there are so many of them; they are poorly catalogued; runs are fragmented; and they survive in many forms. As well as this troublesome archive, they also consider the problems posed by periodical form itself. Is there a place for periodicity in an always-on digital world? Birkbeck was the base for ncse from 2005 to 2008, and Brake and Mussell were both involved with '19' in its first few years. They discuss the potential of born-digital periodicals like '19' and consider how, to date, '19' has exploited its medium. In many ways this anniversary issue — combining text, audio, and video and marking a particular moment — exemplifies how much more work there is to do.

  18. Developing twenty-first century skills: insights from an intensive interdisciplinary workshop Mosaic of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milosevic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest semi-enclosed seas, which, with its very low salinity and quasi-isolation from the big oceans cannot decide whether it is a sea or a large lake. This geologically-unique environment supports an even more surprising and delicate marine ecosystem, where a complex community of fishes, marine mammals and important microscopic organisms creates a magical mosaic of life. Humans have enjoyed the abundance of life in the Baltic Sea for thousands of years, and major Scandinavian and Baltic cities have oriented themselves towards this geo-ecosystem in order to develop and seek ecological, economical and cultural inspiration and wealth. The ‘Mosaic of Life’ workshop aimed at going beyond the obvious in examining the meaning of the Baltic Sea by gathering together a selection of young, creative minds from different backgrounds ranging from the arts and economics to geology and life sciences. This intensive workshop was designed as a unique training opportunity to develop essential twenty-first century skills – to introduce and develop creative, critical and interdisciplinary thinking and collaborative teamwork, as well as to foster a visual and scientific literacy, using project-based learning and hands-on activities. Our final goal has been to be inspired by the resulting connections, differences and unifying concepts, creating innovative, interdisciplinary projects which would look further than the sea – further than the eye can see and further into the future.

  19. The advance of technology as a prelude to the laboratory of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J; Henry, J B

    1994-09-01

    Technological changes in the clinical laboratory are usually driven by the goal of patient care optimization. In the last decade, the trend appeared to be directed at clinical laboratory decentralization. A new generation of analytical instruments, the biosensors, is redirecting laboratory testing closer to the patient, at the bedside, in the physician's office, and by the patient at home. These miniaturized biosensors are easy to operate, require small specimen size, and provide reliable results with rapid TAT. Thus far, bedside testing using biosensor technology appears to offer unique opportunities for earlier availability of clinical laboratory data, decision making, and more specific diagnosis, and faster and more frequent monitoring; these may translate into improved patient care and reduced hospital costs. It is likely that this trend will continue into the twenty-first century. Electrochemical sensors (e.g., for electrolytes, glucose, urea, and hematocrit) and pulse oximetry, having gained clinical acceptance, will probably be the leading instrumentation for bedside testing. Continuous monitoring either by near-infrared sensing technology or with an implantable sensor is valuable in the care of the critically ill patient. Acceptance for clinical use will depend on complete data integration and a favorable cost-benefit ratio.

  20. Tackling the health impacts of climate change in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    The turn of the twenty-first century has borne witness to the seemingly relentless march of climate change, with global mean temperatures and sea levels projected to rise significantly in the near future. Despite considerable improvements in healthcare, mortality rates and life expectancy worldwide over the past few decades, there is increasing evidence postulating the potentially adverse impacts of environmental alterations on health in more ways than one. These not only involve direct and indirect climatic-related health impacts, but also those modulated by human aspects. Undeniably, there is a pressing need to recognize these issues and come up with appropriate solutions to address them as much as possible. Fortunately, this has led to the development of a wide range of measures encompassing both adaptation and mitigation strategies, alongside the recent Paris accords which highlight renewed global resolve in tackling these challenges in a collaborative and coordinated manner. However, progress has been relatively muted, and whether these prove to be the turning point remains very much to be seen. Nonetheless, taking the above into consideration, there is little doubt about the gravity of the situation, and that much more needs to be done to integrate and bring society forward in this new era.

  1. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted.

  2. Space power technology for the twenty-first century (SPT21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borger, W.U.; Massie, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    During the spring and summer months of 1987, the Aero Propulsion Laboratory of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio in cooperation with the Air Force Space Technology Center at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, undertook an initiative to develop a Strategic Plan for Space Power Technology Development. The initiative was called SPT21, Space Power Technology for the Twenty-First Century. The planning process involved the participation of other Government organizations (U.S. Army, Navy, DOE and NASA) along with major aerospace companies and universities. Following an SPT21 kickoff meeting on 28 May 1987, detailed strategic planning was accomplished through seven (7) Space Power Technology Discipline Workshops commencing in June 1987 and concluding in August 1987. Technology Discipline Workshops were conducted in the following areas: (1) Solar Thermal Dynamic Power Systems (2) Solar Photovoltaic Cells and Arrays (3) Thermal Management Technology (4) Energy Storage Technology (5) Nuclear Power Systems Technology (6) Power Conditioning, Distribution and Control and (7) Systems Technology/Advanced Concepts. This technical paper summarizes the planning process and describes the salient findings and conclusions of the workshops

  3. Diverging seasonal extremes for ocean acidification during the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Orr, James C.

    2018-01-01

    How ocean acidification will affect marine organisms depends on changes in both the long-term mean and the short-term temporal variability of carbonate chemistry1-8. Although the decadal-to-centennial response to atmospheric CO2 and climate change is constrained by observations and models1, 9, little is known about corresponding changes in seasonality10-12, particularly for pH. Here we assess the latter by analysing nine earth system models (ESMs) forced with a business-as-usual emissions scenario13. During the twenty-first century, the seasonal cycle of surface-ocean pH was attenuated by 16 ± 7%, on average, whereas that for hydrogen ion concentration [H+] was amplified by 81 ± 16%. Simultaneously, the seasonal amplitude of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was attenuated except in the subtropics, where it was amplified. These contrasting changes derive from regionally varying sensitivities of these variables to atmospheric CO2 and climate change and to diverging trends in seasonal extremes in the primary controlling variables (temperature, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity). Projected seasonality changes will tend to exacerbate the impacts of increasing [H+] on marine organisms during the summer and ameliorate the impacts during the winter, although the opposite holds in the high latitudes. Similarly, over most of the ocean, impacts from declining Ωarag are likely to be intensified during the summer and dampened during the winter.

  4. Indication to Open Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Maria Bove

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Advances in endourology have greatly reduced indications to open surgery in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones. Nevertheless in our experience, open surgery still represents the treatment of choice in rare cases. Case Report. A 71-year-old morbidly obese female patient complaining about occasional left flank pain, and recurrent cystitis for many years, presented bilateral staghorn kidney stones. Comorbidities were obesity (BMI 36.2, hypertension, type II diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmunary disease (COPD hyperlipidemia. Due to these comorbidities, endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches were not indicated. We offered the patient staged open anatrophic nephrolithotomy. Results. Operative time was 180 minutes. Blood loss was 500 cc. requiring one unit of packed red blood cells. Hospital stay was 7 days. The renal function was unaffected based on preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels. Stone-free status of the left kidney was confirmed after surgery with CT scan. Conclusions. Open surgery can represent a valid alterative in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones of very selected cases. A discussion of the current indications in the twenty-first century is presented.

  5. Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Mansfield

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as a group, are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens to humans and are the primary vector for pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife. The role of ticks in the transmission of viruses has been known for over 100 years and yet new pathogenic viruses are still being detected and known viruses are continually spreading to new geographic locations. Partly as a result of their novelty, tick-virus interactions are at an early stage in understanding. For some viruses, even the principal tick-vector is not known. It is likely that tick-borne viruses will continue to emerge and challenge public and veterinary health long into the twenty-first century. However, studies focusing on tick saliva, a critical component of tick feeding, virus transmission, and a target for control of ticks and tick-borne diseases, point toward solutions to emerging viruses. The aim of this review is to describe some currently emerging tick-borne diseases, their causative viruses, and to discuss research on virus-tick interactions. Through focus on this area, future protein targets for intervention and vaccine development may be identified.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Occupational Epidemiology in the Twenty-first Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Collins, J J; Guo, Y L; Heederik, D; Kogevinas, M; Steenland, K; Wesseling, C; Demers, P A

    2017-09-01

    There are many opportunities and challenges for conducting occupational epidemiologic studies today. In this paper, we summarize the discussion of a symposium held at the Epidemiology in Occupational Health (EPICOH) conference, Chicago 2014, on challenges for occupational epidemiology in the twenty-first century. The increasing number of publications and attendance at our conferences suggests that worldwide interest in occupational epidemiology has been growing. There are clearly abundant opportunities for new research in occupational epidemiology. Areas ripe for further work include developing improved methods for exposure assessment, statistical analysis, studying migrant workers and other vulnerable populations, the use of biomarkers, and new hazards. Several major challenges are also discussed such as the rapidly changing nature and location of work, lack of funding, and political/legal conflicts. As long as work exists there will be occupational diseases that demand our attention, and a need for epidemiologic studies designed to characterize these risks and to support the development of preventive strategies. Despite the challenges and given the important past contribution in this field, we are optimistic about the importance and continued vitality of the research field of occupational epidemiology.

  7. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-07-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  8. A Tale within a Tale: Mise en Abyme Adaptations of the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Flegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In accord with the promise made by Henry Jenkins that “old and new media will interact in ever more complex ways” (Convergence Culture 6, this research observes metamodern fairy tale adaptations of the twenty-first century in light of Christina Bacchilega’s construct of the fairy-tale web and Henry Jenkins’ theory of convergence culture and transmedia storytelling. The research will address the growing trend of embedding “wonder tale” collections within the context of a larger narrative as an artefact of significance, power, and material value. Although original tales with known authorship, these fairy tale adaptations are appended to the mythology and culture of the fantastic secondary worlds. Such texts tend to be parodic, subversive, and even carnivalesque (Bakhtin; Stephens, providing a commentary on the culture of their origin, as well as our own. By blending cultures, styles, and formats, mise en abyme wonder tales also result in the empowerment of specifically marginalised groups. Generally defined as spin-offs that are otherwise a part of a complex inter- and hypertextual web, these fairy tale collections constitute a metafictional body of knowledge and wisdom. In the digital era much focus is placed on multimodal, hypertextual, and transmedia narratives with a significant influence of fandom on the production of such literary works. The study will focus on the popular examples of such practice, J.K. Rowling’s Tales of Beedle the Bard (2007/2008 and Ransom Riggs’ Tales of the Peculiar (2016, in order to define mise en abyme fairy tale adaptations, as well as to discuss their cultural significance and function.

  9. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  11. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  12. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest "strong inference in mathematical modeling" as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century.

  13. A Dialogue Worth Having: Vocational Competence, Career Identity and a Learning Environment for Twenty-First Century Success at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Lengelle, Reinekke; Winters, Annemie; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2018-01-01

    The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity.

  14. Rethinking Teaching and Learning Pedagogy for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Blended Learning in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    In an increasingly technologically driven world, there is proliferate discussion among education and government authorities about the necessity to rethink education in the twenty-first century. The evolution of technology and its pervasive influence on the needs and requirements of society is central to this mindset. Innovations in online…

  15. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  16. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

  17. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulhrir, Taoufik

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading…

  18. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  19. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri

    2017-04-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  20. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  1. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  2. Imagination in Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning Teachers as Creative-Adaptive Leaders in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Shamini Samanlatha Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the value and functions of imagination in leading learning in the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based age marked by diversity, change and unpredictability. In such a context, how can imagination enable teachers to be leaders of learning who optimally engage and prepare students for success? Research in cognitive…

  3. Nonlinear Pedagogy and Its Role in Encouraging Twenty-First Century Competencies through Physical Education: A Singapore Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Button, Chris; Tan, Clara Wee Keat

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear Pedagogy is an exploratory approach to teaching and learning Physical Education that can be potentially effective to help children acquire relevant twenty-first century competencies. Underpinned by Ecological Dynamics, the focus of Nonlinear Pedagogy is on the learner and includes the provision of less prescriptive instructions and…

  4. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  5. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests

  6. The Return of "Patrimonial Capitalism": A Review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Milanovic

    2014-01-01

    Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty provides a unified theory of the functioning of the capitalist economy by linking theories of economic growth and functional and personal income distributions. It argues, based on the long-run historical data series, that the forces of economic divergence (including rising income inequality) tend to dominate in capitalism. It regards the twentieth century as an exception to this rule and proposes policies that would make capitalism sustain...

  7. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    during most of the 19th century , for example, and riverine warfare during most of its history (except for the American Civil War, the Vietnam War...Select a caveat DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and...Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty- first Century Peter M. Swartz January 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract

  8. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  9. Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

    2006-01-01

    To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning.

  10. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Soprano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  11. The role of nuclear science and engineering in the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    1998-01-01

    For the sustainable development of the world and the welfare of mankind in the 21st century, nuclear energy and radiation including particle and photon beams must play an important role, although there is a large negative side in them. As in the 20th century, the activities of both research and education in Nuclear Science and Engineering (NSE) should be positively promoted and enhanced for safer nuclear energy and wider utilization of radiation and various beams and for the diminishment of their negative side. In this paper, a brief history of NSE in the 20th century and its implications are given first. As an example, the NSE activity in the 100 years' history of Kyoto University is shown. And then the 40 years' development of NSE in Japan is briefly introduced. Finally, presented is the way that the research and education in NSE in the 21st century should be. (author)

  12. Autonomous Robotic Weapons: US Army Innovation for Ground Combat in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    less than a century, freeing mankind to pursue its higher aspirations.1 - Nikola Tesla , 1937 When, for these reasons or others like them, an anomaly...insights of genius-inventor Nikola Tesla who predicted extraordinary advancements in robotic capabilities for our near-term future, with the observations... nikola - teslas -amazing-predictions-for-the- 21st-century-26353702/?no-ist. 55 Purdy, Ellen M. “The Increasing Role of Robots in National

  13. On Being a Professional Educator in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Hedley

    Four cameos that have important educational implications for Australia in the 21st century are presented. The first cameo discusses the concept of one world, emphasizing the United Nations' report "Our Common Future" by the World Commission on the Environment and Development. Second, discussed is the answer to the question: What is…

  14. Computational Thinking and Media & Information Literacy: An Integrated Approach to Teaching Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Developing students' 21st century skills, including creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving, has been a prevailing concern in our globalized and hyper-connected society. One of the key components for students to accomplish this is to take part in today's participatory culture, which involves becoming creators of knowledge rather than…

  15. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds…

  16. Developing Students' Twenty-First Century Skills through a Service Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Isaac E.; Morgan, Whitney B.; Perry, Sara J.; Wang, Ying C.

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly important for students to develop practiced and applied knowledge, teamwork skills, and civic engagement in addition to core curriculum knowledge in order to be prepared for the demands of the 21st century workforce. We propose that service-learning, or learning through an applied community service project, can uniquely address…

  17. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-first Century

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book explains why institutional reform of the WTO is so necessary at this critical juncture in world history. It contains thoughtful views from contributors on key aspects of the WTO that need to be redesigned to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Moreover, it includes contributions from researchers in the developing ...

  18. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  19. Human population and environmental stresses in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, R E

    2000-01-01

    Human populations have put pressure on their natural surroundings throughout history. Yet the world is now facing truly global environmental challenges and rapid population growth in the final half of the twentieth century is a critical component to understanding these phenomena. In his article, Ambassador Richard Benedick examines a host of population dynamics and their complex interlinkages with three representative environmental issue areas: forest, freshwater resources, and climate change. These connections raise the importance of meeting the commitments made at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. Benedick maintains that investments in measures to slow the rate of population growth--and thereby to reach a stable population earlier, and at lower levels, than under current trends--WO WOMENuld significantly reinforce efforts to address the environmental challenges of the century ahead, and considerably lower the cost of such efforts.

  20. Smart Cities and Charming Villages: New Heritage Processes in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Santamarina Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The heritage phenomenon has undergone spectacular growth in recent decades in a boom that can be interpreted as an aspect of the third spirit of capitalism. The arrival of the economy of intangibles with its emphasis on this new production of value has changed the rules of the game for the global economy. In this article, we argue that a crucial transformation has taken place within the activation of heritage assets: we have moved from the political nationalism which triggered collective heritage in the nineteenth century, to a nationalism of consumption during the twentyfirst century. In this context, we focus on the different impact of heritage processes depending on where a location is positioned within global markets. This position will then condition the bid to become a smart city or charming village. We contend that both are two sides of the same coin.

  1. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Meinrat O

    2007-07-15

    Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of the sensitivity of the climate system to the effect of GHG. Over the present century, the role of aerosols in opposing global warming will wane, as there are powerful policy reasons to reduce their emissions and their atmospheric lifetimes are short in contrast to those of the GHG. On the other hand, aerosols will continue to play a role in regional climate change, especially with regard to the water cycle. The end of significant climate protection by atmospheric aerosols, combined with the potentially very high sensitivity of the climate system, makes sharp and prompt reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, very urgent.

  2. Global environmental issues and electric power in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidy, G.M.; Spencer, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the electric utility industry in the 21st Century will be central to the well-being of mankind. Electricity worldwide is still likely to be produced mainly from fossil fuel combustion for the foreseeable future. On a global scale, this energy sector will contribute to growing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through most of the next century. A potential for global climate alteration has been identified with accumulation of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth's atmosphere. If climate changes, adverse environmental effects are possible, acting on human systems, as well as on managed and natural ecosystems. Projected rates of increase in atmospheric CO 2 levels for the next century have motivated decision makers to consider early strategies for beginning to aggressively manage GHG emissions. The objective of this paper is to review the global issues associated with expected increases in gaseous emissions, particularly carbon dioxide from increased energy use, indicating the nature and significance of the issue. The authors emphasize a methodology integrating information on environmental issues with social and economic factors to develop informed international policies. The paper summarizes the technological choices available worldwide that could minimize the environmental impact of increasing energy use, particularly with respect to enhanced electricity production

  3. A needs assessment for DOE's packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE's mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE's transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically

  4. From Plowshares to Swords? UN Forces on Israel's Borders in the Second Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Chen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the contribution made by peacekeeping operations on Israel’s borders to regional stability since Israel’s establishment, especially in the face of the challenge posed by armed non-state actors in the second decade of the twenty-first century. The article is divided into three parts. The first part presents the main changes in the operating principles of peacekeeping missions from the Cold War to the present. The second provides a concise overview of the rationale for pea...

  5. Tourism: world's biggest industry in the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papson, S.

    1979-08-01

    If present growth rates continue, tourism, with its associated social, economic, and environmental impacts, could become the world's largest industry by the end of the century. These impacts may force many countries to reevaluate their tourist policies. Noticeable trends affecting tourism are an increase in leisure time, an expanding middle class, the diffusion of transportation and communication technology, a need to escape from the modern work environment, and a growth in travel marketing. The implications of these developments are examined in the context of world inflation and the scarcity of energy and materials.

  6. Military Culture and Counterinsurgency in the Twenty First Century: Defeating Boko Haram in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    experience as far back as the Anglo- Saxon wars, the British had learned the challenges of invasion and conquest, and had developed a system of “divide and...trained Islamic scholars strongly influenced his education. 70 By the late eighteenth century, he had begun teaching, writing and preaching some of...independence to late the 1970s. Guy Anorld in his book Africa: A Modern History, referred to this period as the “decades of hope.” 73 Although Nigeria

  7. Twenty-First Century Research Needs in Electrostatic Processes Applied to Industry and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Sims, R. A.; Biris, A. S.; Srirama, P. K.; Saini, D.; Yurteri, C. U.; Trigwell, S.; De, S.; Sharma, R.

    2005-01-01

    From the early century Nobel Prize winning (1923) experiments with charged oil droplets, resulting in the discovery of the elementary electronic charge by Robert Millikan, to the early 21st century Nobel Prize (2002) awarded to John Fenn for his invention of electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and its applications to proteomics, electrostatic processes have been successfully applied to many areas of industry and medicine. Generation, transport, deposition, separation, analysis, and control of charged particles involved in the four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma are of interest in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss some of the applications and research needs involving charged particles in industrial and medical applications including: (1) Generation and deposition of unipolarly charged dry powder without the presence of ions or excessive ozone, (2) Control of tribocharging process for consistent and reliable charging, (3) Thin film (less than 25 micrometers) powder coating and Powder coating on insulative surfaces, (4) Fluidization and dispersion of fine powders, (5) Mitigation of Mars dust, (6) Effect of particle charge on the lung deposition of inhaled medical aerosols, (7) Nanoparticle deposition, and (8) Plasma/Corona discharge processes. A brief discussion on the measurements of charged particles and suggestions for research needs are also included.

  8. Global Curricular Legacies and Challenges for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to examine the evolution of what has become a near global and conventional school curriculum, the forces behind its development and the purposes of education, its sponsors and controllers espouse, and to set it against the massive and urgent challenges of the 21st century. This century looks to be a unique one in that it could be the tipping point between human and environmental survival, and disaster on a massive scale. The argument is that this near global view of the purpose of education is misconceived and dangerous unless there is rapid and fundamental change in the purposes of educating the young. Those older than 10 are mostly already 'lost'. In search of a more appropriate purpose and structure of curriculum, the work of a prominent few who are not yet 'lost' is drawn upon, especially that of George Martin. founder of the Oxford Martin School. The purpose of education must now, and urgently, be the survival of the human species and the planet, not only in basic terms but also in terms of controlling increasingly powerful and sophisticated computer technologies known as the Singularity that could spiral out of control.

  9. Moving the goalposts: gender and globalisation in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R

    2000-03-01

    This article posits the argument that the 21st century will witness an assertion of the global relevance of gender in development. It looks at globalization from a gender perspective by mapping out the different aspects of the globalization processes, and viewing each of these aspects through the lens of gender analysis. The economic implications of globalization for women are traced in terms of the employment generated by the expansion of global trade and production. In addition, this article considers the response of the international women's movement to the increasing level of economic globalization, as well as the challenges for the global incorporation of gender issues. It concludes by citing a project initiated in Norwich called ¿Moving the Goalposts,¿ a project which aims to promote girls¿ football in an area around Mombasa in Kenya.

  10. Twenty-first century quantum mechanics Hilbert space to quantum computers mathematical methods and conceptual foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Fano, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to make accessible to nonspecialists the still evolving concepts of quantum mechanics and the terminology in which these are expressed. The opening chapters summarize elementary concepts of twentieth century quantum mechanics and describe the mathematical methods employed in the field, with clear explanation of, for example, Hilbert space, complex variables, complex vector spaces and Dirac notation, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. After detailed discussion of the Schrödinger equation, subsequent chapters focus on isotropic vectors, used to construct spinors, and on conceptual problems associated with measurement, superposition, and decoherence in quantum systems. Here, due attention is paid to Bell’s inequality and the possible existence of hidden variables. Finally, progression toward quantum computation is examined in detail: if quantum computers can be made practicable, enormous enhancements in computing power, artificial intelligence, and secure communication will result...

  11. THE CHALLENGES OF REACHING AND HOLDING OFFICE. MEXICAN WOMEN IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Suárez San Román

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving and exercising a political position: Mexican women at the dawn of the 21st Century. The purpose of this article is to motivate reflection about the challenges of achieving and exercising a political position faced by Mexican women, in the context of a political culture in which authoritarism prevails along with antidemocratic leaderships, both of which handicap women´s rights to exercise full citizenship. In this regard, the present article aims to generate concern about two determining moments for women in their way to exercise political positions: on first account, the challenges to achieve a political position of popular election within the local government (mayor, síndico, regidor. On second account, those challenges emerged on the exercising of such position. An interesting portion of the present article is composed of testimonies given by various women in such positions about their experiences in local politics, from various states and political parties.

  12. Fixing Freud: the Oedipus complex in early twenty-first century US American novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Robert Deam

    2011-01-01

    Representations of Sigmund Freud in early 21st century US American novels rely on and respond to the image of Freud that emerged from investigations by Paul Roazen ("Brother Animal," 1969) and Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson ("The Assault on Truth," 1984), which cast doubt on the validity of the Oedipus complex. Relying on Roazen, Brenda Webster's "Vienna Triangle" (2009) links Freud's oedipal thinking to paranoia and male masochism. Working with Masson, Selden Edwards's "The Little Book" (2008) takes Freud to task for abandoning the seduction theory in favor of the Oedipus complex. Jed Rubenfeld's "The Interpretation of Murder" (2006) rethinks the Oedipus complex as a projection of adults onto their children. All three novels seek to celebrate Freud's understanding of the human psyche, while shifting the focus of the oedipal structure away from the murderous and lustful child toward the adult.

  13. Climate Change driven evolution of hazards to Europe's transport infrastructure throughout the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, Christoph; Hollósi, Brigitta; Andre, Konrad; Gringinger, Julia; Chimani, Barbara; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Auerbach, Markus; Herrmann, Carina; Sladek, Brigitte; Berghold, Heimo; Gschier, Roland; Eichinger-Vill, Eva

    2017-06-01

    downscaled climate change projections. Hence, corresponding results are based on an ensemble of RCM projections, which was available for the A1B scenario. All analyzed risks to transport infrastructure are found to increase over the decades ahead with accelerating pace towards the end of this century. Mean Fennoscandian winter temperatures by the end of this century may match conditions of rather warm winter season experienced in the past and particularly warm future winter temperatures have not been observed so far. This applies in an even more pronounced manner to summer seasons in the Iberian Peninsula. Occurrence frequencies of extreme climate phenomena triggering landslides and rutting events in Central Europe are also projected to rise. Results show spatially differentiated patterns and indicate accelerated rates of increases.

  14. Projected heat wave characteristics over the Korean Peninsula during the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongsoo; Olson, Roman; An, Soon-Il

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperatures globally, and consequently more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves are likely to occur. Ambiguity in defining heat waves appropriately makes it difficult to compare changes in heat wave events over time. This study provides a quantitative definition of a heat wave and makes probabilistic heat wave projections for the Korean Peninsula under two global warming scenarios. Changes to heat waves under global warming are investigated using the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 30 coupled models participating in phase five of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. Probabilistic climate projections from multi-model ensembles have been constructed using both simple and weighted averaging. Results from both methods are similar and show that heat waves will be more intense, frequent, and longer lasting. These trends are more apparent under the RCP8.5 scenario as compared to the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, typical heat waves are projected to become stronger than any heat wave experienced in the recent measurement record. Furthermore, under this scenario, it cannot be ruled out that Korea will experience heat wave conditions spanning almost an entire summer before the end of the 21st century.

  15. From agricultural geology to hydropedology: Forging links within the twenty-first-century geoscience community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Despite historical linkages, the fields of geology and soil science have developed along largely divergent paths in the United States during much of the mid- to late-twentieth century. The shift in recent decades within both disciplines, towards greater emphasis on environmental-quality issues and a systems approach, has created new opportunities for collaboration and cross-training. Because of the importance of the soil as a dynamic interface between the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere, introductory and advanced soil-science classes are now taught in a number of Earth and environmental science departments. The National Research Council's recent report, Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, highlights the soil zone as part of the land surface to groundwater 'critical zone' requiring additional investigation. To better prepare geology undergraduates to deal with complex environmental problems, their training should include a fundamental understanding of the nature and properties of soils. Those undergraduate geology students with an interest in this area should be encouraged to view soil science as a viable Earth-science specialty area for graduate study. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  16. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James C; Fabry, Victoria J; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C; Feely, Richard A; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Gruber, Nicolas; Ishida, Akio; Joos, Fortunat; Key, Robert M; Lindsay, Keith; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Matear, Richard; Monfray, Patrick; Mouchet, Anne; Najjar, Raymond G; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Rodgers, Keith B; Sabine, Christopher L; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Schlitzer, Reiner; Slater, Richard D; Totterdell, Ian J; Weirig, Marie-France; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Yool, Andrew

    2005-09-29

    Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean-carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a 'business-as-usual' scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously.

  17. Projected Heat Wave Characteristics over the Korean Peninsula During the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongsoo; Olson, Roman; An, Soon-Il

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperatures globally, and consequently more frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves are likely to occur. Ambiguity in defining heat waves appropriately makes it difficult to compare changes in heat wave events over time. This study provides a quantitative definition of a heat wave and makes probabilistic heat wave projections for the Korean Peninsula under two global warming scenarios. Changes to heat waves under global warming are investigated using the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 30 coupled models participating in phase five of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project. Probabilistic climate projections from multi-model ensembles have been constructed using both simple and weighted averaging. Results from both methods are similar and show that heat waves will be more intense, frequent, and longer lasting. These trends are more apparent under the RCP8.5 scenario as compared to the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, typical heat waves are projected to become stronger than any heat wave experienced in the recent measurement record. Furthermore, under this scenario, it cannot be ruled out that Korea will experience heat wave conditions spanning almost an entire summer before the end of the 21st century.

  18. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  19. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  20. Twenty-first Century ethics of medical research involving human subjects: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Raj, Dominic S C; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    The field of ethics in medical research has seen important developments in the last three decades, but it also faces great challenges in the new century. The purposes of this report are to examine the current status of ethics of medical research involving human subjects and the nature of the ethical challenges facing this research, to identify the weakness of the current system of safeguards for ethical research, and to stress the importance of the ethical character of the researcher, which is the safeguard that has the greatest potential for protecting the research subjects. Researchers appreciate the risks of human medical research that create ethical dilemmas and the need for an ethical compromise in order to proceed with the research. The main elements of the compromise, formulated primarily from experiences in the Second World War, include: (1) the dominant position of the ethical principle of autonomy; (2) the demand for a signed informed consent; (3) the likelihood of improving health with the research protocol, which must be approved by a duly appointed supervising committee; and (4) an acceptable risk/benefit ratio. The main weakness of this set of safeguards is the difficulty with obtaining a truly informed consent. The new challenges to ethical medical research stem from certain types of research, such as genetic and stem cell research, and from the increasing involvement of the industry in planning and funding the research studies. Developing medical researchers with an ethical character and knowledge about ethics in medicine may be the most effective safeguard in protecting participants of medical research experiments.

  1. Twenty first century climate change as simulated by European climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubasch, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Climate change simulation results for seven European state-of-the-art climate models, participating in the European research project ENSEMBLES (ENSEMBLE-based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts), will be presented. Models from Norway, France, Germany, Denmark, and Great Britain, representing a sub-ensemble of the models contributing to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), are included. Climate simulations are conducted with all the models for present-day climate and for future climate under the SRES A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios. The design of the simulations follows the guidelines of the IPCC AR4. The 21st century projections are compared to the corresponding present-day simulations. The ensemble mean global mean near surface temperature rise for the year 2099 compared to the 1961-1990 period amounts to 3.2Kforthe A1B scenario, to 4.1 K for the A2 scenario, and to 2.1 K for the B1 scenario. The spatial patterns of temperature change are robust among the contributing models with the largest temperature increase over the Arctic in boreal winter, stronger warming overland than over ocean, and little warming over the southern oceans. The ensemble mean globally averaged precipitation increases for the three scenarios (5.6%, 5.7%, and 3.8% for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1, respectively). The precipitation signals of the different models display a larger spread than the temperature signals. In general, precipitation increases in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the mid- to high latitudes (most pronounced during the hemispheric winter) and decreases in the subtropics. Sea-level pressure decreases over the polar regions in all models and all scenarios, which is mainly compensated by a pressure increase in the subtropical highs. These changes imply an intensification of the Southern and Northern Annular Modes

  2. Coal utilization in the twenty-first century: How much and for how long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is projected that coal usage in the US will increase at approximately the historic rate as electricity consumption increases. Because the life expectancy of powerplants and coal mines is in the tens of years, the electricity to be produced from coal in 2001 will be generated in plants currently on line or under construction, and almost all of the coal consumed will come from existing mines. Coal produces two-thirds of the world's electricity and, on a worldwide basis, will continue to be a major source of energy for the remainder of this century and for some time to come. It is the longer term projections of coal utilization, beyond the next few decades, that remain much more difficult to predict. Fossil fuels are present in the Earth in finite amounts and are not renewable on the human scale of existence. Therefore, a shift to other sources of energy must occur eventually. A doubling of population will create a demand for greatly increased energy production. Historically, a 1% increase in world domestic product has been accompanied by a 1% increase in energy consumption. In most regions of the world, coal could supply a major portion of the increased energy and could do so without requiring major technological advances in coal mining and coal utilization technologies. The large, extensive, and accessible resources of coal, the ability to utilize it, and the demand pressures from an expanding population all bode well for the future of coal. However, there are also factors that may contribute to limiting the future use of coal. They include environmental concerns (acid rain, air toxics, and global warming) and the rate at which nonfossil-fuel sources (perhaps solar and nuclear) are developed. Although many of the decisions that will influence the future use of coal will be based on economic and environmental considerations, it is more than likely that politics will also play an important role in all of those decisions

  3. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Boulhrir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.

  4. The horror of stigma: psychosis and mental health care environments in twenty-first-century horror film (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights the specific manner in which twenty-first-century horror films stigmatize psychosis and mental health care environments (MHCEs) A search on various film forums using the terms "mental/psychiatric patient," "psychosis/psychoses," and "mental/psychiatric hospital" (limited from 2000 to 2012) revealed 55 films. A literature review revealed criteria for a checklist. Subsequent to viewings, salient recurring criteria were added to the checklist. Films were systematically analyzed under these criteria. Homicidal maniacs are the most common stereotypes. Misinformation is often communicated. Familiar horror tropes are used to stigmatize MHCEs. Practitioners should be aware of the specific manner in which clients are being stigmatized by the media. This paper highlights specific ways in which psychosis and MHCEs are stigmatized, and encourages practitioners to challenge these depictions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Renaissance of Word-of-Mouth Marketing: A ‘New’ Standard in Twenty-First Century Marketing Management?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert H. Meiners

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the importance of word of mouth for marketing management in the twenty-first century will be discussed. After a short introduction, there will be a focus on the demarcations and problems of traditional marketing. Then, in the third section, word ofmouth (WOM and word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM as a ‘new’ standard in modern marketing are described. The fourth section broaches the importance of word of mouth and word-of-mouth marketing from the point of view of business and consumers, and then in the fifth section their importance for the Internet is considered. Finally, in section six evangelism marketing is discussed as the most effective form of word-of-mouth marketing. Section seven concludes the paper with a short summary. The paper focuses on scholarly articles andcurrent research so as to keep theory as close as possible to reality.

  6. The Significance, for Readers in the Twenty-first Century, of the Character of Safie in Mary Shelley's Frankestein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katheu Mbithi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Significance, for Readers in the Twenty-first century, of the Character of Safie in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Abstract: This paper presents a critical look at one of the characters in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Safie, through the lenses of a female African scholar in the twenty-first century. A close look at the narrative structure leads to the gradual peeling off of the first two layers, to the core of the narration. The paper looks keenly at a minor character in this core, in the light of feminist literary criticism and against the concept of globalisation. The analysis of the character of Safie, carried out in full consciousness of the fact that Frankenstein was written two hundred years ago, involves a look at the words used to describe her; comparison between her and other characters, particularly other female characters; as well as a general overview of her circumstances and how she reacts in response to them. Keywords: literature, English, Gothic, Romanticism, feminism, Frankestein. // El significado del personaje de Safie en Frankestein, de Mary Shelley, para los lectores del siglo XXI. Resumen: Este artículo estudia críticamente a Safie, uno de los personajes de Frankestein de Mary Shelley, desde la perspectiva de una investigadora africana. Un examen atento de la estructura narrativa de la novela permite despojarla de sus dos capas exteriores, para alcanzar el núcleo de la narración. Este trabajo examina un personaje secundario de este núcleo a la luz de la crítica literaria feminista y en contra del concepto de globalización. El análisis del personaje de Safie, realizado con plena conciencia del hecho de que Frankestein fue escrito hace doscientos años, exige el examen de los términos usados para describirla; la comparación entre ella y otros personajes, especialmente otros personajes femeninos; así como una contextualización de sus circunstancias y de cómo Safie reacciona ante ellas. Palabras clave

  7. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  8. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  9. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century.

  10. Watershed-scale response to climate change through the twenty-first century for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Ward-Garrison, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic response of different climate-change emission scenarios for the twenty-first century were evaluated in 14 basins from different hydroclimatic regions across the United States using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a process-based, distributed-parameter watershed model. This study involves four major steps: 1) setup and calibration of the PRMS model in 14 basins across the United States by local U.S. Geological Survey personnel; 2) statistical downscaling of the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 climate-change emission scenarios to create PRMS input files that reflect these emission scenarios; 3) run PRMS for the climate-change emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and 4) evaluation of the PRMS output.This paper presents an overview of this project, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be very different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the climate emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and potential for future work.

  11. Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the twenty-first century. A blueprint from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Cannon, Geoffrey; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Martins, Carla Adriano; Garzillo, Josefa; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Barciotte, Maluh; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2015-09-01

    To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014. The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects of sustainability is discussed, and their application to other countries is considered. Brazil in the twenty-first century. All people in Brazil, now and in future. The food- and meal-based Brazilian Dietary Guidelines address dietary patterns as a whole and so are different from nutrient-based guidelines, even those with some recommendations on specific foods or food groups. The guidelines are based on explicit principles. They take mental and emotional well-being into account, as well as physical health and disease prevention. They identify diet as having cultural, socio-economic and environmental as well as biological and behavioural dimensions. They emphasize the benefits of dietary patterns based on a variety of natural or minimally processed foods, mostly plants, and freshly prepared meals eaten in company, for health, well-being and all relevant aspects of sustainability, as well as the multiple negative effects of ready-to-consume ultra-processed food and drink products. The guidelines' recommendations are designed to be sustainable personally, culturally, socially, economically and environmentally, and thus fit to face this century. They are for foods, meals and dietary patterns of types that are already established in Brazil, which can be adapted to suit the climate, terrain and customs of all countries.

  12. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  13. Predicting the patterns of change in spring onset and false springs in China during the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun; Li, Feng; You, Nanshan

    2017-10-01

    Spring onset has generally shifted earlier in China over the past several decades in response to the warming climate. However, future changes in spring onset and false springs, which will have profound effects on ecosystems, are still not well understood. Here, we used the extended form of the Spring Indices model (SI-x) to project changes in the first leaf and first bloom dates, and predicted false springs for the historical (1950-2005) and future (2006-2100) periods based on the downscaled daily maximum/minimum temperatures under two emission scenarios from 21 General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). On average, first leaf and first bloom in China were projected to occur 21 and 23 days earlier, respectively, by the end of the twenty-first century in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. Areas with greater earlier shifts in spring onset were in the warm temperate zone, as well as the north and middle subtropical zones of China. Early false spring risk increased rapidly in the warm temperate and north subtropical zones, while that declined in the cold temperate zone. Relative to early false spring risk, late false spring risk showed a common increase with smaller magnitude in the RCP 8.5 scenario but might cause greater damage to ecosystems because plants tend to become more vulnerable to the later occurrence of a freeze event. We conclude that future climate warming will continue to cause earlier occurrence of spring onset in general, but might counterintuitively increase plant damage risk in natural and agricultural systems of the warm temperate and subtropical China.

  14. Growth of Global Publishing Output of Health Economics in the Twenty-First Century: A Bibliographic Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Pejcic, Ana V

    2017-01-01

    Strong growth of interdisciplinary sciences might find exceptional example in academic health economics. We decided to observe the quantitative output in this science since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Electronic search of the published literature was conducted in four different databases: one medical database-MEDLINE/PubMed, two general databases-Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), and one specialized health economic database-NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED). The applied combination of key words was carefully chosen to cover the most commonly used terms in titles of publications dealing with conceptual areas of health economics. All bibliographic units were taken into account. Within the time horizon from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016, without language or limitations on bibliographic unit types, we identified an output ranging approximately from 60,345 to 88,246 records with applied search strategy in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus/Elsevier, and WoS. In NHS EED, we detected 14,761 records of economic evaluations of health interventions during the period in which database was maintained and regularly updated. With slightly more than one-third of the identified records, USA clearly dominates in this field. United Kingdom takes a strong second place with about 12% of identified records. Consistently, USA and UK universities are the most frequent among the top 15 affiliations/organizations of the authors of the identified records. Authors from Harvard University contributed to the largest number of the identified records. There is a clear evidence of both the upward stream of blossoming in health economics publications and its acceleration. Based on this bibliographic data set, it is difficult to distinguish the actual impact growth of this output provided dominantly by academia with modest contribution by pharmaceutical/medicinal device industry and diverse national government-based agencies. Further insight into the citation track record of

  15. Predicting the patterns of change in spring onset and false springs in China during the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun; Li, Feng; You, Nanshan

    2017-10-28

    Spring onset has generally shifted earlier in China over the past several decades in response to the warming climate. However, future changes in spring onset and false springs, which will have profound effects on ecosystems, are still not well understood. Here, we used the extended form of the Spring Indices model (SI-x) to project changes in the first leaf and first bloom dates, and predicted false springs for the historical (1950-2005) and future (2006-2100) periods based on the downscaled daily maximum/minimum temperatures under two emission scenarios from 21 General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). On average, first leaf and first bloom in China were projected to occur 21 and 23 days earlier, respectively, by the end of the twenty-first century in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. Areas with greater earlier shifts in spring onset were in the warm temperate zone, as well as the north and middle subtropical zones of China. Early false spring risk increased rapidly in the warm temperate and north subtropical zones, while that declined in the cold temperate zone. Relative to early false spring risk, late false spring risk showed a common increase with smaller magnitude in the RCP 8.5 scenario but might cause greater damage to ecosystems because plants tend to become more vulnerable to the later occurrence of a freeze event. We conclude that future climate warming will continue to cause earlier occurrence of spring onset in general, but might counterintuitively increase plant damage risk in natural and agricultural systems of the warm temperate and subtropical China.

  16. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  17. Traditional knowledge hiding in plain sight - twenty-first century ethnobotany of the Chácobo in Beni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie E; Moya Huanca, Araceli L; Ortiz Soria, Gere; Ortiz Vaca, Milton; Ortiz Álvarez, David; Soria Morán, Jorge; Soria Morán, María; Chávez, Saúl; Chávez Moreno, Bertha; Chávez Moreno, Gualberto; Roca, Oscar; Siripi, Erlin

    2017-10-10

    The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts. Based on previous reports and our preliminary studies, we hypothesized that twenty-first century Chácobo plant use centered on income generation, and that traditional plant use related to household utensils, medicine and traditional crop varieties had almost disappeared. To test this hypothesis, we started the "Chácobo Ethnobotany Project," training 10 indigenous Chácobo participants in ethnobotanical interview and plant collection techniques, in order to more fully document Chácobo knowledge and avoid the influence of foreign interviewers. Our study found 331 useful plant species in 241genera of 95 plant families, with leaves, roots and bark being the most commonly used plant parts The comprehensive documentation that these methods enabled completely nullified our initial hypothesis of knowledge loss. Traditional crop varieties are still widely grown and traditional knowledge is alive. Moreover, it is being actively recuperated in certain domains by the younger generation. Most Chácobo know, and can name, traditional utensils and tools, although only the older generation has still the skills to manufacture them. While many Chácobo still know the names and uses of medicinal species, the younger generation is however often unsure how to identify them. In this paper we illustrate the complexity of perspectives on knowledge at different ages, and the persistence of knowledge over almost a century

  18. Training medical students for the twenty-first century: Rationale and development of the Utrecht curriculum "CRU+".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Borleffs, Jan; van Dijk, Marijke; Westerveld, Tineke

    2018-02-22

    committed to developing training to meet twenty-first century demands of medical graduates.

  19. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4°C world’ in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, R.; Marinova, N.A.; Lowe, J.; Brown, S.; Vellinga, P.

    2011-01-01

    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis,

  20. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  1. Use of Comics to Enhance Students' Learning for the Development of the Twenty-First Century Competencies in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Cheng, Lu Pien; Ho, Siew Yin; Jiang, Heng; Lim, Kam Ming

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of comics in teaching mathematics in the secondary mathematics classroom. We explicate how the use of comics in teaching mathematics can prepare students for the twenty-first century competencies. We developed an alternative teaching package using comics for two lower secondary mathematics topics. This alternative…

  2. Formatively Assessing Teamwork in Technology-Enabled Twenty-First Century Classrooms: Exploratory Findings of a Teamwork Awareness Programme in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Elizabeth; Hong, Helen; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork, one of the core competencies for the twenty-first century learner, is a critical skill for work and learning. However, assessing teamwork is complex, in particular, developing a measure of teamwork that is domain-generic and applicable across a wide range of learners. This paper documents one such study that leverages technology to help…

  3. Towards a Common Ground: Arab versus Western Views about Challenges of Islamic Religious Education Curriculum of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    The Islamic religious education curriculum of the twenty-first century is a cornerstone in a hot debate about necessary educational reforms in the Islamic World. This study aimed at investigating the depth of agreement/disagreement between Arab and Western educational views about challenges of this curriculum through reviewing academic…

  4. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

  5. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  6. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  7. Sensitivity of discharge and flood frequency to twenty-first century and late Holocene changes in climate and land use (River Meuse, northwest Europe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Renssen, H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    We used a calibrated coupled climate–hydrological model to simulate Meuse discharge over the late Holocene (4000–3000 BP and 1000–2000 AD). We then used this model to simulate discharge in the twenty-first century under SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1, with and without future land use change. Mean

  8. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David

    2012-01-01

    are. Its core finding is that much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role played by the permanent members of the Security Council, the so-called Permanent Five or P-5 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). It is unclear, however, whether the Five will be able and willing to play this role adequately. The developments of the first decade of the twenty-first century have not been comforting for nonproliferation. Proliferation challenges have risen and grown more complex. In response, policy tools have been developed, but their effectiveness has suffered from divisions among the P-5 and between them and the NAM states. Half a century since Ikle's article and a decade since Roberts' review, the major powers have remained at a loss to address the threat of proliferation. Winning is still possible, but it will require more than wishful thinking. In the years ahead, the challenge will be to reconcile policy effectiveness with policy legitimacy, be it to restore compliance altogether or to prevent proliferation, counter it, detect and expose noncompliance, and manage nonproliferation failures. Meeting this challenge places the P-5 at the center-stage. Much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role that the Five choose to play. But given current shifts in international power structures (what Joseph Nye calls 'the rise of the rest') the prospects appear uncertain.68 It is important, therefore, that further research focuses on how the P-5 role can be strengthened to address proliferation, and how this role can be better aligned with today's evolving international trends

  9. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  10. Proceedings of the Fifth Seminar of High Temperature Reactor: The Role and Challenge with HTR Opportunity in the Twenty-first Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As-Natio-Lasman; Zaki-Su'ud; Bambang-Sugiono

    2000-11-01

    The Seminar in HTR Reactor has become routine activities held in BATAN since 1994. This Seminar is a continuation of the Seminar on Technology and HTR Application held by Centre for Development of Advanced Reactor System. The theme of the seminar is Role, Challenge, Opportunity of HTR in the Twenty-first Century. Thirteen papers presented in the seminar were collected into proceedings. The aims of the proceedings is to provide information and references on nuclear technology, mainly on HTR technology. (DII)

  11. From a Formalist to a Practical Aesthetic in Undergraduate Theatre Studies: Becoming Relevant in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    As a new century unfolds, the "downsizing" and continuing marginalization of the humanities, including theatre, in American higher education correspond to three trends in the academy. First, in response to the fiscal crises that began in the late 1970s, universities have increasingly turned to the private sector for financial support as federal…

  12. Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [University of New South Wales, Climate and Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dufresne, Jean-Louis [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2008-01-15

    The fourth version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM) model developed at the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL-CM4) is used to investigate the mechanisms influencing the Arctic freshwater balance in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The freshwater influence on the interannual variability of deep winter oceanic convection in the Nordic Seas is also studied on the basis of correlation and regression analyses of detrended variables. The model shows that the Fram Strait outflow, which is an important source of freshwater for the northern North Atlantic, experiences a rapid and strong transition from a weak state toward a relatively strong state during 1990-2010. The authors propose that this climate shift is triggered by the retreat of sea ice in the Barents Sea during the late twentieth century. This sea ice reduction initiates a positive feedback in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system that alters both the atmospheric and oceanic circulations in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN)-Barents Seas sector. Around year 2080, the model predicts a second transition threshold beyond which the Fram Strait outflow is restored toward its original weak value. The long-term freshening of the GIN Seas is invoked to explain this rapid transition. It is further found that the mechanism of interannual changes in deep mixing differ fundamentally between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This difference is caused by the dominant influence of freshwater over the twenty-first century. In the GIN Seas, the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater export out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait combined with the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater import from the North Atlantic are shown to have a major influence in driving the interannual variability of the deep convection during the twenty-first century. South of Iceland, the other region of deep water renewal in the model, changes in freshwater import from the North Atlantic

  13. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  14. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

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    Timothy Ikin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia’s faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia’s institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting.

  15. Does the Common Agricultural Policy still make sense in the twenty-first century? CAP after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary

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    Elżbieta Daszkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU CAP has developed immensely since the 1960’s. However, its current determinants are completely different from those which formed the CAP foundations. This results mainly from the fact that the UE CAP must meet present-day challenges and threats. Moreover, further EU enlargements also significantly influenced performance of this sector of economy. It is important to determine whether the existence of the CAP in the twenty-first century still makes sense and to specify in more detail the CAP reform directions after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary.

  16. El siglo XXI y el automóvil/The twenty-first century and the automobile

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    Juan Parrochia Beguin [1978

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexiones de J. Parrochia B. sobre el automóvil frente al agotamiento de la energíatradicional, la defensa del medio ambiente, la protección a la integridad y vida humana, la competencia de otros medios de transporte y el devenir de este vehículo en el siglo XXI./Reflections by J. Parrochia B. with respect to the vehicle from the depletion of traditionalenergy, protection of the environment, protection of human life and limb, competition from other modes of transport and the future of this vehicle in the XXI century.

  17. A New Paradigm Is Needed for Medical Education in the Mid-Twenty-First Century and Beyond: Are We Ready?

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    Dan E. Benor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth century witnessed profound changes in medical education. All these changes, however, took place within the existing framework, suggested by Flexner a century ago. The present paper suggests that we are approaching a singularity point, where we shall have to change the paradigm and be prepared for an entirely new genre of medical education. This suggestion is based upon analysis of existing and envisaged trends: first, in technology, such as availability of information and sophisticated simulations; second, in medical practice, such as far-reaching interventions in life and death that create an array of new moral dilemmas, as well as a change in patient mix in hospitals and a growing need of team work; third, in the societal attitude toward higher education. The structure of the future medical school is delineated in a rough sketch, and so are the roles of the future medical teacher. It is concluded that we are presently not prepared for the approaching changes, neither from practical nor from attitudinal points of view, and that it is now high time for both awareness of and preparation for these changes.

  18. Carl Gustav Jung, Quantum Physics and the Spiritual Mind: A Mystical Vision of the Twenty-First Century

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    Lothar Schäfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung’s psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn’t consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind.

  19. Carl gustav jung, quantum physics and the spiritual mind: a mystical vision of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas Ponte, Diogo; Schäfer, Lothar

    2013-12-01

    We describe similarities in the ontology of quantum physics and of Carl Gustav Jung's psychology. In spite of the fact that physics and psychology are usually considered as unrelated, in the last century, both of these disciplines have led at the same time to revolutionary changes in the Western understanding of the cosmic order, discovering a non-empirical realm of the universe that doesn't consist of material things but of forms. These forms are real, even though they are invisible, because they have the potential to appear in the empirical world and act in it. We present arguments that force us to believe, that the empirical world is an emanation out of a cosmic realm of potentiality, whose forms can appear as physical structures in the external world and as archetypal concepts in our mind. Accordingly, the evolution of life now appears no longer as a process of the adaptation of species to their environment, but as the adaptation of minds to increasingly complex forms that exist in the cosmic potentiality. The cosmic connection means that the human mind is a mystical mind.

  20. How Has Elderly Migration Changed in the Twenty-First Century? What the Data Can-and Cannot-Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Rork, Jonathan C

    2016-08-01

    Interstate elderly migration has strong implications for state tax policies and health care systems, yet little is known about how it has changed in the twenty-first century. Its relative rarity requires a large data set with which to construct reliable measures, and the replacement of the U.S. Census long form (CLF) with the American Community Survey (ACS) has made such updates difficult. Two commonly used alternative migration data sources-the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Statistics of Income (SOI) program of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-suffer serious limitations in studying the migration of any subpopulation, including the elderly. Our study informs migration research in the post-2000 era by identifying methodological differences between data sources and devising strategies for reconciling the CLF and ACS. Our investigation focusing on the elderly suggests that the ACS can generate comparable migration data that reveal a continuation of previously identified geographic patterns as well as changes unique to the 2000s. However, its changed definition of residence and survey timing leaves us unable to construct a comparable national migration rate, suggesting that one must use national trends in the smaller CPS to investigate whether elderly migration has increased or decreased in the twenty-first century.

  1. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  2. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  3. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-first Century: climate change and impacts scenarios, and potential for adaptation

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    Benjamin Sultan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the 21st century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options difficult. Further efforts are needed to improve modelling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, the response of the

  4. Responses of dune activity and desertification in China to global warming in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Yang, Yi; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Caixia

    2009-06-01

    Most areas of arid and semiarid China are covered by aeolian sand dunes, sand sheets, and desert steppes, and the existence of the nearly 80 million people who live in this region could be seriously jeopardized if climate change increases desertification. However, the expected trends in desertification during the 21st century are poorly understood. In the present study, we selected the ECHAM4 and HadCM3 global climate models (after comparing them with the results of the GFDL-R30, CGCM2, and CSIRO-Mk2b models) and used simulations of a dune mobility index under IPCC SRES climate scenarios A1FI, A2a, A2b, A2c, B1a, B2a, and B2b to estimate future trends in dune activity and desertification in China. Although uncertainties in climate predictions mean that there is still far to go before we can develop a comprehensive dune activity estimation system, HadCM3 simulations with most greenhouse forcing scenarios showed decreased desertification in most western region of arid and semiarid China by 2039, but increased desertification thereafter, whereas ECHAM4 simulation results showed that desertification will increase during this period. Inhabitants of thecentral region will benefit from reversed desertification from 2010 to 2099, whereas inhabitants of the eastern region will suffer from increased desertification from 2010 to 2099. From 2010 to 2039, most regions will not be significantly affected by desertification, but from 2040 to 2099, the environments of the western and eastern regions will deteriorate due to the significant effects of global warming (particularly the interaction between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration), leading to decreased livestock and grain yields and possibly threatening China's food security.

  5. Regional climate of the Subtropical Central Andes using high-resolution CMIP5 models. Part II: future projections for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulie, Natalia; Rusticucci, Matilde; Raga, Graciela B.

    2017-12-01

    In Part I of our study (Zazulie et al. Clim Dyn, 2017, hereafter Z17) we analyzed the ability of a subset of fifteen high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 to reproduce the past climate of the Subtropical Central Andes (SCA) of Argentina and Chile. A subset of only five GCMs was shown to reproduce well the past climate (1980-2005), for austral summer and winter. In this study we analyze future climate projections for the twenty-first century over this complex orography region using those five GCMs. We evaluate the projections under two of the representative concentration pathways considered as future scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Future projections indicate warming during the twenty-first century over the SCA region, especially pronounced over the mountains. Projections of warming at high elevations in the SCA depend on altitude, and are larger than the projected global mean warming. This phenomenon is expected to strengthen by the end of the century under the high-emission scenario. Increases in winter temperatures of up to 2.5 °C, relative to 1980-2005, are projected by 2040-2065, while a 5 °C warming is expected at the highest elevations by 2075-2100. Such a large monthly-mean warming during winter would most likely result in snowpack melting by late winter-early spring, with serious implication for water availability during summer, when precipitation is a minimum over the mountains. We also explore changes in the albedo, as a contributing factor affecting the net flux of energy at the surface and found a reduction in albedo of 20-60% at high elevations, related to the elevation dependent warming. Furthermore, a decrease in winter precipitation is projected in central Chile by the end of the century, independent of the scenario considered.

  6. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  7. Consideration of land-use and land-cover changes in the projection of climate extremes over North America by the end of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Adelina

    2018-03-01

    Changes in the essential climate extremes indices and surface variables for the end of the twenty-first century are assessed in this study based on two transient climate change simulations, with and without land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), but identical atmospheric forcing. The two simulations are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the Canadian Earth System Model for the (2006-2100)-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the global change assessment model (GCAM) representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario suggest significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to afforestation. CRCM5 climate projections imply a general warming by the end of the twenty-first century, especially over the northern regions in winter. CRCM5 projects more warm spell-days per year over most areas of the continent, and implicitly more summer days and tropical nights at the expense of cold-spell, frost and ice days whose number is projected to decrease by up to 40% by the end of the twenty-first century with respect to the baseline period 1971-2000. Most land areas north of 45°N, in all seasons, as well as the southeastern United States in summer, exhibit increases in mean precipitation under the RCP4.5 scenario. In contrast, central parts of the continent in summer and much of Mexico in all seasons show reduced precipitation. In addition, large areas of North America exhibit changes of 10 to 40% (depending on the season and geographical location) in the number of heavy precipitation days. Results also suggest that the biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the two simulations, lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the

  8. Twenty-first century Irvings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawler, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Irving family is the most powerful family in Atlantic Canada and one of the richest families in the world. The family is valued at $5.9 billion. This book discussed the family's growth and gradual domination over the forestry, energy, and transportation industries in Atlantic Canada. The book examined how the family has managed to remain dominant and powerful, and examined the ability of future Irving generations to maintain their power in the future, as the family expands and disperses. Details of the Irvings' particular style of entrepreneurship and their use of vertical integration were presented, and their relationships with government agencies were also discussed. The book examined the business practices and methods of different generations of Irvings, from the origins of the family business. The book demonstrated how the family has remained a progressive economic force for more than 150 years. An Irving family business history was also provided. Family attitudes towards the environment, philanthropy, and the media were also discussed. refs.

  9. Epidemiological trends of sepsis in the twenty-first century (2000-2013): an analysis of incidence, mortality, and associated costs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Jiménez-Sousa, María A; Micheloud, Dariela; Sánchez-Lopez, Ainhoa; Heredia-Rodríguez, María; Tamayo, Eduardo; Resino, Salvador

    2018-02-12

    Sepsis has represented a substantial health care and economic burden worldwide during the previous several decades. Our aim was to analyze the epidemiological trends of hospital admissions, deaths, hospital resource expenditures, and associated costs related to sepsis during the twenty-first century in Spain. We performed a retrospective study of all sepsis-related hospitalizations in Spanish public hospitals from 2000 to 2013. Data were obtained from records in the Minimum Basic Data Set. The outcome variables were sepsis, death, length of hospital stay (LOHS), and sepsis-associated costs. The study period was divided into three calendar periods (2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2013). Overall, 2,646,445 patients with sepsis were included, 485,685 of whom had died (18.4%). The incidence of sepsis (events per 1000 population) increased from 3.30 (2000-2004) to 4.28 (2005-2009) to 4.45 (2010-2013) (p 2000-2004) to 7.88 (2005-2009) to 7.89 (2010-2013) (p 2000-2004) to 18.4% (2005-2009) to 17.9% (2010-2013) (p 2000-2004) to 15.7 (2005-2009) to 14.5 (2010-2013) (p 2000 to 2011, and then decreased by the impact of the economic crisis. Sepsis has caused an increasing burden in terms of hospital admission, deaths, and costs in the Spanish public health system during the twenty-first century, but the incidence and mortality seemed to stabilize in 2010-2013. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in LOHS in 2010-2013 and a decline in hospital costs after 2011.

  10. Are Head Coverings the New Black? Sheitels and the Religious-Secular Culture Wars in Twenty-first-century America and its Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. H. Skinazi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1896, when Abraham Cahan’s collection of new Americans encouraged his greenhorn Gitl to remove her wig—which sits on her head as the metonymic symbol of religious ritual and thus Old World shame—readers of 'Yekl' were offered an account of twentieth-century American progress, rendered necessary (if painful. Just as Yekl/Jake shaved his earlocks and beard, so Gitl must give up her Jewish wig and stand before the world in her ‘own hair’. But we might imagine the necessity of such a sacrifice has become obsolete in twenty-first-century America, particularly as we see that what the grandmother doffed, the granddaughter comes to don. Beginning with a revival of religious themes in the 1980s, heralded by Cynthia Ozick, Jewish American literature is now rich with narratives centered on secular characters becoming Orthodox; on the inner-worlds of insular Orthodox communities; and on reimagining the potential of Orthodoxy within the context of Americanness. Interestingly, most of these narratives have been written by women, and it is the experiences of Jewish American women–the latter-day Gitls–that are foregrounded. Despite the proliferation of such narratives, it is important to recognize that the choice to embrace religion (made visible through wigs and shpitzels, turbans and kerchiefs continues to be fraught. The increasingly popular ‘off-the-derech’, or ex-Orthodox, memoirs of the twenty-first century identify the Jewish 'sheitel', like the Muslim veil, as a symbol of oppression, and the act of uncovering (like unveiling a tale of feminist triumph. Still, looking at a range of fiction, including Allegra Goodman’s 'Kaaterskill Falls' (1998, Nathan Englander’s short story ‘The Wig’ (2007, and Naomi Ragen’s satire, 'The Saturday Wife' (2007, we find the multivalent appearance and complexity of Jewish American women’s head coverings in recent literature suggest a different and varied signification, and a more nuanced

  11. The past is a guide to the future? Comparing Middle Pliocene vegetation with predicted biome distributions for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, U; Haywood, A M; Lunt, D J

    2009-01-13

    During the Middle Pliocene, the Earth experienced greater global warmth compared with today, coupled with higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To determine the extent to which the Middle Pliocene can be used as a 'test bed' for future warming, we compare data and model-based Middle Pliocene vegetation with simulated global biome distributions for the mid- and late twenty-first century. The best agreement is found when a Middle Pliocene biome reconstruction is compared with a future scenario using 560 ppmv atmospheric CO2. In accordance with palaeobotanical data, all model simulations indicate a generally warmer and wetter climate, resulting in a northward shift of the taiga-tundra boundary and a spread of tropical savannah and woodland in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Our data-model comparison reveals differences in the distribution of polar vegetation, which indicate that the high latitudes during the Middle Pliocene were still warmer than its predicted modern analogue by several degrees. However, our future scenarios do not consider multipliers associated with 'long-term' climate sensitivity. Changes in global temperature, and thus biome distributions, at higher atmospheric CO2 levels will not have reached an equilibrium state (as is the case for the Middle Pliocene) by the end of this century.

  12. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  13. Thomas Piketty: Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Le Capital au XXIe siècle. (Ensk þýðing: Arthur Goldhammer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Ritinu er ekki ætlað að vera lokaorðin um viðfangsefnið heldur miklu frekar grunnur að frekari umræðu og rannsóknum. Það hefur tekist. Capital in the Twenty-First Century er verk sem hefur þegar vakið mikla umræðu og verður vafalaust rætt áfram árum saman. Það er raunar nánast skyldulesning fyrir þá sem ætla sér að fjalla um þjóðhagfræði og hlutverk hins opinbera, hversu sammála eða ósammála sem þeir eru höfundinum.

  14. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  15. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  16. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  17. Changes of climate regimes during the last millennium and the twenty-first century simulated by the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Feng, Song; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the shifts in terrestrial climate regimes using the Köppen-Trewartha (K-T) climate classification by analyzing the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM-LME) simulations for the period 850-2005 and CESM Medium Ensemble (CESM-ME), CESM Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) and CESM with fixed aerosols Medium Ensemble (CESM-LE_FixA) simulations for the period 1920-2080. We compare K-T climate types from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (950-1250) with the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1850), from present day (PD) (1971-2000) with the last millennium (LM) (850-1850), and from the future (2050-2080) with the LM in order to place anthropogenic changes in the context of changes due to natural forcings occurring during the last millennium. For CESM-LME, we focused on the simulations with all forcings, though the impacts of individual forcings (e.g., solar activities, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use changes) were also analyzed. We found that the climate types changed slightly between the MCA and the LIA due to weak changes in temperature and precipitation. The climate type changes in PD relative to the last millennium have been largely driven by greenhouse gas-induced warming, but anthropogenic aerosols have also played an important role on regional scales. At the end of the twenty-first century, the anthropogenic forcing has a much greater effect on climate types than the PD. Following the reduction of aerosol emissions, the impact of greenhouse gases will further promote global warming in the future. Compared to precipitation, changes in climate types are dominated by greenhouse gas-induced warming. The large shift in climate types by the end of this century suggests possible wide-spread redistribution of surface vegetation and a significant change in species distributions.

  18. Specific Antigens by Federal Entity in Patients at the Transplant Unit of Specialities Hospital, National Medical Center Twenty-First Century, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Rivera, J C H; Ibarra Villanueva, A; Espinoza Pérez, R; Cancino López, J D; Silva Rueda, I R; Rodríguez Gómez, R; García Covarrubias, L; Reyes Díaz, E; Pérez López, M J; Salazar Mendoza, M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the kidney transplant involves understanding the immunologic basis, such as histocompatibility and the genetic basis of a population. In Mexico, the study of the genetic basis has led to a genetic map by federal entities. We performed an HLA study with 1,276 kidney transplant patients (recipients and donors) in the Hospital of the National Medical Center Twenty-First Century, determining HLA class I (A, B, and Cw) and class II (DRβ1 and DQβ1) antigens with the use of SSOP-PCR. A descriptive analysis was conducted with measures of central tendency (mean, SD). Of 1,276 HLA patients studied, we obtained 2,552 results for each class by the composition of the 2 haplotypes, and for HLA-Cw we processed 796 patients, for a total of 1,592 antigens for this class. We found antigens specific to each federal entity, and it was found that the Federal District had the highest number of specific antigens (10) followed by Morelos (7), Querétaro and Mexico State (3 each), and Tamaulipas, Aguascalientes, Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, and Oaxaca (1 each). The genetic map allows us to know proportions of antigens in every state in the center and south of Mexico owing to the diversity and area of influence of the National Medical Center XXIst Century, as well as the wide number of patients. Furthermore, there are still preserved proportionally distinct genetic roots in every entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  20. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  1. Trends in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in Germany and the USA in the first decade of the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Pulte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent population-based studies in the United States of America (USA and other countries have shown improvements in survival for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL diagnosed in the early twenty-first century. Here, we examine the survival for patients diagnosed with CLL in Germany in 1997–2011. Methods Data were extracted from 12 cancer registries in Germany and compared to the data from the USA. Period analysis was used to estimate 5- and 10-year relative survival (RS. Results Five- and 10-year RS estimates in 2009–2011 of 80.2 and 59.5 %, respectively, in Germany and 82.4 and 64.7 %, respectively, in the USA were observed. Overall, 5-year RS increased significantly in Germany and the difference compared to the survival in the USA which slightly decreased between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011. However, age-specific analyses showed persistently higher survival for all ages except for 15–44 in the USA. In general, survival decreased with age, but the age-related disparity was small for patients younger than 75. In both countries, 5-year RS was >80 % for patients less than 75 years of age but <70 % for those age 75+. Conclusions Overall, 5-year survival for patients with CLL is good, but 10-year survival is significantly lower, and survival was much lower for those age 75+. Major differences in survival between countries were not observed. Further research into ways to increase survival for older CLL patients are needed to reduce the persistent large age-related survival disparity.

  2. Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the twenty-first century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  3. Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, C.M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Cook, K.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO{sub 2} forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions. (orig.)

  4. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum—Part Three: Curriculum Implementation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Corvin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health professionals have been challenged to radically reform public health training to meet evolving demands of twenty-first century public health. Such a transformation requires a systems thinking approach with an interdisciplinary focus on problem solving, leadership, management and teamwork, technology and information, budgeting and finance, and communication. This article presents processes for implementing and evaluating a revised public health curriculum and outlines lessons learned from this initiative. To date, more than 200 students have participated in the initial pilot testing of this program. A rigorous process and outcome evaluation plan was developed and employed. Results from the evaluation were used to enhance the resulting curriculum. Specifically, all instructional materials were evaluated by both the students who received the materials and the faculty who presented the materials. As each successive pilot is delivered, both enrollment and faculty involvement has increased. Through this process, the value of committed faculty, the importance of engaging learners in the evaluation of an education program, and the need to implement curriculum that has been carefully evaluated and evidence-informed in nature has emerged. We credit our successful transformation of the Masters in Public Health core to the challenge provided by the Framing the Future task force, the commitment of our College of Public Health leadership, the engagement of our faculty, and the time we allowed for the process to unfold. Ultimately, we believe this transformed curriculum will result in better trained public health professionals, interdisciplinary practitioners who can see public health challenges in new and different ways.

  5. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-07-28

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975–2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December–May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  6. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a 'beyond 4°C world' in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J; Marinova, Natasha; Lowe, Jason A; Brown, Sally; Vellinga, Pier; de Gusmão, Diogo; Hinkel, Jochen; Tol, Richard S J

    2011-01-13

    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis, a pragmatic estimate of sea-level rise by 2100, for a temperature rise of 4°C or more over the same time frame, is between 0.5 m and 2 m--the probability of rises at the high end is judged to be very low, but of unquantifiable probability. However, if realized, an indicative analysis shows that the impact potential is severe, with the real risk of the forced displacement of up to 187 million people over the century (up to 2.4% of global population). This is potentially avoidable by widespread upgrade of protection, albeit rather costly with up to 0.02 per cent of global domestic product needed, and much higher in certain nations. The likelihood of protection being successfully implemented varies between regions, and is lowest in small islands, Africa and parts of Asia, and hence these regions are the most likely to see coastal abandonment. To respond to these challenges, a multi-track approach is required, which would also be appropriate if a temperature rise of less than 4°C was expected. Firstly, we should monitor sea level to detect any significant accelerations in the rate of rise in a timely manner. Secondly, we need to improve our understanding of the climate-induced processes that could contribute to rapid sea-level rise, especially the role of the two major ice sheets, to produce better models that quantify the likely future rise more precisely. Finally, responses need to be carefully considered via a combination of climate mitigation to reduce the rise and adaptation for the residual rise in sea level. In particular, long-term strategic adaptation plans for the full range of possible sea-level rise (and other change) need to be widely developed.

  7. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C. [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CCST/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ambrizzi, Tercio; Rocha, Rosmeri P. da [University of Sao Paulo, IAG-DCA/USP, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Lincoln M. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CPTEC/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cuadra, Santiago V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Ferraz, Simone E.T. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5 N-15 S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8 C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4 C and in winter between 3 and 5 C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  8. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  9. Globalização social: desafio do século XXI GLOBALIZATION SOCIAL: CHALLENGE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

  10. Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarin, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of educational theory in light of the challenges confronting education in the twenty-first century. The author examines how our ideas about the methods for managing the transmission of culture, the subject of education, and the consequences of these changes for the theory of education have changed. The author…

  11. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  12. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014. These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014, in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far. It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The assessment of “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” by Paul Krugman, Nobel Economics Prize Laureate as a “magnificent, sweeping meditation on inequality”, is highly relevant: “This is a book that will change both the way we think about society and the way we do economics” (Krugman, 2014. Finally, Piketty’s book is included in the list of the year’s best books by prestigious journals, such as The Economist, Financial Times, The Washington Post, Observer, The Independent, Daily Telegraph; Financial Times and McKinsey have hailed it as the best book of 2014.

  13. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    to biofuels (Bindraban et al., 2009), limited water resources for irrigation expansion (Turral et al., 2009), limits on agricultural intensifications, loss of croplands to urbanization (Khan and Hanjra, 2008), increasing meat consumption (and associated demands on land and water) (Vinnari and Tapio, 2009), environmental infeasibility for cropland expansion (Gordon et al., 2009), and changing climate have all put pressure on our continued ability to sustain global food security in the twenty-first century. So, how does the World continue to meet its food and nutrition needs?. Solutions may come from bio-technology and precision farming, however developments in these fields are not currently moving at rates that will ensure global food security over next few decades. Further, there is a need for careful consideration of possible harmful effects of bio-technology. We should not be looking back 30– 50 years from now, like we have been looking back now at many mistakes made during the green revolution. During the green revolution the focus was only on getting more yield per unit area. Little thought was put about serious damage done to our natural environments, water resources, and human health as a result of detrimental factors such as uncontrolled use of herbicides-pesticides-nutrients, drastic groundwater mining, and salinization of fertile soils due to over irrigation. Currently, there is talk of a “second green revolution” or even an “ever green revolution”, but clear ideas on what these terms actually mean are still debated and are evolving. One of the biggest issues that are not given adequate focus is the use of large quantities of water for food production. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion (60-90%) of all human water use in India goes for producing their food (Falkenmark, M., & Rockström, 2006). But such intensive water use for food production is no longer tenable due to increasing pressure for water use alternatives such as increasing urbanization

  14. Christ-Centered, Diverse, and Academically Excellent: The Origins of a Possible Model for Christian Schooling in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James

    2006-01-01

    During the last third of the twentieth century, Christian schooling in the United States was typically identified with the growing conservative, evangelical Protestant movement of that time period. After several United States Supreme Court cases had effectively secularized public schooling by the mid-1960s, the American educational landscape was…

  15. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  16. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Notaro

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  17. [The organo-clinical hiatus today. Some thoughts about Neurosciences, Psychopathology and Clinical Psychiatry in the early twenty-first century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuca, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    The concept of "organo clinical-hiatus" prepared by Henri Ey the mid-twentieth century has transcended the boundaries of time and has an amazing utility if it is considered from the point of view of both epistemological and clinical. Current developments in the field of neuroscience on the one hand and effective in clinical practice of psychopathological concepts born in the nineteenth century on the other, pose a challenge for psychiatrists today. It is important not to take a naive position on the new neuroscientific knowledge adopting a dogmatic stance that keeps us patient and while maintaining a clear position that avoids specialty contempt by those who argue that mental illness is a mere construct sustained by the medical hegemonic power. We believe the best way to protect our psychiatric practice of involuntary biases and attacks blinded by reductionist ideas is having a historical knowledge of our discipline and a solid epistemological basis. That way we will have the largest options to help our patients.

  18. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity. PMID:26578854

  19. An assessment of uncertainties in using volume-area modelling for computing the twenty-first century glacier contribution to sea-level change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. A. Slangen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A large part of present-day sea-level change is formed by the melt of glaciers and ice caps (GIC. This study focuses on the uncertainties in the calculation of the GIC contribution on a century timescale. The model used is based on volume-area scaling, combined with the mass balance sensitivity of the GIC. We assess different aspects that contribute to the uncertainty in the prediction of the contribution of GIC to future sea-level rise, such as (1 the volume-area scaling method (scaling factor, (2 the glacier data, (3 the climate models, and (4 the emission scenario. Additionally, a comparison of the model results to the 20th century GIC contribution is presented.

    We find that small variations in the scaling factor cause significant variations in the initial volume of the glaciers, but only limited variations in the glacier volume change. If two existing glacier inventories are tuned such that the initial volume is the same, the GIC sea-level contribution over 100 yr differs by 0.027 m or 18 %. It appears that the mass balance sensitivity is also important: variations of 20 % in the mass balance sensitivity have an impact of 17 % on the resulting sea-level projections. Another important factor is the choice of the climate model, as the GIC contribution to sea-level change largely depends on the temperature and precipitation taken from climate models. Connected to this is the choice of emission scenario, used to drive the climate models. Combining all the uncertainties examined in this study leads to a total uncertainty of 0.052 m or 35 % in the GIC contribution to global mean sea level. Reducing the variance in the climate models and improving the glacier inventories will significantly reduce the uncertainty in calculating the GIC contributions, and are therefore crucial actions to improve future sea-level projections.

  20. Territorial and land-use rights perspectives on human-chimpanzee-elephant coexistence in West Africa (Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, nineteenth to twenty-first centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblan, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The first part of this article compares the distribution of chimpanzee and elephant populations in reaction to human territorial dynamics of West African trade in parts of nineteenth century Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. It answers for this specific region the question of whether present-day situations of close chimpanzee-human spatial proximity are stable or only temporary phenomena in long-term processes of environmental change, and shows that conservation policies centred on either of these two "flagship" species carry radically different ecological, political and territorial implications. The second part shifts to local-level perspectives on human-chimpanzee relationships, emphasizing the land rights contentions and misunderstandings created by the implementation of protected areas at Bossou and in the Boké region of Guinea. These case studies help to look at acts of resistance and local interpretations of primate conservation policies as opportunities to reconsider what is being protected, for what purpose, as whose heritage, and to move towards new and more legitimate opportunities for the implementation of conservation policies.

  1. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  2. Me acuerdo… ¿Te acuerdas?: Memory, Space and the Individualizing Transformation of the Subject in Twenty-First-Century Mexican Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Treviño Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the twentieth-century, Mexican fictions operated under a revisionist historical logic that employed national spaces to allegorize the relationship between the individual, society and the nation. Countering this trend, since the mid-nineties, Mexican literature has witnessed a departure from an interest in collectivizing discourses of identity, displaying instead a growing faith in individualism as a means to resist state-driven cultural visions. To analyze this emphasis in individual personal emergence, this paper proposes a comparative reading of subject-formation in Álvaro Enrigue's Vidas perpendiculares (2008, and in José Emilio Pacheco’s canonical novella Las batallas en el desierto (1981. The publication of Vidas and Las batallas coincides with two moments of crisis and transformation in Mexico. Consequently, these novels of formation reflect the reconceptualization of the multiple relations between individuals, communities, and the state prompted by such changes. These coming-of-age fictions use the personal recollections of their protagonists to articulate the narration of their characters’ emergence into adulthood. Vidas and Las batallas present two highly divergent visions of the subject and her or his relationship to the social body, where in the case of Vidas the individual takes primacy over the community. Following Ulrich Beck’s insights regarding individualization in industrial societies, and informed by theories of memory and nostalgia, this study explores how literary understandings of identity have transformed to reflect the experience of late modernity in Mexico. This paper argues that in recent Mexican fiction history is spatialized as a way of examining individual subjectivity outside the framework that views history in literature as a discourse directly linked to collective, often national, identity.

  3. Health for All Now! Reviving the spirit of Alma Ata in the Twenty-first century: An Introduction to the Alma Ata Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Baum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1978 two United Nations organizations, the World Health Organization and UNICEF, held a joint conference at Alma Ata in the Soviet Union at which health was described as a human right to which all people were entitled. The goal of achieving health for all by the end of the century was established. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care emerged from this conference. It was endorsed on the 12th September 1978, and has inspired subsequent generations of health activists. It has become a common meeting ground where likeminded public health personnel can compare and discuss strategy and relate their discussion to a common document. The slogan “Health for All by the Year 2000”, while not achieved, has been a rallying call for progressive health workers and activists. The Declaration has also inspired the global people’s health movement and two global people’s health assemblies. The concept “primary health care” has been crucial to the improvement of many countries’ health systems and, while its meaning has been variously interpreted, the pursuit of the ideal of comprehensive primary health care still motivates health workers around the world who want to ensure a more people-centred, responsive and effective and efficient health care system for their community and country. Thus the Alma Ata Declaration is a quite remarkable document and has made an impact that few other before or since have had. This article describes the international context that enabled the drafting and adoption of the Alma Ata Declaration. It then describes the document and assesses the reasons for its importance. The struggles for the ideals and strategies of the Declaration through the progressively more hostile international climate of the 1980s and 1990s are discussed. Finally, the prospects for a revival of the spirit of Alma Ata are assessed.

  4. Toward a Twenty-First Century Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Antelman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Library catalogs have represented stagnant technology for close to twenty years. Moving toward a next-generation catalog, North Carolina State University (NCSU Libraries purchased Endeca’s Information Access Platform to give its users relevance-ranked keyword search results and to leverage the rich metadata trapped in the MARC record to enhance collection browsing. This paper discusses the new functionality that has been enabled, the implementation process and system architecture, assessment of the new catalog’s performance, and future directions.

  5. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    with little opposition (Anzio, Inchon, and Suez ), the follow- up delivery of reinforcements and materiel is essential. In an environ- ment where... 1956 ), chap. 5, http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2-2RAF-c5.html. 4. Chilstrom, Mines Away!, 25. 5. Ibid., 21. 6. Ibid., 22. 7. Ibid...in Crisis : The Case of the River Danube” (paper presented at the International Association of Maritime Economists 2002 Conference Proceed- ings

  6. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2017-07-01

    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  7. Beardsley for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Beardsley's "Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism" continues to provide a valuable resource for those of one who takes questions about value and evaluation to be central to the philosophical enterprise, even if one chooses to focus on the philosophy of art more or less independently of the aesthetic. Nevertheless, Beardsley's…

  8. Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types during summer over South Korea in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) projected by the RegCM4.0 based on four RCP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types over South Korea during summer in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) were projected under four RCP scenarios using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.0) with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km. Two boundary conditions, ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-AO, were used to drive the RegCM4.0 (jointly named RG4_ERA and RG4_HG2, respectively). In general, the RegCM4.0 reproduces the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over Northeast Asia for the current climate (1989-2008) reasonably well. The RG4_HG2 shows larger dry biases over South Korea, when compared with observations, than does the RG4_ERA. These strong dry biases result from the underestimation of convective precipitation (CPR) and are particularly noticeable in late afternoons during July and August. It is related to the performance of HadGEM2-AO which simulated southwesterly winds weakly in that time. However, interestingly, the RG4_HG2 simulates similar increases in the contribution of CPR to total precipitation after mid-July, resulting in comparable performance in the reproduction of heavy precipitation. In the late twenty-first century, a significant increase (decrease) in CPR (NCPR) is generally projected over South Korea, and particularly under the RCP8.5. During June, the total precipitation is affected primarily by changes in NCPR under RCP2.6 and RCP6.0. After mid-July, increasing total precipitation is primarily caused by the distinct increases in CPR in the late afternoons; this pattern is particularly noticeable under RCP8.5, which is associated with more destabilized atmospheric conditions during July and August. Light and heavy precipitation are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under RCP8.5.

  9. A Twenty-First-Century Perspective of Disseminated Histoplasmosis in India: Literature Review and Retrospective Analysis of Published and Unpublished Cases at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Ghosh, Arnab; Singh, Gagandeep; Xess, Immaculata

    2017-12-01

    Published literature lacks systematic studies on disseminated histoplasmosis in India, and previous reviews on its epidemiology in India were conducted two decades back. Thus, we review the Indian studies published in this century to understand the recent epidemiology of histoplasmosis in India and do a retrospective analysis of all cases diagnosed at our institute. A literature of review search was done in Pubmed/Medline and Scopus. Studies published during January 2001-December 2015 were considered along with retrospective analysis of cases presented to us. A distinction was made in the clinical presentation of immunocompetent and immunocompromised cases. Ninety-five included studies described 204 cases, and 10 cases from our retrospective analysis were included. The mean age at presentation was 45.1 ± 15.4 years [range 3-83, median 45, interquartile range 37-55], and male-to-female ratio was 6:1. Most cases were reported from northern and northeastern states of India along the rivers Ganges, Yamuna and Brahmaputra and in people associated with agricultural activity. About 33% of cases were immunocompromised, out of which immunosuppression due to HIV was seen in 72% cases. The mean age of presentation was significantly lower in immunocompromised cases (37.9 vs. 49.2 years; p histoplasmosis is being increasingly recognized in India. There is a need to undertake well-designed, analytical studies utilizing appropriate diagnostic modalities to understand the epidemiology of this neglected disease in proper perspective.

  10. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  11. Rethinking the humanities in twenty-first century Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Bergson's theory of history and Foucault's concept of knowledge as power, and others, Msiska argues that the field of humanities in Africa should be reconceptualised into African Humanities in order to effect what Deleuze and Guattari have defined as conceptual self-semiotisation. Msiska also identifies the main ...

  12. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  13. A Review of Twenty-First Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shirley

    2018-01-01

    This article is predominantly concerned with the global challenges associated with managing an academic workforce in an era characterised by increased demand for higher education. In scrutinising global trends in higher education and academic workforce management, the article will address two research questions. First, what are the global trends…

  14. Twenty-first century metadata operations challenges, opportunities, directions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee Eden, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    It has long been apparent to academic library administrators that the current technical services operations within libraries need to be redirected and refocused in terms of both format priorities and human resources. A number of developments and directions have made this reorganization imperative, many of which have been accelerated by the current economic crisis. All of the chapters detail some aspect of technical services reorganization due to downsizing and/or reallocation of human resources, retooling professional and support staff in higher level duties and/or non-MARC metadata, ""value-a

  15. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  16. War and Urban Terrain in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Williamson

    2000-01-01

    .... The spread of urban sprawl throughout the world is only part of the cause; the motivation of adversaries and friends alike to seek refuge in these environments offers a more compelling reason for the U.S...

  17. Strategic nutrition: a vision for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that poor nutrition plays a major role in the epidemic of various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. There has also been much research regarding the role of related factors such as advertising and food prices. Many intervention studies have been carried out where attempts have been made to persuade people to modify their behaviour, such as by making dietary changes, in order to enhance health (health promotion). There has also been much debate on the potential of government policy as a tool for achieving these goals. Various proposals have been made, such as a tax on sugary drinks, the redirection of food subsidies and how the salt content of food can be reduced. However, the great majority of previous papers have considered only single aspects of the topics discussed here. The present paper reviews strategies for improving public health, both health promotion interventions and the use of government policy approaches. Topics discussed include providing advice for the general population and the design of food guides and food labels. This leads to the conclusion that we need an overall strategy that integrates this diverse body of information and formulates a comprehensive action plan. I propose the term 'strategic nutrition'. The implementation of this plan opens up a path to a major advance in public health.

  18. Culture collections in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D; Ryan, M J

    2001-06-01

    Culture collections conserve the living tools for biotechnology. Without them there would be no reference organisms, and no stocks of crucial or rare microorganisms that are so valuable for biotechnology and biomedical research. The expertise that drives these collections is under threat, but the collections themselves may survive by pooling their knowledge.

  19. The twenty first century informatization and artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jung Ho

    1999-12-15

    The contents of this book are competition of mental weakness and visually handicapped people, barbarian about the knowledge of commodity, we are living in notion of time of the agricultural age, parade of informatization of fool. Is there a successful case of informatization when it is done as others do?, what is technology of informatization?, there is mistake in traditional information technology from a system of thought, information system, and analysis of improvement of industrial structure case of development for program case of system installation, and a thief free society.

  20. Microsurgery Training for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Richard Myers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current educational interventions and training courses in microsurgery are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a ‘practice makes perfect’ model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess current training tools in microsurgery education and devise alternative methods that would enhance training . Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency, it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients. The International Microsurgery Simulation Society has been founded in 2012 in order to consolidate the global effort in promoting excellence in microsurgical training. The society’s aim to achieve standarisation of microsurgical training worldwide could be realised through the development of evidence based educational interventions and sharing best practices.

  1. Microsurgery Training for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Richard Myers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current educational interventions and training courses in microsurgery are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a 'practice makes perfect' model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess current training tools in microsurgery education and devise alternative methods that would enhance training. Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency, it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients. The International Microsurgery Simulation Society has been founded in 2012 in order to consolidate the global effort in promoting excellence in microsurgical training. The society's aim to achieve standarisation of microsurgical training worldwide could be realised through the development of evidence based educational interventions and sharing best practices.

  2. Restructuring the Foreign Affairs Agencies for the Twenty First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smythe, Ana

    2000-01-01

    This paper underscores the critical need for cultural change and professional development in the Foreign Affairs Agencies of the United States in order to meet the challenge of a dynamically changed...

  3. Sustaining Operational Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    hedgerows while exploiting the breech created by strategic bombers and the other divisions of the United States Army VII Corps. Maneuver operations would...forces encountered the difficult hedgerow obstacles and a tenacious German enemy adapt at defending them. The allied forces lost momentum and needed... hedgerow country.27 For the American forces, it was the transition between the bloody, slow attritional fighting in the Normandy hedgerows and the

  4. The twenty-first century commercial space imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Young addresses the impressive expansion across existing and developing commercial space business markets, with multiple private companies competing in the payload launch services sector. The author pinpoints the new markets, technologies, and players in the industry, as well as highlighting the overall reasons why it is important for us to develop space. NASA now relies on commercial partners to supply cargo and crew spacecraft and services to and from the International Space Station. The sizes of satellites are diminishing and their capabilities expanding, while costs to orbit are decreasing. Suborbital space tourism holds the potential of new industries and jobs. Commercial space exploration of the Moon and the planets also holds promise. All this activity is a catalyst for anyone interested in joining the developing space industry, from students and researchers to engineers and entrepreneurs. As more and more satellites and rockets are launched and the business of space is expanding at a signifi...

  5. Global Mental Health for Twenty First Century Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…

  6. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-01-01

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours

  7. Twenty-first century weight loss: banding versus bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen W; Efird, Jimmy T; Guidry, Christopher A; Penn, Rachel I; Sawyer, Robert G; Schirmer, Bruce D; Hallowell, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    The two most commonly performed procedures for bariatric surgery include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). While many studies have commented on short-term, postoperative outcomes of these procedures, few have reported long-term data. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term, postoperative outcomes between RYGB and AGB. This was a retrospective, cohort comparing all patients undergoing RYGB or AGB at our institution, from 01/1998 to 08/2012. Patients were followed at 1-, 3-, and 5-year intervals. Adjusted, Cox proportional hazard regression and mixed effects repeated measures modeling were performed to generate cure ratios (CR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Two thousand four hundred twenty bariatric surgery patients (380 AGB, 2,040 RYGB) were identified by CPT code. Median (range) follow-up for patients was 3 (1-5) years. Preoperatively, RYGB patients were significantly younger, more obese, had higher hemoglobin A1c, and less often suffered from hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, and asthma as compared to AGB patients. Postoperatively, RYGB patients experienced significantly longer operating room times, higher incidences of intensive care unit admissions, longer hospital lengths of stay, and increased incidence of small bowel obstruction compared to AGB patients. After adjusting for statistically significant and clinically relevant factors [e.g., age, gender, body mass index, degenerative joint disease (DJD), diabetes, HTN, dyslipidemia, heart disease, apnea, and asthma], RYGB was independently associated with a significantly greater percentage of total body weight loss (p = 0.0065) and greater CR (95 % CI) regarding gastroesophageal reflux disease [2.1(1.4-3.0)], DJD [3.4(2.0-5.6)], diabetes [3.4(2.2-5.4)], apnea [3.1(1.9-5.3)], HTN [5.5(3.4-8.8)], and dyslipidemia [6.3(3.5-11)] compared to AGB. Our results support previous studies that have observed a greater weight loss associated with RYGB as compared to AGB and provide further evidence toward the long-term sustainability of this weight loss. Additionally, RYGB appears to result in a greater reduction of medical comorbidity.

  8. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available on Earth, and where will it come from? Is climate change going to modify the answers to these questions? Can severe droughts occur? Can there be conflicts related to a food deficit? Some preliminary answers and scenarios for food production will be given in this paper from a hydrologist's viewpoint.

  9. Gravity's ghost scientific discovery in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2011-01-01

    In theory, at least, gravitational waves do exist. We are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation, which is generated when stars explode or collide and a portion of their mass becomes energy that ripples out like a disturbance on the surface of a serene pond. But unfortunately no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected even though the search has lasted more than forty years. As the leading chronicler of the search for gravitational waves, Harry Collins has been right there with the scientists since the start. The result of his unprecedented access to the front lines of physical

  10. Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta

    2012-01-01

    What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the…

  11. SEAPOWER: A GUIDE FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    terrorism. The central hypothesis of the book is rooted in the notion that the sea is central to the prosperity and security of all nations, and even more so since the emergence of an increasingly globalised world trading system. Till argues in. Seapower that the fate of nations is closely link to the sea as a source of resources.

  12. Talent management for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system.

  13. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  14. What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve

    2014-01-01

    of motor disorder in CP. Further work is warranted to reach agreement for (1) minimum age of survival and maximum age of postneonatal brain injury, and (2) metabolic disorders with highly variable clinical courses/responses to treatment. One hundred and ninety-seven syndromes/disorders were reviewed...

  15. A Catholic Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert A.; Franchi, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This essay responds to and develops ideas set out in Robert Davis' 1999 essay "Can there be a Catholic curriculum?" It takes the measure of far-reaching changes that have taken place in curriculum studies and strategic educational thought in the intervening period as the process of globalisation has intensified. It re-engages with the…

  16. Marketing of science in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelpiece, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author gives a brief review of marketing of science from the 1930's to the present. He discusses the fact that at the present the scientific community is doing a lousy job of marketing and the fact that it is very important that this be reversed because science and technology have become absolutely essential to our future economic health and development. The four steps which he proposes will help with this problem are: (1) government, universities and industry working together to try and insure that there's an adequate basis of curiosity-driven research; (2) scientist making an effort to insure that they have enough political power to be taken seriously; (3) an adjustment to scientist thinking to reflect the fiscal realities of what the next generation of scientific facilities will cost; and (4) a need for public support

  17. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskice, David

    2014-12-01

    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r > g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's β measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that β does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, β has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from β (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  18. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.

    2002-02-25

    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

  19. Twenty-first-century African classicism: illustrations from the piano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an insight into the thought processes of a composer, offering a guide for listeners to think creatively through the music. It presents a panoramic view and an analysis of the piano trio based on 'Sasabonsam's Match' composed by the author. The 18-minute work called Pivicafrique for piano, violin and ...

  20. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-05

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  1. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  2. Organic agriculture in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reganold, John P; Wachter, Jonathan M

    2016-02-03

    Organic agriculture has a history of being contentious and is considered by some as an inefficient approach to food production. Yet organic foods and beverages are a rapidly growing market segment in the global food industry. Here, we examine the performance of organic farming in light of four key sustainability metrics: productivity, environmental impact, economic viability and social wellbeing. Organic farming systems produce lower yields compared with conventional agriculture. However, they are more profitable and environmentally friendly, and deliver equally or more nutritious foods that contain less (or no) pesticide residues, compared with conventional farming. Moreover, initial evidence indicates that organic agricultural systems deliver greater ecosystem services and social benefits. Although organic agriculture has an untapped role to play when it comes to the establishment of sustainable farming systems, no single approach will safely feed the planet. Rather, a blend of organic and other innovative farming systems is needed. Significant barriers exist to adopting these systems, however, and a diversity of policy instruments will be required to facilitate their development and implementation.

  3. Particle physics of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1987-01-01

    Elementary particle physics is the science devoted to searching for the ultimate constituents of matter and the interactions among them. The last 20 years has seen the emergence of the Standard Model. This is the single unified picture which gives us a language for discussing all the phenomena we see about us and for organizing that information and trying to understand it. Another important development has been the formulation of a mathematical expression for the forces of nature. These are called the gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. The Standard Model has a couple of basic facets. One is that the elementary particles are quarks and leptons. Leptons experience gravitational, weak, and electromagnetic interactions and quarks experience the strong interaction. The carriers of these interactions are gluon for the strong, photon for the electromagnetic, intermediate bosons for the weak, and graviton for gravity. These facts have emerged through experiments using accelerators and detectors. However at energies for collisions among the fundamental constituents of about 1 TeV, the Standard Model ceases to make sense, so it can not be complete. Something else must be happening. Hence, more experiments need to be carried out. The instrument chosen for this is the Superconducting Super Collider. 12 figures, 1 table

  4. Continuing Professional Development in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role of continuing professional development (CPD) in supporting delivery of patient care of the highest quality and safety is receiving significant attention in the current era of monumental change. CPD is essential in efforts to ensure effectiveness of new models of health care delivery, improve outcomes and value in health care, address external regulations, and foster patient engagement. The unique features of CPD; the use of special mastery-based teaching, learning, and assessment methods, and other special interventions to promote excellence; and direct involvement of a variety of key stakeholders differentiate CPD from undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. The needs of procedural specialties relating to CPD are different from those of primary care disciplines and require special attention for the greatest impact. Simulation-based education and training can be very useful in CPD aimed at improving outcomes and promoting patient safety. Preceptoring, proctoring, mentoring, and coaching should be used routinely to address specific needs in CPD. Distinct CPD strategies are necessary for retraining, reentry, and remediation. Participation in CPD programs can be encouraged by leveraging the joy of learning, which should drive physicians and surgeons to strive continually to be the best in their professional work.

  5. Managing global business strategies: a twenty-first-century perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, John; White, Don; Botten, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at key decision makers and those responsible for global strategy, this book is about changing markets and the complexity of undertaking business in a fast paced technological and knowledge based age in a dynamic and strategic context. Trends show a renaissance in entrepreneurial activity that is fuelling innovation particularly in the so called BRIC nations of Brazil, Russia, China and India. For example, both China and India have benefited immensely from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)...

  6. NATO: Maintaining Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the actions taken by Allied Command Transformation as it looks to confront future challenges. 22...greater allied unity.101 NATO confronted internal dissent, lack of cohesion, and evolving enemy tactics within ten years of its birth. Through its non...population and their social networks receives pedagogic attention at the highest levels of the Alliance’s military structure. In concert with UN

  7. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  8. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2015-01-01

    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called “cosmopolitan.” In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adults showed a preference to move to cosmopolitan rather than noncosmopolitan cities. Study 2 used a priming manipulation and demonstrated a causal impact of independence on residential preferences for cosmopolitan cities. Study 3 established ecological validity by showing that students who actually moved to a cosmopolitan city were more independent than those who either moved to a noncosmopolitan city or never moved. Taken together, the findings illuminate the role of cosmopolitan settlement in the contemporary cultural change toward independence and have implications for urban development and economic growth. PMID:26528195

  9. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  10. Tin Oxide Chemistry from the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century to the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century: Towards the Development of a Big-Picture Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry while Focussing on a Specific Compound or Class of Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of the electron in 1897 deeply impacted the nature of chemistry in the twentieth century. A revolution in the theoretical structure of chemistry as well as in the instrumental tools used in chemical analysis occurred as a result of this discovery. The impact of this revolution on tin oxide chemistry over approximately a 100 year…

  11. BOAVENTURA CARDOSO E O ROMANCE ANGOLANO: REVISTO E ATUALIZADO / Boaventura Cardoso and the Angolan novel: reviewed and revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Saraiva (UNILAB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este texto aponta indícios de como a forma romanesca moderna, cunhada a partir da e para a cultura ocidental, passa por constantes processos de revisão e atualiza-se movida pelo projeto sócio-político-cultural das sociedades que lhe dão conteúdo. No caso de Angola, novas estratégias literárias como a conjunção deliberada entre oralidade e escrita têm sido apresentadas nos romances do escritor e político angolano Boaventura Cardoso. O artigo, por isso, irá brevemente analisar e interpretar tanto o conteúdo quanto a forma literária adotados nos seguintes romances de Cardoso: O signo do fogo (1992, Maio, mês de Maria (1997 e Mãe, materno mar (2001. Como marcos teóricos desta investigação, adotaremos da tradição europeia o pensamento de intelectuais como Bakthin (Teoria do romance e Auerbach (Mimesis. Do lado de uma tradição produzida a partir das próprias balizas da cultura africana, recorreremos a autores como Laura Padilha e Inocência Mata, além de Rita Chaves e Tania Macêdo. Palavras-chave: Angola, romance, Boaventura Cardoso. ABSTRACT This text aims to indicate how novelistic form coined from and for Occidental culture would recycle and update itself in accordance with the sociopolitical-cultural project in Africans societies. In the case of Angola, new literary strategies as the deliberate combination between orality and writing have been presented in the novels of the Angolan writer and politician Boaventura Cardoso.  This paper, therefore, will briefly analyze and interpret both the content and the literary form adopted in the following Cardoso novels: O signo do fogo (1992, Maio, mês de Maria (1997, and Mãe, materno mar (2001. As theoretical frameworks of research, we adopt the thinking of intellectuals of European tradition as Bakhtin (Theory of the novel and Auerbach (Mimesis. From the tradition produced from own marks of African culture, we resort to authors such as Laura Padilha and Inocência Mata

  12. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  13. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  14. Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 2, presents papers on severe accident research

  15. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  17. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  18. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... ... to enable it to respond to the challenges of the 21st century. Contributors focus on five critical areas: transparency, decision- and rule-making procedures, internal management structures, participation by nongovernmental organizations and civil society, and relationships with regional trade agreements.

  19. Los fines de la educación latinoamericana y caribeña en los albores del siglo XXI: un estudiodesde las leyes nacionales de educación / The educational goals of Latin America and the Caribbean at the dawn of the twenty-first century: a study from the national laws of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Patricia Estrella Acencio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the findings of study aimed at identifying the goals of Latin American and Caribbean education in the early years of the 21st century. The use of the comparative method, on which this study was based, supported by other methods of the theoretical level, such as analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction, and documentary analysis made possible the fulfillment of the pursued objective. The main sources of information were documents related to educational legislation in 16 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, promulgated or updated between 1991 and 2016. The findings lead to conclude that theeducation goals of Latin America and the Caribbean are expressed from two general perspectives: 1 as the "expectations that educating individuals must turn into reality as personal development (hominization, a coherent relationship with the human social environment in which it develops (socialization, and the development of its capacity to create culture and to live within a cultural environment and; b as "strategic contributions that education must do "to contribute to the improvement of society, in a specific socio-historical context. Accordingly, it became evident that education attempts to achieve a larger pertinencein facing current challenges in the context of a globalized world.

  20. Pacific Utopias and National Identities in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Va'ai

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Literary representations of the Pacific invariably present images of peaceful utopias/paradises especially in tourist brochures aimed at garnering the tourist dollar. These utopias are far removed from the tensions of a world haunted by the threat of terrorist activities and destruction which undermine global peace and security, especially since September 11th 2001. However, an examination of recent creative writing from writers of Oceania illustrate that these universal pressures and fears are evident in the local setting as well. Their fiction is full of the same angst, frustrations and dilemmas regarding cultural identities and cultural nationalism as those from their metropolitan neighbours in New Zealand and Australia. This essay will examine and analyse selected fiction from two such writers with a view to highlighting the conflicts emerging, especially in regards to the issues of political and cultural identities, indigeneity and the Pacific Paradise which is so much a part of the discourse of tourism, a major money earner for Pacific economies.

  1. Fragility of Success: Repositioning Mauritian Development in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greig, Alastair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauritius is often considered a ‘success story’ to be read for salutary purposes by other small island developing states (SIDS. While it does share broadly similar attributes with many other SIDS, and acts in unison with other SIDS in international fora, local histories, cultures, geography and location invariably lead to significant differences in developmental trajectories. This paper presents an assessment of Mauritian history in order to explore the contemporary threats and opportunities that face the island in its contemporary quest to transform the island into Maurice Ȋle Durable. Rather than offering Mauritius as a guide to other SIDS, it presents a useful case study of the tension between establishing social equity and carving out a functional role within the global economy.

  2. From Cultural Studies to Cultural Research: Engaged Scholarship in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ien Ang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Is, or should cultural studies be, a discipline or not? What exactly is its object? Should cultural studies be focused on influencing policy or be an agent of critique? What is the role of theory? What kind of theory? Should textual analysis or ethnography predominate? The regular reiteration of such questions reveals an ongoing sense of crisis, a general apprehensiveness over the question whether cultural studies is able to live up to its own self-declared aspirations, both intellectually and politically.

  3. From Cultural Studies to Cultural Research: Engaged Scholarship in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ien Ang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Is, or should cultural studies be, a discipline or not? What exactly is its object? Should cultural studies be focused on influencing policy or be an agent of critique? What is the role of theory? What kind of theory? Should textual analysis or ethnography predominate? The regular reiteration of such questions reveals an ongoing sense of crisis, a general apprehensiveness over the question whether cultural studies is able to live up to its own self-declared aspirations, both intellectually and politically.

  4. The water framework directive - a directive for the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsson, Henrik; Baaner, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Denne artikel omhandler vandrammedirektivet og den retlige norm "god økologisk tilstand", som henviser til strukturen og funktionaliteten af økosystemer. Begreberne god struktur og funktionalitet afspejler et robust økosystem med et højt niveau af adaptiv kapacitet. De retlige bestemmelser i vand...

  5. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  6. Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

  7. Gravity's ghost and big dog scientific discovery and social analysis in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Gravity's Ghost and Big Dog brings to life science's efforts to detect cosmic gravitational waves. These ripples in space-time are predicted by general relativity, and their discovery will not only demonstrate the truth of Einstein's theories but also transform astronomy. Although no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected, the previous five years have been an especially exciting period in the field. Here sociologist Harry Collins offers readers an unprecedented view of gravitational wave research and explains what it means for an analyst to do work of this kind.

  8. Literacy Learning in the Twenty-First Century: How Much Have We Learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ in the way that speech and meaning are represented in written form: in English, the correspondences are variable. Thus, in learning to read in English there is need for an approach that combines alphabetic decoding and a mastery of sight vocabulary. Teaching children to read should develop from an analysis of the skills and…

  9. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  10. The aging population in the twenty-first century: statistics for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilford, Dorothy M

    1988-01-01

    ... on Statistics for an Aging Population Sam Shapiro, Chair Committee on National Statistics Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative...

  11. Education Governance for the Twenty-First Century: Overcoming the Structural Barriers to School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…

  12. Twenty-first century relevance of Soyinka's A dance of the forests : a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1-2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. On Strategy: Integration of DIME in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-12

    Al Capone famously said, “You get much farther with a kind word and a gun than with a kind word alone.”)91. However, as history shows even today in...http://www.nsep.gov/about/results/ (accessed January 29, 2012). 91 Al Capone , “Great-Quotes.com”, http://www.great-quotes.com/quotes/author/ Al ...and al -Qaeda in the application of force along with other elements of power; also with the U.S. and the Cold War USSR, pre-OIF Iraq, and possibly

  14. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  15. Higher Education and Knowledge Sharing: From Ivory Tower to Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge is the driving force of a knowledge economy. Therefore, the way knowledge is shared and created and the way these actions are managed could lead to either a competitive advantage for an organisation or it could lead to its demise. Managing especially academics' knowledge to the benefit of all can be even a greater challenge to any…

  16. Peace Education Research in the Twenty-First Century: Three Concepts Facing Crisis or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the concepts of peace, education and research, and the ways in which they combine to form the field of peace education and peace education research. It discusses the ways in which each can be said to be facing a crisis of legitimation, representation and praxis, and the structural and cultural violence that inhibit efforts…

  17. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    kidnapping of foreigners remains a regular danger as rebels struggle for control of oil and mineral wealth in the Niger Delta .160 Fig. 4-15...Internet cafes , and other means of relative anonymous communications. Embedding information in digital pictures and graphics and sending them over...nation’s oil in the Niger Delta . Destruction of infrastructure, killings, and kidnapping have reduced oil production in the last year by 25 percent of

  18. Twenty-First Century Skills and School Programs: Implementation at a Suburban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduigwome, George Esele

    2012-01-01

    Under-utilization of human potential coupled with the need to maintain alignment with the demands imposed by globalization (e.g. sustainable development, citizenship, self-actualization, ability to respond to the emergence of cutting-edge technologies) have led to calls for policy and practice reorientations in the field of education. In response,…

  19. Toward the twenty-first century: lessons from lead and lessons yet to learn.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbergeld, E K

    1990-01-01

    A consideration of recent research on lead is instructive for developing research strategies in environmental toxicology. Lead research has demonstrated fruitful interactions between clinical and basic science. Thus, while epidemiological studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) effects in children are observed at the lowest increments of lead exposure, basic research has elucidated some of the molecular events that underly this lack of threshold at the neuronal level. Similar...

  20. Self-Care in the Twenty First Century: A Vital Role for the Pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John; Dziekan, Gerald; Pollack, Charles; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-10-01

    In order for the global healthcare system to remain sustainable, healthcare spending needs to be reduced, and self-treating certain conditions under the guidance of a pharmacist provides a means of accomplishing this goal. This article was developed to describe global healthcare trends affecting self-care with a specific focus on the role of the pharmacist in facilitating over-the-counter (OTC) medication management. Potential healthcare-related economic benefits associated with the self-care model are outlined. The importance of the collaboration between healthcare providers (HCPs), including specialists, primary care providers, and pharmacists, is also discussed. The evolving role of the pharmacist is examined and recommendations are provided for ways to successfully engage with other HCPs and consumers to optimize the pharmacist's unique qualifications and accessibility in the community. Using the management of frequent heartburn with an OTC proton-pump inhibitor as a model, the critical role of the pharmacist in patient self-treatment of certain symptoms will be discussed based on the World Gastroenterology Organization's recently published guidelines for the community-based management of common gastrointestinal symptoms. As the global healthcare system continues to evolve, self-care is expected to have an increasing role in treating certain minor ailments, and pharmacists are at the forefront of these changes. Pharmacists can guide individuals in making healthy lifestyle choices, recommend appropriate OTC medications, and educate consumers about when they should consult a physician. Pfizer Inc.

  1. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ....m. ADDRESSES: The Manchester Grand Hyatt Hotel, One Market Place, Room H- I, San Diego, CA 92101... provisions on advanced communications services, video description, the deaf-blind equipment distribution... gaps in video programming through the provision of video description on television and closed...

  2. Desirable properties of wood for sustainable development in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Theodore H. Wegner; Ted Bilek; Charles H. Michler

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified desirable properties for wood based on current market-based trends for commercial uses (Wegner et al. 2010). World business models increasingly incorporate the concept of social responsibility and the tenets of sustainable development. Sustainable development is needed to support an estimated 9 billion people by 2050 within the carrying...

  3. Health for all in the twenty-first century Salud para todos en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Salud para todos en el siglo XXI renueva el compromiso con el concepto y la visión de salud para todos, tal como se definió en 1977, cuando la 30a Asamblea Mundial de la Salud resolvió que el principal objetivo social de los gobiernos y de la OMS en los decenios venideros debería ser "alcanzar para todos los ciudadanos del mundo en el año 2000 un grado de salud que les permita llevar una vida social y económicamente productiva". Este proceso, que se interpreta de forma diferente según las características sociales, económicas y de salud de cada país, ha contribuido a la mejora paulatina del acceso a la atención primaria de salud, a la disminución mundial de la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantiles y a un aumento considerable de la esperanza de vida. Aun así, todavía hay muchos problemas que resolver. Desde 1990, el sistema de las Naciones Unidas ha convocado nueve conferencias mundiales en las que se han acordado por consenso universal las prioridades de un programa de trabajo para el futuro, incluido el apoyo pleno del logro de salud para todos. Los nuevos enfoques giran en torno al desarrollo centrado en el ser humano, lo cual comprende erradicar la pobreza, satisfacer las necesidades básicas y proteger los derechos humanos, incluido el de la salud.

  4. Risk, security and technology: governing football supporters in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically examines the security and risk management technologies that are being used to conduct and pre-empt the behaviour of football supporters. It is shown how, in the Netherlands, pre-emptive risk management in the governing of football supporters involves a dispersed and fragmented

  5. Unruly Bodies: The Rhetorical Domestication of Twenty-First-Century Veterans of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Veterans of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with visually identifiable injuries possess "unruly" bodies that render the story of war in efficient, emotional terms. The injured veteran's explicit connection of war with injury motivates state and mainstream news discourse that domesticates veterans' bodies, managing representations of injured…

  6. Brazil’s National Defense Strategy: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    geopolitical thinking. A young army officer, Karl Haushofer , appears to have been the motivating force and acknowledged leader in German geopolitical...theorizing. After retiring from active service, Haushofer became a professor of Geography and Military science at the University of Munich in 1919...geopolitics was a science, to be studied with a view towards the present and future, not the past. According to Haushofer , without a solid geopolitical

  7. Internet Revolutions, Democratic Globalization and Elections Outcome in the Twenty-First Century: Echoes from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Muhammad Maigari; Peter Nungshak Wika,; Umar Dantani

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the social contexts of the development and innovation of the science of global communication technology. It shows the significant roles the internet has played in the democratic process, and in particular, how it has influenced the outcomes of elections across developed and developing societies in an increasingly globalised community. This paper argues that Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, blogs and LinkedIn etc. serve as the mediums through which civil rights and democratic a...

  8. Naval Power in the Twenty-first Century: A Naval College Review Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    while that may have been genius , one result of the Clintonites’ inattention and inconstancy was the disgust and disrespect of the national security...global wealth, economic activity, and technological investments. Second, they are the loci of vital U.S. allies and of economic interests that must be

  9. Artificial intelligence as a reflection of reality in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses artificial intelligence (AI at the present stage of development, as a way of presenting and understanding AI as the mechanisms of computers. Features a large bunch of some algorithmic procedures for the solution by computer of a specific task, an example of which can serve as an attempt of modeling of biological neural networks.

  10. Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  11. Coaxing the Peace: Reassurance Strategy in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    www.nexis.com on 9 February 2009. 159 Peru Egurbide, “Zapatero Tratara en Rabat la Nueva Propuesta Marroqui para el Sahara,” [Zapatero will Discuss...2008. Obt om from www.nexis.com on 31 March 2009. ained from www.nexis.com on 31 March 2009. 294 “ Presidente de Nicaragua Invita a Colombia a...Engins nt: Denktash.” Agence France Presse, 10 June 1998. Obtained from www.nexis.com on 18 gurbide, Peru . “Los Reyes Sellan Hoy en Marraquech en

  12. Shigella Diversity and Changing Landscape: Insights for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Marteyn, Benoit S.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a pathovar of Escherichia coli comprising four groups, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella boydii, each of them, with the exception of S.sonnei, comprising several serotypes. Shigella accounts for the majority of dysentery causing infections occurring world-wide each year. Recent advancements in the Shigella field have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host epithelial cell invasion and immune cell function manipulation, mainly using S. flexneri as a model. Host-cell invasion is the final step of the infection process, as Shigella's virulence strategy relies also on its ability to survive hostile conditions during its journey through the gastro-intestinal tract, to compete with the host microbiota and to cross the intestinal mucus layer. Hence, the diversity of the virulence strategies among the different Shigella species has not yet been deeply investigated, which might be an important step to understand the epidemiological spreading of Shigella species worldwide and a key aspect for the validation of novel vaccine candidates. The recent development of high-throughput screening and sequencing methods will facilitate these complex comparison studies. In this review we discuss several of the major avenues that the Shigella research field has taken over the past few years and hopefully gain some insights into the questions that remain surrounding this important human pathogen. PMID:27148494

  13. Shigella Diversity and Changing Landscape: Insights for the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Marteyn, Benoit S.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a pathovar of Escherichia coli comprising four groups, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella boydii, each of them, with the exception of S.sonnei, comprising several serotypes. Shigella accounts for the majority of dysentery causing infections occurring world-wide each year. Recent advancements in the Shigella field have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host epithelial cell invasion and immune cell function manip...

  14. The Twenty-First Century Multiple Generation Workforce: Overlaps and Differences but Also Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helyer, Ruth; Lee, Dionne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues around a multiple generational workforce and more specifically, the challenges and benefits for education providers and employers. Design/methodology/approach: Reviewing research papers, analysing academic texts, interrogating market intelligence and contextualising case studies, the…

  15. People’s War at Sea: Chinese Naval Power in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Defense Reporter, April-May 1994, p. 14. 66. Ibid. 67. Brahma Chellaney, "The Dragon’s Rise: Implications of China’s Military Buildup" in Pacific...funds have been allocated to defense contractors and munitions manufacturers since 1989. The result, states Jane’s Defence Weekly, is that the...licence to manufacture the MiG-21 F-13 and its R-11F-300 engine granted to Chinese government in 1961, when some pattern aircraft and CKD (component

  16. Global citizenship and the role of education in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to define concepts such as ‘citizenship’ and ‘global citizenship’ in a democracy and what it means to be ‘a good citizen’. It also seeks to explain that every individual can be ‘a good citizen’ in different situations and scenarios. Of the many agents responsible for the development of an individual, education, together with the home environment and culture, play an important part. Education is also the key to liberty and freedom, while the media is the key to accessing a ...

  17. Internet Revolutions, Democratic Globalization and Elections Outcome in the Twenty-First Century: Echoes from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Muhammad Maigari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social contexts of the development and innovation of the science of global communication technology. It shows the significant roles the internet has played in the democratic process, and in particular, how it has influenced the outcomes of elections across developed and developing societies in an increasingly globalised community. This paper argues that Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, blogs and LinkedIn etc. serve as the mediums through which civil rights and democratic activism are expressed. It also argues that during the 2011 and 2015 General Elections in Nigeria, many electronic devices and online programs were developed and used on social media. Revoda enabled a parallel vote count, access to polling unit results, transmission of collated results and information about the entire electoral process. The paper stresses that the use of social media networks by both political candidates and electorates has greatly promoted civic engagement, credible elections and democratic activism in pre-election and post-election periods. This paper concludes that internet technology may soon assume the position of an effective and critically vital para-human actor in most global election outcomes in the near future.

  18. Studies on the Chinese in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michael D. Barr and Zlatko Skrbis, Constructing Singapore; Elitism, ethnicity and the nation-building project. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 978877694028, price GBP 50.00 (hardback; 9788776940294, GBP 16.99 (paperback. Marleen Dieleman, The rhythm of strategy; A corporate biography of the Salim Group of Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007, 205 pp. [ICAS Publications Series, Monograph 1.] ISBN 9789053560334. Price: EUR 29.50 (paperback. Kristina Goransson, The binding tie; Chinese intergenerational relations in modern Singapore. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2009, x + 191 pp. ISBN 9780824832599, price USD 57.00 (hardback; 9780824833527, USD 26.00 (paperback. Chang-Yau Hoon, Chinese identity in post-Suharto Indonesia; Culture, politics and media. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008, xi + 230 pp. ISBN 9781845192686. Price: GBP 49.95 (hardback. Leo Suryadinata, Understanding the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007, x + 310 pp. ISBN 9789812304377. Price: USD 21.90 (paperback. Sikko Visscher, The business of politics and ethnicity; A history of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Singapore: NUS Press, 2007, xviii + 372 pp. ISBN 97899713657. Price: USD 32.00 (paperback. Voon Phin Keong (ed., Malaysian Chinese and nation-building; Before Merdeka and fifty years after. Vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, 2008. ISBN 9789833808066 (hardback; 9789833908059 (paperback.

  19. Global threats from invasive species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasions are largely seen as a ‘First World’ problem, owing to the historic concentration of invasions in economically highly developed countries. However, we show that terrestrial invasions are fast becoming a global problem. The rapid rise in trade and transportation in developing economies in A...

  20. Living with fire: Fire ecology and policy for the twenty-first century [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2010-01-01

    This is a well-written polemic about the failure of fire policy and management in the United States. The book contains enough ecology and history for nonspecialists to understand the complexities of the policy and management dilemmas that we face today. The authors provide a particularly good treatment of the diversity of roles that fire plays in different ecosystems,...

  1. NATO-Russia Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Obstacles and Opportunities for Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    group has always been in the Russian psyche. Taking into account the Turkic and Mongol patrimonial and collectivist thinking, favoring group needs...cultures, rationalism, and excessive pride. The collective faith and wisdom of the flock drove its strength, and unlike the West’s individualistic and

  2. [Hepatitis C viral infection at the beginning of twenty-first century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbánek, P; Brůha, R; Marecek, Z; Petrtýl, J

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews basic information on the epidemiology, origin, diagnostics and therapy of hepatitis C viral infection. Virus of the hepatitis C was identified in 1989. The most frequent transmission pathway till 1992 was the reception of blood derivatives, after that year, when transfusion centres started to use detection sets to prove anti-HCV antibodies, the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis C dropped almost to zero. The most common route of transmission at present is the intravenous toxicomany, and significant participation represents the medical care. The basic serological marker of HCV infection is the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. Those antibodies signify markers of the human contact with the virus; they need not automatically mean the encounter of infection. More often it is contrariwise--because the C viral hepatitis develops the chronic stadium up in 85%, the anti-HVC positivity signifies usually the active form of infection. To prove the active form of infection it is necessary to identify viral nucleic acids in the serum of the examined patient. The standard therapy of the chronic form of the C viral hepatitis is at present a combination of pegylated interpherons alpha and ribavirin. Such form of therapy can result the permanent elimination of the virus in about 60% of cases. In the C viral hepatitis neither the specific pre-exposition nor post-exposition prophylaxis is available. The only prevention of the transmission of infection is the avoidance of any risk factor of transmission, namely in the medical care.

  3. Food Journalism: Building the discourse on the popularization of gastronomy in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    Fusté Forné, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    El periodisme gastronòmic és una tipologia de periodisme especialitzat que consisteix en la narració de la gastronomia. Aquesta tesi té com a objectiu estudiar la importància de la gastronomia en la premsa diària durant el període 2005-2015 a Catalunya i Espanya, amb una perspectiva comparativa per al cas dels Estats Units. El treball empíric realitzat inclou l’anàlisis de cinc diaris (El Mundo, El País, El Periódico, La Vanguardia i The New York Times) i està basat en l’estudi de 6,189 artic...

  4. The nature of intractable conflict: Resolution in the twenty-first century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man's violent aggressive nature which could result in warlike actions and responses. Using examples from primatology, Mitchell is able to suggest how environments impact on later human behaviour. Chapter two explains, using Johan Galtung's triangular model of conflict structure. (a constant theme throughout the book), ...

  5. Reindustrialization: A Challenge to the Economy in the First Quarter of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyński Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weakening EU and US economies in the aftermath of the global crisis of 2007 need an impulse to act for the improvement of their condition. The analysis of the history of the GDP of selected world economies suggests that a remedy for it may be the strengthening of the industrial sector. By strengthening, we mean its growth, that is, building and developing manufacturing plants. Large multinationals have generally been relocating their production to China, where labor costs have traditionally been a couple of times lower than in the US or the EU. However, over the past years, the pay gap between the US and China has narrowed, and transport prices have gone up. These are the reasons why numerous large American companies decided to transfer part of their business processes back to the homeland. Also, the EU has been taking account of the benefits of a stable industry. Therefore, it has launched the strategy of “European industry rebirth” that entails a growth of the industry’s share in the GDP up to the level of 20%. In order for EU countries to be able to attain it, the paper raises the issue of the Industrie 4.0 methodology, premises and guidelines may, to a large extent, contribute to success. The paper also takes an in-depth look at Industrie 4.0 and discusses its pros and cons. We attempt to provide an answer to the question of whether Industrie 4.0 may be a tool for reindustrialization.

  6. Leadership Competence Educational Model for a Twenty-First Century Nursing Doctoral Education in Contemporary Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a nursing education model about leadership that can be used to improve the leadership skills of nursing doctoral students. This model is developed at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. In developing this model, the author had the opportunity to observe the University of Michigan, School of Nursing…

  7. Global public health leadership for the twenty-first century: towards improved health of all populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P; Piot, Peter; Frenk, Julio J; Flahault, Antoine; Parker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We are at an unprecedented moment in history in terms of the health of populations around the world. New and old problems all require both short- and long-term solutions, at the individual, community, national and global levels. Unique solutions for each challenge may not be feasible or adequately effective or cost-effective. We are confronted by health systems that are not well matched to current and future needs, both for sustained prevention and chronic care. Moving forward effectively as a field will benefit from a focus on the changing needs of global health, and on how changing conditions, globally, should define the next generation of public health leadership so as to best accomplish global health goals.

  8. Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, D; Garrick, D; Blackmore, D; Kelman, J; Muller, M; Sadoff, C

    2013-11-13

    Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable water-related risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower water-related risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous science-based approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society. Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs.

  9. Classical Chinese Gardens in Twenty-first Century America: Cultivating the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Brash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief examination of three tracts of American real estate that have been transformed into Chinese-style gardens. Each re-presentation serves a specific function at its particular site and also creates and perpetuates symbolic meaning that goes beyond the individual site to connect to other sites past and present. In each case, the re-presentation demonstrates adaptations and continuations in function and meaning. The three sites used to illustrate the range of adaptations were chosen for their diversity in several areas: the defining and reinventing of authenticity, their sizes and locations, the type of installation, their origin story and funding, the reflexivity of the institution about the changes made, and programs to produce meaning for the viewers. In their commitment to preserve, recreate, and sustain the past, these institutions have transformed the physical form of the garden. Hybridization is unavoidable when transferring a cultural icon, especially one so layered in meaning as the garden in China.

  10. Well-Being and Wellness in the Twenty-First Century: A Theanthropocosmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modise, Leepo; Johannes, Modise Leepo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, clarification and definition of the concept well-being of human beings are reflected upon from a faith perspective. The author will define well-being and wellness within the following conceptual definitions: firstly, well-being and wellness will be defined in term of African-Christian approach (the interconnectedness of God-human-and-world approach). Secondly, the author will focus on differentiation of well-being and wellness in a human being. Thirdly, the focal point will be on the mixing of holistic, dualist and triadic approaches to define well-being.

  11. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-09-27

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO(2) rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

  12. Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

    2000-01-01

    A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

  13. United States-India Strategic Partnership: Opportunities and Challenges in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    repeatedly ignored the perception and plight of the minority Hindu and Buddhist populations of the state. Besides, India has a larger Muslim population than... Tibetan government from India. China’s close defense relations with Pakistan are a major concern for India. China and India may compete for the same

  14. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  15. Energy policy for India: towards sustainable energy security in India the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this book the background, justification and design for an Integrated Sustainable Energy Policy for the country for the next two decades. Detailed discussion of different energy sub-sectors is given. A separate section in the book focuses on Rural Energy in all its forms and uses. Rural energy is especially important for India and other developing countries because it affects the lives of over seventy percent of the country's population. Environmental concerns in the energy sector have also been discussed in detail in a separate section. These include both local and environmental issues, including India's commitment to various international conventions on environment. The implementation of the Integrated Sustainable Energy Policy is proposed to be done through a National Sustainable Energy Security

  16. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Bringing a Tradition of Engagement into the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    For historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), engagement is not an enhancement of their curriculum but part of their birthright. Founded in the Civil War/Reconstruction era, HBCUs had as their core mission educating freed slaves and other free black people to participate in the economy. Later, during the Jim Crow era, HBCUs educated…

  17. Picking the Right Horse? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    caught by the reacting enemy force, even if they were not "held" by the holding force. Like a football running back 47 breaking away from a slower...Harper & Row, 1977), 37. 9Ibid., 149. 10Flavius Vegetius, Epitome of Military Science ( Liverpool : Liverpool University Press, 1993), 9. "Ibid., 84-85...Frank Cass Publishers, 1997. Vegetius, Flavius. Epitome of Military Science. Liverpool : Liverpool University Press, 1993. Wernick, Robert. Blitzkrieg

  18. Disruptive Innovation for Student Success at a Twenty-First Century Four-Year Baccalaureate Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kelly L.

    2017-01-01

    The problem targeted by this study is the widening imbalance between admissions and graduation rates occurring at many long-standing institutions of higher education. This study applied the theory of disruptive innovation to gain insight into the policies, procedures, beliefs, and perspectives of how a single college that was established in the…

  19. Teaching World History in the Twenty-First Century: A Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This practical handbook is designed to help anyone who is preparing to teach a world history course--or wants to teach it better. It opens with Peter Stearns's essay "Where Did World History Come From?" and closes with Jerry Bentley's annotated bibliographic guide to the essential content knowledge for teaching world history. In between,…

  20. STAR 21. Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    tensile strength in parentheses) compared with lead-acid storage batteries. (SOURCE: Richard F. Post and Stephen F. Post, 1973, Flywheels. Sci. Am. 229...Professor Emeritus) Walter B. LaBerge , Lockheed Corporation (Retired) GEN John W. Pauly, Systems Control Technology, Inc. Charles J. Shoens, Science...Walter B. LaBerge , Lockheed Corporation (Retired) VADM William J. Moran, Consultant GEN John W. Pauly, Systems Control Technology, Inc. GEN John W. Vessey

  1. Twenty First Century Warfare -- Theater Operations at the Speed of Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jersey, Sean

    2003-01-01

    .... Joint forces lack a coherent vision of how to fight with DEWs. Existing doctrine on planning, commanding, and executing operations is insufficient to exploit the full combat potential of speed-of-light weapons...

  2. Why American Business Demands Twenty-First Century Skills: An Industry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    A solid global strategy must be part of every organization's DNA. For Dell, this means expanding into new countries where it can use its direct model to provide value to customers and create more productive, healthier communities. It also means hiring employees who think and act globally and have a commitment to learn how to work with cultures…

  3. Into the Twenty-First Century: Harmonizing energy policy, environment, and sustainable economic growth. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Economic trade liberalization and the restructuring of the energy industries to promote competition, two trends well underway, have not eliminated the need for thoughtful policy action, although they have significantly transformed the policymaking environment. New policy initiatives must be compatible with the growing competition within energy industries. And while governments are beginning to remove themselves from the natural gas and electricity markets, their policy choices for organizing these industries will shape energy balances and prices in these and other energy markets. The 18th Annual International Conference of the IAEE addresses these and other major policy issues and how energy industries can operate successfully in an era of acute economic, political, and scientific uncertainty. An overarching objective has been to provide the interface between new frontiers in economic and energy analysis and the application of these techniques toward further understanding of policy and industry options. The papers included in this Proceedings volume have not been peer reviewed but were selected by the conference program chairman and committee on the basis of their contribution to the overall conference themes. The conference program committee (see page iii) organized a number of the key sessions on a wide range of important issues. David L. Williams, Jr. was particularly effective in supporting the committee in organizing the program and publishing this volume

  4. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  5. Toward a Sociology of Environmental Flows: A New Agenda for Twenty-First-Century Environmental Sociology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging sociology of networks and flows, as it can be found in the works of Castells and Urry among others, offers promising perspectives for environmental sociology in rethinking its principle object of study: nature and environment. The sociology of flow perspective takes us beyond the

  6. "Wild Scouts": Swedish Scouting Preparing Responsible Citizens for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg Brostrom, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish scout program. Socialization is used as a theoretical tool in the analysis. The method is inspired by critical discourse analysis. What are children and young people being prepared for, how is it accomplished, and by whom? The findings reveal two discourses: doing things as an investment for the…

  7. Understanding a modern antique: challenges to representing Rastafari in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Homiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing increasingly upon digital technologies and the internet to assert a sense of community even as they cultivate an austere biblical persona, adherents of Rastafari can be thought of as simultaneously modern and antique. Their claim to antiquity is grounded in a collectively professed African-Ethiopian identity that has not only resisted the ravages of enslavement, colonialism, and European cultural domination but is seen to transcend local differences of culture and language. Theirs is a way of life organized around theocratic principles that begin with a recognition of the divine in all peoples and as the basis of all human agency. Rastafari assert the universal relevance of these principles to the conditions of modernity even as they persistently claim social justice on behalf of all peoples of African descent exploited by colonialism and the prevailing global capitalist-imperialist system. Based on these general themes, the Rastafari movement has come to represent a large-scale cultural phenomenon that has long since burst the chains of its colonial containment in Jamaica. From the late 1960s onward it has spread throughout the Caribbean and the Central and South American rimland to the major metropoles of North America and Europe as well as to many sites on the African continent.

  8. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact…

  9. Creating an Educational Theatre Program for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that justifications for art and culture recently have changed from one of basic freedom of expression and communication of an inner vision ("art for art's sake"), to one of utilitarianism and entrepreneurialism. On a very basic level, theatre in school settings works with young people inside the context of a community…

  10. The United States and Brazil: A Naval Partnership for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    this is " Fraterno ," a yearly Argentine/Brazilian exercise 33 (See Appendix C for a list of joint U.S./Brazilian naval initiatives). 3 2 Rene Luria, "The...cooperate on their yearly maritime exercise " Fraterno ". Argentina might also see a benefit of being linked to the United States in a maritime capacity to

  11. Combatting Domestic Terrorism: A Strategic Approach for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sienrukos, John

    1999-01-01

    .... In order to reach sound, strategic recommendations for combating terrorism, the author will begin with some background on terrorism, review the various definitions as defined by the Department...

  12. Latino Access to Higher Education: Ethnic Realities and New Directions for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Martin Guevara; Wright, Claudia Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    While the black and white racial experience has been delineated over the years, the ethnic realities of Latinos have received minimal attention. Therefore, with Latinos projected as the upcoming U.S. population majority, the central goal of this book is to document the Latino experience in the world of academia, focusing primarily, but not…

  13. "Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom:…

  14. Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners: A College Education for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Dunek, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-driven learners anticipate, embrace, and adapt to disruptive change. Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek advance a transformative purpose of a college education. They invite stakeholders from across higher education to engage in vigorous dialogue about the aims of a college education--and how to realize those aims. Increasingly influenced by…

  15. Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B. (eds.)

    1987-05-01

    This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately.

  16. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  17. Transpersonal Education: An Educational Approach for the Twenty-First Century?

    OpenAIRE

    Buckler, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Maslow was instrumental to the development of both humanistic and transpersonal psychology advocating that humanistic psychology should be subsumed by transpersonal psychology [1]. However the transpersonal has remained a lucid term with over-simplified definitions relating to spirituality [2-5], although three encompassing themes have been identified: beyond-ego psychology, integrative psychology and transformative psychology [6]. Although transpersonal psychology has been applied to a numbe...

  18. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  19. Development of a Formal Army Officer Mentorship Model for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harney, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses the role of formal mentoring processes in the U.S. Army. Specifically, this study examines which formal mentoring model should the Army adopt and implement as part of its overall officer development process...

  20. Rethinking the Anthropology of Violence for the Twenty-First Century : From Practice to Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, A.C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Technological developments in the security field are calling for a new anthropological approach to the study of violence. Th e anthropology of violence shifted during the late 1980s from an emphasis on the structural and symbolic dynamics of violence to a focus on historical and social practices.

  1. From Bureaucracy to Profession: Remaking the Educational Sector for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Jal Mehta examines the challenges faced by American schooling and the reasons for persistent failure of American school reforms to achieve successful educational outcomes at scale. He concludes that many of the problems faced by American schools are artifacts of the bureaucratic form in which the education sector as a whole was…

  2. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st [twenty-first] century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Quality of Health Care in America; Institute of Medicine Staff; Iom; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    .... This book recommends a sweeping redesign of the American health care system and provides overarching principles for specific direction for policymakers, health care leaders, clinicians, regulators...

  3. Untying the Mediterranean Gordian Knot: A Twenty First Century Challenge for Fisheries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vielmini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of fisheries in the Mediterranean basin has often been described as a unique and complex challenge, due to their multi-specificity, the diversity of gear-types, and the number of nations involved. This perspective has gone hand-in-hand for decades with a lack of strong political will from decision-makers, who have been unwilling to put Mediterranean fisheries management high on their agendas. Over time, exploitation rates of demersal stocks have increased and in 2016, 97% of shared stocks assessed in the Mediterranean were reported to be overfished. An alarm bell about the chronic overfishing of Mediterranean fish stocks was rung by European policy makers in 2015, exactly 20 years after the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization mandated that states should ensure the sustainable use of fishery resources. In this perspective, we: (i review the context of fisheries management in the Mediterranean; (ii identify the potential factors that may have hindered management and; (iii discuss how the reformed European Union Common Fisheries Policy and the binding commitments laid down in its text may lead to knock-on effects for fisheries management in the international Mediterranean context, if properly implemented. In this line, we also present the example of demersal fisheries management in the Strait of Sicily, which may represent a starting point for science-based management in the Mediterranean.

  4. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, J. C.; Fabry, V. J.; Aumont, O.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Feely, R. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Ishida, A.; Joos, F.; Key, R. M.; Lindsay, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Matear, R.; Monfray, P.

    2005-01-01

    Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pHand carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms such as corals and some plankton will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean carbon cycle to assess calcium carb...

  5. Developing into Similarity: Global Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob; Tillman, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This article explains the process that is causing systems of teacher education in the EU, the USA and elsewhere to converge into a form of fewer qualitative distinctions. We argue that expansion brought about by processes familiar to globalisation is creating wide differences in the cost of information that incentivises use of standardised…

  6. A Painter's View of the Cosmos In the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cro-Ken, K.

    2016-01-01

    I am an ecosystem artist who uses paint to bring nature's “invisible forces” into view. My eco-sensitive palette recreates the push-pull forces that shape and mold all things. As a result, I create microscopic and telescopic views of earth and places scattered throughout our universe. Self-similarity led me to realize that if I want my mind to wonder into the far reaches of the universe, I must draw closer to nature. I show how space looks and appears and, more importantly, how it moves. My speed element palette is a portal through which I peer into the universe at scales great and small using paint as my lens. Microscopes, telescopes, the Internet, and even eyeglasses are portals through which technology affords us the ability to see that which is unseen to the unaided eye. Rather than see the world and then paint, the opposite is true for me. My work is revelatory, not representational and, as such, seeks similar occurrences in nature. Just as a planet's surface is a visual record of past events, so too do speed element experiments reveal traces of the past. It would be more accurate to call a painting that comes to rest a “painted.” It is video that captures images that eluded capture by the canvas and could more accurately be called a “painting. ” Simply put, I manipulate space, time, and matter—and the matter is never just paint.

  7. Gun control in the United States: ethical perspectives for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Michael

    2003-03-01

    The current author will explore the way we should think about the ethical implications of gun control in the United States today. The generating pedagogy will be: (1) an explication of worldview perspectives, personal and community as per the author's recently published writings; (2) a discussion of the worldviews of both sides of the gun control debate; (3) a critical appraisal of the positions of each side; and (4) some suggestions about a future that is without ordinary citizen ownership of guns. The author argues that based on an ethical rights model of analysis, an ordinary citizen's right to bear arms is outweighed by other competing rights claims.

  8. Probabilistic regional and seasonal predictions of twenty-first century temperature and precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    David Stainforth

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for international agreements on climate change mitigation comes from the global scope of impacts irrespective of the location of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By contrast one of the motivations for national commitments to such agreements, and for national adaptation planning, is concern about national scale impacts. Climate predictions on regional scales are therefore highly sought after by policy and decision makers, yet robust, relevant predictions on these scales raise prac...

  9. Revolutionary in Counter-Revolutionary Times: Elaborating Fanonian National Consciousness into the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Anna Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique challenges of reading Les damnés de la terre (The Wretched of the Earth today is that while it is an irredeemably revolutionary text, we live in a counter-revolutionary moment or in a global context that has tried very hard to discredit even the possibility of revolution. Fanon’s text does not only narrate the effective undertaking of an anti-colonial struggle—of what is required for people to identify the actual causes of their alienation and unfreedom and together to will their elimination—it also outlines the various, often dialectical challenges of restructuring a society from the bottom up. Guiding and evident in the latter is the flourishing of what Fanon suggestively called national consciousness. Elaborating its meaning and ongoing usefulness is the focus of this essay.

  10. The Twenty-First Century Workforce: A Contemporary Challenge for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2006-01-01

    More than at any time in recent history, technology education has taken on an important role in American education. The emergence of economic issues and the essential role of technology in the global economy have highlighted the omission of technology in K-12 school programs. When business and industry began recognizing the role of education and…

  11. Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

  12. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…

  13. Revamping the Operations Center Concept in the Intelligence Community for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandaveer, Joan

    2002-01-01

    ...) to deal more effectively with rapidly changing crisis situations to ensure that our policymakers and military commanders receive the 'alert and warning' and timely current intelligence they will need...

  14. Training in the Twenty-First Century: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikes, W. Franklin, III

    Seven trends are emerging in the corporate training and development sector of human resource development (HRD). First, there is an increasing corporate commitment for training. Employers are viewing training today as an essential element in their competitive business strategies. Second, customer service training is becoming the competitive weapon…

  15. The Professional Status of Educational Research: Professionalism and Developmentalism in Twenty-First-Century Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda

    2013-01-01

    "How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to…

  16. Libraries and the Future: Essays on the Library in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Frederick Wilfrid, Ed.

    The essays collected in this volume present the personal visions of several individuals, mostly librarians and other information professionals, on what the library might look like 25 or 30 years from now. The contributors represent a wide variety of libraries and related institutions on four continents. The essays collected are:…

  17. Challenges to deployment of twenty-first century nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2017-02-01

    The science and engineering of materials have always been fundamental to the success of nuclear power to date. They are also the key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of nuclear reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. This article reflects on some of the historical issues, the challenges still prevalent today and the requirement for significant ongoing materials R&D and discusses the potential role of small modular reactors.

  18. Challenges to deployment of twenty-first century nuclear reactor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ion, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The science and engineering of materials have always been fundamental to the success of nuclear power to date. They are also the key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of nuclear reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. This article reflects on some of the historical issues, the challenges still prevalent today and the requirement for significant ongoing materials R&D and discusses the potential role of small modular reactors.

  19. Aflatoxin analysis at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2009-11-01

    Aflatoxin mycotoxins were first described in the early 1960s as important fungal toxins, which contaminate many different human foods and animal feeds. Accurate and sensitive determination of these carcinogenic compounds immediately became an important requirement to meet food safety concerns and new official legislated regulations. For these reasons, analytical methods for aflatoxins continued to develop over the decades, reflecting advances in analytical chemistry. Currently, a wide range of methods are available to analytical scientists, ranging from newly described multi-toxin liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to rapid methods based on immunological principles. These latter methods can provide quantitative outputs or a simple rapid determination of contamination level above or below a pre-determined cutoff value. The newest official methods as validated by Association of Official Analytical Chemists International or Comité Européen de Normalisation rely on immunoaffinity column clean-up of conventional extracts, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation of the analogues with detection based on natural fluorescence or the fluorescence generated by various derivatisation methods. In selecting from this range of available methods, the analytical chemist must decide on the requirements of the analysis such that the method chosen is 'fit for purpose'.

  20. The Relationship between Business and Higher Education: A Perspective on the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculley, John

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of the new information age and new technologies on business and higher education was originally given as the keynote address at EDUCOM '87. Highlights include new organizational patterns; a new paradigm for lifelong learning; the necessity for integrating research and instruction; hypermedia; simulation; and artificial…

  1. How we made professionalism relevant to twenty-first century residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Aditi; Nugus, Peter; Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Smilovitch, Mark; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the current medical trainee work environment, including the impact of social media participation, is underappreciated. Despite rapid adoption of social media by residents and the introduction of social media guidelines targeted at medical professionals, there is a paucity of data evaluating practical methods to incorporate social media into professionalism teaching curricula. We developed a flipped classroom program, focusing on the application of professionalism principles to challenging real-life scenarios including social media-related issues. The pre-workshop evaluation showed that the participants had a good understanding of basic professionalism concepts. A post-workshop survey assessed residents' comfort level with professionalism concepts. The post-workshop survey revealed that the postgraduate trainees perceived significant improvement in their understanding of professionalism (p professionalism issues surrounding social media.

  2. The Humanities Are Not a Luxury: A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha Nell

    2011-01-01

    The humanities are at the heart of knowing about the human condition; they are not a luxury. The erosion of support for the humanities and the perennial anxiety about the state of the humanities are systemic. The author contends that until people acknowledge this fact, they will keep lurching from one point to another, unable to recognize the…

  3. School Counseling in the Twenty-First Century: A Systemic Multicultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behring, Shari Tarver

    School counseling educators and practitioners frequently find themselves so focused on the daily activities of serving their schools that rarely do they have the luxury of considering a long-term and large-scale vision for the profession. Yet a vision that anticipates the future needs of school counseling in a proactive manner is just what the…

  4. The sustainable landfill bioreactor: a waste management option for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: According to the EU hierarchy of waste management, disposal of solid waste to landfill is the method of last resort. However landfilling is still a widely used disposal route in Europe and it will continue to be an important waste management option for many years, even though rising environmental standards continue to cause landfill disposal costs to rise. The traditional model of a landfill as a permanent waste deposit in which decomposition processes are minimised has given way to the concept of a controlled decomposition process managed as a large-scale bioreactor. The fundamental aim of the sustainable landfill is to optimise the natural degradation processes in the waste, to contain the products of degradation to prevent pollution of the environment and finally to use the residual organic matter as a soil conditioner. This paper discusses the legal and technical imperatives driving the development of the sustainable large-scale bioreactor concept of landfilling. key words: sustainable development, landfill, bioreactor, waste management

  5. Globalisation and Social Imaginaries: The Changing Ideological Landscape of the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred B. Steger

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of prefixes like ‘neo’ and ‘post’ that adorn conventional ‘isms’ has cast a long shadow on the contemporary relevance of traditional political belief systems like liberalism, conservatism, and Marxism. This article explores how the thickening of global consciousness finds its expression in the growing capability of today’s political ideologies to translate the rising global imaginary into concrete political programs and agendas. But these subjective dynamics of denationaliza...

  6. Securing Field Learning Using a Twenty-First Century Cook's Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook's Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand's North Island over a 4-year period. Student-generated video diaries summarized landscape features and processes at fieldsites, empowering students through active learning and small…

  7. Trumpet intonation pedagogy in the United States at the beginning of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunker, Joel Kent

    Although a wealth of pedagogical material exists for most aspects of trumpet performance, there is a comparatively small body of such material devoted to intonation. In addition, while there is general agreement that good intonation is essential to a successful performance, there is no widely accepted methodology for helping students achieve it. This study first identifies the factors that influence trumpet intonation and explores the reasons why intonation receives less pedagogical emphasis than other performance elements. It continues with an examination of how intonation is addressed in existing published materials. This summary of the approaches used in pedagogical publications is compared with methods practiced in applied trumpet studios, based on interviews with respected trumpet professors in major music schools and conservatories. The goal of the study is to define and highlight issues that can help provide a clear focus for future attempts to improve the way intonation is taught and studied.

  8. Performing Citizens and Subjects: Dance and Resistance in Twenty-First Century Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Aaron Tracy

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics and economics of the cultural performance of dance, placing this expressive form of communication within the context of historic changes in Mozambique, from the colonial encounter, to the liberation movement and the post-colonial socialist nation, to the neoliberalism of the present. The three dances examined here represent different regimes, contrasting forms of subjectivity, and very different relations of the individual to society. N’Tsay (1984) is a...

  9. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-12

    60 Uri Ra’anan, ed., et al., Hydra of Carnage; International Linkages of Terrorism (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986), 11. A Military Guide to...1994. The cult has also cultured and experimented with numerous biological agents, to include botulin toxin , anthrax, cholera, and Q fever...weapons consist of pathogenic microbes, toxins , and bioregulator compounds. Depending on the specific type, these weapons can incapacitate or kill people

  10. Attention Deficit Disorder Comes of Age: Toward the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, Sally E., Ed.; Shaywitz, Bennett A., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on definitions, assessment, assessment instruments, and distinctions between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and general learning disabilities or conduct disorders. Part I covers issues of definition and assessment in the following papers: "Methodological Issues in the Classification of ADD" (Jack Fletcher, et…

  11. The making of a transnational capitalist class: corporate power in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, W.K.; Carson, C.; Fennema, M.; Heemskerk, E.; Sapinski, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, there has been a growing wave of interest in global corporate power and the rise of a transnational capitalist class, triggered by economic and political transformations that have blurred national borders and disembedded corporate business from national domiciles. Using social

  12. Health and social organization: towards a health policy for the twenty-first century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blane, David; Brunner, Eric

    1996-01-01

    ...: economic growth, income distribution, consumption, work organization, unemployment and job insecurity, social and family structure, education and deprivation, and they are all aspects of 'social organization...

  13. An experimental public: heterogeneous groups defining embodiment in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases. This will take me to a consideration of the intertwining of art and medicine beyond the domain of the visual.

  14. The Best Aircraft for Close Air Support in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    today’s Air Force: AC-130s, remotely piloted aircraft ( RPA ), light at- tack aircraft (LAA), legacy fighter aircraft (F-16s and F-15s), F-35s, and A-10s...procurement project turns out to be a viable and cost-effective future option, there may be more talk of gunship CAS in the near future. RPAs have emerged...operations. RPAs such as the MQ-1 Predator and the MQ-9 Reaper have been employed around the globe, supplying real-time illumination of battlefield opera

  15. Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and the lucrative income associated with the polytheistic practices that Meccans encouraged at the haram. In 619, his wife, Khadija, and his uncle...raiding against infidels and apostates. Wahhabi Islam’s appeal carried the al-Saud through the catastrophe of 1818, and now 31 Barrett: Saudi Arabia in...less than we hate the Persians for the infidel practices which they have imported into the true and pure faith revealed to us in the Koran.”79 In

  16. Reproductive medicine: the ethical issues in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2002-02-01

    Reproductive medicine has developed to such an extent that numerous moral questions arise about the boundaries of applications of new reproductive technology. It is possible to imagine a future in which 'designer babies' are created and in which cloning, sex selection and male pregnancy become the instruments of individual desire or social policy. In this article, the concept of 'natural' is explored but rejected as an insufficient moral criterion for deciding these complex questions. A case is made for the criterion of welfare of the child and for the concept of the child as gift rather than product.

  17. Space Station user traffic model analysis for mission payload servicing into the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station-based Customer Servicing Facility service bay requirements for service accommodation to the Initial Orbit Capability (IOC) and far-term Station Accommodation Test Sets (SETS) missions are analyzed using the developed mission traffic model. Analysis results are presented which indicate that one servicing bay will be sufficient to accommodate IOC customer servicing requirements. Growth servicing requirements indicate that an additional servicing bay will be needed for accommodation of the far-term SATS mission payloads. Even though the level of total mission accommodation is below 100 percent for one bay at IOC and two bays during growth operations, the levels are such that operational work-around exists so that additional servicing bays will not be required.

  18. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  19. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  20. 76 FR 55585 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., the top five nonbroadcast networks for the purposes of our rules are USA, the Disney Channel, TNT... programming that is not exempt'' from these rules.\\56\\ The comments of The Walt Disney Company (``Disney... statute.\\61\\ \\56\\ NPRM, supra note 2, at para. 12. \\57\\ Comments of Disney at 1-2, Appendix A, Appendix B...

  1. Relevant and Effective Theological Education in the Context of Twenty-First Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Joshva; Rajkumar, Peniel Jesudason Rufus

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers Christian theological education in South Asia highlighting pertinent issues in pedagogical content, form, method, and praxis. Debunking the notion of students as "empty bottles" to be filled, and criticizing the top-down model of education, the paper argues that theological education is an ongoing and interactive…

  2. Responsibility and Composition's Future in the Twenty-First Century: Reframing "Accountability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Kassner, Linda; Harrington, Susanmarie

    2010-01-01

    "Accountability" is widely used in discussions about what should be happening in school, but it is not an appropriate guiding concept for assessments designed to improve teaching and learning. This article examines discussions about assessment for internal and external purposes; it then outlines an alternative frame for assessment that has…

  3. Pedagogical Shift in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing Teachers to Teach with New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigona, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The expectation in education today is that pre-service teachers should graduate from teacher education adequately prepared to teach with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) that have potential to enhance curriculum delivery, hence improving quality of education. However, research shows that pre-service teachers are graduating from…

  4. Domestic and Expeditionary Readiness in the Twenty-First Century: Maintaining an Operationalized Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    formidable, heavily armored invading force. In the event that hostilities erupted in Europe, the United States would rapidly deploy its ready forces...family and soldier reintegration, changes of command, behavioral health, medical and dental readiness assessments, professional military education, and

  5. Worldly Reading: Teaching Australian Literature in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Larissa McLean; Martin, Susan K.; Buzacott, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of literature in the English classroom in Australia and its part in shaping national identity. We contend that it is important to consider the possible roles of national literatures in contemporary school contexts, where students are becoming local and global citizens and argue that reading Australian literature as a…

  6. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st [twenty-first] century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Quality of Health Care in America; Institute of Medicine Staff; Iom; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project Today's health care providers have more research findings and more technology available...

  7. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    participated in RIMPAC 2014, including the original five, Norway , and the People’s Republic of China (for the first time). See Daniel P. Taylor...two squadrons of U.S. Navy Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS) in the Western Pacific and at Diego Garcia, and ashore in Norway . The MPS ships deploy...allied prisoners of war; to bring home millions of forward U.S. Army troops; to repatriate thousands of Japanese troops from all over Asia and the

  8. On Becoming Essential: An Agenda for Quality in Twenty-First Century Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues of quality in public libraries in light of changes in services resulting from social and economic changes. Highlights include quality strategies, the customer service revolution, anticipating new markets, defining library values and missions, information technology, training staff for the future, funding, partnerships, and…

  9. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  10. Minimalism and Beyond: Second Language Acquisition for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a general overview of two books--"The Second Time Around: Minimalism and Second Language Acquisition" and "Second Language Syntax: A Generative Introduction--and shows how the respond to key issues in second language acquisition, including the process of second language acquisition, access to universal grammar, the role of…

  11. Twenty-First Century Strategic Stability: A U.S.-Russia Track II Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    part, strategic in nature. Nevertheless, according to the Russian panelist, “Putin and others views these weapons as dangerous and refuse to buy ... customers for its overall economic health. Within Europe, however, the energy access question affects alliance cohesion. Participants agreed that...there is little chance China would change its behaviour in any way.” For Russia, the threat from Chinese nuclear modernization is even more acute; as one

  12. Reposturing the Force: U.S. Overseas Presence in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    www.history.navy.mil/ branches/org9-4.htm#1945. 48. John P. Higgins [LCdr., USN], “Gators: An Endangered Species ?” Globalsecurity.org...tions in Afghanistan, see Jay M. Holtermann [Capt., USMC], “The 15th Marine Expedi- tionary Unit’s Seizure of Camp Rhino ,” Ma- rine Corps Gazette (June

  13. Educating the Creative Workforce: New Directions for Twenty-First Century Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica; Haukka, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out reasons for arguing that creativity is not garnish to the roast of industry or of education--i.e. the reasoning behind Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's insistence that creativity is not only about elites but involves everyone. This article investigates three key domains--scholarship, commerce and learning--to argue the importance…

  14. New electricity 21. Designing a sustainable electric system for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The five main sessions of the conference are opportunities to increase electricity use for sustainable development; electric system expansion and integration to meet growing competition; power producers and global climate change issues; technology for supplying electricity in developing and transitional economies; power industry structure, regulatory policies and technological innovation. All contributions have been indexed and abstracted for the INIS and Energy database. (R.P.)

  15. STAR 21, Technology Forecast Assessments. Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    capabilities for chameleon surfaces and other means of signature control over a wide spectral range; and * electrostrictive materials for active...as they are discovered and for old ones as they mutate and develop resistance. In the future, we could be able to fortify the human immunological...lightweight foam-fiber body armor, selected organisms with chameleon properties, small articulated surveillance units (1.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m) coupled to

  16. Training maternal and child health epidemiologists: leaders for the twenty first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments.

  17. Impact of climate change on mid-twenty-first century growing seasons in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Changes in growing seasons for 2041-2060 across Africa are projected using a regional climate model at 90-km resolution, and confidence in the predictions is evaluated. The response is highly regional over West Africa, with decreases in growing season days up to 20% in the western Guinean coast and some regions to the east experiencing 5-10% increases. A longer growing season up to 30% in the central and eastern Sahel is predicted, with shorter seasons in parts of the western Sahel. In East Africa, the short rains (boreal fall) growing season is extended as the Indian Ocean warms, but anomalous mid-tropospheric moisture divergence and a northward shift of Sahel rainfall severely curtails the long rains (boreal spring) season. Enhanced rainfall in January and February increases the growing season in the Congo basin by 5-15% in association with enhanced southwesterly moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. In Angola and the southern Congo basin, 40-80% reductions in austral spring growing season days are associated with reduced precipitation and increased evapotranspiration. Large simulated reductions in growing season over southeastern Africa are judged to be inaccurate because they occur due to a reduction in rainfall in winter which is over-produced in the model. Only small decreases in the actual growing season are simulated when evapotranspiration increases in the warmer climate. The continent-wide changes in growing season are primarily the result of increased evapotranspiration over the warmed land, changes in the intensity and seasonal cycle of the thermal low, and warming of the Indian Ocean. (orig.)

  18. An integrated chronostratigraphic data system for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, P.J.; Ogg, James G.; Gary, A.; Cervato, C.; Gradstein, Felix; Huber, B.T.; Marshall, C.; Stein, J.A.; Wardlaw, B.

    2006-01-01

    Research in stratigraphy is increasingly multidisciplinary and conducted by diverse research teams whose members can be widely separated. This developing distributed-research process, facilitated by the availability of the Internet, promises tremendous future benefits to researchers. However, its full potential is hindered by the absence of a development strategy for the necessary infrastructure. At a National Science Foundation workshop convened in November 2001, thirty quantitative stratigraphers and database specialists from both academia and industry met to discuss how best to integrate their respective chronostratigraphic databases. The main goal was to develop a strategy that would allow efficient distribution and integration of existing data relevant to the study of geologic time. Discussions concentrated on three major themes: database standards and compatibility, strategies and tools for information retrieval and analysis of all types of global and regional stratigraphic data, and future directions for database integration and centralization of currently distributed depositories. The result was a recommendation to establish an integrated chronostratigraphic database, to be called Chronos, which would facilitate greater efficiency in stratigraphic studies (http://www.chronos.org/) . The Chronos system will both provide greater ease of data gathering and allow for multidisciplinary synergies, functions of fundamental importance in a variety of research, including time scale construction, paleoenvironmental analysis, paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. Beyond scientific research, Chronos will also provide educational and societal benefits by providing an accessible source of information of general interest (e.g., mass extinctions) and concern (e.g., climatic change). The National Science Foundation has currently funded a three-year program for implementing Chronos.. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  20. The Beckoning Giant: National Security Strategy Toward South Asia in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schafer, Susanne; Lange, John; Dempsey, Marty

    1996-01-01

    ... prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons avoid the emergence of a regional hegemon, and stop the trafficking of drugs through the region Yet the South Asia region occupies a key strategic position...

  1. A MAG for the Twenty First Century: Lethal, Lighter, Energy Efficient, and Cheaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    Meteorological Conditions ( IMC ), in the environmental conditions expected in Partner Nations (PN) Theatre of Operations (i.e. up to 50-degrees Celsius). 7...paramilitary, political, economic, psychological , and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. Direct Air Support Center (Airborne

  2. A Review on Stereoscopic 3D: Home Entertainment for the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karajeh, Huda; Maqableh, Mahmoud; Masa'deh, Ra'ed

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, stereoscopic developed very rapidly and employed in many different fields such as entertainment. Due to the importance of entertainment aspect of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) applications, a review of the current state of S3D development in entertainment technology is conducted. In this paper, a novel survey of the stereoscopic entertainment aspects is presented by discussing the significant development of a 3D cinema, the major development of 3DTV, the issues related to 3D video content and 3D video games. Moreover, we reviewed some problems that can be caused in the viewers' visual system from watching stereoscopic contents. Some stereoscopic viewers are not satisfied as they are frustrated from wearing glasses, have visual fatigue, complain from unavailability of 3D contents, and/or complain from some sickness. Therefore, we will discuss stereoscopic visual discomfort and to what extend the viewer will have an eye fatigue while watching 3D contents or playing 3D games. The suggested solutions in the literature for this problem are discussed.

  3. morality and war: can war be just in the twenty-first century?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    streams of thought in moral philosophy, specifically absolutism, virtue ethics, and consequentialism, but critiques ... justice: A Kantian perspective (2000).2 Orend's Kantian approach falls into what. Fisher calls an ... realism would recognise that, in modern warfare, “ethical restraint may be necessary to the strategic success ...

  4. Climate simulation of the twenty-first century with interactive land-use changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voldoire, A.; Eickhout, B.; Schaeffer, M.; Royer, J.F.; Chauvin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To include land-use dynamics in a general circulation model (GCM), the physical system has to be linked to a system that represents socio-economy. This issue is addressed by coupling an integrated assessment model, IMAGE2.2, to an ocean¿atmosphere GCM, CNRM-CM3. In the new system, IMAGE2.2 provides

  5. Challenges, Capability and Will: Is NATO Relevant in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    the alliance.”55 Accordingly, at a ceremony in Paris for the signing of the NATO-Russia Founding Act, President Bill Clinton stood with...Clinton, “Remarks at a Signing Ceremony for the NATO-Russia Founding Act in Paris, France,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 33, i. 22 (June...present.”136 What NATO cannot afford to do, whether burdening sharing commitments in the Wales Summit Declaration are honored or not, is remain wedded to

  6. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty First Century Russian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Deyermond, Ruth Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Russian foreign policy demonstrates a dual approach to state sovereignty, using a Westphalian model of sovereignty outside the former Soviet region and a post-Soviet model inside it. This approach performs three functions in contemporary Russian foreign policy: securing Russian national interests at domestic, regional, and international levels; balancing against the United States; and acting as a marker of ‘non-Western’ power identity in an emergent multipolar order. The conflict...

  8. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century: Radon, smoking and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the relationship between indoor radon exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. The author explains the sources of radon, the tissues at risk, the human populations most likely to be affected, and the estimates of lung cancer in the population. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Moltke’s Mission Command Philosophy in the Twenty-First Century: Fallacy or Verity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Civil War in 1864, illustrate the basic principles for practising mission command. It is my design, if the enemy keeps quiet and allow me to take...seemingly simple principles, yet mission command provides the best solution for the current, complex operational environment. It will require time to...provides maximum freedom of action in determining how to best accomplish assigned missions.12 Oberst is the German equivalent to a US Colonel (OF-5

  10. Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralau, Tewes; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Gürtler, Rainer; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Herzler, Matthias; Höfer, Thomas; Itter, Heike; Kuhl, Thomas; Lange, Nikola; Lorenz, Nicole; Müller-Graf, Christine; Pabel, Ulrike; Pirow, Ralph; Ritz, Vera; Schafft, Helmut; Schneider, Heiko; Schulz, Thomas; Schumacher, David; Zellmer, Sebastian; Fleur-Böl, Gaby; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Lampen, Alfonso; Luch, Andreas; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Solecki, Roland; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The advent of new testing systems and "omics"-technologies has left regulatory toxicology facing one of the biggest challenges for decades. That is the question whether and how these methods can be used for regulatory purposes. The new methods undoubtedly enable regulators to address important open questions of toxicology such as species-specific toxicity, mixture toxicity, low-dose effects, endocrine effects or nanotoxicology, while promising faster and more efficient toxicity testing with the use of less animals. Consequently, the respective assays, methods and testing strategies are subject of several research programs worldwide. On the other hand, the practical application of such tests for regulatory purposes is a matter of ongoing debate. This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European "regulatory status quo", while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

  11. Proactive Marine Corps Transition Assistance In The Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: LtCol John R. Siary, USMC 17...Biography Keith A. Forkin is a 1993 graduate of Villanova University where he earned a Bachelor of Science in Accounting. He holds a Juris Doctorate from...employment, or entrepreneurship . Furthermore, there is no mechanism to track Marines after they transition to civilian society. In other words, there is

  12. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    our-values-an. See also Attorney General Eric Holder, Remarks at North- western University School of Law (Mar. 5, 2012), http://www.justice.gov/ iso /opa...6 The reference is somewhat useful in that it suggests a norma - tive distinction between those who actively participate in a non-international armed

  13. Through a Glass, Darkly: Innovation and Transformation in the Twenty-First Century Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    homage to some of the pioneers of the study of innovation in the business world (notably Schumpeter ), little attention seems to have been paid to work... Schumpeter , Joseph A., Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Harper & Row, New York, 1976 50 Ibid., p 82. 51 Ibid., p 83, emphasis in the original...British Naval Policy, 1889-1914, Unwin Hyman, Boston, 1993 Schumpeter , Joseph A., Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Harper & Row, New York, 1976

  14. The Global Marketplace in the Twenty-First Century: The Community College's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares-Rivera, Rabab; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess El Paso Community College's (EPCC's) role in serving the educational needs of its multi-racial, economically diverse border area community. Uniquely positioned on a rapidly expanding industrial corridor, EPCC's constituency is quickly changing in size, demographics, and academic needs. To determine the current needs…

  15. Digital Geography Education in the Twenty-First Century: Needs and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, J.A.; Trimp, Henk; Beneker, T.; Favier, T.T.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of geospatial technologies is not always simple. However, the advantages of using geospatial technologies in geography education far outweigh the problems if geographical thinking is involved.

  16. About energy vision in the twenty first century and the role of ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2010-01-01

    It is now frequently recommended, that only ecological resources can save us and keep for the mankind more or less contemporary way of living for future. During such consideration it is obviously forgotten that ecological wind and sun have occasional character and that still we do not know how to store great amount of energy. It is also not easy to estimate, what is the maximal capacity of such resources, supposing that we want all such energy use. Work estimate one special case in which all ecological resources are fully correlated-the same wind or sun on all places of local power stations-typically one state or economy. (Author)

  17. Fermilab Industrial Affiliates roundtable on research technology in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Fenner, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This collection of articles presents views on the future of physics research by leading experts in the field. Topics discussed include particle physics, the Superconducting Super Collider, and the development of new superconducting materials. The articles have been abstracted and indexed separately

  18. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  19. Overcoming the momentum of anachronism: American geologic mapping in a twenty-first-century world

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P. Kyle; Clark, Ryan; Kopera, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The practice of geologic mapping is undergoing conceptual and methodological transformation. Profound changes in digital technology in the past 10 yr have potential to impact all aspects of geologic mapping. The future of geologic mapping as a relevant scientific enterprise depends on widespread adoption of new technology and ideas about the collection, meaning, and utility of geologic map data. It is critical that the geologic community redefine the primary elements of the traditional paper geologic map and improve the integration of the practice of making maps in the field and office with the new ways to record, manage, share, and visualize their underlying data. A modern digital geologic mapping model will enhance scientific discovery, meet elevated expectations of modern geologic map users, and accommodate inevitable future changes in technology.

  20. Abstracts and abstracting a genre and set of skills for the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Koltay, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Despite their changing role, abstracts remain useful in the digital world. Highly beneficial to information professionals and researchers who work and publish in different fields, this book summarizes the most important and up-to-date theory of abstracting, as well as giving advice and examples for the practice of writing different kinds of abstracts. The book discusses the length, the functions and basic structure of abstracts, outlining a new approach to informative and indicative abstracts. The abstractors' personality, their linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge and skills are also discu

  1. 76 FR 14856 - Video Description: Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... (computer diskettes, large print, audio recording, and Braille), send an e-mail to [email protected] or call... to as ``audio description,'' which is the insertion of audio narrated descriptions of a television...\\ Motion Picture Ass'n of America, Inc. v. Federal Communications Comm., 309 F.3d 796 (D.C. Cir. 2002). \\5...

  2. Making Twenty-First-Century Strategy. An Introduction to Modern National Security Processes and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    the diplomatic instrument. These instruments, of course, do not exist and are not ap- plied in a vacuum . The extent to which a country has military...how much money one prefers to spend on defense. 55 THE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT OF GRAND STRATEGY Since strategy is not made in a vacuum but within the...the bloated bodies of Rwandan victims of the rampage there; the amputees of Sierra Leone; and the panicked victims of East Timor fleeing as their

  3. How to Use Pragmatism Pragmatically? Suggestions for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to indicate how one should understand John Dewey's attention to and appreciation for the methods and views of modern science. Against the idea that Dewey is a believer in the methods and views of modern science--which would make his philosophy into a form of positivism or scientism--the author argues that Dewey's…

  4. Global Security in the Twenty First Century - The Challenge to International Organizations, Alliances and Coalitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seymour, N

    1999-01-01

    ... for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Naturally, it would be too simplistic for the answer to be either one or the other; the probable solution is more likely to be a hybrid that embodies the strengths of both, not to mention the UN.

  5. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brasier, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    ...), the European Union (EU) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), upon completing their membership obligations will enhance stability and security within the European continent. The U.S...

  6. Turning the world upside down: the search for global health in the twenty-first century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crisp, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    ... all. It is based on the authors journey from running the largest health system in the world to working in some of the poorest countries and draws on his experiences to explore new ideas and innovations from around the world...

  7. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations.

  8. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  9. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  11. Sociedad, epistemología y metodología en Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Alejandro Binimelis-Espinoza; Andrés Roldán Tonioni

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta publicación es analizar la obra de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, especialmente su comprensión de las sociedades contemporáneas y los desafíos epistemológicos y metodológicos actuales. Mediante una revisión documental de su obra y aportes críticos de otros autores, se distingue su comprensión crítica y utópica de las sociedades actuales, y la necesidad de renovación de los procesos de construcción de conocimiento. Los aportes de este trabajo son, por una parte, integrar la cr...

  12. Report of the twenty-first session, London, 18-22 February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) held its twenty-first session at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), London, from 18 to 22 February 1991. Marine pollution is primarily linked to coastal development. The most serious problems are those associated with inadequately controlled coastal development and intensive human settlement of the coastal zone. GESAMP emphasizes the importance of the following problems and issues: State of the marine environment; comprehensive framework for the assessment and regulation of waste disposal in the marine environment; information on preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; review of potentially harmful substances: 1. Carcinogenic substances. 2. Mutagenic substances. 3. Teratogenic substances. 4. Organochlorine compounds. 5. Oil, and other hydrocarbons including used lubricating oils, oil spill dispersants and chemicals used in offshore oil exploration and exploitation; environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture; global change and the air/sea exchange of chemicals; future work programme

  13. Pintando o Deus verdadeiro - Boaventura, Ripa, Pacheco - e a teologia da imagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa, Ronel Alberti da

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação do homem com a imagem representada, seja ela em pintura ou escultura, denota uma tensão estético-teológica que, partindo dos livros do pentateuco e passando por inúmeros capítulos difíceis, mormente durante a idade média, chega ao século XXI sempre atual. No centro das discussões, entre os séculos XIII e XVI, a questão da justificação das imagens sagradas ocupou brilhantes teóricos e estudiosos da arte, os quais buscaram na tradição filosófica agumentos para contrapô-los aos que desejavam banir dos templos qualquer representação pictórica. São Boaventura (1221-1274, Cesare Ripa (1560-1625, e Francisco Pacheco (1564-1644 são os fundadores da iconologia cristã enquanto ciência teológica das imagens, e sua contribuição para o relacionamento estético e gnosiológico dos fiéis com o espaço sagrado do templo perdura em coerência e importância

  14. Sociedad, epistemología y metodología en Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Alejandro Binimelis-Espinoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta publicación es analizar la obra de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, especialmente su comprensión de las sociedades contemporáneas y los desafíos epistemológicos y metodológicos actuales. Mediante una revisión documental de su obra y aportes críticos de otros autores, se distingue su comprensión crítica y utópica de las sociedades actuales, y la necesidad de renovación de los procesos de construcción de conocimiento. Los aportes de este trabajo son, por una parte, integrar la crítica de Santos a la modernidad con su propuesta utópica, y su relación con las epistemologías del sur, la ecología de saberes y la traducción intercultural. Por otra parte, la identificación de estrategias concretas de generación de saberes desde una perspectiva intercultural. Las conclusiones están orientadas hacia una evaluación crítica de la discusión desarrollada con Santos, y su relevancia en el contexto de las ciencias sociales latinoamericanas.

  15. Climate change uncertainty and risk assessment in Iran during twenty-first century: evapotranspiration and green water deficit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandish, Fatemeh; Mousavi, Seyed-Saeed

    2018-01-01

    For a 120-year period, the projected effects of climate change on annual, seasonal, and monthly potential evapotranspiration (ETo) and green water deficit (GWD) were analyzed involving the associated uncertainties for five climatic zones of Iran. Analysis was carried out using data obtained from 15 general circulation models (GCMs) under three SRES scenarios of A1B, A2, and B1 which were downscaled using LARS-WG for 52 synoptic stations up to 2100. The majority of GCMs as well as the median of the ensemble for each scenario project a positive change in both ETo and GWD. A total of 5.8-19.8 % increase in annual ETo, drier than normal wet seasons, as well as 2.3-56.4 % increase in ETo during December-March period well represent a probable increase in the hydrological water requirement in Iran under global warming. Regarding GWD, the country will experience more arid years requiring 113.7 × 103-576.8 × 103 Mm3 more water to supply annual atmospheric water demand. Semi-arid and Mediterranean regions, principal agricultural producer areas of Iran, will be the most vulnerable part of the country due to 1-38.6 % increase in annual GWD under climate change. In addition, water scarcity for irrigated agriculture will enhance in all climatic zones due to 0.9-41 % increase GWD in June-August. However, rain-fed agriculture might be less affected in the hyper-humid and Mediterranean regions because of 1.1-105.3 % reduction in GWD during wet season. Nevertheless, uncertainty analysis revealed that given results for monthly timescale as well as those for times and regions with lower ETo will be the most uncertain. Based on the results, suitable adaptation solutions are highly required to be undertaken to relieve the extra pressure on the decreased blue water resources in the future.

  16. High Religiosity and Societal Dysfunction in the United States during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Georges Delamontagne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005, Free Inquiry (2008, and Evolutionary Psychology (2009, have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that “American Exceptionalism,” when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies.

  17. The "Vernacularization" of Global Education Policy: Media and Digital Literacy as Twenty-First Century Skills in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Csilla

    2017-01-01

    Technological changes have reshaped communication, social life as well as the conditions of work, challenging schools to foster skills and capacities that help youth to competently and confidently navigate these new socio-technological terrains as workers, citizens and private individuals. Responding to these changes, media and digital literacy…

  18. Innovation Becoming Trajectories: Leveraging Lateral and Vertical Moves for Collaborative Diffusion of Twenty-First Century Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Toh, Yancy; Jamaludin, Azilawati; So, Hyo-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues for innovation diffusion as a "becoming" process in the context of lateral and vertical moves. The context of these innovations involves technology-mediated innovations and their diffusion trajectories in the Singapore education system. Embedded in a centralized-decentralized dialectics, this paper traces particular…

  19. Why Society is a Complex Matter Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Society is complicated. But this book argues that this does not place it beyond the reach of a science that can help to explain and perhaps even to predict social behaviour. As a system made up of many interacting agents – people, groups, institutions and governments, as well as physical and technological structures such as roads and computer networks – society can be regarded as a complex system. In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how such complex systems operate, ranging from animal populations to earthquakes and weather. These systems show behaviours that cannot be predicted or intuited by focusing on the individual components, but which emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their interactions: they are said to be ‘self-organized’. Attempts to direct or manage such emergent properties generally reveal that ‘top-down’ approaches, which try to dictate a particular outcome, are ineffectual, and that what is needed instead is a ‘bottom-up’ approach that aim...

  20. The Air Force Culture and Cohesion: Building an Air and Space Force for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, James

    1998-01-01

    THE US AIR FORCE has a cohesion problem. Dr. Donald B. Rice, former secretary of the Air Force, complained that officers identified with their weapon systems, not with the Air Force or any concept of service mission or doctrine...

  1. How should patients with cystine stone disease be evaluated and treated in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Osther, Susanne Sloth

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria continues to be one of the most challenging stone diseases. During the latest decades our knowledge of the molecular basis of cystinuria has expanded. Today 160 different mutations in the SLC3A1 gene and 116 in the SLC7A9 gene are listed. The full implications of type A, B or AB status...... a personalized treatment approach in order to reduce risk and morbidity of multiple procedures....

  2. Scott Shuler's "Music and Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Retrospective"--Review and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Barbara Payne

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the future is a challenging task for music education, requiring both retrospection, analysis of current events, and foresight. This article examines several predictions from 2001 and challenges music educators to consider factors that may influence the future of teaching music in society.

  3. Critical Media Literacies in the Twenty-First Century: Writing Autoethnographies, Making Connections, and Creating Virtual Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah-Young

    2017-01-01

    Critical media literacies can help nurture students' creative agencies and engender positive, sustained change in local communities. Although students do need to develop faculties with digital technologies, they must also participate in critical readings of cultural artifacts and discriminate between various multimedia sources. It is important for…

  4. Demographic Changes in the U.S. into the Twenty-First Century: Their Impact on Sport Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacre, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Issues confronting sport marketers as U.S. demographics change include more older people, ethnic groups, working women, and minorities; television hours watched; and changes in family makeup. As the changes affect marketing, sport marketing will have to become more efficient in defining and reaching different markets. (SM)

  5. Training the Twenty-First Century Special Forces Warrior: Does Character Matter When Training the Adaptive Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    and adolescence , he and his family lived on the frontier, a place where harsh weather, Indian raids and adversity were commonplace. It was this...The Swamp Fox” Francis Marion, born in 1732 to parents of Hugenot descent, was a small boy who ended up leading a strategic force that significantly...Detroit Tiger pitcher; Prince Serge Obolensky, general in the Russian Army under the Tsar; Paul Mellon, son of another millionaire, and many other

  6. Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Perspectives and Understandings of Teaching in the Twenty-First Century Classroom: A Meta-Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, Rory P.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-ethnography explores the conceptions preservice social studies teachers have toward broad theories of democratic education. The author synthesizes and analyzes empirical research to find a consensus on preservice teachers' conceptions of the social studies. Findings suggest that social studies teacher candidates enter teacher education…

  7. The forecast of coastal recession in the eastern gulf of Finland for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leont'yev, I. O.; Ryabchuk, D. V.; Sergeev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, O. A.

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of a significant part of the coast in the study area is determined by extreme storm surges eroding the upper part of dunes and inducing coastal recession. In order to forecast the recession a special method using numerical modelling of storm-induced changes in the coastal profiles based on the CROSS-P model is used. The response of the shoreline profile to sea-level rise is estimated using the Bruun rule. Three types of future coastal evolution are distinguished depending on slope of an active part of the profile. It is shown that if the most probable patterns of storm activity and sea level rise occur then the relatively steep coasts in an area from Komarovo to Solnechnoe will retreat by 302-40 meters. Recession of less steep coasts (Ushkovo, south Kotlin, and Petrodvorets) is expected to be 10-20 meters, whereas the extremely gently dipping coasts (in the vicinity of Sestroretsk and near the northern end of the St. Petersburg Flood Protection Complex (FPC)) will retreat by 50-100 m.

  8. The Sources of Instability in the Twenty-First Century: Weak States, Armed Groups, and Irregular Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Consider the regional security challenges posed by weak states in Mesoamerica —the territory stretching from Mexico through Central America and the...and other security forces.9 As noted above, where weak states exist, armed groups may emerge and take root.10 Again, consider Mesoamerica . In Mexico...narco-traffickers across Mesoamerica and beyond, even into West Africa.43 There are also many other similar criminal The Sources of Instability in the

  9. Satellite Observations of Declining Aerosol Burden in The Twenty-First Century in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N.; Tosca, M.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Campbell, J. R.; Garay, M. J.; Seidel, F. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Southeast US (SEUS) has long been recognized as a region where the climatic effect of atmospheric aerosols can cool the Earth and have thus reduced the effect of greenhouse warming. However, previous studies have assessed that abundant carbonaceous aerosols over SEUS from a combination of anthropogenic and natural sources are systematically underestimated by most atmospheric models, especially during summer when the average carbon concentration in SEUS is the highest in the country. In this study, we utilize an ensemble of surface (AERONET) and satellite (MISR, CALIPSO) observations over the SEUS from 2001 to 2015 to better understand the spatially and vertically-resolved decadal trend of SEUS aerosol burden. Results from CALIOP show significant aerosol loading extending from the surface to 5km year-round. Additionally, these data show aerosol extinction coefficients as large as 0.01 km-1 extending well above 8km during the summertime. CALIOP measurements corroborate seasonal observations from MISR and indicate that much of the aerosol burden in the SEUS is comprised of smoke, polluted continental and polluted dust species. Using boundary layer heights from the ERA Interim dataset, CALIOP data show that while summertime aerosol burden above the boundary layer (elevated) is equal to about half of the AOD in the surface layer (0.17 vs. 0.08), during wintertime, the vast majority of aerosols are below the boundary layer (0.12 vs. 0.03). Despite strong seasonality in overall aerosol burden, decadal trends in AOD did not exhibit similarly large seasonal differences; data show AOD decreasing between 2001 and 2015 during both summer and winter and in both the MISR and CALIOP datasets. Between 2001 and 2015, the average summertime aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MISR fell from 0.23 to 0.15, and the trend was -0.05 decade-1 (23% decade-1). The fit was statistically significant, with an r2=0.53. Measurement campaigns such as SEAC4RC will be extensively leveraged, which can be utilized to validate aerosol type retrieved from satellite observations. This work is expected to improve our understanding of the seasonality and inter-annual variability of SEUS aerosols and justify the existence and species of increased aerosol production aloft over the region.

  10. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, L; Resplandy, L; Untersee, A; Le Mezo, P; Kageyama, M

    2017-09-13

    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O 2sat ) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O 2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O 2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Designing an Australian Indigenous Studies Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Nakata's "Cultural Interface", Standpoints and Working beyond Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michelle; Prince, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the recent reworking of Murdoch University's Australian Indigenous Studies major. For the discipline to realise its charter of decolonising knowledges about Indigenous peoples, it is necessary to move Indigenous Studies beyond the standard reversalist and unsustainable tropes that valorise romanticised notions of Indigeneity and…

  12. Catching up and Falling behind: An Appraisal of Brazilian Industrial Policy in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kasahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amidst analyses of industrial policy’s renaissance in Latin America, Brazil is often hailed as the paragon of this movement. The mix of old and new institutions and instruments would constitute a unique effort in promoting industrial development in the post-neoliberal period. However, this experience has been followed by middling results of industrial performance. Reviewing an emerging literature about the institutionalization and results of the Brazilian industrial policy, we argue that important aspects of path-dependency have been ignored. Organizational and ideational resistance have led to a much more traditional and conservative industrial policy than would be expected. Grounded historical analysis about intra-government conflicts, combined with studies about policy and sectoral developments, could give us elements to better assess the failures and achievements of the Brazilian case. Resumen: Avances y retrocesos: Una evaluación de la política industrial brasileña en el siglo XXI A la luz de diversos análisis sobre el renacimiento de la política industrial en América Latina, Brasil es frecuentemente alabado como el país arquetipo de la mencionada coyuntura. La combinación de instituciones e instrumentos antiguos y modernos constituiría un singular esfuerzo para promover el desarrollo industrial en el periodo post-neoliberal.  Sin embargo, la consecución de dicha experiencia fueron mediocres resultados de actividad industrial. Habiendo efectuado un examen de reciente literatura sobre la institucionalización y los resultados de la política industrial brasileña, sostenemos que, en dicho material, han sido ignorados importantes aspectos de la dependencia de la trayectoria (path-dependency. Resistencia organizativa y de formación de ideas han conducido a la implementación de una política industrial mucho más tradicional y conservadora de lo que se hubiera esperado. Un profundo análisis histórico acerca de conflictos intergubernamentales, combinado con estudios sobre política y evoluciones sectoriales pueden ofrecernos instrumentos para evaluar más eficazmente los fallos y los logros del caso brasileño.

  13. Clinical social work practice and technology: personal, practical, regulatory, and ethical considerations for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombo, Eileen A; Kays, Lisa; Weller, Katelyn

    2014-10-01

    The world that social work exists in is no longer defined by traditional physical settings and boundaries, such as schools, agencies, or even offices. With the advent of the Internet and digital communications, social work now exists in a far more complex reality, with clients and social workers engaging across multiple platforms, and sometimes even unintentionally and without one another's awareness. The implications of this can be ethical, practical, regulatory, and personal. This article explores these areas of concern and suggests strategies professionals can use to navigate these complex issues related to technology and clinical practice.

  14. Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

    University governance refers to the structure and process of authoritative decision making across issues that are significant for external and internal stakeholders within a university. A number of fundamental challenges to effective governance occur within the typical university environment, including too many constituencies, conflicting agendas,…

  15. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): facing the challenges and pathways of global change in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David; Henebry, Geoffrey; Tchebakova, Nadezhda; Maksyutov, Shamil; Monier, Erwan; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Qi, Jiaguo; Prishchepov, Alexander; Kukavskaya, Elena; Porfiriev, Boris; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Loboda, Tatiana; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Nghiem, Son; Bergen, Kathleen; Albrechtová, Jana; Chen, Jiquan; Shahgedanova, Maria; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Speranskaya, Nina; Soja, Amber; de Beurs, Kirsten; Bulygina, Olga; McCarty, Jessica; Zhuang, Qianlai; Zolina, Olga

    2017-12-01

    During the past several decades, the Earth system has changed significantly, especially across Northern Eurasia. Changes in the socio-economic conditions of the larger countries in the region have also resulted in a variety of regional environmental changes that can have global consequences. The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better prepare societies for future developments. A key principle of NEFI is that these developments must now be secured through science-based strategies co-designed with regional decision-makers to lead their societies to prosperity in the face of environmental and institutional challenges. NEESPI scientific research, data, and models have created a solid knowledge base to support the NEFI program. This paper presents the NEFI research vision consensus based on that knowledge. It provides the reader with samples of recent accomplishments in regional studies and formulates new NEFI science questions. To address these questions, nine research foci are identified and their selections are briefly justified. These foci include warming of the Arctic; changing frequency, pattern, and intensity of extreme and inclement environmental conditions; retreat of the cryosphere; changes in terrestrial water cycles; changes in the biosphere; pressures on land use; changes in infrastructure; societal actions in response to environmental change; and quantification of Northern Eurasia's role in the global Earth system. Powerful feedbacks between the Earth and human systems in Northern Eurasia (e.g., mega-fires, droughts, depletion of the cryosphere essential for water supply, retreat of sea ice) result from past and current human activities (e.g., large-scale water withdrawals, land use, and governance change) and potentially restrict or provide new opportunities for future human activities. Therefore, we propose that integrated assessment models are needed as the final stage of global change assessment. The overarching goal of this NEFI modeling effort will enable evaluation of economic decisions in response to changing environmental conditions and justification of mitigation and adaptation efforts.

  16. East Asia and the United States into the Twenty-First Century. Planning Future American Policy and Strategy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    structural arms control arrangements in East Asia and the Pacific. xiv CADRE PAPER Chapter I Introduction THIS STUDY analyzes future US security...the China is the heart of East Asia . and her Soviet Union, Japan, the two Koreas, massive size, population , and cultural- Vietnam. and the United...reinforce our Ask; and Southeast Asia but include new presence in one region from another? buiden-sharing or arms control initia- A second criterion Is

  17. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  18. Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greslé-Favier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

  19. Space science in the twenty-first century: imperatives for the decades 1995 to 2015 : life sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Early in 1984, NASA asked the Space Science Board to undertake a study to determine the principal scientific issues that the disciplines of space science would face during the period from about 1995 to 2015...

  20. Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, B.

    2007-04-01

    Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

  1. The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture Cancer in the Twenty-First Century: An Inside View from an Outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Edward J

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is not a single disease. The term refers to literally hundreds of illnesses sharing common features: inappropriate proliferation of imperfectly differentiated cell types, invasion of nearby vital structures, and spread to distant sites (metastasis). Invasiveness and metastasis distinguish cancers from benign tumors such as fibroids and meningiomas. Yet, each type is distinct, possessed of defining morphologic, histologic, biochemical, and genomic features that have allowed oncologists to develop a nosology that guides diagnosis and therapy. Cancer is thus a complex collection of disorders. That complexity is increasing exponentially as modern technologies allow us to dissect each form in ever greater detail. The notion of curing cancer with a "magic bullet" like the polio vaccine is no more realistic than using the same wrench to fix a bicycle, a car, and an airliner just because they are all vehicles.

  2. India in the Twenty-first Century: The Challenge of Population Growth. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fleur, Mary Ann

    This paper contains a course outline for a five-hour graduate class focusing on the issue of population in India. Students examine contributing factors to population growth, along with studying characteristics of, and efforts to, control population growth. The significance of ethnic diversity in India also is addressed. Group discussion and group…

  3. Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2016-10-01

    A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.

  4. Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to…

  5. The use of bacterial bioremediation of metals in aquatic environments in the twenty-first century: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Feliphe Lacerda Souza; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; do Amaral, Viviane Souza

    2017-07-01

    Metal pollution is a current environmental issue as a consequence of unregulated anthropic activiy. A wide range of bioremediation strategies have been successfully implemented to recover contaminated areas. Among them, bacterial bioremediation stands out as a promising tool to confront these types of concerns. This study aimed to compare and discuss worldwide scientific evolution of bacterial potential for metal bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems. The study consisted of a systematic review, elaborated through a conceptual hypothesis model, during the period from 2000 to 2016, using PubMed, MEDLINE, and SciELO databases as data resources. The countries with the largest number of reports included in this work were India and the USA. Industrial wastewater discharge was the main subject associated to metal contamination/pollution and where bacterial bioremediations have mostly been applied. Biosorption is the main bioremediation mechanism described. Bacterial adaptation to metal presence was discussed in all the selected studies, and chromium was the most researched bioremedied substrate. Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosas and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis bacteria were microorganisms with the greatest applicability for metal bioremediation. Most reports involved the study of genes and/or proteins related to metal metabolism and/or resistence, and Chromobacterium violaceum was the most studied. The present work shows the relevance of metal bacterial bioremediation through the high number of studies aimed at understanding the microbiological mechanisms involved. Moreover, the developed processes applied in removal and/or reducing the resulting environmental metal contaminant/pollutant load have become a current and increasingly biotechnological issue for recovering impacted areas.

  6. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and labour productivity in general.

  7. America’s Federal Law Enforcement Future: Achieving Unity of Effort for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    Oral Defense Com~ 1;.~~ 3. ’"So~k’~~ Approved: _?/...L-1.,=~=----- ---- Date: t.r &?~ \\ W 11. i DISCLAIMER THE OPINIONS AND CONCLUSIONS... Tranquility , provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessing of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity….”1...peace and tranquillity , as well as against dangers from foreign arms and influences, as from dangers of the like kind arising from domestic causes.”4

  8. Preparing to Understand Feminism in the Twenty-First Century: Global Social Change, Women's Work, and Women's Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torry Dickinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of women's non-wage work, women's wage labor, and contemporary women's movements can be understood with greater clarity if studies of "globalization", feminism, and the capitalist world-economy are examined in relationship to each other. Today many women's movements clearly reflect, respond to, and attempt to shape changes in wage (employer-organized and non-wage (labor-organized work relations. This paper is a conceptual, theoretical and historical exploration of how scholars, who study inter-related global areas, can prepare to do research on women's work and women's movements that will contribute to the development of "globalization", feminist, and world-economy scholarship.

  9. The horror of stigma: psychosis and mental health care environments in twenty-first-century horror film (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John

    2014-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which modern horror films present stigmatizing depictions of psychosis and mental health care environments. Horror films will often include stigmatizing representations of psychosis and mental health care environments. Cinematic techniques can create stigmatizing depictions of psychosis and mental health care environments. Misinformation is often communicated. Due to these stigmatizing representations, people experiencing mental ill health may be rejected by the public. Stigma is a serious problem affecting the mental health services. It is important for practitioners to understand where stigma arises in order to challenge beliefs and attitudes.

  10. Reaching a Consensus on the Definition of Genetic Literacy that Is Required from a Twenty-First-Century Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerwinkel, Dirk Jan; Yarden, Anat; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2017-12-01

    To determine what knowledge of genetics is needed for decision-making on genetic-related issues, a consensus-reaching approach was used. An international group of 57 experts, involved in teaching, studying, or developing genetic education and communication or working with genetic applications in medicine, agriculture, or forensics, answered the questions: "What knowledge of genetics is relevant to those individuals not professionally involved in science?" and "Why is this knowledge relevant?" The answers were classified in different knowledge components following the PISA 2015 science framework. During a workshop with the participants, the results were discussed and applied to seven cases in which genetic knowledge is relevant for decision-making. The analysis of these discussions resulted in a revised framework consisting of nine conceptual knowledge components, three sociocultural components, and four epistemic components. The framework can be used in curricular decisions; its open character allows for including new technologies and applications and facilitates comparisons of different cases.

  11. What Have You Packed in Your Suitcase? Going International Now and in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Timothy

    Teachers and students need to "repack their suitcases" by revising, or re-envisioning, their metaphors of business, models of communication, conceptual frameworks of interculturalism and internationalism, and molds of professional identity. Popular business communication metaphors, most of which focus on the idea of competition, need to…

  12. A BRAVE NEW WORLD OF BURIALS: THE BUSINESS OF IDIOSYNCRATIC BODY DISPOSAL IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy spreads wealth to the masses and allows low-income citizens to enjoy comforts of life denied the elite of past civilizations. And because democracy makes conspicuous consumption available to a multitude of the living, the culture of extravagance extends to after-death rites. The most prosperous generation is dying and in the process is defying tradition in favor of extravagantly personalized funerals.

  13. High religiosity and societal dysfunction in the United States during the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamontagne, R Georges

    2010-11-11

    This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005), Free Inquiry (2008), and Evolutionary Psychology (2009), have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that "American Exceptionalism," when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies.

  14. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    reformed the Conservative Party by adding “national and social unity to the Party’s fundamental purposes.”42 Under Lord Salisbury and Alfred Balfour ...Qaddafi was killed and the Libyan National Transitional Council (NTC) officially declared Libya as liberated on 23 October 2011.180 Under NATO, the...to go.201 The National Transitional Council (NTC) officially declared Libya to have been liberated on 23 October 2011, just three days after the

  15. Children of Aphrodite: The Proliferation and Threat of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    depart. You have always supported my desire to serve this country in any capacity. I must thank my beautiful bride Sonda, my daughter Dennara, and my...France and Germany.52 In comparison, nearing the end of WWI, General Pershing assembled 1,500 airplanes from the French and British in support of

  16. Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

  17. Integration Between Mental Health-Care Providers and Traditional Spiritual Healers: Contextualising Islam in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nayeefa

    2016-10-01

    In the United Arab Emirates, neuropsychiatric disorders are estimated to contribute to one-fifth of the global burden of disease. Studies show that the UAE citizens' apathy towards seeking professional mental health services is associated with the 'religious viewpoints' on the issue, societal stigma, lack of awareness of mental health and lack of confidence in mental health-care providers. Mental health expenditures by the UAE government health ministry are not available exclusively. The majority of primary health-care doctors and nurses have not received official in-service training on mental health within the last 5 years. Efforts are to be made at deconstructing the position of mental illness and its treatments in the light of Islamic Jurisprudence; drafting culturally sensitive and relevant models of mental health care for Emirati citizens; liaising between Imams of mosques and professional mental health service providers; launching small-scale pilot programs in collaboration with specialist institutions; facilitating mentoring in line with Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) outreach programmes for senior school Emirati students concerning mental health; and promoting mental health awareness in the wider community through participation in events open to public.

  18. 76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... telecommunications service, Internet access service, and advanced communications, including interexchange services and advanced telecommunications and information services, accessible by low income individuals who are...: Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by accessing the Commission's...

  19. Students' Note-Taking Challenges in the Twenty-First Century: Considerations for Teachers and Academic Staff Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Note-taking in lectures is often taken to be the distinguishing characteristic of learning at university. It is typically assumed that this is a commonsensical skill that students either have or will learn through trial and error. The data from a research project in one New Zealand university suggest that taking good notes is not a skill that…

  20. Privately Contracted Military Firms in the Twenty-First Century: Reclassifying, Redefining, and Reforming the Way We Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    AND THE CREATION OF THE PIB ............................................................................90 VII. SUMMARY AND FINAL THOUGHTS...OE—Operational Environment OEF—Operation Enduring Freedom OIF—Operation Iraqi Freedom PCMF—Privately Contracted Military Firm PIB ––Public...previous chapter), that recommending such an entity is easy, seeing it to fruition, highly difficult. A public international body ( PIB ) would