WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty-eight reproducible worksheets

  1. Teaching Strategies: Worksheets, Worksheets, Worksheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Marilee; Manning, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    Worksheets hold a special place among the many well-intentioned--yet ineffective--items in the early childhood and elementary toolkit. They are nearly ubiquitous in some elementary classrooms and are even popular in preschools. Parents are encouraged when they see worksheets in their children's backpacks; they see such papers as indicators that…

  2. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  3. Greenbag, Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, Henry M.; Coole, Walter A.

    The "Greenbag" worksheets are an essential part of the "Greenbook System"--an integrated sequence of five programs designed for professional development for anyone interested in, or involved in, a career in higher education. In this system, each student develops an individualized "Greenbook" containing critical data…

  4. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  5. [Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity test of N-(fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Y; Tsuda, M; Naito, K; Saitoh, M; Isama, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Momma, J; Kitajima, S; Kaniwa, M

    1995-01-01

    N-(Fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide (Fluor-folpet) has been widely used as an anti-mold and anti-bacterial agent. In this study, 28 days repeated-dose oral toxicity study of fluor-folpet was carried out in Slc:Wistar rats. An oral toxicity study for fluor-folpet, the twenty-eight days test, repeated-dose, oral administration, was performed as follows: Five week-old rats, male and female, 10 rats, each/group, were treated with intragastric administration of fluor-folpet with a dose of 0 (1% Sodium CMC, control), 20, 80 and 320 mg/kg, body weight. Recovery test, for 14 days after the last treatment, was examined for the control and the 320 mg/kg groups. The 320 mg/kg groups, both males and females, showed significantly reduced their body-weight gain compared with the control group. In the 320 mg/kg group, five out of 20 male rats and four out of 20 female rats died from dyspnea during the treatment period. In the female rats in the 320 mg/kg group, serum ChE level was decreased to 50% of control level and gamma-GT was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but these serum levels recovered after 14 days non-treatment period. No histopathological change, relating to the treatment, in liver was observed. Increased weight of the kidney and vacuolation in renal tubules were found in both sexes of 320 mg/kg group. Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stomach epithelium were observed at the dose more than 80 mg/kg in male, and more than 20 mg/kg in female. A supplemental study, repeated-dose, oral administration in rats carried out to examine the dyspnea revealed that severe acute toxic damages in epithelium of nasal cavity and meatus nasopharyngeus were induced by intragastric administration of fluor-folpet. Fluor-folpet is shown to be cytotoxic. In conclusion, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for fluor-folpet was not found under the experimental conditions employed in this repeated-dose toxicity study.

  6. Insight into Sam Francis' painting techniques through the analytical study of twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyt, Catherine; Mazurek, Joy; Zebala, Aneta; Burchett-Lere, Debra

    2016-11-01

    The present paper proposes an overview of the painting materials experimented with over the years by Sam Francis, leading figure of the post-World War II American painting, through the analytical study of an extended number of paint samples supplied by the Sam Francis Foundation. In total, 279 samples taken from twenty-eight artworks made between 1946 and 1992, were analyzed by Raman, FTIR and Py-GC/MS techniques. The obtained results revealed the Francis' preference in terms of pigments, i.e., phthalocyanine blues and greens, and outlined unconventional combination of binder media.

  7. Visit ALEPH experiment on the LEP collider by twenty-eight young scientists chosen to represent their respective countries

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    Following an international meeting of secondary school pupils on the theme of "Future Scientists: Women and Men" in Paris on 23 and 24 April. The aim of this meeting, which was organised by UNESCO, was to encourage young people, and girls in particular, to choose scientific studies and careers. Twenty-eight young scientists chosen to represent their respective countries visited the CERN site this week following an international meeting of secondary school pupils on the theme of "Future Scientists: Women and Men" in Paris on 23 and 24 April. The aim of this meeting, which was organised by UNESCO, was to encourage young people, and girls in particular, to choose scientific studies and careers.

  8. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post

  9. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  10. Test Writing Made Simple: Generate Tests and Worksheets Electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Erica

    1986-01-01

    Describes capabilities of test and worksheet generator software; discusses features to consider when evaluating the software for purchase; and presents reviews of eight test and worksheet generators: P.D.Q., Testmaster, Easy Quiz Maker, EA Mathematics Worksheet Generator, Mathematics Worksheet Generator, Earth Science Test Maker, Individualized…

  11. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  12. Developing Song Worksheets for a SALC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cooke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In demanding of our students the need to acquire more vocabulary and to develop their use of the language under study in a variety of contexts, we need to offer access to materials which offer learners greater opportunities to come into contact with the languages being learned. Song worksheets were designed, created and successfully added to the materials available to students for self-access study at Kanda University of International Studies. This article describes the rationale and process of implementing the worksheets in the centre.

  13. The Cognitive Science of Sketch Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D; Chang, Maria; McLure, Matthew; Usher, Madeline

    2017-03-29

    Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college. Sketch Worksheets are a software equivalent of pencil and paper worksheets commonly found in classrooms, but they provide on-the-spot feedback based on what students draw. They are built on the CogSketch platform, which provides qualitative visual and spatial representations and analogical processing based on computational models of human cognition. This paper explores three issues. First, we examine how research from cognitive science and artificial intelligence, combined with the constraints of creating new kinds of educational software, led to the representations and processing in CogSketch. Second, we examine how these capabilities have been used in Sketch Worksheets, drawing upon experiments with fifth-grade students in biology and college students in engineering design and in geoscience. Finally, we examine some open issues in sketch understanding that need to be addressed to better model high-level aspects of vision, and for sketch understanding systems to reach their full potential for supporting education.

  14. Worksheets for computing recommended notebook computer and workstation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Udomratana, Chatkate; Hansawad, Saowalak; Thepkanjana, Jayaporn; Tantasuwan, Wanchalerm

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of worksheets for helping notebook computer (NBC) users to compute NBC and workstation adjustments so as to assume an appropriate seated posture. The worksheets (one for male users, the other for female ones) require the following information: body height, NBC screen size, work surface height, and seat height. The worksheets contain tables for estimating recommended NBC base angle, NBC screen angle, body-NBC distance, work surface height, and seat height. Additionally, they include flow charts to help NBC users to determine necessary adjustment accessories and their settings.

  15. When I am Twenty-eight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方朝晖

    2006-01-01

    In fifteen years, I think I’ll be a big fish(大人物). I think I’ll live in New York. I love the city very much, for it is a beautiful city. I think I’ll have a villa and a personal computer, and I’ll have a robot. It can do everything, for example, do the dishes, sweep the floor and so on. I’ll go to Canada on vacation. That’s also a beautiful country. I will have many pets. I don’t have any pets at pre- sent, because my father doesn’t like them at all. At weekends, I’ll wear beautiful clothes. I think my drea...

  16. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  17. The Middle East in Conflict. Strategies and Worksheets: Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide presents strategies for teaching a unit on the Middle East conflict including a rationale, performance objectives, background information, and questions. Worksheets contain simulations, poetry, and news stories which are used to teach the origins of and issues concerning the conflict. A simulation of the 1897 Zionist Congress…

  18. Reproducibility blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverer, Bernd

    2015-11-12

    Research findings advance science only if they are significant, reliable and reproducible. Scientists and journals must publish robust data in a way that renders it optimally reproducible. Reproducibility has to be incentivized and supported by the research infrastructure but without dampening innovation.

  19. ANALISIS KEBUTUHAN WORKSHEET UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH DI SMKN 2 BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febryna Nurhidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Worksheet is sheet containing problems and exercise about the materials. Worksheet based problems given to increase understanding and cognitive students. Purpose of this research to know students needs about worksheet based problems, and the type of worksheet which needed. Research methodology is descriptive qualitative, where data obtained with the methods observation, interview teachers, and the distribution of questionnaire to students in SMKN 2 Batu in the first class. Chief contains on sources of learning, kepemahaman students, and suggestions learning. Based on the results obtained, students spend worksheet with based problems because they will learn solve problems and find a solution. Worksheet merupakan lembar kerja siswa yang berisi berbagai permasalahan dan latihan soal. Worksheet berbasis masalah diberikan untuk meningkatkan kepemahaman dan kognitif siswa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kebutuhan dan bentuk Worksheet berbasis masalah yang dibutuhkan. Metode penelitian ini yaitu deskriptif kualitatif. Data diperoleh dengan metode observasi, wawancara guru, serta penyebaran angket kepada siswa kelas X SMK Negeri 2 Batu. Angket berisi tentang sumber belajar, kepemahaman siswa, dan saran pembelajaran. Berdasarkan hasil diperoleh, siswa membutuhkan Worksheet berbasis masalah, sebab siswa perlu belajar memecahkan masalah dan menemukan solusi.

  20. Free-choice worksheets increase students' exposure to curriculum during museum visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss; Smart, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    -related conversations among school groups visiting a museum were monitored in groups supplied with the worksheet and in control groups without. Overall, the worksheet complied well with design criteria synthesized from the free-choice learning literature. Furthermore, the use of the worksheet increased the number...... and diversity of curriculum-related conversations among school groups during the visit. This study documents that the use of carefully designed worksheets may increase students’ exposure to curriculum during a museum visit, and thus may help build better bridges between teacher needs and museum free...

  1. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  2. Effect of worksheet scaffolds on student learning in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S.Y. Choo (Serene); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups-one with a worksheet provided and

  3. 76 FR 20976 - Wireline Competition Bureau Releases 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... COMMISSION Wireline Competition Bureau Releases 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form... Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and accompanying instructions. Filers may now submit their FCC Form 499-A to the Universal Service Administrative Company. DATES: Filers must submit the FCC Form...

  4. Acquiring Knowledge about Biodiversity in a Museum--Are Worksheets Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombab, Angela; Harms, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of worksheets while learning about biodiversity in a natural history museum. Despite the frequent use of worksheets by school classes during out-of-school activities, their effectiveness in enhancing knowledge acquisition has been addressed by relatively few empirical studies. 148 Austrian grammar school…

  5. Intensification of the Learning Process: Pupil Description Worksheet. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The pupil description worksheet consists of 134 items which can be checked by the teacher to develop a profile of the learner. Details for use of the worksheet and examples of resultant pupil profiles are given. (See TM 001 363 for summary of project; for other related documents, see TM 001 160, 364-374.) (MS)

  6. A Preferred Future Worksheet: A Process for School Teams. Together We're Better [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwetz, Laura; Vandercook, Terri; Hoganson, Gary

    The Preferred Future Worksheet is a planning tool that can assist school members or teams who are dealing with a school problem or issue. The worksheet has been designed to assist in analyzing the current situation, identifying a preferred future, and then creating a plan of action. Introductory material urges heterogeneous group membership and…

  7. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  8. 76 FR 69738 - Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... COMMISSION Revised 2011 Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and Accompanying... Competition Bureau released the revised Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet (FCC Form 499-A) and... Competition Bureau, Telecommunications Access Policy Division, at (202) 418-7400 or via the Internet...

  9. Elusive reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Gio Batta

    2014-08-01

    Reproducibility remains a mirage for many biomedical studies because inherent experimental uncertainties generate idiosyncratic outcomes. The authentication and error rates of primary empirical data are often elusive, while multifactorial confounders beset experimental setups. Substantive methodological remedies are difficult to conceive, signifying that many biomedical studies yield more or less plausible results, depending on the attending uncertainties. Real life applications of those results remain problematic, with important exceptions for counterfactual field validations of strong experimental signals, notably for some vaccines and drugs, and for certain safety and occupational measures. It is argued that industrial, commercial and public policies and regulations could not ethically rely on unreliable biomedical results; rather, they should be rationally grounded on transparent cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  10. The Use of Song Worksheet to Enhance EFL Elementary School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance students’ vocabulary mastery through the use of song worksheet. Twenty -two fourth graders of an elementary school in Indonesia were selected as participants. Action research was adopted in this study consisting of three cycles. To find out students’ achievement, vocabulary test was given. To investigate students’ responses, observation and interview were implemented.Findings showed that song worksheet could enhance students’ vocabulary mastery. They also gave positive responses to the use of song worksheet. However, students complained that the songs were too fast. This study supports the use of songs in the EFL context which could make teaching - learning processes more fun

  11. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included. (DC)

  12. A CASE STUDY: WORKSHEETS USED IN A LANGUAGE PREPARATORY SCHOOL IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket KASAP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study is to analyze the supplementary instructional materials, namely worksheets, used in an English preparatory school in one of the Turkish universities. The data were gathered from the materials development unit of the school. Using the content analysis method, worksheets from 2015 spring and 2016 spring terms were analyzed. The findings revealed that most worksheets included decontextualized, repetitive grammar activities though the theme-based course book included integrated skills activities, appealing various learning styles. It was also observed that students were evaluated based on their proficiency in basic four skills while they studied mostly grammar based worksheets. As a result, a shift to a more eclectic method which caters for all learning styles and equally includes all skills is suggested to the school board.

  13. A Study on Mars's Stay at Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions, Four-planet Conjunctions and Five-planet Conjunctions during Past Dynasties of China%中国历代荧惑守列宿与四星聚、五星聚考查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    2012-01-01

    利用授时历法和现代天文计算方法,对中国历代天文志记录的荧惑(火星)守列宿、四星聚、五星聚进行分析研究,结果表明:65条荧惑守列宿,正误率分别为49%和51%.如果把荧惑留、留守、在某宿等运动形态也考虑为守的范围,共有95条,其正误率分别为56%和44%.12条四星聚正误率各占一半,即50%.11条五星聚正误率分别为82%和18%(其中含五星并见).并对错误记录的原因做了初步探讨.%There are a lot of records about planets' motions during past dynasties of China in Tian Wen Zhi. The Mars's stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions, four-planet conjunctions and five-planet conjunctions are studied in this paper with the calculational methods of modern astronomy and Shou-shi Calendar. The results show that there are a lot of mistakes in these records. The proportion of mistakes is 51% in 65 records of Mars's stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions, 50% in 12 records of four-planet conjunctions, and 18% in 11 records of five-planet conjunctions. The main causes of mistakes are also discussed in this paper and they are as follows: (1) There is no unified format of date for the Mars' stay at twenty-eight lunar mansions; (2) There is no unified format of the time duration for the Mars' stay at twenty-eight mansions; (3) There are mistakes in the recorded patterns of Mars' motions; (4) There are also mistakes in the records of four-planet conjunctions and five-planet conjunctions; (5) Mistakes were made in editing and publishing.

  14. Validity analysis of development lesson plan and student worksheet based realistic mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfaneti, Rismen, Sefna; Suryani, Mulia

    2016-02-01

    The previous research showed that the teachers of the fourth grade at elementary school in West Sumatra need lesson plan and teaching materials which integrated with character education especially on mathematics subject. Teachers need teaching materials which encompasses the daily life problems (contextual) so that, it can increase students' understanding of mathematics. Realistic mathematics education is a solution to these problems. The aims of the research are to develop learning equipment, i. e lesson plan sand valid worksheets. Development model referred to the Plomp development model which consists of three phase namely preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. However, in this research, it is only presented the results in the expert review which is in the part of prototyping phase. The instrument was the validation worksheet. Expert stated that each of lesson plan and students' worksheet were in valid criterion

  15. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  16. A Comparison of Using a Microcomputer, Precision Teaching, and Worksheets to Master Basic Multiplication Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt

    1992-01-01

    Discusses methods for teaching mathematics skills and describes a study of third graders that compared student performances on worksheets, a microcomputer drill and practice program, and daily one-minute timing procedures of precision teaching for independent practice of multiplication facts. Results indicate that precision teaching was the most…

  17. Effects of Task Difficulty and Type of Contingency on Students' Allocation of Responding to Math Worksheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannie, Amanda L.; Martens, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students' allocation of responding as a function of task difficulty and type of reinforcement contingency (i.e., accuracy based or time based). Four regular education fourth-grade students were presented with two identical stacks of easy and then difficult math worksheets using a reversal design. Regardless of condition,…

  18. Use of Practical Worksheet in Teacher Education at the Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Pee Choon; Toh, Tin Lam; Ho, Foo Him; Quek, Khiok Seng

    2012-01-01

    We have applied the "practical paradigm" in teaching problem solving to secondary school students. The key feature of the practical paradigm is the use of a practical worksheet to guide the students' processes in problem solving. In this paper, we report the diffusion of the practical paradigm to university level courses for prospective…

  19. The Need for Reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-06-27

    The purpose of this presentation is to consider issues of reproducibility, specifically it determines whether bitwise reproducible computation is possible, if computational research in DOE improves its publication process, and if reproducible results can be achieved apart from the peer review process?

  20. Development of Student Worksheet by using Discovery Learning Approach for Senior High School Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to create student worksheet for physics learning  by using discovery learning approach as a learning material referring to curriculum 2013. The method used in this research is research and development. This research consists of five steps: 1 needs analysis, 2 product development, 3 Validation by expert, 4 field test in small scale, and 5 field test in large scale. The average score for student worksheet are 92% from concept expert, 79,56% from media expert, and 91,51% from physics teacher. After revised, the student worksheet was evaluated by a field test in a small and large scale. The average score from both scale are 70,66% and 75,08 respectively. It is conluded that student worksheet by using discovery learning approach can be used and distributed as a learning material in physics learning for senior high school student grade X Abstrak Penelitian pengembangan ini  bertujuan untuk menghasilkan produk berupa Lembar Kegiatan Siswa (LKS pembelajaran fisika SMA dengan pendekatan Discovery Learning sebagai bahan ajar yang mengacu pada kurikulum 2013 pada Kompetensi Dasar praktikum kelas X semester genap. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah penelitian dan pengembangan. Prosedur penelitian dan pengembangan ini terdiri dari lima tahap, yaitu: 1 analisis kebutuhan, 2 pengembangan produk, 3 validasi ahli, 4 uji coba lapangan skala kecil, dan 5 uji coba lapangan skala besar. LKS fisika dengan pendekatan Discovery Learning telah melalui tahap uji validasi dengan presentase pencapaian sebesar 92%, menurut ahli materi, 79,56% menurut validasi ahli media, dan 91,51 % menurut guru fisika SMA. Setelah di revisi, LKS di uji cobakan skala kecil kepada 5 siswa menunjukan persentase capaian  sebesar  70,66%  dan  uji  lapangan  menunjukan persentase capaian  sebesar 75,08%. Dari penelitian ini,  dapat disimpulkan bahwa  LKS  dengan pendekatan Discovery Learning  yang dikembangkan sudah layak untuk

  1. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  2. A right to reproduce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann

    2010-10-01

    How should we conceive of a right to reproduce? And, morally speaking, what might be said to justify such a right? These are just two questions of interest that are raised by the technologies of assisted reproduction. This paper analyses the possible legitimate grounds for a right to reproduce within the two main theories of rights; interest theory and choice theory.

  3. Magni Reproducibility Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set.......An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set....

  4. Reproducibility in Seismic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Verdejo O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of exploration seismology, there is interest at national level of integrating reproducibility in applied, educational and research activities related to seismic processing and imaging. This reproducibility implies the description and organization of the elements involved in numerical experiments. Thus, a researcher, teacher or student can study, verify, repeat, and modify them independently. In this work, we document and adapt reproducibility in seismic processing and imaging to spread this concept and its benefits, and to encourage the use of open source software in this area within our academic and professional environment. We present an enhanced seismic imaging example, of interest in both academic and professional environments, using Mexican seismic data. As a result of this research, we prove that it is possible to assimilate, adapt and transfer technology at low cost, using open source software and following a reproducible research scheme.

  5. An EXCEL macro for importing log ASCII standard (LAS) files into EXCEL worksheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Sait Ismail

    1996-02-01

    An EXCEL 5.0 macro is presented for converting a LAS text file into an EXCEL worksheet. Although EXCEL has commands for importing text files and parsing text lines, LAS files must be decoded line-by-line because three different delimiters are used to separate fields of differing length. The macro is intended to eliminate manual decoding of LAS version 2.0. LAS is a floppy disk format for storage and transfer of log data as text files. LAS was proposed by the Canadian Well Logging Society. The present EXCEL macro decodes different sections of a LAS file, separates, and places the fields into different columns of an EXCEL worksheet. To import a LAS file into EXCEL without errors, the file must not contain any unrecognized symbols, and the data section must be the last section. The program does not check for the presence of mandatory sections or fields as required by LAS rules. Once a file is incorporated into EXCEL, mandatory sections and fields may be inspected visually.

  6. TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS: THE REVIEWS COURSEBOOKS, GAMES, WORKSHEETS, AUDIO VIDEO FILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Sagung Shanti Sari Dewi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching learning materials (TLM has been widely recognised as one of most important components in language teaching to support the success of language learning. TLM is essential for teachers in planning their lessons, assisting them in their professional duty, and use them as rosources to describe instructions. This writing reviews 10 (ten teaching learning materials in the form of cousebooks, games, worksheets, and audio video files. The materials were chosen randomly and were analysed qualitatively. The discussion of the materials is done individually by presenting their target learners, how they are applied by teachers and students, the aims of the use of the materials, and the role of teachers and learners in different kind of TLM.

  7. Revising the worksheet with L3: a language and environment foruser-script interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Michael H.

    2008-01-22

    This paper describes a novel approach to the parameter anddata handling issues commonly found in experimental scientific computingand scripting in general. The approach is based on the familiarcombination of scripting language and user interface, but using alanguage expressly designed for user interaction and convenience. The L3language combines programming facilities of procedural and functionallanguages with the persistence and need-based evaluation of data flowlanguages. It is implemented in Python, has access to all Pythonlibraries, and retains almost complete source code compatibility to allowsimple movement of code between the languages. The worksheet interfaceuses metadata produced by L3 to provide selection of values through thescriptit self and allow users to dynamically evolve scripts withoutre-running the prior versions. Scripts can be edited via text editors ormanipulated as structures on a drawing canvas. Computed values are validscripts and can be used further in other scripts via simplecopy-and-paste operations. The implementation is freely available underan open-source license.

  8. The Effect of Concept Cartoon-Embedded Worksheets on Grade 9 Students' Conceptual Understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül; Ergin, Serap

    2017-01-01

    Background: A substantial review study of concept cartoons reports that few studies have indicated their functions. For this reason, the present study illuminates the extent to which concept cartoon-embedded worksheets (through constructivist context) accomplish these functions in conceptual learning. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to…

  9. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants C Appendix C to Part 79 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to...

  10. Android worksheet application based on discovery learning on students' achievement for vocational high school: Mechanical behavior of materials topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Dwi; Aini, Anisa Nurul; Mulhayatiah, Diah

    2017-05-01

    This research reports a study of student worksheet based on discovery learning on Mechanical Behavior of Materials topics under Android application (Android worksheet application) for vocational high school. The samples are Architecture class X students of SMKN 4 (a public vocational high school) in Tangerang Selatan City, province of Banten, Indonesia. We made 3 groups based on Intellectual Quotient (IQ). They are average IQ group, middle IQ group and high IQ group. The method of research is used as a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group design. The technique of sampling is purposive sampling. Instruments used in this research are test instruments and non-test instruments. The test instruments are IQ test and test of student's achievement. For the test of student's achievement (pretest and posttest) we provide 25 multiple choice problems. The non-test instruments are questionnaire responses by the students and the teacher. Without IQ categorized, the result showed that there is an effect of Android worksheet application on student's achievement based on cognitive aspects of Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. However, from the IQ groups point of view, only the middle IQ group and the high IQ group showed a significant effect from the Android worksheet application on student's achievement meanwhile for the average IQ group there was no effect.

  11. Reproducible research in palaeomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurcock, Pontus; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The reproducibility of research findings is attracting increasing attention across all scientific disciplines. In palaeomagnetism as elsewhere, computer-based analysis techniques are becoming more commonplace, complex, and diverse. Analyses can often be difficult to reproduce from scratch, both for the original researchers and for others seeking to build on the work. We present a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program designed to make reproducibility easier. Part of the problem is the divide between interactive and scripted (batch) analysis programs. An interactive desktop program with a graphical interface is a powerful tool for exploring data and iteratively refining analyses, but usually cannot operate without human interaction. This makes it impossible to re-run an analysis automatically, or to integrate it into a larger automated scientific workflow - for example, a script to generate figures and tables for a paper. In some cases the parameters of the analysis process itself are not saved explicitly, making it hard to repeat or improve the analysis even with human interaction. Conversely, non-interactive batch tools can be controlled by pre-written scripts and configuration files, allowing an analysis to be 'replayed' automatically from the raw data. However, this advantage comes at the expense of exploratory capability: iteratively improving an analysis entails a time-consuming cycle of editing scripts, running them, and viewing the output. Batch tools also tend to require more computer expertise from their users. PuffinPlot is a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program which aims to bridge this gap. First released in 2012, it offers both an interactive, user-friendly desktop interface and a batch scripting interface, both making use of the same core library of palaeomagnetic functions. We present new improvements to the program that help to integrate the interactive and batch approaches, allowing an analysis to be interactively explored and refined

  12. Opening Reproducible Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Open access is not only a form of publishing such that research papers become available to the large public free of charge, it also refers to a trend in science that the act of doing research becomes more open and transparent. When science transforms to open access we not only mean access to papers, research data being collected, or data being generated, but also access to the data used and the procedures carried out in the research paper. Increasingly, scientific results are generated by numerical manipulation of data that were already collected, and may involve simulation experiments that are completely carried out computationally. Reproducibility of research findings, the ability to repeat experimental procedures and confirm previously found results, is at the heart of the scientific method (Pebesma, Nüst and Bivand, 2012). As opposed to the collection of experimental data in labs or nature, computational experiments lend themselves very well for reproduction. Some of the reasons why scientists do not publish data and computational procedures that allow reproduction will be hard to change, e.g. privacy concerns in the data, fear for embarrassment or of losing a competitive advantage. Others reasons however involve technical aspects, and include the lack of standard procedures to publish such information and the lack of benefits after publishing them. We aim to resolve these two technical aspects. We propose a system that supports the evolution of scientific publications from static papers into dynamic, executable research documents. The DFG-funded experimental project Opening Reproducible Research (ORR) aims for the main aspects of open access, by improving the exchange of, by facilitating productive access to, and by simplifying reuse of research results that are published over the Internet. Central to the project is a new form for creating and providing research results, the executable research compendium (ERC), which not only enables third parties to

  13. Randomised reproducing graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a model for a growing random graph based on simultaneous reproduction of the vertices. The model can be thought of as a generalisation of the reproducing graphs of Southwell and Cannings and Bonato et al to allow for a random element, and there are three parameters, $\\alpha$, $\\beta$ and $\\gamma$, which are the probabilities of edges appearing between different types of vertices. We show that as the probabilities associated with the model vary there are a number of phase transitions, in particular concerning the degree sequence. If $(1+\\alpha)(1+\\gamma)1$ then the degree of a typical vertex grows to infinity, and the proportion of vertices having any fixed degree $d$ tends to zero. We also give some results on the number of edges and on the spectral gap.

  14. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-07

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility.

  15. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    The ability to reproduce published scientific findings is a foundational principle of scientific research. Independent observation helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings; build upon sound observations so that we can evolve hypotheses (and models) of how catchments function; and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. The rise of computational research has brought increased focus on the issue of reproducibility across the broader scientific literature. This is because publications based on computational research typically do not contain sufficient information to enable the results to be reproduced, and therefore verified. Given the rise of computational analysis in hydrology over the past 30 years, to what extent is reproducibility, or a lack thereof, a problem in hydrology? Whilst much hydrological code is accessible, the actual code and workflow that produced and therefore documents the provenance of published scientific findings, is rarely available. We argue that in order to advance and make more robust the process of hypothesis testing and knowledge creation within the computational hydrological community, we need to build on from existing open data initiatives and adopt common standards and infrastructures to: first make code re-useable and easy to find through consistent use of metadata; second, publish well documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; finally, use unique persistent identifiers (e.g. DOIs) to reference re-useable and reproducible code, thereby clearly showing the provenance of published scientific findings. Whilst extra effort is require to make work reproducible, there are benefits to both the individual and the broader community in doing so, which will improve the credibility of the science in the face of the need for societies to adapt to changing hydrological environments.

  16. Renovation of gas- and water pipelines. The new DVGW-worksheet GW 320-1; Erneuerung von Gas- und Wasserrohrleitungen. Das neue DVGW-Arbeitsblatt GW 320-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penski, Thomas [NBB Netzgesellschaft Berlin-Brandenburg mbH und Co. KG, Berlin (Germany). Betrieb Netze

    2009-07-01

    After ten year application a comprehensive revise of DVGW-worksheet GW 320-1 has taken place. Metallic pipe materials have been gathered and state-of-the-art taken into account. Examples from gas pipeline grid at Berlin make clear practice suitability of the worksheet. (orig./GL)

  17. Reproducible Research in Speech Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaacute;lmandaacute;n Abari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproducible research is the minimum standard of scientific claims in cases when independent replication proves to be difficult. With the special combination of available software tools, we provide a reproducibility recipe for the experimental research conducted in some fields of speech sciences. We have based our model on the triad of the R environment, the EMU-format speech database, and the executable publication. We present the use of three typesetting systems (LaTeX, Markdown, Org, with the help of a mini research.

  18. TWENTY EIGHT YEARS OF ICP VEGETATION: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Harmens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we look back at the activities and achievements in the 28 years of the International Cooperative Programme on the Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation. The ICP Vegetation is a subsidiary body of the Working Group on Effects of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP, established in 1979. An important role of the ICP Vegetation is to provide evidence for air pollution impacts on vegetation in support of policy development and review of the LRTAP Convention and its Protocols. The activities and participation in the ICP Vegetation have grown over the years. The main activities include:Collate evidence of ozone impacts on vegetation, assess spatial patterns and temporal trends across Europe;Develop dose-response relationships, establish critical levels for vegetation and provide European risk maps of ozone impacts;Reviewing the literature on ozone impacts on vegetation and produce thematic scientific reports and policy-relevant brochures;Determine spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metals, nitrogen and persistent organic pollutants concentrations in mosses as a biomonitoring tool of atmospheric deposition of these compounds.

  19. A twenty-eight channel coil array for improved optic nerve imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robb Phillip

    The purpose of this work was to design and construct a radio-frequency coil optimized for imaging the Optic Nerve (ON) on a Siemens 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The specific goals were to optimize signal sensitivity from the orbit to the optic chiasm and improve SNR over designs currently in use. The constructed coil features two fiberglass formers that can slide over each other to accommodate any arbitrary head size, while maintaining close coupling near the eyes and around the head in general. This design eliminates the air void regions that occur between the coil elements and the forehead when smaller heads are imaged in one-piece, nonadjustable coil formers. The 28 coil elements were placed using a soccer-ball pattern layout to maximize head coverage. rSNR profiles from phantom imaging studies show that the ON coil provides approximately 55% greater rSNR at the region of the optic chiasm and approximately 400% near the orbits compared to the 12-channel commercial coil. The improved rSNR in the optic nerve region allows performance of high resolution DTI, which provides a qualitative measurement for evaluating optic neuritis. Images from volunteer and patient studies with the ON coil reveal plaques that correspond well with the patient disease history of chronic bilateral optic neuritis. Correspondence of image findings with patient disease histories demonstrates that optic neuritis can be visualized and detected in patients using 3T MRI with advanced imaging coils, providing improved patient care.

  20. Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Twenty-eight Hatha Yoga Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sylvia J; Hager, Ron; Lockhart, Barbara; Seeley, Matthew K

    Adherents claim many benefits from the practice of yoga, including promotion of bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. However, no known studies have investigated whether yoga enhances bone mineral density. Furthermore, none have estimated reaction forces applied by yoga practitioners. The purpose of this study was to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data on a variety of hatha yoga postures that would commonly be practiced in fitness centers or private studios. Twelve female and eight male volunteers performed a sequence of 28 hatha yoga postures while GRF data were collected with an AMTI strain-gauge force platform. The sequence was repeated six times by each study subject. Four dependent variables were studied: peak vertical GRF, mean vertical GRF, peak resultant GRF, and mean resultant GRF. Univariate analysis was used to identify mean values and standard deviations for the dependent variables. Peak vertical and resultant values of each posture were similar for all subjects, and standard deviations were small. Similarly, mean vertical and resultant values were similar for all subjects. This 28 posture yoga sequence produced low impact GRF applied to upper and lower extremities. Further research is warranted to determine whether these forces are sufficient to promote osteogenesis or maintain current bone health in yoga practitioners.

  1. Twenty-eight week toxicity study of perlite powder in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Nagao, S

    1985-05-01

    Groups of 21 male and 21 female mice were given diets containing 20%, 10%, 1% or 0% (control) perlite for 28 weeks. Appearance, behavior, mortality, and food consumption of mice of treated groups were not affected during the experimental period. Males of the 20% and 10% groups did experience slightly reduced growth rate. No significant drug-related changes were found in urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weight. No differences were found between control and treated groups in autopsy and histopathological findings. Therefore, the maximum no-effect level is considered to be 1% in the diet which developed no toxic changes in any items examined in mice treated orally with perlite for 28 weeks.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Eight COUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; SHANG Xiukui; PAN Xingfang

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cough, a main symptom of the lung problems, may result either from invasion of the exogenous factors induced dysfunction of the lungqi in dispersion or from disorders of the lung itself or from dysfunction of other zang-fu organs affecting the lung.

  4. DYNASTY-Leading Wine Brand for Twenty-Eight Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Co.,Ltd.,since the establishment in 1980,has had a history of steady development of 28 years.In the past 28 years,Dynasty Winery continues the market expansion,and increasing the market share,and strengthening the influence of the brand and the company.Till now,"Dynasty Wine",has become popular among the consumors.

  5. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  6. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes...

  7. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  8. Reproducible research in computational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D

    2011-12-02

    Computational science has led to exciting new developments, but the nature of the work has exposed limitations in our ability to evaluate published findings. Reproducibility has the potential to serve as a minimum standard for judging scientific claims when full independent replication of a study is not possible.

  9. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  10. Reproducibility of NIF hohlraum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Turnbull, D. P.; Casey, D. T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B. L.; Doeppner, T.; Divol, L.; Grim, G. P.; Hoover, M.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Michel, P. A.; Moore, A. S.; Pino, J. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Widmann, K.; Hohenberger, M.

    2015-11-01

    The strategy of experimentally ``tuning'' the implosion in a NIF hohlraum ignition target towards increasing hot-spot pressure, areal density of compressed fuel, and neutron yield relies on a level of experimental reproducibility. We examine the reproducibility of experimental measurements for a collection of 15 identical NIF hohlraum experiments. The measurements include incident laser power, backscattered optical power, x-ray measurements, hot-electron fraction and energy, and target characteristics. We use exact statistics to set 1-sigma confidence levels on the variations in each of the measurements. Of particular interest is the backscatter and laser-induced hot-spot locations on the hohlraum wall. Hohlraum implosion designs typically include variability specifications [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. We describe our findings and compare with the specifications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  11. The blue book of grammar and punctuation an easy-to-use guide with clear rules, real-world examples, and reproducible quizzes

    CERN Document Server

    Straus, Jane; Stern, Tom

    2014-01-01

    A revised and updated new edition of the bestselling workbook and grammar guide The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation is a concise, entertaining workbook and guide to English grammar, punctuation, and usage. This user-friendly resource includes simple explanations of grammar, punctuation, and usage; scores of helpful examples; dozens of reproducible worksheets; and pre- and post-tests to help teach grammar to students of all ages. Appropriate for virtually any age range, this authoritative guide makes learning English grammar and usage simple and fun. This updated Eleventh Edition reflects

  12. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m•min−1 cutting speed and 0...... a built–up edge occurrence hindering a robust evaluation of cutting fluid performance, if the data evaluation is based on surface finish only. Measurements of hole geometry provide documentation to recognise systematic error distorting the performance test....

  13. Reproducibility of a reaming test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The reproducibility of a reaming test was analysed to document its applicability as a performance test for cutting fluids. Reaming tests were carried out on a drilling machine using HSS reamers. Workpiece material was an austenitic stainless steel, machined using 4.75 m∙min-1 cutting speed and 0...... a built-up edge occurrence hindering a robust evaluation of cutting fluid performance, if the data evaluation is based on surface finish only. Measurements of hole geometry provide documentation to recognize systematic error distorting the performance test....

  14. Build-a-Polypeptide: A Hands-On Worksheet to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Hall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many introductory biology students have a weak (or nonexistent chemistry background. Due to this apparent knowledge gap, many students struggle to understand the process of polypeptide formation via dehydration synthesis as well as the interactions between individual polypeptide chains. This inability to reason about how individual amino acids interact with one another prevents students from making the cognitive leap from primary to secondary structure. In turn, students do not fully understand how even higher levels of organizations (i.e., tertiary and quaternary interactions form the final three-dimensional configurations of proteins.  We designed Build-a-Polypeptide in an attempt to help fill the part of the knowledge gap.  In this activity, students physically represent the process of polypeptide synthesis and R group interactions using a paper model. Essentially, this is a simple cut and paste project that allows students to build a beginner's (i.e., highly truncated and simplified model of protein folding. Previous research has shown that physical modeling can aid student understanding of complex topics (1,2.  With that in mind, we developed this interactive activity to improve student understanding of protein synthesis and structure formation. This activity requires no laboratory equipment and can be completed within one (50 minute class. Our worksheets were designed for use in introductory college-level biology courses, but could easily be adapted for high school or AP biology classes.

  15. 用Python语言跨平台分析处理电子表格%Analyzing and processing worksheet on multi-platform based on Python

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何惠英; 王兆合; 王小宇; 纪蕾

    2011-01-01

    That is often needed analyzing and processing worksheets in daily work,so it is easy to involve much repetitive works. Sometimes it is also required that the software can be used in different operating systems. In view of this background,this paper based on lowering repeatability operating intensity of manual processing complex worksheets,and running in different operating system (Windows,Linux,MAC,ete.) without changing its codes,adopts popular dynamic programe languages Python to realize the worksheets processing tasks. Through the practical analysis about hundred thousand customer service worksheets,it is concluded that using the program described can lower operating intensity, reduce working hours ,and can be used in different platforms.%在日常工作中经常需要分析和处理电子表格,这就容易涉及很多重复性的工作.有时还要求软件能在不同操作系统下使用.鉴于此背景,基于降低手工处理复杂电子表格重复性操作强度,且不用更改代码便可以在不同操作系统(Windows、Linux、MAC等等)上运行的目的,采用目前流行的动态语言Python编程的方式实现了电子表格的处理任务.通过实际分析几十万条客服工单电子表格,得出了通过编写程序可以大幅度降低人工操作强度,减少工作时间,且能跨平台使用的结论.

  16. 浅议科技馆学习单中的“问题”%Discussion on the“Problem”of Worksheet in Science and Technology Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常娟; 王翠

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s,worksheet as a learning tool has begun to use in museum at home and abroad and also research and practice in China. Due to the general worksheet is composed by the graphic and text, which is often in the form of“problems”, so, a good problem, is especially important. This paper will describe the“problem”of the connotation and function,type,and how to design and the content of the question form design,etc. in worksheet.%国内外博物馆自从20世纪60年代就开始使用学习单作为导览工具,近年来我国科技馆等相关领域也开始关注学习单的研究与实践。由于一般学习单是由图文所组成,而文字部分又常以“问题”的方式呈现,所以,一个好的问题就显得格外重要。本文将试述学习单中“问题”的内涵、作用和类型,以及如何进行问题的设计等。

  17. Evaluation of guidewire path reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Noël, Peter B; Ionita, Ciprian N; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2008-05-01

    The number of minimally invasive vascular interventions is increasing. In these interventions, a variety of devices are directed to and placed at the site of intervention. The device used in almost all of these interventions is the guidewire, acting as a monorail for all devices which are delivered to the intervention site. However, even with the guidewire in place, clinicians still experience difficulties during the interventions. As a first step toward understanding these difficulties and facilitating guidewire and device guidance, we have investigated the reproducibility of the final paths of the guidewire in vessel phantom models on different factors: user, materials and geometry. Three vessel phantoms (vessel diameters approximately 4 mm) were constructed having tortuousity similar to the internal carotid artery from silicon tubing and encased in Sylgard elastomer. Several trained users repeatedly passed two guidewires of different flexibility through the phantoms under pulsatile flow conditions. After the guidewire had been placed, rotational c-arm image sequences were acquired (9 in. II mode, 0.185 mm pixel size), and the phantom and guidewire were reconstructed (512(3), 0.288 mm voxel size). The reconstructed volumes were aligned. The centerlines of the guidewire and the phantom vessel were then determined using region-growing techniques. Guidewire paths appear similar across users but not across materials. The average root mean square difference of the repeated placement was 0.17 +/- 0.02 mm (plastic-coated guidewire), 0.73 +/- 0.55 mm (steel guidewire) and 1.15 +/- 0.65 mm (steel versus plastic-coated). For a given guidewire, these results indicate that the guidewire path is relatively reproducible in shape and position.

  18. Interactive Worksheets and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5,000 people under age 21 die from alcohol-related injuries. The younger people are when they start to drink, the more likely they are to become alcoholic at some point in their ... amounts of alcohol can significantly impair driving performance and your ability ...

  19. Use of Six Sigma Worksheets for assessment of internal and external failure costs associated with candidate quality control rules for an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Francesco; Villiers, Elisabeth; Archer, Joy; Pitorri, Francesca; Freeman, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Quality control (QC) validation is an essential tool in total quality management of a veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. Cost-analysis can be a valuable technique to help identify an appropriate QC procedure for the laboratory, although this has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets in the evaluation of possible candidate QC rules identified by QC validation. Three months of internal QC records were analyzed. EZ Rules 3 software was used to evaluate candidate QC procedures, and the costs associated with the application of different QC rules were calculated using the Six Sigma Quality Cost Worksheets. The costs associated with the current and the candidate QC rules were compared, and the amount of cost savings was calculated. There was a significant saving when the candidate 1-2.5s, n = 3 rule was applied instead of the currently utilized 1-2s, n = 3 rule. The savings were 75% per year (£ 8232.5) based on re-evaluating all of the patient samples in addition to the controls, and 72% per year (£ 822.4) based on re-analyzing only the control materials. The savings were also shown to change accordingly with the number of samples analyzed and with the number of daily QC procedures performed. These calculations demonstrated the importance of the selection of an appropriate QC procedure, and the usefulness of the Six Sigma Costs Worksheet in determining the most cost-effective rule(s) when several candidate rules are identified by QC validation. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Theory of reproducing kernels and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saitoh, Saburou

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a large extension of the general theory of reproducing kernels published by N. Aronszajn in 1950, with many concrete applications. In Chapter 1, many concrete reproducing kernels are first introduced with detailed information. Chapter 2 presents a general and global theory of reproducing kernels with basic applications in a self-contained way. Many fundamental operations among reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are dealt with. Chapter 2 is the heart of this book. Chapter 3 is devoted to the Tikhonov regularization using the theory of reproducing kernels with applications to numerical and practical solutions of bounded linear operator equations. In Chapter 4, the numerical real inversion formulas of the Laplace transform are presented by applying the Tikhonov regularization, where the reproducing kernels play a key role in the results. Chapter 5 deals with ordinary differential equations; Chapter 6 includes many concrete results for various fundamental partial differential equations. In Chapt...

  1. Filters, reproducing kernel, and adaptive meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Chen, J.-S.; Lu, H.

    Reproducing kernel, with its intrinsic feature of moving averaging, can be utilized as a low-pass filter with scale decomposition capability. The discrete convolution of two nth order reproducing kernels with arbitrary support size in each kernel results in a filtered reproducing kernel function that has the same reproducing order. This property is utilized to separate the numerical solution into an unfiltered lower order portion and a filtered higher order portion. As such, the corresponding high-pass filter of this reproducing kernel filter can be used to identify the locations of high gradient, and consequently serves as an operator for error indication in meshfree analysis. In conjunction with the naturally conforming property of the reproducing kernel approximation, a meshfree adaptivity method is also proposed.

  2. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy sou....... The limited reproducibility may be caused by variability in the preculture, or more precisely, variations in the physiological state of the bacteria in the precultures just before used as inoculum....

  3. Reproducibility principles, problems, practices, and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Maasen, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Featuring peer-reviewed contributions from noted experts in their fields of research, Reproducibility: Principles, Problems, Practices, and Prospects presents state-of-the-art approaches to reproducibility, the gold standard sound science, from multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives. Including comprehensive coverage for implementing and reflecting the norm of reproducibility in various pertinent fields of research, the book focuses on how the reproducibility of results is applied, how it may be limited, and how such limitations can be understood or even controlled in the natural sciences, computational sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and studies of science and technology. The book presents many chapters devoted to a variety of methods and techniques, as well as their epistemic and ontological underpinnings, which have been developed to safeguard reproducible research and curtail deficits and failures. The book also investigates the political, historical, and social practices that underlie repro...

  4. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.

  5. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    KAUST Repository

    Canini, Marco

    2017-08-10

    Better reproducibility of networking research results is currently a major goal that the academic community is striving towards. This position paper makes the case that improving the extent and pervasiveness of reproducible research can be greatly fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts at the replicable-research level. Second, it will advance the best practices regarding environments, testbeds, and tools that will aid the tasks of reproducibility evaluation committees by and large.

  6. Thou Shalt Be Reproducible! A Technology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mair

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on reproducibility in psychology from a technological viewpoint. Modernopen source computational environments are shown and explained that foster reproducibilitythroughout the whole research life cycle, and to which emerging psychology researchers shouldbe sensitized, are shown and explained. First, data archiving platforms that make datasets publiclyavailable are presented. Second, R is advocated as the data-analytic lingua franca in psychologyfor achieving reproducible statistical analysis. Third, dynamic report generation environments forwriting reproducible manuscripts that integrate text, data analysis, and statistical outputs such asfigures and tables in a single document are described. Supplementary materials are provided inorder to get the reader started with these technologies.

  7. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard P Freedman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible-in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures.

  8. Reproducibility Experiment of OSL and TL Dosimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Reproducibility is an important property of personal dosimeter. It not only can indicate the stability of dosimeter, appraise the precision and accuracy of measured value, but also can evaluate the

  9. Reproducible statistical analysis with multiple languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenth, Russell; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the system for making reproducible statistical analyses. differs from other systems for reproducible analysis in several ways. The two main differences are: (1) Several statistics programs can be in used in the same document. (2) Documents can be prepared using OpenOffice or ......This paper describes the system for making reproducible statistical analyses. differs from other systems for reproducible analysis in several ways. The two main differences are: (1) Several statistics programs can be in used in the same document. (2) Documents can be prepared using Open......Office or \\LaTeX. The main part of this paper is an example showing how to use and together in an OpenOffice text document. The paper also contains some practical considerations on the use of literate programming in statistics....

  10. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  11. Reproducibility of AMPLICOR enterovirus PCR test results.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The reproducibility of AMPLICOR enterovirus PCR test results was determined with clinical samples of cerebrospinal fluid, serum, urine, and throat and rectal swabs. Among 608 samples from which duplicate aliquots were run simultaneously, only seven pairs gave discordant results. Among 104 samples from which duplicate aliquots were run in separate assays, no discordance was seen. Overall, the reproducibility of test kit results was 99% (705 of 712).

  12. Reproducibility in Data-Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, P. T.

    2016-12-01

    Among the usual requirements for reproducibility are large volumes of data and computationally intensive methods. Many fields within earth sciences, however, do not meet these requirements. Data are scarce and data-intensive methods are not well established. How can science be reproducible under these conditions? What changes, both infrastructural and cultural, are needed to advance reproducibility? This paper presents findings from a long-term social scientific case study of an emergent and data scarce field, the deep subseafloor biosphere. This field studies interactions between microbial communities living in the seafloor and the physical environments they inhabit. Factors such as these make reproducibility seem a distant goal for this community: - The relative newness of the field. Serious study began in the late 1990s; - The highly multidisciplinary nature of the field. Researchers come from a range of physical and life science backgrounds; - Data scarcity. Domain researchers produce much of these data in their own onshore laboratories by analyzing cores from international ocean drilling expeditions. Allocation of cores is negotiated between researchers from many fields. These factors interact in multiple ways to inhibit reproducibility: - Incentive structures emphasize producing new data and new knowledge rather than reanalysing extant data; - Only a few steps of laboratory analyses can be reproduced - such as analysis of DNA sequences, but not extraction of DNA from cores -, due to scarcity of cores; - Methodological heterogeneity is a consequence of multidisciplinarity, as researchers bring different techniques from diverse fields. - Few standards for data collection or analysis are available at this early stage of the field; - While datasets from multiple biological and physical phenomena can be integrated into a single workflow, curation tends to be divergent. Each type of dataset may be subject to different disparate policies and contributed to different

  13. Integrating Questions and Celebrations; Writing Strategies Worksheet; Your Global Connections: A 24-Hour Trip Around the World; Season It with Haiku; 101 Ways To Say Hello: An Exercise in Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golibersuch, Margaret; Beck, Angela; Coombe, Christine; Eadie, Jackie; Svendson, Alice; Nova, Lively

    2002-01-01

    Presents five classroom tips for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom. The first provides practice for question formation, the second describes a writing strategies worksheet, and the remaining three focus on global communication and cultural awareness, haiku, and greetings. (Author/VWL)

  14. Reproducing Kernel for D2(Ω, ρ) and Metric Induced by Reproducing Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen Gang

    2009-01-01

    An important property of the reproducing kernel of D2(Ω, ρ) is obtained and the reproducing kernels for D2(Ω, ρ) are calculated when Ω = Bn × Bn and ρ are some special functions. A reproducing kernel is used to construct a semi-positive definite matrix and a distance function defined on Ω×Ω. An inequality is obtained about the distance function and the pseudodistance induced by the matrix.

  15. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, David J. [The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly, and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments. The paper concludes by underlying that it is now clearly that demands for reproducible experiments in the early years of LENR experiments were premature. In fact, one can argue that irreproducibility should be expected for early experiments in a complex new field. As emphasized in the paper and as often happened in the history of science, experimental and theoretical progress can take even decades. It is likely to be many years before investments in LENR experiments will yield significant returns, even for successful research programs. However, it is clearly that a fundamental understanding of the anomalous effects observed in numerous experiments will significantly increase reproducibility, improve controllability, enable optimization of processes, and accelerate the economic viability of LENR.

  16. Reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    concentration of the oil in water-based cutting fluid (or when using a straight mineral oil) results in surface profiles that are more reproducible at higher cutting speed. Moreover, it can be seen that three cutting fluids (two water-based cutting fluids with different oil concentration and a straight mineral......An investigation on the reproducibility of surface roughness in reaming was performed to document the applicability of this approach for testing cutting fluids. Austenitic stainless steel was used as a workpiece material and HSS reamers as cutting tools. Reproducibility of the results was evaluated...... oil) used in connection with a low cutting speed result in "identical" surface profiles. Biggest uncertainty contributors were due to the process repeatability and repeatability around the hole circumference. This was however only in the case of high cutting speeds and low degree of oil concentration...

  17. Twenty-eight-year review of childhood renal diseases from renal biopsy data: A single centre in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjie; Xiao, Zizheng; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Mo, Ying; Sun, Liangzhong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of biopsy-proven childhood renal diseases and to compare the trends and changes during two different time intervals between 1984 and 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China. We retrospectively analyzed kidney biopsy data from children with renal diseases and compared the data during two time intervals, namely 1984-1997 and 1998-2011. A total of 1313 children were enrolled in the present study. There were 921 children with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and 312 children with secondary glomerular disease (SGD), accounting for 70.1% and 23.8% of participants, respectively. The major clinical manifestation of PGD was nephrotic syndrome (NS), which accounted for 31.2% of cases, while the main aetiology of SGD was lupus nephritis (40.7%). The main biopsy patterns of PGD were IgA nephritis (27.6%), minimal change disease (24.0%), and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (16.9%). PGD was the major class of disease in both time intervals, but the ratio of PGD decreased over time, while the ratio of SGD and other glomerular diseases increased. PGD was also the major class of disease in each age group; however, the incidence of PGD decreased with increasing age. The incidence patterns of paediatric renal diseases changed over the 28-year period of this study. Our results show that different renal diseases characterize different age intervals. Furthermore, there are several associations between clinical presentation and biopsy features in childhood renal disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Twenty-eight Cases of Neuritis of Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh Treated by Acupuncture and Point-Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明扬

    2001-01-01

    @@Neuritis of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh, also called meralgia paresthetica, is a commonly encountered disease in clinical practice. The author has treated 28 cases of meralgia paresthetica since 1996 by acupuncture plus point-injection with satisfactory results. A report follows. Clinical Data Among the 28 cases, 13 were male and 15 female. Their age ranged from 24 to 72 years, most of the patients being 35 to 50 years; the duration of illness varied from one month to ten years and 6 cases were affected on left side, 8 cases on right side and 14 cases on both sides.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of ammonium perfluorobutyrate in rats: Twenty-eight-day and ninety-day oral gavage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential 28-day and 90-day oral toxicity studies were performed in male and female rats with ammonium perfluorobutyrate (NH4+PFBA) at doses up to 150 and 30 mg/kg/d, respectively. Ammonium perfluorooctanoate was used as a comparator at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d in the 28-d study. Fe...

  20. Twenty-eight day Holter monitoring is poorly tolerated and insensitive for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation detection in cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, H T; Spence, S; Kalman, J M; Davis, S M

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study in a prospective cohort of 20 cryptogenic stroke patients showed that a significant proportion has paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undetected by 24-h Holter monitoring. However, longer monitoring with 28-day Holter was poorly tolerated and still insufficiently sensitive for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation detection. Further studies are urgently needed to elucidate the optimal timing, method and duration of cardiac rhythm monitoring following ischaemic stroke.

  1. Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, S.; Blakely, G.W.; Houston, S.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of the complete genome sequence of Bacteroides fragilis 638R originally isolated in the USA, was made with two previously sequenced strains isolated in the UK (NCTC 9343) and Japan (YCH46). The presence of 10 loci containing genes associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis, each...

  2. Twenty-eight-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of nano-sized lanthanum oxide in male sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seo-Ho; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Kim, Yong-Soon; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-04-01

    Although the use of lanthanum has increased in field of high-tech industry worldwide, potential adverse effects to human health and to the environment are largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of nano-sized lanthanum oxide (La2 O3 ) following repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed nose-only to nano-sized La2 O3 for 28 days (5 days/week) at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.5, and 10 mg/m(3) . In the experimental period, we evaluated treatment-related changes including clinical signs, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology findings. We also analyzed lanthanum distribution in the major organs and in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues. Lanthanum level was highest in lung tissues and showed a dose-dependent relation. Alveolar proteinosis was observed in all treatment groups and was accompanied by an increase in lung weight; moreover, lung inflammation was observed in the 2.5 mg/m(3) and higher dose groups and was accompanied by an increase in white blood cells. In the BALF, total cell counts including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly in all treatment groups. Furthermore, these changes tended to deteriorate in the 10 mg/m(3) group at the end of the recovery period. In the present experimental conditions, we found that the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of nano-sized La2 O3 was 0.5 mg/m(3) in male rats, and the target organ was the lung. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1226-1240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, S.; Blakely, G.W.; Houston, S.

    2010-01-01

    including a putative Wzx flippase and Wzy polymerase, was confirmed in all three strains, despite a lack of cross-reactivity between NCTC 9343 and 638R surface polysaccharide-specific antibodies by immunolabelling and microscopy. Genomic comparisons revealed an exceptional level of polysaccharide...... restriction and modification systems that act to prevent acquisition of foreign DNA. The level of amongst strain diversity in polysaccharide biosynthesis loci is unprecedented....

  4. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide.

  5. Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui Shen; DeNardo, Gerald L.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Aina, Yuan; DeNardo, Diane A.; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    1997-01-01

    Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dose and biological half-life was assessed for radioimmunotherapy. Mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator consecutive processing and for inter-operator processing was less than 15% for all tissues. The mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator processing over 2 wk or inter-operator processing comparing an experienced and less experienced operator was generally greater, and particularly so for tumors. Satisfactory reproducibility was achievable using visual determination of regions of interests after 80 h of training.

  6. Archiving Reproducible Research with R and Dataverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reproducible research and data archiving are increasingly important issues in research involving statistical analyses of quantitative data. This article introduces the dvn package, which allows R users to publicly archive datasets, analysis files, codebooks, and associated metadata in Dataverse...... Network online repositories, an open-source data archiving project sponsored by Harvard University. In this article I review the importance of data archiving in the context of reproducible research, introduce the Dataverse Network, explain the implementation of the dvn package, and provide example code...... for archiving and releasing data using the package....

  7. Archiving Reproducible Research with R and Dataverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reproducible research and data archiving are increasingly important issues in research involving statistical analyses of quantitative data. This article introduces the dvn package, which allows R users to publicly archive datasets, analysis files, codebooks, and associated metadata in Dataverse...... Network online repositories, an open-source data archiving project sponsored by Harvard University. In this article I review the importance of data archiving in the context of reproducible research, introduce the Dataverse Network, explain the implementation of the dvn package, and provide example code...

  8. Hyperbolic L2-modules with Reproducing Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David EELPODE; Frank SOMMEN

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the Dirac operator on the Klein model for the hyperbolic space is considered. A function space containing L2-functions on the sphere Sm-1 in (R)m, which are boundary values of solutions for this operator, is defined, and it is proved that this gives rise to a Hilbert module with a reproducing kernel.

  9. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joanna E.; Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahník, Štěpán; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Brüning, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D.; Cillessen, Linda; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Conn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Penna, Nicolás Delia; Den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Glöckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O Y; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jäkel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knežević, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811855; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Le Bel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, Melissa; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; MacKinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Möschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Müller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schlegelmilch, René; Schmidt, Kathleen; Scholz, Sabine; Seibel, Larissa; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L M; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; Te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valášek, Milan; Van't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; Van Assen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Van Bork, Riet; Van De Ven, Mathijs; Van Den Bergh, Don; Van Der Hulst, Marije; Van Dooren, Roel; Van Doorn, Johnny; Van Renswoude, Daan R.; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverría, Alejandro Vásquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Vuu, Gina; Wagenmakers, Eric Jan; Weerdmeester, Joanneke; Welsh, Ashlee; Westgate, Erin C.; Wissink, Joeri; Wood, Michael; Woods, Andy; Wright, Emily; Wu, Sining; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Rep

  10. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joanna E.; Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahník, Štěpán; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Brüning, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D.; Cillessen, Linda; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Conn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Penna, Nicolás Delia; Den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Glöckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O Y; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jäkel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knežević, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811855; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Le Bel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, Melissa; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; MacKinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Möschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Müller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schlegelmilch, René; Schmidt, Kathleen; Scholz, Sabine; Seibel, Larissa; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L M; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; Te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valášek, Milan; Van't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; Van Assen, Marcel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Van Bork, Riet; Van De Ven, Mathijs; Van Den Bergh, Don; Van Der Hulst, Marije; Van Dooren, Roel; Van Doorn, Johnny; Van Renswoude, Daan R.; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.

  11. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Joanna E.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahnik, Stepan; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Bruening, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Cillessen, Linda; Christopherson, Cody D.; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Cohn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D. Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Della Penna, Nicolas; den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernandez-Castilla, Belen; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Gloeckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O. -Y.; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jaekel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knezevic, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniel; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarevic, Ljiljana B.; LeBel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, M.; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; Mackinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Moeschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Mueller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michele B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima-Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schmidt, Kathleen; Schlegelmilch, Rene; Seibel, Larissa; Scholz, Sabine; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L. M.; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valasek, Milan; van 't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; van Bork, Riet; van de Ven, Mathijs; van den Bergh, Don; van der Hulst, Marije; van Dooren, Roel; van Doorn, Johnny; van Renswoude, Daan R.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverria, Alejandro Vasquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. Scientific claims should not gain credence because of the status or authority of their originator but by the replicability of their supporting evidence. Even research

  12. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joanna E.; Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahník, Štěpán; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Brüning, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D.; Cillessen, Linda; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Conn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Penna, Nicolás Delia; Den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Glöckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O Y; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jäkel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knežević, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniël; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Le Bel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, Melissa; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; MacKinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Möschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Müller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schlegelmilch, René; Schmidt, Kathleen; Scholz, Sabine; Seibel, Larissa; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L M; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; Te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valášek, Milan; Van't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; Van Assen, Marcel; Van Bork, Riet; Van De Ven, Mathijs; Van Den Bergh, Don; Van Der Hulst, Marije; Van Dooren, Roel; Van Doorn, Johnny; Van Renswoude, Daan R.; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverría, Alejandro Vásquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Vuu, Gina; Wagenmakers, Eric Jan; Weerdmeester, Joanneke; Welsh, Ashlee; Westgate, Erin C.; Wissink, Joeri; Wood, Michael; Woods, Andy; Wright, Emily; Wu, Sining; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Rep

  13. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Joanna E.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahnik, Stepan; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Bruening, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Cillessen, Linda; Christopherson, Cody D.; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Cohn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D. Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Della Penna, Nicolas; den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernandez-Castilla, Belen; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Gloeckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O. -Y.; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jaekel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knezevic, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniel; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarevic, Ljiljana B.; LeBel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, M.; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; Mackinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Moeschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Mueller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michele B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima-Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schmidt, Kathleen; Schlegelmilch, Rene; Seibel, Larissa; Scholz, Sabine; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L. M.; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valasek, Milan; van 't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; van Bork, Riet; van de Ven, Mathijs; van den Bergh, Don; van der Hulst, Marije; van Dooren, Roel; van Doorn, Johnny; van Renswoude, Daan R.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverria, Alejandro Vasquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Vuu, Gina; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Weerdmeester, Joanneke; Welsh, Ashlee; Westgate, Erin C.; Wissink, Joeri; Wood, Michael; Woods, Andy; Wright, Emily; Wu, Sining; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. Scientific claims should not gain credence because of the status or authority of their originator but by the replicability of their supporting evidence. Even research

  14. A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE: REPRODUCIBILITY AND VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Quantification de L'Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE on Bogotá's schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2 from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97; by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97; 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99; 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98. The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66 (p<0.01; by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87, 0.76 (0.78 and 0.88 (0.80 respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake

  15. ITK: Enabling Reproducible Research and Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michael McCormick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature.Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification.This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46.

  16. Additive Manufacturing: Reproducibility of Metallic Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Gokuldoss Prashanth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the properties of five different metals/alloys (Al-12Si, Cu-10Sn and 316L—face centered cubic structure, CoCrMo and commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti—hexagonal closed packed structure fabricated by selective laser melting. The room temperature tensile properties of Al-12Si samples show good consistency in results within the experimental errors. Similar reproducible results were observed for sliding wear and corrosion experiments. The other metal/alloy systems also show repeatable tensile properties, with the tensile curves overlapping until the yield point. The curves may then follow the same path or show a marginal deviation (~10 MPa until they reach the ultimate tensile strength and a negligible difference in ductility levels (of ~0.3% is observed between the samples. The results show that selective laser melting is a reliable fabrication method to produce metallic materials with consistent and reproducible properties.

  17. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests.

  18. Reproducibility of electroretinograms recorded with DTL electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, M; Lachapelle, P; Dumont, M

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of the DTL fiber electrode yields stable and reproducible electroretinographic recordings. To do so, luminance response function, derived from dark-adapted electroretinograms, was obtained from both eyes of 10 normal subjects at two recording sessions spaced by 7-14 days. The data thus generated was used to calculate Naka-Rushton Vmax and k parameters and values obtained at the two recording sessions were compared. Our results showed that there was no significant difference in the values of Vmax and k calculated from the data generated at the two recording sessions. The above clearly demonstrate that the use of the DTL fiber electrode does not jeopardize, in any way, the stability and reproducibility of ERG responses.

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  20. Data Identifiers and Citations Enable Reproducible Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Modern science often involves data processing with tremendous volumes of data. Keeping track of that data has been a growing challenge for data center. Researchers who access and use that data don't always reference and cite their data sources adequately for consumers of their research to follow their methodology or reproduce their analyses or experiments. Recent research has led to recommendations for good identifiers and citations that can help address this problem. This paper will describe some of the best practices in data identifiers, reference and citation. Using a simplified example scenario based on a long term remote sensing satellite mission, it will explore issues in identifying dynamic data sets and the importance of good data citations for reproducibility. It will describe the difference between granule and collection level identifiers, using UUIDs and DOIs to illustrate some recommendations for developing identifiers and assigning them during data processing. As data processors create data products, the provenance of the input products and precise steps that led to their creation are recorded and published for users of the data to see. As researchers access the data from an archive, they can use the provenance to help understand the genesis of the data, which could have effects on their usage of the data. By citing the data on publishing their research, others can retrieve the precise data used in their research and reproduce the analyses and experiments to confirm the results. Describing the experiment to a sufficient extent to reproduce the research enforces a formal approach that lends credibility to the results, and ultimately, to the policies of decision makers depending on that research.

  1. Tissue Doppler imaging reproducibility during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, V; Nottin, S; Noltin, S; Doucende, G; Obert, P

    2008-05-01

    Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is an echocardiographic technique used during exercising to improve the accuracy of a cardiovascular diagnostic. The validity of TDI requires its reproducibility, which has never been challenged during moderate to maximal intensity exercising. The present study was specifically designed to assess the transmitral Doppler and pulsed TDI reproducibility in 19 healthy men, who had undergone two identical semi-supine maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Systolic (S') and diastolic (E') tissue velocities at the septal and lateral walls as well as early transmitral velocities (E) were assessed during exercise up to maximal effort. The data were compared between the two tests at 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 % of maximal aerobic power. Despite upper body movements and hyperventilation, good quality echocardiographic images were obtained in each case. Regardless of exercise intensity, no differences were noticed between the two tests for all measurements. The variation coefficients for Doppler variables ranged from 3 % to 9 % over the transition from rest to maximal exercise. The random measurement error was, on average, 5.8 cm/s for E' and 4.4 cm/s for S'. Overall, the reproducibility of TDI was acceptable. Tissue Doppler imaging can be used to accurately evaluate LV diastolic and/or systolic function for this range of exercise intensity.

  2. How to Write a Reproducible Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    The geosciences have undergone a computational revolution in recent decades, to the point where almost all modern research relies heavily on software and code. Despite this profound change in the research methods employed by geoscientists, the reporting of computational results has changed very little in academic journals. This lag has led to something of a reproducibility crisis, whereby it is impossible to replicate and verify most of today's published computational results. While it is tempting to decry the slow response of journals and funding agencies in the face of this crisis, there are very few examples of reproducible research upon which to base new communication standards. In an attempt to address this deficiency, this presentation will describe a procedure for reporting computational results that was employed in a recent Journal of Climate paper. The procedure was developed to be consistent with recommended computational best practices and seeks to minimize the time burden on authors, which has been identified as the most important barrier to publishing code. It should provide a starting point for geoscientists looking to publish reproducible research, and could be adopted by journals as a formal minimum communication standard.

  3. Tools and techniques for computational reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Stephen R; Frampton, Michael B

    2016-07-11

    When reporting research findings, scientists document the steps they followed so that others can verify and build upon the research. When those steps have been described in sufficient detail that others can retrace the steps and obtain similar results, the research is said to be reproducible. Computers play a vital role in many research disciplines and present both opportunities and challenges for reproducibility. Computers can be programmed to execute analysis tasks, and those programs can be repeated and shared with others. The deterministic nature of most computer programs means that the same analysis tasks, applied to the same data, will often produce the same outputs. However, in practice, computational findings often cannot be reproduced because of complexities in how software is packaged, installed, and executed-and because of limitations associated with how scientists document analysis steps. Many tools and techniques are available to help overcome these challenges; here we describe seven such strategies. With a broad scientific audience in mind, we describe the strengths and limitations of each approach, as well as the circumstances under which each might be applied. No single strategy is sufficient for every scenario; thus we emphasize that it is often useful to combine approaches.

  4. Reproducibility of magnetic resonance perfusion imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    Full Text Available Dynamic MR biomarkers (T2*-weighted or susceptibility-based and T1-weighted or relaxivity-enhanced have been applied to assess tumor perfusion and its response to therapies. A significant challenge in the development of reliable biomarkers is a rigorous assessment and optimization of reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI and T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI with two contrast agents (CA of different molecular weight (MW: gadopentetate (Gd-DTPA, 0.5 kDa and Gadomelitol (P792, 6.5 kDa. Each contrast agent was tested with eight mice that had subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 breast xenograft tumors. Each mouse was imaged with a combined DSC-DCE protocol three times within one week to achieve measures of reproducibility. DSC-MRI results were evaluated with a contrast to noise ratio (CNR efficiency threshold. There was a clear signal drop (>95% probability threshold in the DSC of normal tissue, while signal changes were minimal or non-existent (<95% probability threshold in tumors. Mean within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV of relative blood volume (rBV in normal tissue was 11.78% for Gd-DTPA and 6.64% for P792. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of rBV in normal tissue was 0.940 for Gd-DTPA and 0.978 for P792. The inter-subject correlation coefficient was 0.092. Calculated K(trans from DCE-MRI showed comparable reproducibility (mean wCV, 5.13% for Gd-DTPA, 8.06% for P792. ICC of K(trans showed high intra-subject reproducibility (ICC = 0.999/0.995 and inter-subject heterogeneity (ICC = 0.774. Histograms of K(trans distributions for three measurements had high degrees of overlap (sum of difference of the normalized histograms <0.01. These results represent homogeneous intra-subject measurement and heterogeneous inter-subject character of biological population, suggesting that perfusion MRI could be an imaging biomarker to

  5. Worksheet for Describing and Categorizing a Genocidal Event: A New Tool for Assembling More Objective Data and Classifying Events of Mass Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel W. Charny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new tool is presented for facilitating greater objectivity in the chaotic field of genocide studies: first, assembling the available factual data about any event of mass murder systematically; second, contextualizing each of our judgments of the nature of the crime as a choice being made by a given scholar or institution (e.g., a specific court, but not as “God’s word.” The Worksheet for Describing and Categorizing a Genocidal Event is believed to be innovative in several ways: (1 This model presents researchers with a methodology for developing systematic, extensive and objective information about many different aspects of an event of mass killing; (2 Emphasis is placed on identifying each researcher’s guiding concept of genocide; (3 The proposed methodology purposely postpones any effort at classification—including whether an event constitutes “genocide”—until after factual data have been assembled; (4 Categorization of an event is also to be understood as an act of judgment by each researcher, not as scientifically established truth; (5 It is also to be understood that classification in the language of social sciences is different than legal classifications that in turn also are to be understood as based on whatever specific code of law.

  6. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and

  7. Nonlinear sequential laminates reproducing hollow sphere assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiart, Martín I.

    2007-07-01

    A special class of nonlinear porous materials with isotropic 'sequentially laminated' microstructures is found to reproduce exactly the hydrostatic behavior of 'hollow sphere assemblages'. It is then argued that this result supports the conjecture that Gurson's approximate criterion for plastic porous materials, and its viscoplastic extension of Leblond et al. (1994), may actually yield rigorous upper bounds for the hydrostatic flow stress of porous materials containing an isotropic, but otherwise arbitrary, distribution of porosity. To cite this article: M.I. Idiart, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  8. Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher J; Bahník, Štěpán; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bosco, Frank A; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D; Cordes, Andreas; Cremata, Edward J; Della Penna, Nicolas; Estel, Vivien; Fedor, Anna; Fitneva, Stanka A; Frank, Michael C; Grange, James A; Hartshorne, Joshua K; Hasselman, Fred; Henninger, Felix; van der Hulst, Marije; Jonas, Kai J; Lai, Calvin K; Levitan, Carmel A; Miller, Jeremy K; Moore, Katherine S; Meixner, Johannes M; Munafò, Marcus R; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M; Ricker, Ashley A; Schmidt, Kathleen; Spies, Jeffrey R; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2016-03-01

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.

  9. Heart rate variability reproducibility during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNarry, Melitta A; Lewis, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The use of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during exercise is not supported by appropriate reliability studies. In 80 healthy adults, ECG was recorded during three 6 min bouts of exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded cycling. Two bouts were at a moderate intensity while the final bout was at a heavy exercise intensity. This protocol was repeated under the same conditions on three occasions, with a controlled start time (pre-determined at the first visit). Standard time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived. Reliability was assessed by Bland–Altman plots, 95% limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The sample size required to detect a mean difference ≥30% of the between-subject standard deviation was also estimated. There was no systematic change between days. All HRV parameters demonstrated a high degree of reproducibility during baseline (ICC range: 0.58–0.75), moderate (ICC: 0.58–0.85) and heavy intensity exercise (ICC range: 0.40–0.76). The reproducibility was slightly diminished during heavy intensity exercise relative to both unloaded baseline cycling and moderate exercise. This study indicates that HRV parameters can be reliably determined during exercise, and it underlines the importance of standardizing exercise intensity with regard to fitness levels if HRV is to be reliably determined.

  10. Reproducibility and reusability of scientific software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-01-01

    Information science and technology has been becoming an integral part of astronomy research, and due to the consistent growth in the size and impact of astronomical databases, that trend is bound to continue. While software is a vital part information systems and data analysis processes, in many cases the importance of the software and the standards of reporting on the use of source code has not yet elevated in the scientific communication process to the same level as other parts of the research. The purpose of the discussion is to examine the role of software in the scientific communication process in the light of transparency, reproducibility, and reusability of the research, as well as discussing software in astronomy in comparison to other disciplines.

  11. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  12. Poor reproducibility of allergic rhinitis SNP associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nilsson

    Full Text Available Replication of reported associations is crucial to the investigation of complex disease. More than 100 SNPs have previously been reported as associated with allergic rhinitis (AR, but few of these have been replicated successfully. To investigate the general reproducibility of reported AR-associations in candidate gene studies, one Swedish (352 AR-cases, 709 controls and one Singapore Chinese population (948 AR-cases, 580 controls were analyzed using 49 AR-associated SNPs. The overall pattern of P-values indicated that very few of the investigated SNPs were associated with AR. Given published odds ratios (ORs most SNPs showed high power to detect an association, but no correlations were found between the ORs of the two study populations or with published ORs. None of the association signals were in common to the two genome-wide association studies published in AR, indicating that the associations represent false positives or have much lower effect-sizes than reported.

  13. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  14. Are classifications of proximal radius fractures reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos João BG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal radius need to be classified in an appropriate and reproducible manner. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the three most widely used classification systems. Methods Elbow radiographs images of patients with proximal radius fractures were classified according to Mason, Morrey, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classifications by four observers with different experience with this subject to assess their intra- and inter-observer agreement. Each observer analyzed the images on three different occasions on a computer with numerical sequence randomly altered. Results We found that intra-observer agreement of Mason and Morrey classifications were satisfactory (κ = 0.582 and 0.554, respectively, while the AO/ASIF classification had poor intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.483. Inter-observer agreement was higher in the Mason (κ = 0.429-0.560 and Morrey (κ = 0.319-0.487 classifications than in the AO/ASIF classification (κ = 0.250-0.478, which showed poor reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Mason and Morey classifications showed overall satisfactory reliability when compared to the AO/ASIF system. The Mason classification is the most reliable system.

  15. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; O'Brien, T. J.; Page, K. L.; Templeton, M. R.; Körding, E. G.; Knigge, C.; Rupen, M. P.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Waagen, E. O.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disc material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows that the compact jet remained active throughout the outburst with no radio quenching.

  16. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, T D; Sivakoff, G R; Altamirano, D; O'Brien, T J; Page, K L; Templeton, M R; Koerding, E G; Knigge, C; Rupen, M P; Fender, R P; Heinz, S; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Migliari, S; Remillard, R A; Russell, D M; Sarazin, C L; Waagen, E O

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disk material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows th...

  17. Reproducing the entropy structure in galaxy groups

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Tornatore, L; Böhringer, H

    2003-01-01

    We carry out a comparison between observations and hydrodynamic simulations of entropy profiles of groups and clusters of galaxies. We use the Tree+SPH GADGET code to simulate four halos of sizes in the M_500 = 1.0 - 16.e13 h^-1 Msun range, corresponding to poor groups up to Virgo-like clusters. We concentrate on the effect of introducing radiative cooling, star formation, and a variety of non-gravitational heating schemes on the entropy structure and the stellar fraction. We show that all the simulations result in a correct entropy profile for the Virgo-like cluster. With the heating energy budget of ~0.7 keV/particle injected at z_h=3, we are also able to reproduce the entropy profiles of groups. We obtain the flat entropy cores as a combined effect of preheating and cooling, while we achieve the high entropy at outskirts by preheating. The resulting baryon fraction locked into stars is in the 25-30% range, compared to 35-40% in the case of no preheating. Heating at higher redshift, z_h=9, strongly delays t...

  18. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed.

  19. Reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography in healthy young man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.; Frantzen, J.; Holsheimer, J.; Meuleman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Research on reproducibility of corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) is relevant because reproducible signals indicate a biological phenomenon and not an artefact. Reproducible signals are also required to use CC-EMG as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to a

  20. Reversible and Reproducible Giant Universal Electroresistance Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SYED Rizwan; ZHANG Sen; YU Tian; ZHAO Yong-Gang; ZHANG Shu-Feng; HAN Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    After the prediction of the giant electroresistance effect, much work has been carried out to find this effect in practical devices. We demonstrate a novel way to obtain a large electroresistance (ER) effect in the multilayer system at room temperature. The current-in-plane (CIP) electric transport measurement is performed on the multilayer structure consisting of (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT)/Ta/Al-O/metal. It is found that the resistance of the top metallic layer shows a hysteretic behavior as a function electric field, which corresponds well with the substrate polarization versus electric Reid (P-E) loop. This reversible hysteretic R-E behavior is independent of the applied magnetic field as well as the magnetic structure of the top metallic layer and keeps its memory state. This novel memory effect is attributed to the polarization reversal induced electrostatic potential, which is felt throughout the multilayer stack and is enhanced by the dielectric Al-O layer producing unique hysteretic, reversible, and reproducible resistance switching behavior. This novel universal electroresistance effect will open a new gateway to the development of future multiferroic memory devices operating at room temperature.%After the prediction of the giant electroresistance effect,much work has been carried out to find this effect in practical devices.We demonstrate a novel way to obtain a large electroresistance (ER) effect in the multilayer system at room temperature.The current-in-plane (CIP) electric transport measurement is performed on the multilayer structure consisting of (011)-Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3) O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT)/Ta/Al-O/metal.It is found that the resistance of the top metallic layer shows a hysteretic behavior as a function electric field,which corresponds well with the substrate polarization versus electric field (P-E) loop.This reversible hysteretic R-E behavior is independent of the applied magnetic field as well as the magnetic structure of the top metallic

  1. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  2. Precision and reproducibility in AMS radiocarbon measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.E.; Lawson, E. M.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique by which rare radioisotopes such as {sup 14}C can be measured at environmental levels with high efficiency. Instead of detecting radioactivity, which is very weak for long-lived environmental radioisotopes, atoms are counted directly. The sample is placed in an ion source, from which a negative ion beam of the atoms of interest is extracted, mass analysed, and injected into a tandem accelerator. After stripping to positive charge states in the accelerator HV terminal, the ions are further accelerated, analysed with magnetic and electrostatic devices and counted in a detector. An isotopic ratio is derived from the number of radioisotope atoms counted in a given time and the beam current of a stable isotope of the same element, measured after the accelerator. For radiocarbon, {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios are usually measured, and the ratio of an unknown sample is compared to that of a standard. The achievable precision for such ratio measurements is limited primarily by {sup 14}C counting statistics and also by a variety of factors related to accelerator and ion source stability. At the ANTARES AMS facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories we are currently able to measure {sup 14}C with 0.5% precision. In the two years since becoming operational, more than 1000 {sup 14}C samples have been measured. Recent improvements in precision for {sup 14}C have been achieved with the commissioning of a 59 sample ion source. The measurement system, from sample changing to data acquisition, is under common computer control. These developments have allowed a new regime of automated multi-sample processing which has impacted both on the system throughput and the measurement precision. We have developed data evaluation methods at ANTARES which cross-check the self-consistency of the statistical analysis of our data. Rigorous data evaluation is invaluable in assessing the true reproducibility of the measurement system and aids in

  3. On the Inclusion Relation of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haizhang; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    To help understand various reproducing kernels used in applied sciences, we investigate the inclusion relation of two reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Characterizations in terms of feature maps of the corresponding reproducing kernels are established. A full table of inclusion relations among widely-used translation invariant kernels is given. Concrete examples for Hilbert-Schmidt kernels are presented as well. We also discuss the preservation of such a relation under various operations of ...

  4. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user interve...

  5. Participant Nonnaiveté and the reproducibility of cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Rolf A; Pecher, Diane; Paolacci, Gabriele; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter; Dijkstra, Katinka; Zeelenberg, René

    2017-07-25

    Many argue that there is a reproducibility crisis in psychology. We investigated nine well-known effects from the cognitive psychology literature-three each from the domains of perception/action, memory, and language, respectively-and found that they are highly reproducible. Not only can they be reproduced in online environments, but they also can be reproduced with nonnaïve participants with no reduction of effect size. Apparently, some cognitive tasks are so constraining that they encapsulate behavior from external influences, such as testing situation and prior recent experience with the experiment to yield highly robust effects.

  6. Virtual Reference Environments: a simple way to make research reproducible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Daniel G; Budden, David M; Crampin, Edmund J

    2015-09-01

    'Reproducible research' has received increasing attention over the past few years as bioinformatics and computational biology methodologies become more complex. Although reproducible research is progressing in several valuable ways, we suggest that recent increases in internet bandwidth and disk space, along with the availability of open-source and free-software licences for tools, enable another simple step to make research reproducible. In this article, we urge the creation of minimal virtual reference environments implementing all the tools necessary to reproduce a result, as a standard part of publication. We address potential problems with this approach, and show an example environment from our own work.

  7. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type...

  8. Reproducibility along a 10 cm vertical visual analogue scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, J. S.; Bird, H A

    1981-01-01

    Reproducibility along a vertical 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was investigated. Eight normal volunteers attempted to duplicate a set of marked VAS. There was a tendency to estimate too high on the scale, and reproducibility was found to be variable along its length. This indicates that the error involved in the use of VASs is even more complex than previously thought.

  9. Completely reproducible description of digital sound data with cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Masato; Kuroiwa, Jousuke; Nara, Shigetoshi

    2002-12-30

    A novel method of compressive and completely reproducible description of digital sound data by means of rule dynamics of CA (cellular automata) is proposed. The digital data of spoken words and music recorded with the standard format of a compact disk are reproduced completely by this method with use of only two rules in a one-dimensional CA without loss of information.

  10. Development of Reproducing Alumina-Magnesia-Carbon Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks were prepared with the dumped bricks as starting materials. The bulk density, apparent porosity, crushing strength, modolus of rupture and slag resistance of the specimen were analyzed. The results show that the used refractories can be reused and recycled by the right method. The reproducing alumina-magnesia-carbon bricks with better abilities were prepared.

  11. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  12. Reproducible in vitro regeneration system for purifying sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tansgenic Lab

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Reproducible in ... regeneration was varied from basal to top sections. Nevertheless ... 2005). The application of biotechnology to sugarcane is comparatively ..... Damon RA, Harvey WR (1987).

  13. Transition questions in clinical practice - validity and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2008-01-01

    of construct validity and reproducibility of a TQ and make proposals for standardised use. One-hundred-and-ninety-one patients with low back pain and/or leg pain were followed over an 8-week period receiving 3 disability and 2 pain questionnaires together with a 7-point TQ. Reproducibility was determined using...... are reproducible in patients with low back pain and/or leg pain. Despite critique of several biases, our results have reinforced the construct validity of TQ’s as an outcome measure since only 1 hypothesis was rejected. On the basis of our findings we have outlined a proposal for a standardised use of transition......Transition questions in CLINICAL practice - validity and reproducibility Lauridsen HH1, Manniche C3, Grunnet-Nilsson N1, Hartvigsen J1,2 1   Clinical Locomotion Science, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. e-mail: hlauridsen...

  14. Reproducibility of ERG responses obtained with the DTL electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, M; Vaegan; Lachapelle, P

    1999-03-01

    Previous investigators have suggested that the DTL fibre electrode might not be suitable for the recording of replicable electroretinograms. We present experimental evidence that when used adequately, this electrode does permit the recording of highly reproducible retinal potentials.

  15. Making neurophysiological data analysis reproducible. Why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Delescluse, Matthieu; Franconville, Romain; Joucla, Sébastien; Lieury, Tiffany; Pouzat, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Manuscript submitted to "The Journal of Physiology (Paris)". Second version.; Reproducible data analysis is an approach aiming at complementing classical printed scientific articles with everything required to independently reproduce the results they present. ''Everything'' covers here: the data, the computer codes and a precise description of how the code was applied to the data. A brief history of this approach is presented first, starting with what economists have been calling replication ...

  16. Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Daniel T; King, Gary; Pettigrew, Stephen; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-03-04

    A paper from the Open Science Collaboration (Research Articles, 28 August 2015, aac4716) attempting to replicate 100 published studies suggests that the reproducibility of psychological science is surprisingly low. We show that this article contains three statistical errors and provides no support for such a conclusion. Indeed, the data are consistent with the opposite conclusion, namely, that the reproducibility of psychological science is quite high.

  17. ON APPROXIMATION BY REPRODUCING KERNEL SPACES IN WEIGHTED Lp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohuai SHENG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the order of approximation by reproducing kernel spaces on (-1, 1) in weighted Lp spaces. We first restate the translation network from the view of reproducing kernel spaces and then construct a sequence of approximating operators with the help of Jacobi orthogonal polynomials, with which we establish a kind of Jackson inequality to describe the error estimate.Finally, The results are used to discuss an approximation problem arising from learning theory.

  18. On The Reproducibility of Seasonal Land-surface Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J

    2004-10-22

    The sensitivity of the continental seasonal climate to initial conditions is estimated from an ensemble of decadal simulations of an atmospheric general circulation model with the same specifications of radiative forcings and monthly ocean boundary conditions, but with different initial states of atmosphere and land. As measures of the ''reproducibility'' of continental climate for different initial conditions, spatio-temporal correlations are computed across paired realizations of eleven model land-surface variables in which the seasonal cycle is either included or excluded--the former case being pertinent to climate simulation, and the latter to seasonal anomaly prediction. It is found that the land-surface variables which include the seasonal cycle are impacted only marginally by changes in initial conditions; moreover, their seasonal climatologies exhibit high spatial reproducibility. In contrast, the reproducibility of a seasonal land-surface anomaly is generally low, although it is substantially higher in the Tropics; its spatial reproducibility also markedly fluctuates in tandem with warm and cold phases of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, the overall degree of reproducibility depends strongly on the particular land-surface anomaly considered. It is also shown that the predictability of a land-surface anomaly implied by its reproducibility statistics is consistent with what is inferred from more conventional predictability metrics. Implications of these results for climate model intercomparison projects and for operational forecasts of seasonal continental climate also are elaborated.

  19. Reproducibility of thalamic segmentation based on probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Catherine; Heckemann, Rolf A; Hammers, Alexander; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Crum, William R; Barker, Gareth J; Richardson, Mark P

    2010-08-01

    Reliable identification of thalamic nuclei is required to improve targeting of electrodes used in Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), and for exploring the role of thalamus in health and disease. A previously described method using probabilistic tractography to segment the thalamus based on connections to cortical target regions was implemented. Both within- and between-subject reproducibility were quantitatively assessed by the overlap of the resulting segmentations; the effect of two different numbers of target regions (6 and 31) on reproducibility of the segmentation results was also investigated. Very high reproducibility was observed when a single dataset was processed multiple times using different starting conditions. Thalamic segmentation was also very reproducible when multiple datasets from the same subject were processed using six cortical target regions. Within-subject reproducibility was reduced when the number of target regions was increased, particularly in medial and posterior regions of the thalamus. A large degree of overlap in segmentation results from different subjects was obtained, particularly in thalamic regions classified as connecting to frontal, parietal, temporal and pre-central cortical target regions.

  20. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants' individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a "statistically significant" finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications.

  1. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Validation and reproducibility of an Australian caffeine food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E J; Kohler, M; Banks, S; Coates, A M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure validity and reproducibility of a caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ) developed for the Australian population. The C-FFQ was designed to assess average daily caffeine consumption using four categories of food and beverages including; energy drinks; soft drinks/soda; coffee and tea and chocolate (food and drink). Participants completed a seven-day food diary immediately followed by the C-FFQ on two consecutive days. The questionnaire was first piloted in 20 adults, and then, a validity/reproducibility study was conducted (n = 90 adults). The C-FFQ showed moderate correlations (r = .60), fair agreement (mean difference 63 mg) and reasonable quintile rankings indicating fair to moderate agreement with the seven-day food diary. To test reproducibility, the C-FFQ was compared to itself and showed strong correlations (r = .90), good quintile rankings and strong kappa values (κ = 0.65), indicating strong reproducibility. The C-FFQ shows adequate validity and reproducibility and will aid researchers in Australia to quantify caffeine consumption.

  3. Twenty-eight Cases of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Gangrene Treated with the Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Injection of Ahylsantinfarctase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since 1995, the Chinese herbal medicine for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation combined with injection of ahylsantinfarctase into the femoral artery has been used in 28 cases of diabetes complicated with gangrene and ulcer of the foot, with quite good therapeutic effects as reported in the following.

  4. Dose–response assessment of nephrotoxicity from a twenty-eight-day combined-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo, E-mail: goncalo.gamboa@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Jacob, Cristina C.; Von Tungeln, Linda S. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Hasbrouck, Nicholas R. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Olson, Greg R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Hattan, David G. [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Reimschuessel, Renate [Center for Veterinary Medicine, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The adulteration of pet food with melamine and derivatives, including cyanuric acid, has been implicated in the kidney failure and death of cats and dogs in the USA and other countries. In a previous 7-day dietary study in F344 rats, we established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid of 8.6 mg/kg bw/day of each compound, and a benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 8.4–10.9 mg/kg bw/day of each compound. To ascertain the role played by the duration of exposure, we treated F344 rats for 28 days. Groups of male and female rats were fed diet containing 0 (control), 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, or 360 ppm of both melamine and cyanuric acid. The lowest dose that produced histopathological alterations in the kidney was 120 ppm, versus 229 ppm in the 7-day study. Wet-mount analysis of kidney sections demonstrated the formation of melamine cyanurate spherulites in one male and two female rats at the 60 ppm dose and in one female rat at the 30 ppm dose, establishing a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for males and < 2.6 mg/kg bw/day for females, and BMDL values as low as 1.6 mg/kg bw/day for both sexes. These data demonstrate that the length of exposure is an important component in the threshold of toxicity from a co-exposure to these compounds and suggest that the current risk assessments based on exposures to melamine alone may not reflect sufficiently the risk of a co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid. -- Highlights: ► A 28-day dietary co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid was conducted in F344 rats. ► The NOAELs were 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for males and < 2.6 mg/kg bw/day for females. ► BMDL values as low as 1.6 mg/kg bw/day for both sexes were determined. ► The length of exposure plays an important role in the threshold of toxicity. ► Current assessments may underestimate the risk of melamine and cyanuric acid.

  5. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  6. Metaresearch for Evaluating Reproducibility in Ecology and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Fiona; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Bonnie C.; Burgman, Mark A.; McCarthy, Michael A.; Gordon, Ascelin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent replication projects in other disciplines have uncovered disturbingly low levels of reproducibility, suggesting that those research literatures may contain unverifiable claims. The conditions contributing to irreproducibility in other disciplines are also present in ecology. These include a large discrepancy between the proportion of “positive” or “significant” results and the average statistical power of empirical research, incomplete reporting of sampling stopping rules and results, journal policies that discourage replication studies, and a prevailing publish-or-perish research culture that encourages questionable research practices. We argue that these conditions constitute sufficient reason to systematically evaluate the reproducibility of the evidence base in ecology and evolution. In some cases, the direct replication of ecological research is difficult because of strong temporal and spatial dependencies, so here, we propose metaresearch projects that will provide proxy measures of reproducibility. PMID:28596617

  7. Reproducibility of an organoleptic method for halitosis assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Suênia Fidelis de Mesquita-Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The organoleptic evaluation is considered the gold standard between evaluation methods of halitosis, but its main drawback is the difficulty of reproducibility. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of an organoleptic evaluation method using three levels of scores (0 = no odor, 1 = moderate odor, and 2 = strong odor to increase reliability between researchers and clinicians. Methods: The evaluation was blindly conducted by two examiners previously calibrated by the Smell Identification Test and compliance in clinical trials. Statistical calculations were done with STATA ® software version 9.0. Results: The degree of agreement between examiners was 82.5%, with estimated Kappa (κ =0.69, with substantial agreement.   Conclusion: The scale used in this study by organoleptic method was effective and reproducible but must be repeated and compared to other methods for better consistency of results.

  8. CRKSPH - A Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Frontiere, Nicholas; Owen, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) that employs a first-order consistent reproducing kernel function, exactly interpolating linear fields with particle tracers. Previous formulations using reproducing kernel (RK) interpolation have had difficulties maintaining conservation of momentum due to the fact the RK kernels are not, in general, spatially symmetric. Here, we utilize a reformulation of the fluid equations such that mass, momentum, and energy are all manifestly conserved without any assumption about kernel symmetries. Additionally, by exploiting the increased accuracy of the RK method's gradient, we formulate a simple limiter for the artificial viscosity that reduces the excess diffusion normally incurred by the ordinary SPH artificial viscosity. Collectively, we call our suite of modifications to the traditional SPH scheme Conservative Reproducing Kernel SPH, or CRKSPH. CRKSPH retains the benefits of traditional SPH methods (such as preserving Galilean invariance and manif...

  9. Effective Form of Reproducing the Total Financial Potential of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portna Oksana V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of scientific principles of reproducing the total financial potential of the country and its effective form is an urgent problem both in theoretical and practical aspects of the study, the solution of which is intended to ensure the active mobilization and effective use of the total financial potential of Ukraine, and as a result — its expanded reproduction as well, which would contribute to realization of the internal capacities for stabilization of the national economy. The purpose of the article is disclosing the essence of the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country, analyzing the results of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine. It has been proved that the basis for the effective form of reproducing the total financial potential of the country is the volume and flow of resources, which are associated with the «real» economy, affect the dynamics of GDP and define it, i.e. resource and process forms of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine (which precede the effective one. The analysis of reproducing the total financial potential of Ukraine has shown that in the analyzed period there was an increase in the financial possibilities of the country, but steady dynamics of reduction of the total financial potential was observed. If we consider the amount of resources involved in production, creating a net value added and GDP, it occurs on a restricted basis. Growth of the total financial potential of Ukraine is connected only with extensive quantitative factors rather than intensive qualitative changes.

  10. Reproducibility of psychophysics and electroencephalography during offset analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M; Piasco, A; Nissen, T D; Graversen, C; Gazerani, P; Lucas, M-F; Dahan, A; Drewes, A M; Brock, C

    2014-07-01

    Offset analgesia (OA) is a pain-inhibiting mechanism, defined as a disproportionately large decrease in pain perception in response to a discrete decrease in noxious stimulus intensity. Hence, the aims were (1) to investigate whether psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG) can be assessed simultaneously during OA and (2) to assess whether OA is reproducible within the same day as well as between different days. Two separate studies investigated OA: Study I (13 healthy volunteers; seven men; 25.5 ± 0.65 years) aimed at determining the feasibility of recording psychophysics and EEG simultaneously during OA. Study II (18 healthy volunteers; 12 men; 34 ± 3.15 years) assessed reproducibility of OA in terms of psychophysics and EEG. Subjects were presented to a 30-s OA heat stimulus paradigm on the volar forearm and psychophysics, and EEG recordings were obtained throughout the procedure. Reproducibility was assessed within the same day and between different days, using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Additionally, the reproducible psychophysical parameters were correlated to relevant EEG frequency bands. Simultaneous recording of psychophysics and EEG affects the frequency distribution in terms of alpha suppression. Reproducibility was proven for the psychophysics and EEG frequency bands both within the same day (all ICCs > 0.62) and between different days (all ICCs > 0.66, except for the delta band). Correlations between psychophysics and EEG were found in the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (32-80 Hz) bands (all p < 0.01). OA is a robust and reproducible model for experimental pain research, making it suitable for future research. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Reproducibility of Circulating MicroRNAs in Stored Plasma Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L Bertoia

    Full Text Available Most studies of microRNA (miRNA and disease have examined tissue-specific expression in limited numbers of samples. The presence of circulating miRNAs in plasma samples provides the opportunity to examine prospective associations between miRNA expression and disease in initially healthy individuals. However, little data exist on the reproducibility of miRNAs in stored plasma.We used Real-Time PCR to measure 61 pre-selected microRNA candidates in stored plasma. Coefficients of variation (CVs were used to assess inter-assay reliability (n = 15 and within-person stability over one year (n = 80. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and polychoric correlation coefficients were used to assess within-person stability and delayed processing reproducibility (whole blood stored at 4°C for 0, 24 and 48 hours; n = 12 samples.Of 61 selected miRNAs, 23 were detected in at least 50% of samples and had average CVs below 20% for inter-assay reproducibility and 31 for delayed processing reproducibility. Ten miRNAs were detected in at least 50% of samples, had average CVs below 20% and had ICCs above 0.4 for within-person stability over 1-2 years, six of which satisfied criteria for both interassay reproducibility and short-term within-person stability (miR-17-5p, -191-5p, -26a-5p, -27b-3p, -320a, and -375 and two all three types of reproducibility (miR-27b-3p and -26a-5p. However, many miRNAs with acceptable average CVs had high maximum CVs, most had low expression levels, and several had low ICCs with delayed processing.About a tenth of miRNAs plausibly related to chronic disease were reliably detected in stored samples of healthy adults.

  12. Reproducibility of graph metrics in fMRI networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qawi K Telesford

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of graph metrics calculated in network analysis is essential to the interpretation of complex network organization. These graph metrics are used to deduce the small-world properties in networks. In this study, we investigated the test-retest reliability of graph metrics from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data collected for two runs in 45 healthy older adults. Graph metrics were calculated on data for both runs and compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC statistics and Bland-Altman (BA plots. ICC scores describe the level of absolute agreement between two measurements and provide a measure of reproducibility. For mean graph metrics, ICC scores were high for clustering coefficient (ICC=0.86, global efficiency (ICC=0.83, path length (ICC=0.79, and local efficiency (ICC=0.75; the ICC score for degree was found to be low (ICC=0.29. ICC scores were also used to generate reproducibility maps in brain space to test voxel-wise reproducibility for unsmoothed and smoothed data. Reproducibility was uniform across the brain for global efficiency and path length, but was only high in network hubs for clustering coefficient, local efficiency and degree. BA plots were used to test the measurement repeatability of all graph metrics. All graph metrics fell within the limits for repeatability. Together, these results suggest that with exception of degree, mean graph metrics are reproducible and suitable for clinical studies. Further exploration is warranted to better understand reproducibility across the brain on a voxel-wise basis.

  13. Benchmarking contactless acquisition sensor reproducibility for latent fingerprint trace evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Optical, nano-meter range, contactless, non-destructive sensor devices are promising acquisition techniques in crime scene trace forensics, e.g. for digitizing latent fingerprint traces. Before new approaches are introduced in crime investigations, innovations need to be positively tested and quality ensured. In this paper we investigate sensor reproducibility by studying different scans from four sensors: two chromatic white light sensors (CWL600/CWL1mm), one confocal laser scanning microscope, and one NIR/VIS/UV reflection spectrometer. Firstly, we perform an intra-sensor reproducibility testing for CWL600 with a privacy conform test set of artificial-sweat printed, computer generated fingerprints. We use 24 different fingerprint patterns as original samples (printing samples/templates) for printing with artificial sweat (physical trace samples) and their acquisition with contactless sensory resulting in 96 sensor images, called scan or acquired samples. The second test set for inter-sensor reproducibility assessment consists of the first three patterns from the first test set, acquired in two consecutive scans using each device. We suggest using a simple feature space set in spatial and frequency domain known from signal processing and test its suitability for six different classifiers classifying scan data into small differences (reproducible) and large differences (non-reproducible). Furthermore, we suggest comparing the classification results with biometric verification scores (calculated with NBIS, with threshold of 40) as biometric reproducibility score. The Bagging classifier is nearly for all cases the most reliable classifier in our experiments and the results are also confirmed with the biometric matching rates.

  14. Reproducibility of esophageal scintigraphy using semi-solid yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Yukinori; Kinoshita, Manabu; Asakura, Yasushi; Kakinuma, Tohru; Shimoji, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenji; Miyamae, Tatsuya [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Esophageal scintigraphy is a non-invasive method which evaluate esophageal function quantitatively. We applied new technique using semi-solid yoghurt, which can evaluate esophageal function in a sitting position. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, scintigraphy were performed in 16 healthy volunteers. From the result of four swallows except the first one, the mean coefficients of variation in esophageal transit time and esophageal emptying time were 12.8% and 13.4% respectively (interday variation). As regards the interday variation, this method had also good reproducibility from the result on the 2 separate days. (author)

  15. Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for Non-Linear Fracture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhongqing; Zhou Benkuan; Chen Dapeng

    2006-01-01

    To study the non-linear fracture, a non-linear constitutive model for piezoelectric ceramics was proposed, in which the polarization switching and saturation were taken into account. Based on the model, the non-linear fracture analysis was implemented using reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). Using local J-integral as a fracture criterion, a relation curve of fracture loads against electric fields was obtained. Qualitatively, the curve is in agreement with the experimental observations reported in literature. The reproducing equation, the shape function of RKPM, and the transformation method to impose essential boundary conditions for meshless methods were also introduced. The computation was implemented using object-oriented programming method.

  16. Some remarks about interpolating sequences in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Raghupathi, Mrinal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study two separate problems on interpolation. We first give a new proof of Stout's Theorem on necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of points to be an interpolating sequence for the multiplier algebra and for an associated Hilbert space. We next turn our attention to the question of interpolation for reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces on the polydisc and provide a collection of equivalent statements about when it is possible to interpolation in the Schur-Agler class of the associated reproducing kernel Hilbert space.

  17. Application effect on nursing service of endocrine nursing personnel by precast worksheet%预制工作表在内分泌护理人员护理工作中的应用及效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 肖新华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nursing service of endocrine nursing personnel by precast worksheet. Methods Twenty-four endocrine nursing personnel who worked in the endocrinology department in our hospital from August 2011 to August 2012 were selected as the observation group, twenty endocrine nursing personnel who worked in the endocrinology department in our hospital from August 2009 to August 2010 were selected as the control group. The control group was given routine work, the observation group was arranged according to the desk work content for precast worksheet, basic theory test score, basic skills assessment score,basic nursing score and patients nursing service satisfaction were compared. Results The basic theory test score and basic skills assessment scor of endocrine nursing personnel in the observation group were higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), the basic nursing score and patients nursing service satisfaction in the observation group were higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The precast worksheet can obviously improve the nursing theoretical level and the level of skill and operation of endocrine nursing personnel, it can improve the quality of nursing and patients nursing service satisfaction, it is one of the tools to improve the efficiency of nursing work area.%目的 探讨预制工作表在内分泌护理人员护理工作中的应用及效果.方法 选取2011年8月~2012年8月在首都医科大学附属北京世纪坛医院内分泌科工作的24名护理人员为观察组,选择2009年8月~2010年8月在首都医科大学附属北京世纪坛医院内分泌科工作的20名护理人员为对照组,对照组给予患者常规工作进度,观察组则根据科室工作内容制定的预制工作表安排护理工作,比较两组护理人员基础理论考试得分、基本技能考核得分、患者基础护理得分和患者对护理服务的满意度.结果 观察组护理人员基础理

  18. Spatial aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of individual reflections on the auditory spatial aspects of reproduced sound. The sound field produced by a single loudspeaker positioned in a normal listening room has been simulated using an electroacoustical synthesis of the direct sound, 17 individual refl...

  19. Measurement of Liver Iron Concentration by MRI Is Reproducible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Alústiza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objectives were (i construction of a phantom to reproduce the behavior of iron overload in the liver by MRI and (ii assessment of the variability of a previously validated method to quantify liver iron concentration between different MRI devices using the phantom and patients. Materials and Methods. A phantom reproducing the liver/muscle ratios of two patients with intermediate and high iron overload. Nine patients with different levels of iron overload were studied in 4 multivendor devices and 8 of them were studied twice in the machine where the model was developed. The phantom was analysed in the same equipment and 14 times in the reference machine. Results. FeCl3 solutions containing 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 1.2 mg Fe/mL were chosen to generate the phantom. The average of the intramachine variability for patients was 10% and for the intermachines 8%. For the phantom the intramachine coefficient of variation was always below 0.1 and the average of intermachine variability was 10% for moderate and 5% for high iron overload. Conclusion. The phantom reproduces the behavior of patients with moderate or high iron overload. The proposed method of calculating liver iron concentration is reproducible in several different 1.5 T systems.

  20. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szitenberg, Amir; John, Max; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2015-09-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This 'single file' approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution.

  1. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Szitenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This 'single file' approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution.

  2. On the reproducibility of meta-analyses : six practical recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.; Hilgard, J.; Staaks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses play an important role in cumulative science by combining information across multiple studies and attempting to provide effect size estimates corrected for publication bias. Research on the reproducibility of meta-analyses reveals that errors are common, and the percentage of effect si

  3. ON APPROXIMATION BY SPHERICAL REPRODUCING KERNEL HILBERT SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spherical approximation between two nested reproducing kernels Hilbert spaces generated from different smooth kernels is investigated. It is shown that the functions of a space can be approximated by that of the subspace with better smoothness. Furthermore, the upper bound of approximation error is given.

  4. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  5. Reproducibility Issues : Avoiding Pitfalls in Animal Inflammation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, Jon D; Kooistra, Susanne M; Clausen, Björn E; Clausen, Björn E.; Laman, Jon D.

    2017-01-01

    In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite

  6. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mast; W.N. van Wieringen

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  7. Collecting highly reproducible images to support dermatological medical diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    In this article, an integrated imaging system for acquisition of accurate standardized images is proposed. The system also aims at making highly reproducible images over time, so images taken at different times can be compared. The system is made up of an integrating intensity sphere illumination...

  8. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  9. Calderon type reproducing formula on spaces of homogeneous type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓东皋; 韩永生

    1995-01-01

    By using the Calderon-Zygmund operator theory, a continuous version of the Calderon type reproducing formula associated to a para-accretive function on spaces of homogeneous type is proved. A new characterization of the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces on spaces of homogeneous type is also obtained.

  10. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  11. Reproducible and replicable CFD: it's harder than you think

    CERN Document Server

    Mesnard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Completing a full replication study of our previously published findings on bluff-body aerodynamics was harder than we thought. Despite the fact that we have good reproducible-research practices, sharing our code and data openly. Here's what we learned from three years, four CFD codes and hundreds of runs.

  12. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  13. Timbral aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports some of the influences of individual reflections on the timbre of reproduced sound. A single loudspeaker with frequency-independent directivity characteristics, positioned in a listening room of normal size with frequency-independent absorption coefficients of the room surfaces...

  14. Scaled–up sonochemical microreactor with increased efficiency and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Liu, Youlin; Galdames Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles created with ultrasound from artificial microscopic crevices can improve energy efficiency values for the creation of radicals; nevertheless it has been conducted so far only under special laboratory conditions. Limited reproducibility of results and poor energy efficiency are constraints fo

  15. Exploring the Coming Repositories of Reproducible Experiments: Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire, Juliana; Bonnet, Philippe; Shasha, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Computational reproducibility efforts in many communities will soon give rise to validated software and data repositories of high quality. A scientist in a field may want to query the components of such repositories to build new software workflows, perhaps after adding the scientist’s own algorithm...

  16. Reproducibility in density functional theory calculations of solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejaeghere, Kurt; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Björkman, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of density functional theory has given rise to an extensive range of dedicated codes for predicting molecular and crystalline properties. However, each code implements the formalism in a different way, raising questions about the reproducibility of such predictions. We r...

  17. Reproducibility of Electrical Caries Measurements : A Technical Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; Kühnisch, J.; Bosch, J. J. ten

    2005-01-01

    The currently available instrument for lectrical detection of occlusal caries lesions [Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM)] uses a site-specific measurement with co-axial air drying. The reproducibility of this method has been reported to be fair to good. It was noticed that the measurement variation of

  18. Reproducibility of electrical caries measurements : A technical problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Kuhnisch, J.; ten Bosch, J.

    2005-01-01

    The currently available instrument for electrical detection of occlusal caries lesions [Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM)] uses a site-specific measurement with co-axial air drying. The reproducibility of this method has been reported to be fair to good. It was noticed that the measurement variation

  19. Audiovisual biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In lung radiotherapy, variations in cycle-to-cycle breathing results in four-dimensional computed tomography imaging artifacts, leading to inaccurate beam coverage and tumor targeting. In previous studies, the effect of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback on the external respiratory signal reproducibility has been investigated but the internal anatomy motion has not been fully studied. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves diaphragm motion reproducibility of internal anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: To test the hypothesis 15 healthy human subjects were enrolled in an ethics-approved AV biofeedback study consisting of two imaging sessions spaced ∼1 week apart. Within each session MR images were acquired under free breathing and AV biofeedback conditions. The respiratory signal to the AV biofeedback system utilized optical monitoring of an external marker placed on the abdomen. Synchronously, serial thoracic 2D MR images were obtained to measure the diaphragm motion using a fast gradient-recalled-echo MR pulse sequence in both coronal and sagittal planes. The improvement in the diaphragm motion reproducibility using the AV biofeedback system was quantified by comparing cycle-to-cycle variability in displacement, respiratory period, and baseline drift. Additionally, the variation in improvement between the two sessions was also quantified. Results: The average root mean square error (RMSE) of diaphragm cycle-to-cycle displacement was reduced from 2.6 mm with free breathing to 1.6 mm (38% reduction) with the implementation of AV biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value biofeedback (p-value = 0.012). The diaphragm motion reproducibility improvements with AV biofeedback were consistent with the abdominal motion reproducibility that was observed from the external marker motion variation. Conclusions: This study was the first to investigate the potential of AV biofeedback to improve the motion

  20. Reproducibility of multifocal VEP latency using different stimulus presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Prema; Klistorner, Alexander; Arvind, Hemamalini; Graham, Stuart L

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the article were to study the reproducibility of latency of multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) recorded using different stimulus presentations and to identify the peak with least variability. Ten normal subjects, aged between 22 and 52 years (mean age 32 ± 8.37 years), participated in the study. All subjects underwent mfVEP testing with pattern reversal and pattern pulse stimulus presentations. The stimulus subtends 26° from fixation and includes 24 segments. Only the vertical channel was recorded on all subjects. Testing was repeated after 1-2 weeks. Only the right eye of all subjects was analysed. Segments with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR < 1.5) were excluded from analysis. The latencies were analysed to confirm values from the same peak for the two tests. The latency values were then analysed for the start of the response, the first peak and the second peak. The waveforms were reproducible throughout the field. Reproducibility of latency at the "start of the response" was significantly lesser than the first and the second peaks studied, while the reproducibility of latency at the first peak was not statistically different from the second peak for either pattern reversal or pattern pulse stimulation. The latency values were not different between the first and the second sessions for either pattern reversal or pattern pulse stimulation for any of the peaks. The pattern reversal stimulus presentation produced less variability in latency. The first peak is the most reproducible among the three measures in both the stimulus presentation.

  1. Reproducibility of anthropometric measurements in children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reproducibility of a series of anthropometric measures performed twice during one week during a three year period in boys and girls. The subjects of this investigation were 39 children (21 boys and 18 girls), 9-10 year of age at the beginning of the study. Children were measured three times with one year interval. Children were classified by Tanner stage 1-2 during the first measurements, stage 1-3 during the second measurements and stage 1-4 during the third measurements. Body height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. All anthropometric parameters were measured according to the protocol recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (Norton & Olds 1996). Nine skinfolds, 13 girths, eight lengths and eight breadths/lengths were measured. The reproducibility of body height (r = 0.995-0.999), body weight (r = 0.990-0.999) and BMI (r = 0.969-0.999) was very high in boys and girls. The intraclass correlations (ICC), technical errors (TE) and coefficients of variation (CV) were quite different depending on the measurement site of the skinfold thickness. It was surprising that the ICCs were highest and TEs and CVs were lowest during the second year of the measurement. The computed ICC was high, and TE and CV values were quite similar and relatively low in girth, length and breadth/length measurements. It was concluded that the reproducibility of girths, lengths and breadths/lengths in children is very high and the reproducibility of skinfolds is high. Specifically, the reproducibility is very high immediately before puberty in boys and girls.

  2. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the “Reproducible Research Standard” (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scien...

  3. Reproducing entanglement through local classical resources with no communication

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It gives rise to peculiar correlations which cannot be reproduced by a large class of alternative theories, the so-called hidden-variable models, that use parameters in addition to the wave-function. This incompatibility was quantified through the celebrated Bell inequalities, and more recently through new inequalities due to Leggett. Experiments confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics. However, this does not imply that quantum mechanics is the ultimate theory, unsusceptible of improvement, nor that quantum mechanics is essentially non-local. The theories ruled out by Bell and Leggett inequalities are required to satisfy some hypotheses, none of which is implied by locality alone. By dropping one or more hypotheses, it is possible not only to violate said inequalities, but to reproduce the quantum mechanical predictions altogether. So far, the models proposed were only mathematical constructs. In this paper we provide a classical r...

  4. Reproducibility Issues: Avoiding Pitfalls in Animal Inflammation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, Jon D; Kooistra, Susanne M; Clausen, Björn E

    2017-01-01

    In light of an enhanced awareness of ethical questions and ever increasing costs when working with animals in biomedical research, there is a dedicated and sometimes fierce debate concerning the (lack of) reproducibility of animal models and their relevance for human inflammatory diseases. Despite evident advancements in searching for alternatives, that is, replacing, reducing, and refining animal experiments-the three R's of Russel and Burch (1959)-understanding the complex interactions of the cells of the immune system, the nervous system and the affected tissue/organ during inflammation critically relies on in vivo models. Consequently, scientific advancement and ultimately novel therapeutic interventions depend on improving the reproducibility of animal inflammation models. As a prelude to the remaining hands-on protocols described in this volume, here, we summarize potential pitfalls of preclinical animal research and provide resources and background reading on how to avoid them.

  5. Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Torrey, Paul; Sijacki, Debora; Xu, Dandan; Snyder, Gregory F; Bird, Simeon; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the 'cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies due to numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, because of computational constraints, they were unable to track the small scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a volume of $(106.5\\,{\\rm Mpc})^3$. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the distribution of galaxies in clusters and statistics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time the metal and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

  6. Highly reproducible SERS arrays directly written by inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Weizhi; Li, Yanan; Guo, Dan; Song, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks.SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on the experimental details, gold nanoparticle characterization, and theoretical calculation for the diameters of contact area of droplets on substrates with different contact angles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04656k

  7. Reproducibility of Mammography Units, Film Processing and Quality Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the problems of quality control in mammography and processors units as a diagnosis of the current situation of mammography facilities. Measurements of reproducibility, optical density, optical difference and gamma index are included. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Mexican Republic. Mammography is a radiographic examination specially designed for detecting breast pathology. We found that the problems of reproducibility of AEC are smaller than the problems of processors units because almost all processors fall outside of the acceptable variation limits and they can affect the mammography quality image and the dose to breast. Only four mammography units agree with the minimum score established by ACR and FDA for the phantom image.

  8. Pressure stabilizer for reproducible picoinjection in droplet microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K; Yilmaz, Suzan; Adams, Paul D; Saxena, Deepak; Meagher, Robert J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-07

    Picoinjection is a promising technique to add reagents into pre-formed emulsion droplets on chip however, it is sensitive to pressure fluctuation, making stable operation of the picoinjector challenging. We present a chip architecture using a simple pressure stabilizer for consistent and highly reproducible picoinjection in multi-step biochemical assays with droplets. Incorporation of the stabilizer immediately upstream of a picoinjector or a combination of injectors greatly reduces pressure fluctuations enabling reproducible and effective picoinjection in systems where the pressure varies actively during operation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the pressure stabilizer for an integrated platform for on-demand encapsulation of bacterial cells followed by picoinjection of reagents for lysing the encapsulated cells. The pressure stabilizer was also used for picoinjection of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) reagents to achieve genomic DNA amplification of lysed bacterial cells.

  9. GMR biosensor arrays: correction techniques for reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D A; Gaster, R S; Osterfeld, S J; Murmann, B; Wang, S X

    2010-05-15

    Giant magnetoresistive biosensors possess great potential in biomedical applications for quantitatively detecting magnetically tagged biomolecules. Magnetic sensing does not suffer from the high background levels found in optical sensing modalities such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay translating into a technology with higher sensitivity. However, to reveal the full potential of these sensors and compensate for non-idealities such as temperature dependence, digital correction and calibration techniques are not only useful but imperative. Using these calibration techniques to correct for process variations and dynamic changes in the sensing environment (such as temperature and magnetic field), we are able to obtain extremely sensitive and, more importantly, reproducible results for quantifiable biomolecular reorganization. The reproducibility of the system was improved by over 3 x using digital correction techniques and the sensors are made temperature independent by using a novel background correction technique. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards reproducibility of research by reuse of IT best practices

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Reproducibility of any research gives much higher credibility both to research results and to the researchers. This is true for any kind of research including computer science, where a lot of tools and approaches have been developed to ensure reproducibility. In this talk I will focus on basic and seemingly simple principles, which sometimes look too obvious to follow, but help researchers build beautiful and reliable systems that produce consistent, measurable results. My talk will cover, among other things, the problem of embedding machine learning techniques into analysis strategy. I will also speak about the most common pitfalls in this process and how to avoid them. In addition, I will demonstrate the research environment based on the principles that I will have outlined. About the speaker Andrey Ustyuzhanin (36) is Head of CERN partnership program at Yandex. He is involved in the development of event indexing and event filtering services which Yandex has been providing for the LHCb experiment sinc...

  11. Reproducible Ultrahigh Electromagnetic SERS Enhancement in Nanosphere-Plane Junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Jing; Li, Hongquan; Yang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in nanoscale hotspots has been placed great hopes upon for identification of minimum chemical traces and in-situ investigation of single molecule structures and dynamics. However, previous work consists of either irreproducible enhancement factors (EF) from random aggregates, or moderate EFs despite better reproducibility. Consequently, systematic study of SERS at the single and few molecules level is still very limited, and the promised applications are far from being realized. Here we report EFs as high as the most intense hotspots in previous work yet achieved in a reproducible and well controlled manner, that is, electromagnetic EFs (EMEF) of 10^9~10 with an error down to 10^+/-0.08 from gold nanospheres on atomically flat gold planes under radially polarized (RP) laser excitation. In addition, our experiment reveals the EF's unexpected nonlinearity under as low as hundreds of nanowatts of laser power.

  12. Effective Reproducible Research with Org-Mode and Git

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisic, Luka; Legrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this article we address the question of developing a lightweight and effective workflow for conducting experimental research on modern parallel computer systems in a reproducible way. Our workflowsimply builds on two well-known tools (Org-mode and Git) and enablesto address issues such as provenance tracking, experimental setup reconstruction, replicable analysis. Although this workflow is perfectible and cannot be seen as a final solution, we have been usingit for ...

  13. Bounded symbols and reproducing kernel thesis for truncated Toeplitz operators

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, A; Fricain, Emmanuel; Mashreghi, Javad; Timotin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Compressions of Toeplitz operators to coinvariant subspaces of $H^2$ are called \\emph{truncated Toeplitz operators}. We study two questions related to these operators. The first, raised by Sarason, is whether boundedness of the operator implies the existence of a bounded symbol; the second is the reproducing kernel thesis. We show that in general the answer to the first question is negative, and we exhibit some classes of spaces for which the answers to both questions are positive.

  14. How reproducible are the measurements of leaf fluctuating asymmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Kozlov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents small, non-directional deviations from perfect symmetry in morphological characters. FA is generally assumed to increase in response to stress; therefore, FA is frequently used in ecological studies as an index of environmental or genetic stress experienced by an organism. The values of FA are usually small, and therefore the reliable detection of FA requires precise measurements. The reproducibility of fluctuating asymmetry (FA was explored by comparing the results of measurements of scanned images of 100 leaves of downy birch (Betula pubescens conducted by 31 volunteer scientists experienced in studying plant FA. The median values of FA varied significantly among the participants, from 0.000 to 0.074, and the coefficients of variation in FA for individual leaves ranged from 25% to 179%. The overall reproducibility of the results among the participants was rather low (0.074. Variation in instruments and methods used by the participants had little effect on the reported FA values, but the reproducibility of the measurements increased by 30% following exclusion of data provided by seven participants who had modified the suggested protocol for leaf measurements. The scientists working with plant FA are advised to pay utmost attention to adequate and detailed description of their data acquisition protocols in their forthcoming publications, because all characteristics of instruments and methods need to be controlled to increase the quality and reproducibility of the data. Whenever possible, the images of all measured objects and the results of primary measurements should be published as electronic appendices to scientific papers.

  15. Reproducing Kernel Method for Fractional Riccati Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a new numerical method for fractional Riccati differential equations. The method combines the reproducing kernel method and the quasilinearization technique. Its main advantage is that it can produce good approximations in a larger interval, rather than a local vicinity of the initial position. Numerical results are compared with some existing methods to show the accuracy and effectiveness of the present method.

  16. Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge regarding the reproducibility of biomarkers in 24-h urine samples has hindered the collection and use of the samples in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of various markers in repeat 24-h urine samples. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of biomarkers measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected in 3168 participants in the NHS (Nurses' Health Study), NHSII (Nurses' Health Study II), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In 742 women with 4 samples each collected over the course of 1 y, ICCs for sodium were 0.32 in the NHS and 0.34 in the NHSII. In 2439 men and women with 2 samples each collected over 1 wk to ≥1 mo, the ICCs ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 for sodium at various intervals between collections. The urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and other urinary markers showed generally higher reproducibility (ICCs >0.4). In 47 women with two 24-h urine samples, ICCs ranged from 0.15 (catechin) to 0.75 (enterolactone) for polyphenol metabolites. For phthalates, ICCs were generally ≤0.26 except for monobenzyl phthalate (ICC: 0.55), whereas the ICC was 0.39 for bisphenol A (BPA). We further estimated that, for the large majority of the biomarkers, the mean of three 24-h urine samples could provide a correlation of ≥0.8 with true long-term urinary excretion. These data suggest that the urinary excretion of various biomarkers, such as minerals, electrolytes, most polyphenols, and BPA, is reasonably reproducible in 24-h urine samples that are collected within a few days or ≤1 y. Our findings show that three 24-h samples are sufficient for the measurement of long-term exposure status in epidemiologic studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Reproducibility in density functional theory calculations of solids

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript.The final version is available from the American Association for the Advancement of Science via http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad3000 The widespread popularity of density-functional theory has given rise to a vast range of dedicated codes to predict molecular and crystalline properties. However, each code implements the formalism in a different way, raising questions on the reproducibility of such predictions. We report the results of a community-...

  18. Pressure Stabilizer for Reproducible Picoinjection in Droplet Microfluidic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Yilmaz, Suzan; Adams, Paul D.; Saxena, Deepak; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2014-01-01

    Picoinjection is a promising technique to add reagents into pre-formed emulsion droplets on chip; however, it is sensitive to pressure fluctuation, making stable operation of the picoinjector challenging. We present a chip architecture using a simple pressure stabilizer for consistent and highly reproducible picoinjection in multi-step biochemical assays with droplets. Incorporation of the stabilizer immediately upstream of a picoinjector or a combination of injectors greatly reduces pressure...

  19. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Kronqvist

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE 0.95 and standard deviation (SD of nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.84, GE 0.89 showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area. This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas.

  20. CRKSPH - A Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontiere, Nicholas; Raskin, Cody D.; Owen, J. Michael

    2017-03-01

    We present a formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) that utilizes a first-order consistent reproducing kernel, a smoothing function that exactly interpolates linear fields with particle tracers. Previous formulations using reproducing kernel (RK) interpolation have had difficulties maintaining conservation of momentum due to the fact the RK kernels are not, in general, spatially symmetric. Here, we utilize a reformulation of the fluid equations such that mass, linear momentum, and energy are all rigorously conserved without any assumption about kernel symmetries, while additionally maintaining approximate angular momentum conservation. Our approach starts from a rigorously consistent interpolation theory, where we derive the evolution equations to enforce the appropriate conservation properties, at the sacrifice of full consistency in the momentum equation. Additionally, by exploiting the increased accuracy of the RK method's gradient, we formulate a simple limiter for the artificial viscosity that reduces the excess diffusion normally incurred by the ordinary SPH artificial viscosity. Collectively, we call our suite of modifications to the traditional SPH scheme Conservative Reproducing Kernel SPH, or CRKSPH. CRKSPH retains many benefits of traditional SPH methods (such as preserving Galilean invariance and manifest conservation of mass, momentum, and energy) while improving on many of the shortcomings of SPH, particularly the overly aggressive artificial viscosity and zeroth-order inaccuracy. We compare CRKSPH to two different modern SPH formulations (pressure based SPH and compatibly differenced SPH), demonstrating the advantages of our new formulation when modeling fluid mixing, strong shock, and adiabatic phenomena.

  1. Validity and reproducibility of a Spanish dietary history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reproducibility of food and nutrient intake estimated with the electronic diet history of ENRICA (DH-E, which collects information on numerous aspects of the Spanish diet. METHODS: The validity of food and nutrient intake was estimated using Pearson correlation coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls collected every 2 months over the previous year. The reproducibility was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients between two DH-E made one year apart. RESULTS: The correlations coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls for the main food groups were cereals (r = 0.66, meat (r = 0.66, fish (r = 0.42, vegetables (r = 0.62 and fruits (r = 0.44. The mean correlation coefficient for all 15 food groups considered was 0.53. The correlations for macronutrients were: energy (r = 0.76, proteins (r= 0.58, lipids (r = 0.73, saturated fat (r = 0.73, monounsaturated fat (r = 0.59, polyunsaturated fat (r = 0.57, and carbohydrates (r = 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient for all 41 nutrients studied was 0.55. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two DH-E was greater than 0.40 for most foods and nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: The DH-E shows good validity and reproducibility for estimating usual intake of foods and nutrients.

  2. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  3. Reproducibility of LCA models of crude oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-11-04

    Scientific models are ideally reproducible, with results that converge despite varying methods. In practice, divergence between models often remains due to varied assumptions, incompleteness, or simply because of avoidable flaws. We examine LCA greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions models to test the reproducibility of their estimates for well-to-refinery inlet gate (WTR) GHG emissions. We use the Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE), an open source engineering-based life cycle assessment (LCA) model, as the reference model for this analysis. We study seven previous studies based on six models. We examine the reproducibility of prior results by successive experiments that align model assumptions and boundaries. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between results varies between ∼1 and 8 g CO2 eq/MJ LHV when model inputs are not aligned. After model alignment, RMSE generally decreases only slightly. The proprietary nature of some of the models hinders explanations for divergence between the results. Because verification of the results of LCA GHG emissions is often not possible by direct measurement, we recommend the development of open source models for use in energy policy. Such practice will lead to iterative scientific review, improvement of models, and more reliable understanding of emissions.

  4. Mechanostructure and composition of highly reproducible decellularized liver matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G; Di Patria, V; Tirella, A; Alaimo, A; Elia, G; Corti, A; Paolicchi, A; Ahluwalia, A

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of papers on decellularized scaffolds, there is little consensus on the optimum method of decellularizing biological tissue such that the micro-architecture and protein content of the matrix are conserved as far as possible. Focusing on the liver, the aim of this study was therefore to develop a method for the production of well-characterized and reproducible matrices that best preserves the structure and composition of the native extra cellular matrix (ECM). Given the importance of matrix stiffness in regulating cell response, the mechanical properties of the decellularized tissue were also considered. The testing and analysis framework is based on the characterization of decellularized and untreated samples in the same reproducible initial state (i.e., the equilibrium swollen state). Decellularized ECM (dECM) were characterized using biochemical, histological, mechanical and structural analyses to identify the best procedure to ensure complete cell removal while preserving most of the native ECM structure and composition. Using this method, sterile decellularized porcine ECM with highly conserved intra-lobular micro-structure and protein content were obtained in a consistent and reproducible manner using the equilibrium swollen state of tissue or matrix as a reference. A significant reduction in the compressive elastic modulus was observed for liver dECM with respect to native tissue, suggesting a re-examination of design parameters for ECM-mimicking scaffolds for engineering tissues in vitro.

  5. Indomethacin reproducibly induces metamorphosis in Cassiopea xamachana scyphistomae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales-Arellano, Patricia; Islas-Flores, Tania; Thomé, Patricia E.

    2017-01-01

    Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported. Such controlled metamorphosis induction is necessary for an ensured synchronicity and reproducibility of biological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. For this purpose, we tested if differentiation could be pharmacologically stimulated as in Aurelia aurita, by the metamorphic inducers thyroxine, KI, NaI, Lugol’s iodine, H2O2, indomethacin, or retinol. We found reproducibly induced strobilation by 50 μM indomethacin after six days of exposure, and 10–25 μM after 7 days. Strobilation under optimal conditions reached 80–100% with subsequent ephyrae release after exposure. Thyroxine yielded inconsistent results as it caused strobilation occasionally, while all other chemicals had no effect. Thus, indomethacin can be used as a convenient tool for assessment of biological phenomena through a controlled metamorphic process in C. xamachana scyphistomae. PMID:28265497

  6. Representativity and reproducibility of DNA malignancy grading in different carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcking, A; Chatelain, R; Homge, M; Daniel, R; Gillissen, A; Wohltmann, D

    1989-04-01

    The reproducibility of the determination of the "DNA malignancy grade" (DNA-MG) was tested in 56 carcinomas of the colon, breast and lung while its representativity was tested on 195 slides from 65 tumors of the colon, breast and lung. DNA measurements were performed on Feulgen-stained smears with the TAS Plus TV-based image analysis system combined with an automated microscope. The variance of the DNA values of tumor cells around the 2c peak, the "2c deviation index" (2cDI), was taken as a basis for the computation of the DNA-MG, which ranges on a continuous scale from 0.01 to 3.00. The representativity, analyzed by comparison of the DNA-MGs measured in three different areas of the same tumor greater than or equal to 1.5 cm apart from each other, yielded an 81% agreement. No significant differences between DNA-MGs of these areas were found. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the DNA grading system, investigated by repeated DNA measurements, were 83.9% and 82.2%, respectively. In comparison, histopathologic grading of the 27 breast cancers studied yielded 65% intraobserver and 57% interobserver reproducibilities and 66% representativity.

  7. Establishing a reproducible protocol for measuring index active extension strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Parrat, V; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Collon, S; Salazar Botero, S; Prunières, G; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a reproducible protocol to measure active extension strength in the index finger. The secondary objectives consisted in correlating the independent or associated index extension strength to the other fingers force of contraction of the extensor indicis propius with hand dominance. The population studied consisted of 24 healthy volunteers, including 19 women and 20 right-handed individuals. The independent and dependent index extension strength in each hand was measured three times with a dynamometer by three examiners at Day 0 and again at Day 7. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility were, respectively, >0.90 and >0.75 in all cases. The independent extension strength was lower than the dependent one. There was no difference between the independent index extension strength on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The same was true for the dependent strength. Our results show that our protocol is reproducible in measuring independent and dependent index extension strength. Dominance did not come into account.

  8. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  9. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  10. Reproducibility of gene expression across generations of Affymetrix microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslett Judith N

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of large-scale gene expression profiling technologies is rapidly changing the norms of biological investigation. But the rapid pace of change itself presents challenges. Commercial microarrays are regularly modified to incorporate new genes and improved target sequences. Although the ability to compare datasets across generations is crucial for any long-term research project, to date no means to allow such comparisons have been developed. In this study the reproducibility of gene expression levels across two generations of Affymetrix GeneChips® (HuGeneFL and HG-U95A was measured. Results Correlation coefficients were computed for gene expression values across chip generations based on different measures of similarity. Comparing the absolute calls assigned to the individual probe sets across the generations found them to be largely unchanged. Conclusion We show that experimental replicates are highly reproducible, but that reproducibility across generations depends on the degree of similarity of the probe sets and the expression level of the corresponding transcript.

  11. Indomethacin reproducibly induces metamorphosis in Cassiopea xamachana scyphistomae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cabrales-Arellano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported. Such controlled metamorphosis induction is necessary for an ensured synchronicity and reproducibility of biological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. For this purpose, we tested if differentiation could be pharmacologically stimulated as in Aurelia aurita, by the metamorphic inducers thyroxine, KI, NaI, Lugol’s iodine, H2O2, indomethacin, or retinol. We found reproducibly induced strobilation by 50 μM indomethacin after six days of exposure, and 10–25 μM after 7 days. Strobilation under optimal conditions reached 80–100% with subsequent ephyrae release after exposure. Thyroxine yielded inconsistent results as it caused strobilation occasionally, while all other chemicals had no effect. Thus, indomethacin can be used as a convenient tool for assessment of biological phenomena through a controlled metamorphic process in C. xamachana scyphistomae.

  12. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

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    Elkjaer Arne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC and low back pain (LBP. However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS, sitting forward lean (SFL, sitting knee extension (SKE, and bent knee fall out (BKFO, all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL, measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8, were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27 cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62 cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29 cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52 cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1 mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these

  13. Venusian Polar Vortex reproduced by a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Takagi, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Unlike the polar vortices observed in the Earth, Mars and Titan atmospheres, the observed Venus polar vortex is warmer than the mid-latitudes at cloud-top levels (~65 km). This warm polar vortex is zonally surrounded by a cold latitude band located at ~60 degree latitude, which is a unique feature called 'cold collar' in the Venus atmosphere [e.g. Taylor et al. 1980; Piccioni et al. 2007]. Although these structures have been observed in numerous previous observations, the formation mechanism is still unknown. In addition, an axi-asymmetric feature is always seen in the warm polar vortex. It changes temporally and sometimes shows a hot polar dipole or S-shaped structure as shown by a lot of infrared measurements [e.g. Garate-Lopez et al. 2013; 2015]. However, its vertical structure has not been investigated. To solve these problems, we performed a numerical simulation of the Venus atmospheric circulation using a general circulation model named AFES for Venus [Sugimoto et al. 2014] and reproduced these puzzling features.And then, the reproduced structures of the atmosphere and the axi-asymmetirc feature are compared with some previous observational results.In addition, the quasi-periodical zonal-mean zonal wind fluctuation is also seen in the Venus polar vortex reproduced in our model. This might be able to explain some observational results [e.g. Luz et al. 2007] and implies that the polar vacillation might also occur in the Venus atmosphere, which is silimar to the Earth's polar atmosphere. We will also show some initial results about this point in this presentation.

  14. Reproducibility and Transparency in Ocean-Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, N.; Adcroft, A.; Hallberg, R.; Griffies, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducibility is a cornerstone of the scientific method. Within geophysical modeling and simulation achieving reproducibility can be difficult, especially given the complexity of numerical codes, enormous and disparate data sets, and variety of supercomputing technology. We have made progress on this problem in the context of a large project - the development of new ocean and sea ice models, MOM6 and SIS2. Here we present useful techniques and experience.We use version control not only for code but the entire experiment working directory, including configuration (run-time parameters, component versions), input data and checksums on experiment output. This allows us to document when the solutions to experiments change, whether due to code updates or changes in input data. To avoid distributing large input datasets we provide the tools for generating these from the sources, rather than provide raw input data.Bugs can be a source of non-determinism and hence irreproducibility, e.g. reading from or branching on uninitialized memory. To expose these we routinely run system tests, using a memory debugger, multiple compilers and different machines. Additional confidence in the code comes from specialised tests, for example automated dimensional analysis and domain transformations. This has entailed adopting a code style where we deliberately restrict what a compiler can do when re-arranging mathematical expressions.In the spirit of open science, all development is in the public domain. This leads to a positive feedback, where increased transparency and reproducibility makes using the model easier for external collaborators, who in turn provide valuable contributions. To facilitate users installing and running the model we provide (version controlled) digital notebooks that illustrate and record analysis of output. This has the dual role of providing a gross, platform-independent, testing capability and a means to documents model output and analysis.

  15. Assessment of precision and reproducibility of a new myograph

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    Piepenbrock Siegfried

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological characteristics of muscle activity and the assessment of muscle strength represent important diagnostic information. There are many devices that measure muscle force in humans, but some require voluntary contractions, which are difficult to assess in weak or unconscious patients who are unable to complete a full range of voluntary force assessment tasks. Other devices, which obtain standard muscle contractions by electric stimulations, do not have the technology required to induce and measure reproducible valid contractions at the optimum muscle length. Methods In our study we used a newly developed diagnostic device which measures accurately the reproducibility and time-changed-variability of the muscle force in an individual muscle. A total of 500 in-vivo measurements of supra-maximal isometric single twitch contractions were carried out on the musculus adductor pollicis of 5 test subjects over 10 sessions, with ten repetitions per session. The same protocol was performed on 405 test subjects with two repetitions each to determine a reference-interval on healthy subjects. Results Using our test setting, we found a high reproducibility of the muscle contractions of each test subject. The precision of the measurements performed with our device was 98.74%. Only two consecutive measurements are needed in order to assess a real, representative individual value of muscle force. The mean value of the force of contraction was 9.51 N and the 95% reference interval was 4.77–14.25 N. Conclusion The new myograph is a highly reliable measuring device with which the adductor pollicis can be investigated at the optimum length. It has the potential to become a reliable and valid tool for diagnostic in the clinical setting and for monitoring neuromuscular diseases.

  16. Psychophysiological responses to pain identify reproducible human clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Coen, Steven J; Kano, Michiko; Paine, Peter A; Shwahdi, Mustafa; Jafari, Jafar; Kishor, Jessin; Worthen, Sian F; Rossiter, Holly E; Kumari, Veena; Williams, Steven C R; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent P; Droney, Joanne; Riley, Julia; Furlong, Paul L; Knowles, Charles H; Lightman, Stafford L; Aziz, Qasim

    2013-11-01

    Pain is a ubiquitous yet highly variable experience. The psychophysiological and genetic factors responsible for this variability remain unresolved. We hypothesised the existence of distinct human pain clusters (PCs) composed of distinct psychophysiological and genetic profiles coupled with differences in the perception and the brain processing of pain. We studied 120 healthy subjects in whom the baseline personality and anxiety traits and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype were measured. Real-time autonomic nervous system parameters and serum cortisol were measured at baseline and after standardised visceral and somatic pain stimuli. Brain processing reactions to visceral pain were studied in 29 subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The reproducibility of the psychophysiological responses to pain was assessed at year. In group analysis, visceral and somatic pain caused an expected increase in sympathetic and cortisol responses and activated the pain matrix according to fMRI studies. However, using cluster analysis, we found 2 reproducible PCs: at baseline, PC1 had higher neuroticism/anxiety scores (P ≤ 0.01); greater sympathetic tone (Ppain, less stimulus was tolerated (P ≤ 0.01), and there was an increase in parasympathetic tone (P ≤ 0.05). The 5-HTTLPR short allele was over-represented (P ≤ 0.005). PC2 had the converse profile at baseline and during pain. Brain activity differed (P ≤ 0.001); greater activity occurred in the left frontal cortex in PC1, whereas PC2 showed greater activity in the right medial/frontal cortex and right anterior insula. In health, 2 distinct reproducible PCs exist in humans. In the future, PC characterization may help to identify subjects at risk for developing chronic pain and may reduce variability in brain imaging studies.

  17. Reproducibility and responsiveness of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron; Niere, Kenneth Robert; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-08-01

    This study continued the validation of a Whiplash Specific Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) that was developed from the Neck Disability Index (NDI) using self-reported disabilities in a group of participants experiencing whiplash-associated disorders [J Manipulative Physiol Ther 14 (1991) 409]. Previous research has established the content, construct and face validity and internal consistency of the WDQ. The aim of this study was to establish the short-term and medium-term test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the WDQ. Participants (n = 63) receiving physiotherapy treatment for WAD were recruited from 30 private physiotherapy practices in Melbourne, Australia. Each participant completed three WDQ questionnaires over a 1-month period, the first two separated by 24 h. The third questionnaire contained an additional item that asked respondents to rate their perceived change in condition over the month. Reproducibility was determined using an intra-class correlation co-efficient. Responsiveness was assessed via correlation with participant perceived change, the effect size, standardised response mean (SRM) and the responsiveness statistic. Results demonstrated excellent short-term test-retest reliability (ICC 0.96). Reproducibility over 1 month was excellent (ICC 0.93). Correlation between change in WDQ score over 1 month and participant perceived change was r(s) = 0.64, the effect size was 0.03, the SRM was 0.08 and the responsiveness statistics were 0.90 (participants who improved) and -1.60 (participants who deteriorated). The minimal detectable change of the WDQ was established at 15 points. These results demonstrate that the WDQ has excellent short- and medium-term reproducibility and responsiveness in a population seeking treatment for WAD.

  18. Reproducibility of the Optical Biometer OA-1000 (Tomey

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    Susanne Christiane Goebels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The OA-1000 (Tomey, Japan is a new optical biometer, which measures axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CT utilizing optical interference technology. The aim of this study was to prove the reproducibility which is considered fundamental for other clinical investigations. Methods. 55 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. For each measurement of AL, ACD, and CT the biometer is grabbing a sequence of 10 shots and mean value (mean and standard deviation (SD are displayed. Five consecutive measurements were performed and average and standard deviation were assessed. Cronbach’s α was derived as a quality measure for reproducibility. Results. For AL measurement Cronbach’s α was 1.000, for CT 0.999, and for ACD 0.979, respectively. Mean value for AL was 23.36±1.03 mm, for ACD it was 3.60±0.687 mm, and for CT it was 552.08±29.70 μm, respectively. Standard deviation for AL was 0.013±0.022 mm, for ACD 0.09±0.11 mm, and for CT 2.18±1.75 μm. One correlation was found between mean values for AL and ACD (R = 0.388, P = 0.005; no other correlations were found between mean values or values of standard deviation of AL, ACD, or CT. Conclusion. The OA-1000 shows an excellent reproducibility for measurement of AL, ACD, and CT and can be used in clinical practice.

  19. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  20. Reproducing wavelet kernel method in nonlinear system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiang-jun; XU Xiao-ming; CAI Yun-ze

    2008-01-01

    By combining the wavelet decomposition with kernel method, a practical approach of universal multi-scale wavelet kernels constructed in reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) is discussed, and an identifica-tion scheme using wavelet support vector machines ( WSVM ) estimator is proposed for nonlinear dynamic sys-tems. The good approximating properties of wavelet kernel function enhance the generalization ability of the pro-posed method, and the comparison of some numerical experimental results between the novel approach and some existing methods is encouraging.

  1. Explicit signal to noise ratio in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Chova, Luis; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonlinear feature extraction method based on kernels for remote sensing data analysis. The proposed approach is based on the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform, which maximizes the signal variance while also minimizing the estimated noise variance. We here propose...... an alternative kernel MNF (KMNF) in which the noise is explicitly estimated in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. This enables KMNF dealing with non-linear relations between the noise and the signal features jointly. Results show that the proposed KMNF provides the most noise-free features when confronted...

  2. Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal thickness using SOCT Copernicus HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Silvia; Viqueira, Valentín; Mas, David; Domenech, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of corneal thickness measurements derived from SOCT Copernicus HR (Fourier domain OCT). Thirty healthy eyes of 30 subjects were evaluated. One eye of each patient was chosen randomly. Images were obtained of the central (up to 2.0 mm from the corneal apex) and paracentral (2.0 to 4.0 mm) cornea. We assessed corneal thickness (central and paracentral) and epithelium thickness. The intra-observer repeatability data were analysed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for a range of 95 per cent within-subject standard deviation (S(W)) and the within-subject coefficient of variation (C(W)). The level of agreement by Bland-Altman analysis was also represented for the study of the reproducibility between observers and agreement between methods of measurement (automatic versus manual). The mean value of the central corneal thickness (CCT) was 542.4 ± 30.1 μm (SD). There was a high intra-observer agreement, finding the best result in the central sector with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, 95 per cent CI (0.989 to 0.997) and the worst, in the minimum corneal thickness, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.672, 95 per cent CI (0.417 to 0.829). Reproducibility between observers was very high. The best result was found in the central sector thickness obtained both manually and automatically with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.990 in both cases and the worst result in the maximum corneal thickness with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.827. The agreement between measurement methods was also very high with intra-class correlation coefficient greater than 0.91. On the other hand the repeatability and reproducibility for epithelial measurements was poor. Pachymetric mapping with SOCT Copernicus HR was found to be highly repeatable and reproducible. We found that the device lacks an appropriate ergonomic design as proper focusing of the laser beam onto the

  3. Towards interoperable and reproducible QSAR analyses: Exchange of datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjuth Ola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background QSAR is a widely used method to relate chemical structures to responses or properties based on experimental observations. Much effort has been made to evaluate and validate the statistical modeling in QSAR, but these analyses treat the dataset as fixed. An overlooked but highly important issue is the validation of the setup of the dataset, which comprises addition of chemical structures as well as selection of descriptors and software implementations prior to calculations. This process is hampered by the lack of standards and exchange formats in the field, making it virtually impossible to reproduce and validate analyses and drastically constrain collaborations and re-use of data. Results We present a step towards standardizing QSAR analyses by defining interoperable and reproducible QSAR datasets, consisting of an open XML format (QSAR-ML which builds on an open and extensible descriptor ontology. The ontology provides an extensible way of uniquely defining descriptors for use in QSAR experiments, and the exchange format supports multiple versioned implementations of these descriptors. Hence, a dataset described by QSAR-ML makes its setup completely reproducible. We also provide a reference implementation as a set of plugins for Bioclipse which simplifies setup of QSAR datasets, and allows for exporting in QSAR-ML as well as old-fashioned CSV formats. The implementation facilitates addition of new descriptor implementations from locally installed software and remote Web services; the latter is demonstrated with REST and XMPP Web services. Conclusions Standardized QSAR datasets open up new ways to store, query, and exchange data for subsequent analyses. QSAR-ML supports completely reproducible creation of datasets, solving the problems of defining which software components were used and their versions, and the descriptor ontology eliminates confusions regarding descriptors by defining them crisply. This makes is easy to join

  4. Reproducibility of UAV-based photogrammetric surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Niels; Smith, Mike; Cammeraat, Erik; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion, rapid geomorphological change and vegetation degradation are major threats to the human and natural environment in many regions. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry are invaluable tools for the collection of highly detailed aerial imagery and subsequent low cost production of 3D landscapes for an assessment of landscape change. Despite the widespread use of UAVs for image acquisition in monitoring applications, the reproducibility of UAV data products has not been explored in detail. This paper investigates this reproducibility by comparing the surface models and orthophotos derived from different UAV flights that vary in flight direction and altitude. The study area is located near Lorca, Murcia, SE Spain, which is a semi-arid medium-relief locale. The area is comprised of terraced agricultural fields that have been abandoned for about 40 years and have suffered subsequent damage through piping and gully erosion. In this work we focused upon variation in cell size, vertical and horizontal accuracy, and horizontal positioning of recognizable landscape features. The results suggest that flight altitude has a significant impact on reconstructed point density and related cell size, whilst flight direction affects the spatial distribution of vertical accuracy. The horizontal positioning of landscape features is relatively consistent between the different flights. We conclude that UAV data products are suitable for monitoring campaigns for land cover purposes or geomorphological mapping, but special care is required when used for monitoring changes in elevation.

  5. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

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    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  6. Reproducibility of Neonate Ocular Circulation Measurements Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy

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    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the ocular blood flow in neonates may clarify the relationships between eye diseases and ocular circulation abnormalities. However, no method for noninvasively measuring ocular circulation in neonates is established. We used laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG modified for neonates to measure their ocular circulation and investigated whether this method is reproducible. During their normal sleep, we studied 16 subjects (adjusted age of 34–48 weeks whose blood flow could be measured three consecutive times. While the subjects slept in the supine position, three mean blur rate (MBR values of the optic nerve head (ONH were obtained: the MBR-A (mean of all values, MBR-V (vessel mean, and MBR-T (tissue mean, and nine blood flow pulse waveform parameters in the ONH were examined. We analyzed the coefficient of variation (COV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for each parameter. The COVs of the MBR values were all ≤10%. The ICCs of the MBR values were all >0.8. Good COVs were observed for the blowout score, blowout time, rising rate, falling rate, and acceleration time index. Although the measurement of ocular circulation in the neonates was difficult, our results exhibited reproducibility, suggesting that this method could be used in clinical research.

  7. Assessment of Modeling Capability for Reproducing Storm Impacts on TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B. A.; Foerster, M.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Huba, J. D.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Pi, X.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Ridley, A. J.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    During geomagnetic storm, the energy transfer from solar wind to magnetosphere-ionosphere system adversely affects the communication and navigation systems. Quantifying storm impacts on TEC (Total Electron Content) and assessment of modeling capability of reproducing storm impacts on TEC are of importance to specifying and forecasting space weather. In order to quantify storm impacts on TEC, we considered several parameters: TEC changes compared to quiet time (the day before storm), TEC difference between 24-hour intervals, and maximum increase/decrease during the storm. We investigated the spatial and temporal variations of the parameters during the 2006 AGU storm event (14-15 Dec. 2006) using ground-based GPS TEC measurements in the selected 5 degree eight longitude sectors. The latitudinal variations were also studied in two longitude sectors among the eight sectors where data coverage is relatively better. We obtained modeled TEC from various ionosphere/thermosphere (IT) models. The parameters from the models were compared with each other and with the observed values. We quantified performance of the models in reproducing the TEC variations during the storm using skill scores. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  8. Prion pathogenesis is faithfully reproduced in cerebellar organotypic slice cultures.

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    Jeppe Falsig

    Full Text Available Prions cause neurodegeneration in vivo, yet prion-infected cultured cells do not show cytotoxicity. This has hampered mechanistic studies of prion-induced neurodegeneration. Here we report that prion-infected cultured organotypic cerebellar slices (COCS experienced progressive spongiform neurodegeneration closely reproducing prion disease, with three different prion strains giving rise to three distinct patterns of prion protein deposition. Neurodegeneration did not occur when PrP was genetically removed from neurons, and a comprehensive pharmacological screen indicated that neurodegeneration was abrogated by compounds known to antagonize prion replication. Prion infection of COCS and mice led to enhanced fodrin cleavage, suggesting the involvement of calpains or caspases in pathogenesis. Accordingly, neurotoxicity and fodrin cleavage were prevented by calpain inhibitors but not by caspase inhibitors, whereas prion replication proceeded unimpeded. Hence calpain inhibition can uncouple prion replication from its neurotoxic sequelae. These data validate COCS as a powerful model system that faithfully reproduces most morphological hallmarks of prion infections. The exquisite accessibility of COCS to pharmacological manipulations was instrumental in recognizing the role of calpains in neurotoxicity, and significantly extends the collection of tools necessary for rigorously dissecting prion pathogenesis.

  9. Effect of soil moisture content on the splash phenomenon reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available One of the methods for testing splash (the first phase of water erosion may be an analysis of photos taken using so-called high-speed cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of measurements using a single drop splash of simulated precipitation. The height from which the drops fell resulted in a splash of 1.5 m. Tests were carried out using two types of soil: Eutric Cambisol (loamy silt and Orthic Luvisol (sandy loam; three initial pressure heads were applied equal to 16 kPa, 3.1 kPa, and 0.1 kPa. Images for one, five, and 10 drops were recorded at a rate of 2000 frames per second. It was found that (i the dispersion of soil caused by the striking of the 1st drop was significantly different from the splash impact caused by subsequent drops; (ii with every drop, the splash phenomenon proceeded more reproducibly, that is, the number of particles of soil and/or water that splashed were increasingly close to each other; (iii the number of particles that were detached during the splash were strongly correlated with its surface area; and (iv the higher the water film was on the surface the smaller the width of the crown was.

  10. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-01-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  11. Reproducibility of tomographic evaluation of posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Italo Risso Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interobserver agreement of Glassman classification for posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four CT scans from patients who underwent posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine were evaluated by four observers, namely two orthopedic surgeons experienced in spine surgery and two in training in this area. Using the reconstructed tomographic images at oblique coronal plane, 299 operated levels were systematically analyzed looking for arthrodesis signals. The appearance of bone healing in each operated level was classified in five categories as proposed by Glassman to the posterolateral arthrodesis: 1 bilateral solid arthrodesis; 2 unilateral solid arthrodesis; 3 bilateral partial arthrodesis; 4 unilateral partial arthrodesis; 5 absence of arthrodesis. In a second step, the evaluation of each operated level was divided into two categories: fusion (including type 1, 2, 3, and 4 and non fusion (type 5. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the Kappa coefficient considering the paired analysis between the two experienced observers and between the two observers in training.RESULTS: The interobserver reproducibility by the kappa coefficient for arthrodesis consolidation analysis for the classification proposed, divided into 5 types, was 0.729 for both experienced surgeons and training surgeons. Considering only two categories kappa coefficient was 0.745 between experienced surgeons and 0.795 between training surgeons. In all analyzes, we obtained high concordance power.CONCLUSION: Interobserver reproducibility was observed with high concordance in the classification proposed by Glassman for posterolateral arthrodesis of the lumbar and lumbosacral spine.

  12. Faster, More Reproducible DESI-MS for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Wu, Vincen; Jones, Emrys A.; Pringle, Steven D.; Karancsi, Tamas; Dannhorn, Andreas; Veselkov, Kirill; McKenzie, James S.; Takats, Zoltan

    2017-10-01

    A new, more robust sprayer for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is presented. The main source of variability in DESI is thought to be the uncontrolled variability of various geometric parameters of the sprayer, primarily the position of the solvent capillary, or more specifically, its positioning within the gas capillary or nozzle. If the solvent capillary is off-center, the sprayer becomes asymmetrical, making the geometry difficult to control and compromising reproducibility. If the stiffness, tip quality, and positioning of the capillary are improved, sprayer reproducibility can be improved by an order of magnitude. The quality of the improved sprayer and its potential for high spatial resolution imaging are demonstrated on human colorectal tissue samples by acquisition of images at pixel sizes of 100, 50, and 20 μm, which corresponds to a lateral resolution of 40-60 μm, similar to the best values published in the literature. The high sensitivity of the sprayer also allows combination with a fast scanning quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This provides up to 30 times faster DESI acquisition, reducing the overall acquisition time for a 10 mm × 10 mm rat brain sample to approximately 1 h. Although some spectral information is lost with increasing analysis speed, the resulting data can still be used to classify tissue types on the basis of a previously constructed model. This is particularly interesting for clinical applications, where fast, reliable diagnosis is required. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  14. Building Consensus on Community Standards for Reproducible Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Nielsen, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    As geochemists, the traditional model by which standard methods for generating, presenting, and using data have been generated relied on input from the community, the results of seminal studies, a variety of authoritative bodies, and has required a great deal of time. The rate of technological and related policy change has accelerated to the point that this historical model does not satisfy the needs of the community, publishers, or funders. The development of a new mechanism for building consensus raises a number of questions: Which aspects of our data are the focus of reproducibility standards? Who sets the standards? How do we subdivide the development of the consensus? We propose an open, transparent, and inclusive approach to the development of data and reproducibility standards that is organized around specific sub-disciplines and driven by the community of practitioners in those sub-disciplines. It should involve editors, program managers, and representatives of domain data facilities as well as professional societies, but avoid any single group to be the final authority. A successful example of this model is the Editors Roundtable, a cross section of editors, funders, and data facility managers that discussed and agreed on leading practices for the reporting of geochemical data in publications, including accessibility and format of the data, data quality information, and metadata and identifiers for samples (Goldstein et al., 2014). We argue that development of data and reproducibility standards needs to heavily rely on representatives from the community of practitioners to set priorities and provide perspective. Groups of editors, practicing scientists, and other stakeholders would be assigned the task of reviewing existing practices and recommending changes as deemed necessary. They would weigh the costs and benefits of changing the standards for that community, propose appropriate tools to facilitate those changes, work through the professional societies

  15. GigaDB: promoting data dissemination and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Tam P; Zhe, Xiao Si; Edmunds, Scott C; Li, Peter; Goodman, Laurie; Hunter, Christopher I

    2014-01-01

    Often papers are published where the underlying data supporting the research are not made available because of the limitations of making such large data sets publicly and permanently accessible. Even if the raw data are deposited in public archives, the essential analysis intermediaries, scripts or software are frequently not made available, meaning the science is not reproducible. The GigaScience journal is attempting to address this issue with the associated data storage and dissemination portal, the GigaScience database (GigaDB). Here we present the current version of GigaDB and reveal plans for the next generation of improvements. However, most importantly, we are soliciting responses from you, the users, to ensure that future developments are focused on the data storage and dissemination issues that still need resolving. Database URL: http://www.gigadb.org.

  16. Using a 1-D model to reproduce diurnal SST signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely obtained measurements is through modelling of the upper ocean temperature. This ESA supported study focuses on the implementation of the 1 dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), in order to resolve...... profiles, along with the selection of the coefficients for the 2-band parametrisation of light’s penetration in the water column, hold a key role in the agreement of the modelled output with observations. To improve the surface heat budget and the distribution of heat, the code was modified to include...... Institution Upper Ocean Processes Group archive. The successful implementation of the new parametrisations is verified while the model reproduces the diurnal signals seen from in situ measurements. Special focus is given to testing and validation of different set-ups using campaign data from the Atlantic...

  17. Towards Reproducible Research Data Analyses in LHC Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Simko, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of the research data analysis requires having access not only to the original datasets, but also to the computing environment, the analysis software and the workflow used to produce the original results. We present the nascent CERN Analysis Preservation platform with a set of tools developed to support particle physics researchers in preserving the knowledge around analyses so that capturing, sharing, reusing and reinterpreting data becomes easier. The presentation will focus on three pillars: (i) capturing structured knowledge information about data analysis processes; (ii) capturing the computing environment, the software code, the datasets, the configuration and other information assets used in data analyses; (iii) re-instantiating of preserved analyses on a containerised computing cloud for the purposes of re-validation and re-interpretation.

  18. Comunicación en el aula reproduce inequidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Villarreal Montoya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados de la investigación “Comportamiento comunicacional de hombres y mujeres en los procesos educativos”, la cual se propuso visibilizar cómo se operacionaliza la comunicación en los procesos educativos y cómo reproduce las inequidades características de una sociedad patriarcal. Para lograrlo se analiza la comunicación desde tres aspectos: lenguaje, relaciones y espacio; empleando metodología cualitativa y técnicas de investigación como la observación de un curso semestral a nivel de licenciatura, entrevista a sujet@s de los procesos educativos y revisión y análisis de documentos.

  19. Reproducibility of Obtaining thin Films of Polyaniline by Direct Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Gazdic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the process of obtaining thin films of polymer polyaniline that has been doped directly in the production process. Samples of thin films were obtained using a rotating disk method at different speeds. Polyaniline synthesis (PANI was performed at 0°C and room temperature of 20°C. Doping was made with hydrochloric acid (PANI-HCl. We have shown what were the important factors that had influence on obtaining reproducible patterns of about the same characteristics. As indicators of these properties we measured electrical resistance, on the basis of which was calculated specific electrical conductivity of the obtained samples of thin films of polyaniline from different series of production.

  20. Ratio-scaling of listener preference of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian

    2005-01-01

    , stereo and various multichannel formats) served as stimuli. On each trial, the task of the subjects was to choose the format they preferred, proceeding through all the possible pairs of the eight reproduction modes. This experiment was replicated with four types of programme material (pop and classical......-trivial assumption in the case of complex spatial sounds. In the present study the Bradley-Terry-Luce (BTL) model was employed to investigate the unidimensionality of preference judgments made by 40 listeners on multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts played back in eight reproduction modes (mono...... music). As a main result, the BTL model was found to predict the choice frequencies well. This implies that listeners were able to integrate the complex nature of the sounds into a unidimensional preference judgment. It further implies the existence of a preference scale on which the reproduction modes...

  1. Reproducing the Kinematics of Damped Lyman-alpha Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Neeleman, Marcel; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We examine the kinematic structure of Damped Lyman-alpha Systems (DLAs) in a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using the AREPO code. We are able to match the distribution of velocity widths of associated low ionisation metal absorbers substantially better than earlier work. Our simulations produce a population of DLAs dominated by halos with virial velocities around 70 km/s, consistent with a picture of relatively small, faint objects. In addition, we reproduce the observed correlation between velocity width and metallicity and the equivalent width distribution of SiII. Some discrepancies of moderate statistical significance remain; too many of our spectra show absorption concentrated at the edge of the profile and there are slight differences in the exact shape of the velocity width distribution. We show that the improvement over previous work is mostly due to our strong feedback from star formation and our detailed modelling of the metal ionisation state.

  2. The Vienna LTE simulators - Enabling reproducibility in wireless communications research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlführer Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we introduce MATLAB-based link and system level simulation environments for UMTS Long-Term Evolution (LTE. The source codes of both simulators are available under an academic non-commercial use license, allowing researchers full access to standard-compliant simulation environments. Owing to the open source availability, the simulators enable reproducible research in wireless communications and comparison of novel algorithms. In this study, we explain how link and system level simulations are connected and show how the link level simulator serves as a reference to design the system level simulator. We compare the accuracy of the PHY modeling at system level by means of simulations performed both with bit-accurate link level simulations and PHY-model-based system level simulations. We highlight some of the currently most interesting research questions for LTE, and explain by some research examples how our simulators can be applied.

  3. Quark/gluon jet discrimination: a reproducible analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The power to discriminate between light-quark jets and gluon jets would have a huge impact on many searches for new physics at CERN and beyond. This talk will present a walk-through of the development of a prototype machine learning classifier for differentiating between quark and gluon jets at experiments like those at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A new fast feature selection method that combines information theory and graph analytics will be outlined. This method has found new variables that promise significant improvements in discrimination power. The prototype jet tagger is simple, interpretable, parsimonious, and computationally extremely cheap, and therefore might be suitable for use in trigger systems for real-time data processing. Nested stratified k-fold cross validation was used to generate robust estimates of model performance. The data analysis was performed entirely in the R statistical programming language, and is fully reproducible. The entire analysis workflow is data-driven, automated a...

  4. Research Spotlight: Improved model reproduces the 2003 European heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-04-01

    In August 2003, record-breaking temperatures raged across much of Europe. In France, maximum temperatures of 37°C (99°F) persisted for 9 days straight, the longest such stretch since 1873. About 40,000 deaths (14,000 in France alone) were attributed to the extreme heat and low humidity. Various climate conditions must come into alignment to produce extreme weather like the 2003 heat wave, and despite a concerted effort, forecasting models have so far been unable to accurately reproduce the event—including the modern European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble modeling system for seasonal forecasts, which went into operation in 2007. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046455, 2011)

  5. A Bayesian Perspective on the Reproducibility Project: Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Alexander; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the results of the recent Reproducibility Project: Psychology by the Open Science Collaboration. We compute Bayes factors-a quantity that can be used to express comparative evidence for an hypothesis but also for the null hypothesis-for a large subset (N = 72) of the original papers and their corresponding replication attempts. In our computation, we take into account the likely scenario that publication bias had distorted the originally published results. Overall, 75% of studies gave qualitatively similar results in terms of the amount of evidence provided. However, the evidence was often weak (i.e., Bayes factor psychological literature. We further conclude that traditional sample sizes are insufficient and that a more widespread adoption of Bayesian methods is desirable.

  6. A reproducible method to determine the meteoroid mass index

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorny, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Context. The determination of meteoroid mass indices is central to flux measurements and evolutionary studies of meteoroid populations. However, different authors use different approaches to fit observed data, making results difficult to reproduce and the resulting uncertainties difficult to justify. The real, physical, uncertainties are usually an order of magnitude higher than the reported values. Aims. We aim to develop a fully automated method that will measure meteoroid mass indices and associated uncertainty. We validate our method on large radar and optical datasets and compare results to obtain a best estimate of the true meteoroid mass index. Methods. Using MultiNest, a Bayesian inference tool that calculates the evidence and explores the parameter space, we search for the best fit of cumulative number vs. mass distributions in a four-dimensional space of variables ($a,b,X_1,X_2$). We explore biases in meteor echo distributions using optical meteor data as a calibration dataset to establish the syste...

  7. Virtual Micromagnetics: A Framework for Accessible and Reproducible Micromagnetic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Vousden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational micromagnetics requires numerical solution of partial differential equations to resolve complex interactions in magnetic nanomaterials. The Virtual Micromagnetics project described here provides virtual machine simulation environments to run open-source micromagnetic simulation packages [1]. These environments allow easy access to simulation packages that are often difficult to compile and install, and enable simulations and their data to be shared and stored in a single virtual hard disk file, which encourages reproducible research. Virtual Micromagnetics can be extended to automate the installation of micromagnetic simulation packages on non-virtual machines, and to support closed-source and new open-source simulation packages, including packages from disciplines other than micromagnetics, encouraging reuse. Virtual Micromagnetics is stored in a public GitHub repository under a three-clause Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD license.

  8. New model for datasets citation and extraction reproducibility in VAMDC

    CERN Document Server

    Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new paradigm for the identification of datasets extracted from the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-science infrastructure. Such identification includes information on the origin and version of the datasets, references associated to individual data in the datasets, as well as timestamps linked to the extraction procedure. This paradigm is described through the modifications of the language used to exchange data within the VAMDC and through the services that will implement those modifications. This new paradigm should enforce traceability of datasets, favour reproducibility of datasets extraction, and facilitate the systematic citation of the authors having originally measured and/or calculated the extracted atomic and molecular data.

  9. Efficient and reproducible identification of mismatch repair deficient colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Halvarsson, Britta;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analysis can be obtained with predictive models, which need to demonstrate ease...... of application and favorable reproducibility. METHODS: We validated the MMR index for the identification of prognostically favorable MMR deficient colon cancers and compared performance to 5 other prediction models. In total, 474 colon cancers diagnosed ≥ age 50 were evaluated with correlation between...... and efficiently identifies MMR defective colon cancers with high sensitivity and specificity. The model shows stable performance with low inter-observer variability and favorable performance when compared to other MMR predictive models....

  10. New model for datasets citation and extraction reproducibility in VAMDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Moreau, Nicolas; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a new paradigm for the identification of datasets extracted from the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-science infrastructure. Such identification includes information on the origin and version of the datasets, references associated to individual data in the datasets, as well as timestamps linked to the extraction procedure. This paradigm is described through the modifications of the language used to exchange data within the VAMDC and through the services that will implement those modifications. This new paradigm should enforce traceability of datasets, favor reproducibility of datasets extraction, and facilitate the systematic citation of the authors having originally measured and/or calculated the extracted atomic and molecular data.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Lintott, Chris J; Abdalla, Filipe B; Schawinski, Kevin; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR7 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes namely spirals, ellipticals and stars/unique objects. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours, concentrations and parameters associated with profile-fitting are reasonable in seperating the stars and galaxies into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as texture. The adaptive moments and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between stars and elliptical galaxies. Using a set of thirteen distance-independant parameters, the neur...

  12. A workflow for reproducing mean benthic gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Emery, Hollie E.; Maguire, Timothy J.

    2016-08-01

    Long-term data sets provide unique opportunities to examine temporal variability of key ecosystem processes. The need for such data sets is becoming increasingly important as we try to quantify the impact of human activities across various scales and in some cases, as we try to determine the success of management interventions. Unfortunately, long-term benthic flux data sets for coastal ecosystems are rare and curating them is a challenge. If we wish to make our data available to others now and into the future, however, then we need to provide mechanisms that allow others to understand our methods, access the data, reproduce the results, and see updates as they become available. Here we use techniques, learned through the EarthCube Ontosoft Geoscience Paper of the Future project, to develop best practices to allow us to share a long-term data set of directly measured net sediment N2 fluxes and sediment oxygen demand at two sites in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island (USA). This technical report describes the process we used, the challenges we faced, and the steps we will take in the future to ensure transparency and reproducibility. By developing these data and software sharing tools we hope to help disseminate well-curated data with provenance as well as products from these data, so that the community can better assess how this temperate estuary has changed over time. We also hope to provide a data sharing model for others to follow so that long-term estuarine data are more easily shared and not lost over time.

  13. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  14. Reproducible quantitative proteotype data matrices for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-11-05

    Historically, many mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies have aimed at compiling an inventory of protein compounds present in a biological sample, with the long-term objective of creating a proteome map of a species. However, to answer fundamental questions about the behavior of biological systems at the protein level, accurate and unbiased quantitative data are required in addition to a list of all protein components. Fueled by advances in mass spectrometry, the proteomics field has thus recently shifted focus toward the reproducible quantification of proteins across a large number of biological samples. This provides the foundation to move away from pure enumeration of identified proteins toward quantitative matrices of many proteins measured across multiple samples. It is argued here that data matrices consisting of highly reproducible, quantitative, and unbiased proteomic measurements across a high number of conditions, referred to here as quantitative proteotype maps, will become the fundamental currency in the field and provide the starting point for downstream biological analysis. Such proteotype data matrices, for example, are generated by the measurement of large patient cohorts, time series, or multiple experimental perturbations. They are expected to have a large effect on systems biology and personalized medicine approaches that investigate the dynamic behavior of biological systems across multiple perturbations, time points, and individuals. © 2015 Röst et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Reproducing an extreme flood with uncertain post-event information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Andino, Diana; Beven, Keith; Halldin, Sven; Xu, Chong-Yu; Reynolds, José Eduardo; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2017-07-01

    Studies for the prevention and mitigation of floods require information on discharge and extent of inundation, commonly unavailable or uncertain, especially during extreme events. This study was initiated by the devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, when Hurricane Mitch struck the city. In this study we hypothesized that it is possible to estimate, in a trustworthy way considering large data uncertainties, this extreme 1998 flood discharge and the extent of the inundations that followed from a combination of models and post-event measured data. Post-event data collected in 2000 and 2001 were used to estimate discharge peaks, times of peak, and high-water marks. These data were used in combination with rain data from two gauges to drive and constrain a combination of well-known modelling tools: TOPMODEL, Muskingum-Cunge-Todini routing, and the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model. Simulations were performed within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) uncertainty-analysis framework. The model combination predicted peak discharge, times of peaks, and more than 90 % of the observed high-water marks within the uncertainty bounds of the evaluation data. This allowed an inundation likelihood map to be produced. Observed high-water marks could not be reproduced at a few locations on the floodplain. Identifications of these locations are useful to improve model set-up, model structure, or post-event data-estimation methods. Rainfall data were of central importance in simulating the times of peak and results would be improved by a better spatial assessment of rainfall, e.g. from radar data or a denser rain-gauge network. Our study demonstrated that it was possible, considering the uncertainty in the post-event data, to reasonably reproduce the extreme Mitch flood in Tegucigalpa in spite of no hydrometric gauging during the event. The method proposed here can be part of a Bayesian framework in which more events can be added into the analysis as

  16. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  17. Reproducibility of pre-syncopal responses to repeated orthostatic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Grasser, Erik; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    Aims: To study individual patterns of hemodynamic adjustments in subjects reaching orthostatically induced presyncope and to observe whether these are reproducible across three runs. Procedures and methods: 10 healthy young males were subjected to extreme cardiovascular stress three times: Graded orthostatic stress (GOS), consisting of head-up tilt combined with lower body negative pressure, was used to achieve a pre-syncopal end-point. All test runs were separated by two week intervals. Orthostatic effects on cardiac and vascular function were continuously monitored and standing times noted. Results: Across the group, heart rate (HR) increased 112 percent, while mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 15 percent, pulse pressure by 36 percent, and stroke volume index by 51 percent on average from supine control to presyncope. Repetitions of the orthostatic protocols did not influence standing times of test persons from the 1st to the 3rd trial (15 plus minus 6 to 17 plus minus 7 min). Some individuals responded either with an increase in HR only, while the others with combined HR and total peripheral resistance increase, albeit shortly, and this individual specifc pattern was observed across the three runs of combined GOS. Conclusion: Strategies for maintaining blood pressure in response to central hypovolemia in subjects induced by orthostatic stress are different between subjects. However, the same individual specific hemodynamic mechanism is employed each time to maintain the blood pressure when reconfronted by this stress. Individual patterns of hemodynamic adjustments to orthostatic stress are highly reproducible when these subjects reach pre-syncope three times.

  18. Reproducible gene targeting in recalcitrant Escherichia coli isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Greve Henri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of allele replacement methods can be used to mutate bacterial genes. For instance, the Red recombinase system of phage Lambda has been used very efficiently to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12, through recombination between regions of homology. However, this method does not work reproducibly in some clinical E. coli isolates. Findings The procedure was modified by using longer homologous regions (85 bp and 500-600 bp, to inactivate genes in the uropathogenic E. coli strain UTI89. An lrhA regulator mutant, and deletions of the lac operon as well as the complete type 1 fimbrial gene cluster, were obtained reproducibly. The modified method is also functional in other recalcitrant E. coli, like the avian pathogenic E. coli strain APEC1. The lrhA regulator and lac operon deletion mutants of APEC1 were successfully constructed in the same way as the UTI89 mutants. In other avian pathogenic E. coli strains (APEC3E, APEC11A and APEC16A it was very difficult or impossible to construct these mutants, with the original Red recombinase-based method, with a Red recombinase-based method using longer (85 bp homologous regions or with our modified protocol, using 500 - 600 bp homologous regions. Conclusions The method using 500-600 bp homologous regions can be used reliably in some clinical isolates, to delete single genes or entire operons by homologous recombination. However, it does not invariably show a greater efficiency in obtaining mutants, when compared to the original Red-mediated gene targeting method or to the gene targeting method with 85 bp homologous regions. Therefore the length of the homology regions is not the only limiting factor for the construction of mutants in these recalcitrant strains.

  19. An Interactive Worksheet System for Statistical Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    YOWU4 1 2 Evaluate the normal c.d.f. for each of the entries in column 1 and store the ’osult into columi 2(suction of a normal distri- butiou...driver subroutine where the user can correct his error and reenter the command. The subroutine PRGRAM is used to display a listing of the commands which...the row containing either the maximum or the minimum•., 43-45 110,120 Exocute the command. VCO$X) ; tIRPOsr: This f£uction evAluates the cosineo of x

  20. Interactive Modern Physics Worksheets Methodology and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Ken; Danforth, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of teaching tools available for use in introductory modern physics classrooms. Determining which teaching tool students support can help the teacher structure classroom instruction to include more effective teaching tools. Student participants were surveyed at the end of four separate semesters after using different teaching…

  1. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  2. Reproducing an extreme flood with uncertain post-event information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fuentes-Andino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies for the prevention and mitigation of floods require information on discharge and extent of inundation, commonly unavailable or uncertain, especially during extreme events. This study was initiated by the devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, when Hurricane Mitch struck the city. In this study we hypothesized that it is possible to estimate, in a trustworthy way considering large data uncertainties, this extreme 1998 flood discharge and the extent of the inundations that followed from a combination of models and post-event measured data. Post-event data collected in 2000 and 2001 were used to estimate discharge peaks, times of peak, and high-water marks. These data were used in combination with rain data from two gauges to drive and constrain a combination of well-known modelling tools: TOPMODEL, Muskingum–Cunge–Todini routing, and the LISFLOOD-FP hydraulic model. Simulations were performed within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE uncertainty-analysis framework. The model combination predicted peak discharge, times of peaks, and more than 90 % of the observed high-water marks within the uncertainty bounds of the evaluation data. This allowed an inundation likelihood map to be produced. Observed high-water marks could not be reproduced at a few locations on the floodplain. Identifications of these locations are useful to improve model set-up, model structure, or post-event data-estimation methods. Rainfall data were of central importance in simulating the times of peak and results would be improved by a better spatial assessment of rainfall, e.g. from radar data or a denser rain-gauge network. Our study demonstrated that it was possible, considering the uncertainty in the post-event data, to reasonably reproduce the extreme Mitch flood in Tegucigalpa in spite of no hydrometric gauging during the event. The method proposed here can be part of a Bayesian framework in which more events

  3. A Robotic System to Scan and Reproduce Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of a robotic system integrated with a vision system is presented. The robot is a 3-axis revolute prototype, while the vision system essentially consists in a laser scanner made up of a camera and a linear laser projector. Both the robotic and the video system were designed and built at DIME (Department of Mechanical Engineering for Energetics, University of Naples Federico II. The presented application essentially consists of a laser scanner that is installed on the robot arm; the scanner scans a 3D surface, and the data are converted in a cloud of points in the robot’s workspace. Then, starting from those points, the end-effector trajectories adopted to replicate the scanned surface are calculated; so, the same robot, by using a tool, can reproduce the scanned object. The software was developed also at the DIME. The adopted tool was a high-speed drill, installed on the last link of the robot arm, with a spherical milling cutter in order to obtain enough accurate surfaces by the data represented by the cloud of points. An algorithm to interpolate the paths and to plan the trajectories was also developed and successfully tested.

  4. A fast and reproducible method to quantify magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi, Lionel; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Gramoun, Azza; Vallee, Jean-Paul; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-03-07

    The quantification of nanoparticles, particularly superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), both in vitro and in vivo has become highly important in recent years. Some methods, such as induced coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy and UV-visible chemical titration using Prussian Blue (PB), already exist however they consist of the titration of the whole iron content. These standard methods need sample preparations leading to their destruction and long measurement time. In this study, we used magnetic susceptibility measurements (MSM) to titrate the concentration and biodistribution of magnetic particles in the organs of rats. The advantages of the MSM SPION quantification technique are presented and compared to widely used methods of iron oxide titration such as ICP and PB UV-visible titration. We have demonstrated that MSM is a simpler, faster (1 second per measurement), more reproducible and highly sensitive technique for SPION detection with minimal detection around 2 μgFe mL(-1) without being influenced by neither the SPION coating nor their surrounding environment. Moreover, MSM is a more robust method as it is not affected by endogenous iron facilitating the distinction of SPIONs (iron present as nanoparticles) from background iron in tissues. This advantage allows the decrease of control samples needed in biological studies. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that MSM is a standard method that can be easily setup to determine the biodistribution of SPIONs regardless of their environment.

  5. Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-04-01

    Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics.

  6. Reproducibility of Muscle Strength Testing for Children with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jia Ling; Thomas, Nicole Maree; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2017-11-01

    Examine the inter-rater reliability of the Daniels and Worthingham (D&W) manual muscle test (MMT) protocol for children with spina bifida between experienced and novice physiotherapists. Thirteen children with spina bifida (two males) aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a spina bifida service in a state-wide tertiary children's hospital. Each child had the muscle strength of 19, and lower limb muscles were measured bilaterally by one experienced and one novice physiotherapist using the D&W MMT protocol. Examiner and limb order were counterbalanced. Standard training and recording sheets were used. Agreement between raters was examined with quadratic weighted kappa (κw2), percentage exact agreement (%EA), and the Bland-Altmann Limits of Agreement (LoA). Minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated. Inter-rater agreement between the experienced and novice raters was excellent (κw2 = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-0.96); %EA was good (72.3%); and clinically appropriate LoA levels were -1.30-1.40. The MDC was 1.11 points on a six-point MMT scale. The D&W MMT protocol, when used after standard training and with standard recording sheets, was reproducible for children with spina bifida, aged 6-18 years.

  7. ROTS: An R package for reproducibility-optimized statistical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Tomi; Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Jaakkola, Maria K; Faux, Thomas; Elo, Laura L

    2017-05-01

    Differential expression analysis is one of the most common types of analyses performed on various biological data (e.g. RNA-seq or mass spectrometry proteomics). It is the process that detects features, such as genes or proteins, showing statistically significant differences between the sample groups under comparison. A major challenge in the analysis is the choice of an appropriate test statistic, as different statistics have been shown to perform well in different datasets. To this end, the reproducibility-optimized test statistic (ROTS) adjusts a modified t-statistic according to the inherent properties of the data and provides a ranking of the features based on their statistical evidence for differential expression between two groups. ROTS has already been successfully applied in a range of different studies from transcriptomics to proteomics, showing competitive performance against other state-of-the-art methods. To promote its widespread use, we introduce here a Bioconductor R package for performing ROTS analysis conveniently on different types of omics data. To illustrate the benefits of ROTS in various applications, we present three case studies, involving proteomics and RNA-seq data from public repositories, including both bulk and single cell data. The package is freely available from Bioconductor (https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/ROTS).

  8. Reproducibility of Differential Proteomic Technologies in CPTAC Fractionated Xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabb, David L.; Wang, Xia; Carr, Steven A.; Clauser, Karl R.; Mertins, Philipp; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Chen, Xian; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Davies, Sherri R.; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Li, Shunqiang; Townsend, R. Reid; Boja, Emily S.; Ketchum, Karen A.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Liu, Tao; Kim, Sangtae; McDermott, Jason E.; Payne, Samuel H.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2016-03-04

    The NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) employed a pair of reference xenograft proteomes for initial platform validation and ongoing quality control of its data collection for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) tumors. These two xenografts, representing basal and luminal-B human breast cancer, were fractionated and analyzed on six mass spectrometers in a total of 46 replicates divided between iTRAQ and label-free technologies, spanning a total of 1095 LC-MS/MS experiments. These data represent a unique opportunity to evaluate the stability of proteomic differentiation by mass spectrometry over many months of time for individual instruments or across instruments running dissimilar workflows. We evaluated iTRAQ reporter ions, label-free spectral counts, and label-free extracted ion chromatograms as strategies for data interpretation. From these assessments we found that differential genes from a single replicate were confirmed by other replicates on the same instrument from 61-93% of the time. When comparing across different instruments and quantitative technologies, differential genes were reproduced by other data sets from 67-99% of the time. Projecting gene differences to biological pathways and networks increased the similarities. These overlaps send an encouraging message about the maturity of technologies for proteomic differentiation.

  9. Organ-on-a-Chip Technology for Reproducing Multiorgan Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Sung, Jong Hwan

    2017-09-25

    In the drug development process, the accurate prediction of drug efficacy and toxicity is important in order to reduce the cost, labor, and effort involved. For this purpose, conventional 2D cell culture models are used in the early phase of drug development. However, the differences between the in vitro and the in vivo systems have caused the failure of drugs in the later phase of the drug-development process. Therefore, there is a need for a novel in vitro model system that can provide accurate information for evaluating the drug efficacy and toxicity through a closer recapitulation of the in vivo system. Recently, the idea of using microtechnology for mimicking the microscale tissue environment has become widespread, leading to the development of "organ-on-a-chip." Furthermore, the system is further developed for realizing a multiorgan model for mimicking interactions between multiple organs. These advancements are still ongoing and are aimed at ultimately developing "body-on-a-chip" or "human-on-a-chip" devices for predicting the response of the whole body. This review summarizes recently developed organ-on-a-chip technologies, and their applications for reproducing multiorgan functions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Reproducibility of histological subtyping of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brčić, Luka; Jakopović, Marko; Brčić, Iva; Klarić, Vlasta; Milošević, Milan; Sepac, Ana; Samaržija, Miroslav; Seiwerth, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a very poor prognosis. Although clinical stage is currently the only reliable prognostic factor, histologic subtyping reportedly also affects prognosis. Some studies propose reclassification of pleomorphic epithelioid as biphasic or sarcomatoid MPM. This study assessed prognostic significance and interobserver agreement in MPM subtyping of small biopsy specimens. We analyzed biopsy specimens, and clinical and survival data from records of 108 patients who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 at the Institute of Pathology University of Zagreb School of Medicine, of whom 98 had epithelioid MPM, six biphasic MPM, and four sarcomatoid MPM. Among epithelioid subtypes, 44 (44.9 %) were solid, 19 (19.4 %) tubulopapillary, 18 (18.4 %) acinar, six (6.1 %) adenomatoid, five (5.1 %) pleomorphic, four (4.1 %) trabecular, and two (2.0 %) micropapillary subtype. Interobserver reliability for histological diagnosis was found to be κ = 0.72 (P sarcomatoid mesothelioma (4.0 [IQR 1.3-6.8] months; P = 0.270). We found strong reproducibility of MPM subtyping with good interobserver agreement. Furthermore, our results indicate that pleomorphic subtype to be a predictor of poor prognosis and support classifying it with sarcomatoid or biphasic MPM, as patients with the pleomorphic, biphasic, or sarcomatoid subtype show similarly poor overall survival.

  11. Federating heterogeneous datasets to enhance data sharing and experiment reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Paniagua, Beatriz; Yatabe, Marilia S.; Ruellas, Antonio C. O.; Fattori, Liana; Muniz, Luciana; Styner, Martin; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the difficulties to replicate scientific findings and/or experiments published in past.1 The effects seen in the replicated experiments were smaller than previously reported. Some of the explanations for these findings include the complexity of the experimental design and the pressure on researches to report positive findings. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) suggests that every study considered for publication must submit a plan to share the de-identified patient data no later than 6 months after publication. There is a growing demand to enhance the management of clinical data, facilitate data sharing across institutions and also to keep track of the data from previous experiments. The ultimate goal is to assure the reproducibility of experiments in the future. This paper describes Shiny-tooth, a web based application created to improve clinical data acquisition during the clinical trial; data federation of such data as well as morphological data derived from medical images; Currently, this application is being used to store clinical data from an osteoarthritis (OA) study. This work is submitted to the SPIE Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging conference.

  12. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  13. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  14. Reproducing Natural Spider Silks’ Copolymer Behavior in Synthetic Silk Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P.; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia, indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into β-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure. PMID:23110450

  15. Reproducing natural spider silks' copolymer behavior in synthetic silk mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-12-10

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia , indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into β-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure.

  16. Direct, quantitative clinical assessment of hand function: usefulness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Alexander; McGregor, Alison H; Douglas, Jane; Taylor, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Methods of assessing functional impairment in arthritic hands include pain assessments and disability scoring scales which are subjective, variable over time and fail to take account of the patients' need to adapt to deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate measures of functional strength and joint motion in the assessment of the rheumatoid (RA) and osteoarthritic (OA) hand. Ten control subjects, ten RA and ten OA patients were recruited for the study. All underwent pain and disability scoring and functional assessment of the hand using measures of pinch/grip strength and range of joint motion (ROM). Functional assessments including ROM analyses at interphalangeal (IP), metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints along with pinch/grip strength clearly discriminated between patient groups (RA vs. OA MCP ROM P<0.0001), pain and disability scales were unable to. In the RA there were demonstrable relationships between ROM measurements and disability (R2=0.31) as well as disease duration (R2=0.37). Intra-patient measures of strength were robust whereas inter-patient comparisons showed variability. In conclusion, pinch/grip strength and ROM are clinically reproducible assessments that may more accurately reflect functional impairment associated with arthritis.

  17. Theoretical comments on reproducibility and normalization of TWA measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Roberto; Mainardi, Luca T

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple stochastic model of ventricular repolarization and the equivalent surface source (ESS) model, an electrophysiological formulation relating surface ECG to variations at the myocytes' level, we recently pointed out a few theoretical results regarding T-wave alternans (TWA). In this paper, stimulated by the comments of John E. Madias on our paper (J Electrocardiol, 2012), we further explored the consequences implied by the theoretical model. First, we verified the reproducibility of TWA measures, in clinically stable patients repeatedly tested. The sensitivity to displacement was evaluated simulating lead mislocations of up to 20mm. The numerical simulations were performed on data obtained solving the inverse electrocardiographically problem from three subjects (ECGSIM). The results showed that TWA sensitivity varies across leads, being maximal in V1 and decreases towards V6. Globally, the maximal percent error found was 6.1%. Thus, TWA measures do not seem to add more stringent requirements on lead placement's precision, than the usual diagnostic practice. Finally, we further discussed the implications of normalizing TWA measures. While clinical studies are necessary to sort out the issue, the theoretical model suggests that normalization might be appropriate only is certain cases.

  18. The inter-observer reproducibility of Shafer's sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, F; Goble, R

    2009-03-01

    Pigment cells in the anterior vitreous (Shafer's sign) are known to be associated with retinal breaks. We sought to identify the reproducibility of Shafer's sign between different grades of ophthalmic staff. In all 47 patients were examined by a consultant vitreo-retinal surgeon, a senior house officer (SHO) and optician for Shafer's sign. Cohen's kappa for consultant vs SHO assessment of Shafer's sign was 0.55 while for consultant vs optician assessment, kappa was 0.28. Retinal tears were present in 63.8% of our series. Consultant assessment of Shafer's sign with fundoscopy findings, we found specificity to be 93.5% while sensitivity was 93.8%. Kappa for consultant assessment of Shafer's sign vs break presence was 0.86.Consultant and SHO assessment of Shafer's sign is of moderate agreement while optician assessment is fair. These results suggest a relationship between training and the assessment of Shafer's sign. We feel this study suggests caution in undue reliance on Shafer's sign particularly for inexperienced members of staff.

  19. A silicon retina that reproduces signals in the optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Kareem A; Boahen, Kwabena

    2006-12-01

    Prosthetic devices may someday be used to treat lesions of the central nervous system. Similar to neural circuits, these prosthetic devices should adapt their properties over time, independent of external control. Here we describe an artificial retina, constructed in silicon using single-transistor synaptic primitives, with two forms of locally controlled adaptation: luminance adaptation and contrast gain control. Both forms of adaptation rely on local modulation of synaptic strength, thus meeting the criteria of internal control. Our device is the first to reproduce the responses of the four major ganglion cell types that drive visual cortex, producing 3600 spiking outputs in total. We demonstrate how the responses of our device's ganglion cells compare to those measured from the mammalian retina. Replicating the retina's synaptic organization in our chip made it possible to perform these computations using a hundred times less energy than a microprocessor-and to match the mammalian retina in size and weight. With this level of efficiency and autonomy, it is now possible to develop fully implantable intraocular prostheses.

  20. Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-04-27

    Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics.

  1. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lawrence A; Maurice, Corinne F; Carmody, Rachel N; Gootenberg, David B; Button, Julie E; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ling, Alisha V; Devlin, A Sloan; Varma, Yug; Fischbach, Michael A; Biddinger, Sudha B; Dutton, Rachel J; Turnbaugh, Peter J

    2014-01-23

    Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.

  2. Can a coupled meteorology–chemistry model reproduce the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of a coupled meteorology–chemistry model, i.e., Weather Research and Forecast and Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ), to reproduce the historical trend in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and clear-sky shortwave radiation (SWR) over the Northern Hemisphere has been evaluated through a comparison of 21-year simulated results with observation-derived records from 1990 to 2010. Six satellite-retrieved AOD products including AVHRR, TOMS, SeaWiFS, MISR, MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua as well as long-term historical records from 11 AERONET sites were used for the comparison of AOD trends. Clear-sky SWR products derived by CERES at both the top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface as well as surface SWR data derived from seven SURFRAD sites were used for the comparison of trends in SWR. The model successfully captured increasing AOD trends along with the corresponding increased TOA SWR (upwelling) and decreased surface SWR (downwelling) in both eastern China and the northern Pacific. The model also captured declining AOD trends along with the corresponding decreased TOA SWR (upwelling) and increased surface SWR (downwelling) in the eastern US, Europe and the northern Atlantic for the period of 2000–2010. However, the model underestimated the AOD over regions with substantial natural dust aerosol contributions, such as the Sahara Desert, Arabian Desert, central Atlantic and northern Indian Ocean. Estimates of the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) at TOA a

  3. A reproducible nonlethal animal model for studying cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, J; Marino, M T; von Bredow, J D; Kaminskis, A; Brewer, T

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies using bolus intravenous injections of sodium cyanide have been used to model the sudden exposure to high concentrations of cyanide that could occur on the battlefield. This study was designed to develop a model that would simulate the type of exposure to cyanide gas that could happen during actual low-level continuous types of exposure and then compare it with the bolus model. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings taken from anesthetized dogs have been used previously to characterize the lethal effects of cyanide. The intravenous, bolus injection of 2.5 mg/kg sodium cyanide provides a model in which a greater than lethal concentration is attained. In contrast, our model uses a slow, intravenous infusion of cyanide to titrate each animal to its own inherent end point, which coincides with the amount of cyanide needed to induce death through respiratory arrest. In this model, therapeutic intervention can be used to restore respiration and allow for the complete recovery of the animals. After recovery, the same animal can be given a second infusion of cyanide, followed again by treatment and recovery, providing a reproducible end point. This end point can then be expressed as the total amount of cyanide per body weight (mg/kg) required to kill. In this study, the average dose of sodium cyanide among 12 animals was 1.21 mg/kg, which is approximately half the cyanide used in the bolus model. Thus, titration to respiratory arrest followed by resuscitation provides a repetitive-use animal model that can be used to test the efficacy of various forms of pretreatment and/or therapy without the loss of a single animal.

  4. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  5. A reproducible method to determine the meteoroid mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, P.; Brown, P. G.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The determination of meteoroid mass indices is central to flux measurements and evolutionary studies of meteoroid populations. However, different authors use different approaches to fit observed data, making results difficult to reproduce and the resulting uncertainties difficult to justify. The real, physical, uncertainties are usually an order of magnitude higher than the reported values. Aims: We aim to develop a fully automated method that will measure meteoroid mass indices and associated uncertainty. We validate our method on large radar and optical datasets and compare results to obtain a best estimate of the true meteoroid mass index. Methods: Using MultiNest, a Bayesian inference tool that calculates the evidence and explores the parameter space, we search for the best fit of cumulative number vs. mass distributions in a four-dimensional space of variables (a,b,X1,X2). We explore biases in meteor echo distributions using optical meteor data as a calibration dataset to establish the systematic offset in measured mass index values. Results: Our best estimate for the average de-biased mass index for the sporadic meteoroid complex, as measured by radar appropriate to the mass range 10-3 > m > 10-5 g, was s = -2.10 ± 0.08. Optical data in the 10-1 > m > 10-3 g range, with the shower meteors removed, produced s = -2.08 ± 0.08. We find the mass index used by Grün et al. (1985) is substantially larger than we measure in the 10-4 manual and a sample dataset can be found here: http://ftp://aquarid.physics.uwo.ca/pub/peter/MassIndexCode/

  6. [Our concept of defecography. Methods and reproducibility of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutorý, M; Brhelová, H; Michek, J; Kubacák, J; Vasícková, J; Stursa, V; Sehnalová, H

    1999-06-01

    Defecography is used in the Czech Republic only exceptionally. Since 1988 the authors made 402 defecographic examinations. They submit a detailed description of hitherto assembled experience and their own modification of the examination. As contrast material they use at present Micropaque susp. thickened by means of wheat bran. They administer it by means of a modified press for dough preparation. The X-rays are taken on a modified ordinary stool made from soft timber. For screening of uncovered places in the visual field they use individually placed copper plates 2 mm thick. For better evaluation of the X-rays the authors place during examination an X-ray contrasting net behind the patient. Pictures are taken at rest, during contraction, during modified Valsalva's manoeuvre and during all stages of defecation. The authors mention the most interesting pathological pictures they encountered so far--internal prolapse, levator hernia, rectocele, sphincter defect, various forms of prolapses and dyskineses of the pelvic floor. In the authors opinion the basic quantifiable parameters are the magnitude of the anorectal angles. They used the assessment method described by Mahieu, as well as the mediorectal angle which in their opinion is a reflection of the patient's somatotype and levator function. More than the absolute values of the angles they emphasize the difference of the two angles and change of the latter during contraction and defecation. In their opinion enlargement of the difference during contraction and diminution to values close to zero is normal. Converse values are according to the authors evidence of dyssynergy of the pelvic floor. Independent assessment of the angles and magnitude of the lift of the pelvic floor by three subjects are subjected to statistical analysis. They provide evidence of complete reproducibility of results of anorectal angles according to the authors' definition. The results of assessment can be used to investigate relations with

  7. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted eSupalla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects’ recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies in the absence of linguistic knowledge. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are

  8. Can atmospheric reanalysis datasets be used to reproduce flood characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, K.; Schumann, G.; Stampoulis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly over Australia. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D hydrodynamic model that solves the approximate Saint-Venant equations at large scales (on the order of 1 km) using a sub-grid representation of the river channel. This implementation is part of an effort towards a global 1-km flood modeling framework that will allow the reconstruction of a long-term flood climatology. The components of this framework include a hydrologic model (the widely-used Variable Infiltration Capacity model) and a meteorological dataset that forces it. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. Finally, the implications of the availability of a global flood modeling framework for producing flood hazard maps and disseminating disaster information are discussed.

  9. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. It may be a useful tool in the investigation of antiangiogenic and anticancer therapeutics. Ultrasound was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  11. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena

    2010-09-01

    .32% respectively, while this percentage was lower for the quantitative scales (21.89% for BI-RADS and 21.86% for Boyd. Conclusions Visual scales of mammographic density show a high reproducibility when appropriate training is provided. Their ability to distinguish between high and low risk render them useful for routine use by breast cancer screening programs. Quantitative-based scales are more specific than pattern-based scales in classifying populations in the high-risk group.

  12. Advancements in RNASeqGUI towards a Reproducible Analysis of RNA-Seq Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Russo; Dario Righelli; Claudia Angelini

    2016-01-01

    We present the advancements and novelties recently introduced in RNASeqGUI, a graphical user interface that helps biologists to handle and analyse large data collected in RNA-Seq experiments. This work focuses on the concept of reproducible research and shows how it has been incorporated in RNASeqGUI to provide reproducible (computational) results. The novel version of RNASeqGUI combines graphical interfaces with tools for reproducible research, such as literate statistical programming, human...

  13. Exploring the Role of Information Professionals in Improving Research Reproducibility:A Case Study in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, A.; West, J.

    2016-12-01

    The validity of Geosciences research is of great significance to general public and policy-makers. In an earlier study, we surveyed 136 faculty and graduate students in geosciences. The result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing, suggesting a general lack of research reproducibility in geosciences. Although there is much enthusiasm for creation of technologies such as workflow system, literate programming, and cloud-based system to facilitate reproducibility, much less emphasis has been placed on the information services essential for meaningful use of these tools. Library and Information Science (LIS) has a rich tradition of providing customized service for research communities. LIS professionals such as academic librarians have made strong contribution to resources locating, software recommending, data curation, metadata guidance, project management, submission review and author training. In particular, university libraries have been actively developing tools and offering guidelines, consultations, and trainings on Data Management Plan (DMP) required by National Science Foundation (NSF). And effective data management is a significant first step towards reproducible research. Hereby we argue that LIS professionals may be well-positioned to assist researchers to make their research reproducible. In this study, we aim to answer the question: how can LIS professionals assist geoscience researchers in making their research capable of being reproduced? We first synthesize different definitions of "reproducibility" and provide a conceptual framework of "reproducibility" in geosciences to resolve some of the misunderstandings around related terminology. Using a case study approach, we then examine 1) university librarians' technical skills, domain knowledge, professional activities, together with their awareness of, readiness for, and attitudes towards research reproducibility and

  14. A Novel Method for Solving KdV Equation Based on Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Inc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a reproducing kernel method for solving the KdV equation with initial condition based on the reproducing kernel theory. The exact solution is represented in the form of series in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Some numerical examples have also been studied to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method. Results of numerical examples show that the presented method is effective.

  15. A Study of Long-Term fMRI Reproducibility Using Data-Driven Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaomu; Panych, Lawrence P; Chou, Ying-Hui; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-12-01

    The reproducibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is important for fMRI-based neuroscience research and clinical applications. Previous studies show considerable variation in amplitude and spatial extent of fMRI activation across repeated sessions on individual subjects even using identical experimental paradigms and imaging conditions. Most existing fMRI reproducibility studies were typically limited by time duration and data analysis techniques. Particularly, the assessment of reproducibility is complicated by a fact that fMRI results may depend on data analysis techniques used in reproducibility studies. In this work, the long-term fMRI reproducibility was investigated with a focus on the data analysis methods. Two spatial smoothing techniques, including a wavelet-domain Bayesian method and the Gaussian smoothing, were evaluated in terms of their effects on the long-term reproducibility. A multivariate support vector machine (SVM)-based method was used to identify active voxels, and compared to a widely used general linear model (GLM)-based method at the group level. The reproducibility study was performed using multisession fMRI data acquired from eight healthy adults over 1.5 years' period of time. Three regions-of-interest (ROI) related to a motor task were defined based upon which the long-term reproducibility were examined. Experimental results indicate that different spatial smoothing techniques may lead to different reproducibility measures, and the wavelet-based spatial smoothing and SVM-based activation detection is a good combination for reproducibility studies. On the basis of the ROIs and multiple numerical criteria, we observed a moderate to substantial within-subject long-term reproducibility. A reasonable long-term reproducibility was also observed from the inter-subject study. It was found that the short-term reproducibility is usually higher than the long-term reproducibility. Furthermore, the results indicate that brain

  16. Reproducibility of oligonucleotide microarray transcriptome analyses - An interlaboratory comparison using chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piper, M.D.W.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Bro, Christoffer;

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of reproducibility of DNA-microarray analysis from published data sets is complicated by the use of different microbial strains, cultivation techniques, and analytical procedures. Because intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility is highly relevant for application of DNA-microarray an...

  17. Reproducibility of oligonucleotide microarray transcriptome analyses - An interlaboratory comparison using chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piper, M.D.W.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Bro, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of reproducibility of DNA-microarray analysis from published data sets is complicated by the use of different microbial strains, cultivation techniques, and analytical procedures. Because intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility is highly relevant for application of DNA-microarray an...

  18. Validation of a method for accurate and highly reproducible quantification of brain dopamine transporter SPECT studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S; Ziebell, Morten; Skouboe, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine brain imaging, it is important to delineate regions of interest (ROIs) so that the outcome is both accurate and reproducible. The purpose of this study was to validate a new time-saving algorithm (DATquan) for accurate and reproducible quantification of the striatal dopamine...... transporter (DAT) with appropriate radioligands and SPECT and without the need for structural brain scanning....

  19. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, L.I.F.; Guldemond, N.A.; De Bie, R.A.; Walenkamp, G.H.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measu

  20. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hoving (J.); J.J.M. Pool (Jan); H. van Mameren (Henk); W. Devillé (Walter); W.J.J. Assendelft (Willem); H.C. de Vet (Henrica C); A.F. de Winter (Andrea); B.W. Koes (Bart); L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck

  1. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, JJM; van Mameren, H; Deville, WJLM; Assendelft, WJJ; de Vet, HCW; de Winter, AF; Koes, BW; Bouter, LM; Hoving, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion ( ROM) in patients with neck pain using

  2. Intra-and interobserver reproducibility of shear wave elastography for evaluation of the breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To evaluate reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) for breast lesions within and between observers and compare the reproducibility of SWE features. For intraobserver reproducibility, 225 masses with 208 patients were included; and two consecutive SWE images were acquired by each observer. For interobserver reproducibility, SWE images of the same mass were obtained by another observer before surgery in 40 patients. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine intra- and interobserver reproducibility. Intraobserver reliability for mean elasticity (Emean) and maximum elasticity (Emax) were excellent (ICC = 0.803, 0.799). ICC for SWE ratio and minimum elasticity (Emin) were fair to good (ICC = 0.703, 0.539). Emean showed excellent ICC regardless of histopathologic type and tumor size. Emax, SWE ratio and Emin represented excellent or fair to good reproducibility based on histopathologic type and tumor size. In interobserver study, ICC for Emean, Emax and SWE ratio were excellent. Emean, Emax and SWE ratio represented excellent ICC irrespective of histopathologic type. ICC for Emean was excellent regardless of tumor size. SWE ratio and Emax showed fair to good interobserver reproducibility based on tumor size. Emin represented poor interobserver reliability. Emean in SWE was highly reproducible within and between observers.

  3. Interobserver reproducibility of the visual estimation of range of motion of the shoulder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C.B.; Winter, de A.F.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Jans, M.P.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Schaardenburg, van D.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Terwee CB, de Winter AF, Scholten RJ, Jans MP, Deville W, van Schaardenburg D, Bouter LM. Interobserver reproducibility of the visual estimation of range of motion of the shoulder. Objectives To assess interobserver reproducibility (agreement and reliability) of visually estimated shoulder

  4. The reproducibility of quantitative measurements in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of children from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masharawi, Y; Kjær, Per; Bendix, T

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in children were taken twice and analyzed for intra- and intertester reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of a variety of lumbar quantitative measurements taken from MRIs of children from the ge...

  5. Advancements in RNASeqGUI towards a Reproducible Analysis of RNA-Seq Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Russo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the advancements and novelties recently introduced in RNASeqGUI, a graphical user interface that helps biologists to handle and analyse large data collected in RNA-Seq experiments. This work focuses on the concept of reproducible research and shows how it has been incorporated in RNASeqGUI to provide reproducible (computational results. The novel version of RNASeqGUI combines graphical interfaces with tools for reproducible research, such as literate statistical programming, human readable report, parallel executions, caching, and interactive and web-explorable tables of results. These features allow the user to analyse big datasets in a fast, efficient, and reproducible way. Moreover, this paper represents a proof of concept, showing a simple way to develop computational tools for Life Science in the spirit of reproducible research.

  6. An Open, Large-Scale, Collaborative Effort to Estimate the Reproducibility of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science. However, because of strong incentives for innovation and weak incentives for confirmation, direct replication is rarely practiced or published. The Reproducibility Project is an open, large-scale, collaborative effort to systematically examine the rate and predictors of reproducibility in psychological science. So far, 72 volunteer researchers from 41 institutions have organized to openly and transparently replicate studies published in three prominent psychological journals in 2008. Multiple methods will be used to evaluate the findings, calculate an empirical rate of replication, and investigate factors that predict reproducibility. Whatever the result, a better understanding of reproducibility will ultimately improve confidence in scientific methodology and findings. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Day-to-day reproducibility of Holter beat-by-beat analysis of repolarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Rafał; Popławska, Wanda; Buchner, Teodor; Chojnowska, Lidia; Rydlewska-Sadowska, Wanda

    2003-06-01

    Reproducibility of Holter QT analysis is not well established and has been assessed only in one study. We evaluated the day-to-day reproducibility of different QT parameters--mean and max (four beats basis) 24h QT and QTc (Bazett formula), QT for heart rate 55-60 [QT60], 75-80 [QT80] and 95-100 [QT100] beats/min and QT/RR slope (calculated in moving window of 3000 beats in 50 beat steps). QT intervals were measured from 48h digital ECG (sampled at 256 Hz) recordings using Del Mar Medical's QT software in beat-to-beat fashion. The analysed group consisted of 6 women and 24 men--13 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 5 healthy family members of the patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 7 patients with CAD and 5 with other diseases (hypertension, arrhythmia, aborted sudden death without organic heart disease). Reproducibility was analysed with the methods proposed by Bland and Altman. The overall reproducibility of repolarisation parameters was acceptable. Coefficient of reproducibility for mean 24h QT was 24ms, mean QTc 12ms, max QT 22ms, max QTc 24ms. The best reproducibility was observed for QT60, QT80 and QT100 - 12ms, respectively. The poorest day-to-day reproducibility was recorded for the QT/RR slope parameters, which was related to lower heart rate reproducibility. We can conclude that day-to-day reproducibility of Holter repolarisation analysis is acceptable. QT measurement in narrow heart rate windows has the best reproducibility. Accurate QT analysis requires good quality recording, T wave amplitude above 0.2mV and an interactive QT measurement tool which includes verification, editing abilities.

  8. Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ben C; Hunter, Christie L; Liu, Yansheng; Schilling, Birgit; Rosenberger, George; Bader, Samuel L; Chan, Daniel W; Gibson, Bradford W; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Held, Jason M; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Hou, Guixue; Krisp, Christoph; Larsen, Brett; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi; Molloy, Mark P; Moritz, Robert L; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Schlapbach, Ralph; Selevsek, Nathalie; Thomas, Stefani N; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2017-08-21

    Quantitative proteomics employing mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in life science research. Targeted proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach for reproducible quantification but is limited in the number of proteins quantified. SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics (accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity) of targeted proteomics at large scale. While previous SWATH-mass spectrometry studies have shown high intra-lab reproducibility, this has not been evaluated between labs. In this multi-laboratory evaluation study including 11 sites worldwide, we demonstrate that using SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition we can consistently detect and reproducibly quantify >4000 proteins from HEK293 cells. Using synthetic peptide dilution series, we show that the sensitivity, dynamic range and reproducibility established with SWATH-mass spectrometry are uniformly achieved. This study demonstrates that the acquisition of reproducible quantitative proteomics data by multiple labs is achievable, and broadly serves to increase confidence in SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition as a reproducible method for large-scale protein quantification.SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of a data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics on the scale of thousands of proteins. Here, using data generated by eleven groups worldwide, the authors show that SWATH-MS is capable of generating highly reproducible data across different laboratories.

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of individual abutment impression, assessed with a blue light scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values for different types of abutment teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate repeatability, impressions of the canine, first premolar, and first molar, prepared for ceramic crowns, were repeatedly scanned to acquire 5 sets of 3-dimensional data via stereolithography (STL) files. Point clouds were compared and the error sizes were measured (n=10, per type). To evaluate reproducibility, the impressions were rotated by 10-20° on the table and scanned. These data were compared to the first STL data and the error sizes were measured (n=5, per type). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the 3 types of teeth, and Tukey honest significant differences (HSD) multiple comparison test was used for post hoc comparisons (α=.05). RESULTS The differences with regard to repeatability were 4.5, 2.7, and 3.1 µm for the canine, premolar, and molar, indicating the poorest repeatability for the canine (P<.001). For reproducibility, the differences were 6.6, 5.8, and 11.0 µm indicating the poorest reproducibility for the molar (P=.007). CONCLUSION Our results indicated that impressions of individual abutment teeth, digitized with a blue light scanner, had good repeatability and reproducibility. PMID:27350856

  10. Reproducibility of studies on text mining for citation screening in systematic reviews: Evaluation and checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorisade, Babatunde Kazeem; Brereton, Pearl; Andras, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Independent validation of published scientific results through study replication is a pre-condition for accepting the validity of such results. In computation research, full replication is often unrealistic for independent results validation, therefore, study reproduction has been justified as the minimum acceptable standard to evaluate the validity of scientific claims. The application of text mining techniques to citation screening in the context of systematic literature reviews is a relatively young and growing computational field with high relevance for software engineering, medical research and other fields. However, there is little work so far on reproduction studies in the field. In this paper, we investigate the reproducibility of studies in this area based on information contained in published articles and we propose reporting guidelines that could improve reproducibility. The study was approached in two ways. Initially we attempted to reproduce results from six studies, which were based on the same raw dataset. Then, based on this experience, we identified steps considered essential to successful reproduction of text mining experiments and characterized them to measure how reproducible is a study given the information provided on these steps. 33 articles were systematically assessed for reproducibility using this approach. Our work revealed that it is currently difficult if not impossible to independently reproduce the results published in any of the studies investigated. The lack of information about the datasets used limits reproducibility of about 80% of the studies assessed. Also, information about the machine learning algorithms is inadequate in about 27% of the papers. On the plus side, the third party software tools used are mostly free and available. The reproducibility potential of most of the studies can be significantly improved if more attention is paid to information provided on the datasets used, how they were partitioned and utilized, and

  11. Reproducibility of the Structural Brain Connectome Derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bonilha

    Full Text Available Disruptions of brain anatomical connectivity are believed to play a central role in several neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The structural brain connectome is typically derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which may be influenced by methodological factors related to signal processing, MRI scanners and biophysical properties of neuroanatomical regions. In this study, we evaluated how these variables affect the reproducibility of the structural connectome.Twenty healthy adults underwent 3 MRI scanning sessions (twice in the same MRI scanner and a third time in a different scanner unit within a short period of time. The scanning sessions included similar T1 weighted and DTI sequences. Deterministic or probabilistic tractography was performed to assess link weight based on the number of fibers connecting gray matter regions of interest (ROI. Link weight and graph theory network measures were calculated and reproducibility was assessed through intra-class correlation coefficients, assuming each scanning session as a rater.Connectome reproducibility was higher with data from the same scanner. The probabilistic approach yielded larger reproducibility, while the individual variation in the number of tracked fibers from deterministic tractography was negatively associated with reproducibility. Links connecting larger and anatomically closer ROIs demonstrated higher reproducibility. In general, graph theory measures demonstrated high reproducibility across scanning sessions.Anatomical factors and tractography approaches can influence the reproducibility of the structural connectome and should be factored in the interpretation of future studies. Our results demonstrate that connectome mapping is a largely reproducible technique, particularly as it relates to the geometry of network architecture measured by graph theory methods.

  12. Iterative Multistep Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method for Solving Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banan Maayah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm called multistep reproducing kernel Hilbert space method is represented to solve nonlinear oscillator’s models. The proposed scheme is a modification of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space method, which will increase the intervals of convergence for the series solution. The numerical results demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the new technique. A very good agreement was found between the results obtained using the presented algorithm and the Runge-Kutta method, which shows that the multistep reproducing kernel Hilbert space method is very efficient and convenient for solving nonlinear oscillator’s models.

  13. Inter-study reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Geraint

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT is a recently described method of post processing routine cine acquisitions which aims to provide quantitative measurements of circumferentially and radially directed ventricular wall strain. Inter-study reproducibility is important for serial assessments however has not been defined for CMR-FT. Methods 16 healthy volunteers were imaged 3 times within a single day. The first examination was performed at 0900 after fasting and was immediately followed by the second. The third, non-fasting scan, was performed at 1400. CMR-FT measures of segmental and global strain parameters were calculated. Left ventricular (LV circumferential and radial strain were determined in the short axis orientation (EccSAX and ErrSAX respectively. LV and right ventricular longitudinal strain and LV radial strain were determined from the 4-chamber orientation (EllLV, EllRV, and ErrLAX respectively. LV volumes and function were also analysed. Inter-study reproducibility and study sample sizes required to demonstrate 5% changes in absolute strain were determined by comparison of the first and second exams. The third exam was used to determine whether diurnal variation affected reproducibility. Results CMR-FT strain analysis inter-study reproducibility was variable. Global strain assessment was more reproducible than segmental analysis. Overall EccSAX was the most reproducible measure of strain: coefficient of variation (CV 38% and 20.3% and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.68 (0.55-0.78 and 0.7 (0.32-0.89 for segmental and global analysis respectively. The least reproducible segmental measure was EllRV: CV 60% and ICC 0.56 (0.41-0.69 whilst the least reproducible global measure was ErrLAX: CV 33.3% and ICC 0.44 (0–0.77. Variable reproducibility was also reflected in the calculated sample sizes, which ranged from 11 (global EccSAX to 156 subjects (segmental EllRV. The

  14. Reproducibility evaluation of standard procedure for the proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butina, I.V.; Gorelov, P.N.

    1979-08-01

    Measurements were carried out at a number of plants to determine the reproducibility of results between laboratories and within any one laboratory. The analytical methods related to ash, moisture and volatile matter. The most reproducible was found to be ash measurement with an inter-laboratory scatter of 0.17%, whilst volatile matter determination proved the least reliably reproducible (scatter 0.9%). The intra-laboratory figures were up to 0.3% for ash and moisture, and up to 0.5% for the V.M. measurement.

  15. Reproducibility evaluation of standard procedures for the proximate analysis of coals. [Between and within laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butina, I.V.; Gorelov, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Four coal samples were analyzed in the laboratories at eight coking plants, for metrological processing to determine the within- and between laboratory reproducibilities of the standard procedures for the basic coal property indices (ash, volatile matter and moisture content). The between-laboratory reproducibility is highest in the ash determination (S/sub b/ up to 0.17%) and the lowest in the volatile matter determination (S/sub b/ up to 0.9%). The within-laboratory reproducibility is up to 0.3% on ash and moisture content and up to 0.5% on volatile matter.

  16. Homotopy deform method for reproducing kernel space for nonlinear boundary value problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-QIANG XU; YING-ZHEN LIN

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the combination of homotopy deform method (HDM) and simplified reproducing kernel method (SRKM) is introduced for solving the boundary value problems (BVPs) of nonlinear differential equations. The solution methodology is based on Adomian decomposition and reproducing kernel method (RKM). By the HDM, the nonlinear equations can be converted into a series of linear BVPs. After that, the simplified reproducing kernel method, which not only facilitates the reproducing kernel but also avoids the time-consuming Schmidt orthogonalization process, is proposed to solve linear equations. Some numerical test problems including ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations are analysed to illustrate the procedure and confirm the performance of the proposed method. The results faithfully reveal that our algorithm is considerably accurate and effective as expected.

  17. Reproducibility of current classifications of endometrial endometrioid glandular proliferations : further evidence supporting a simplified classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordi, Jaume; Bergeron, Christine; Hardisson, David; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Hollema, Harry; Felix, Ana; Soslow, Robert A.; Oliva, Esther; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Wells, Michael; Nogales, Francisco F.

    2014-01-01

    AimsTo compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Methods and resultsNine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe an

  18. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

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    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  19. Reproducing pairs and the continuous nonstationary Gabor transform on LCA groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckbacher, Michael; Balazs, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the concept of reproducing pairs as a generalization of continuous frames. Reproducing pairs yield a bounded analysis and synthesis process while the frame condition can be omitted at both stages. Moreover, we will investigate certain continuous frames (resp. reproducing pairs) on LCA groups, which can be described as a continuous version of nonstationary Gabor systems and state sufficient conditions for these systems to form a continuous frame (resp. reproducing pair). As a byproduct we identify the structure of the frame operator (resp. resolution operator). We will apply our results to systems generated by a unitary action of a subset of the affine Weyl-Heisenberg group in {L}2({{R}}). This setup will also serve as a nontrivial example of a system for which, whereas continuous frames exist, no dual system with the same structure exists even if we drop the frame property.

  20. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  1. Reproducibility of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy in the Investigation of Chronic Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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    Dimitrios Christodoulou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE is a valuable tool in the diagnostic evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but limited information is available on the reproducibility of CE findings.

  2. On the reproducing kernel of a Pontryagin space of vector valued polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ćurgus, B.; Dijksma, A.

    2012-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the reproducing kernel of a Pontryagin space of d x 1 vector polynomials is determined by a generalized Nevanlinna pair of d x d matrix polynomials. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Most computational hydrology is not reproducible, so is it really science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-10-01

    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. Yet in computational hydrology the code and data that actually produces published results are not regularly made available, inhibiting the ability of the community to reproduce and verify previous findings. In order to overcome this problem we recommend that reuseable code and formal workflows, which unambiguously reproduce published scientific results, are made available for the community alongside data, so that we can verify previous findings, and build directly from previous work. In cases where reproducing large-scale hydrologic studies is computationally very expensive and time-consuming, new processes are required to ensure scientific rigor. Such changes will strongly improve the transparency of hydrological research, and thus provide a more credible foundation for scientific advancement and policy support.

  4. Doppler flow velocity waveforms in the fetal cardiac outflow tract: Reproducibility of waveform recording and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.L. Groenenberg (Irene); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Reproducibility of flow velocity waveform recording and analysis was studied at fetal cardiac level (ductus arteriosus, pulmonary artery and ascending aorta) in 42 normal pregnancies. The flow velocity parameters studied were the peak systolic velocity (PSV),

  5. Inter-examiner reproducibility of clinical tests and criteria to identify subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Mikkel; Bogh, Søren Bie; Larsen, Camilla Marie;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A specific algorithm has been proposed for classifying impingement related shoulder pain in athletes with overhead activity. Data on the inter-examiner reproducibility of the suggested clinical tests and criteria and their mutual dependencies for identifying subacromial...

  6. A Modified Rule of Thumb for Evaluating Scale Reproducibilities Determined by Electronic Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    The Goodenough technique for determining scale error is compared to the Guttman technique and demonstrated to be more conservative than the Guttman technique. Implications with regard to Guttman's evaluative rule of thumb for evaluating a reproducibility are noted. (Author)

  7. Reproducibility of ECG-gated Ultrasound Diameter Assessment of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, K; Eldrup, N; Meyer, C

    2013-01-01

    No standardised ultrasound procedure to obtain reliable growth estimates for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently available. We investigated the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel approach controlling for a combination of vessel wall delineation and cardiac cycle variation....

  8. Reproducibility of the cutoff probe for the measurement of electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. H.; You, K. H.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H., E-mail: jhkim86@kriss.re.kr [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Since a plasma processing control based on plasma diagnostics attracted considerable attention in industry, the reproducibility of the diagnostics using in this application has become a great interest. Because the cutoff probe is one of the potential candidates for this application, knowing the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement becomes quit important in the cutoff probe application research. To test the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement, in this paper, a comparative study among the different cutoff probe measurements was performed. The comparative study revealed remarkable result: the cutoff probe has a great reproducibility for the electron density measurement, i.e., there are little differences among measurements by different probes made by different experimenters. The discussion including the reason for the result was addressed via this paper by using a basic measurement principle of cutoff probe and a comparative experiment with Langmuir probe.

  9. Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer measurements across the glaucoma spectrum using optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Vazirani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to determine intra-session and inter-session reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with the spectral-domain Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT ® (SD-OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes, including a subset of advanced glaucoma. Materials and Methods: RNFL measurements of 40 eyes of 40 normal subjects and 40 eyes of 40 glaucomatous patients including 14 with advanced glaucoma were obtained on the Cirrus OCT ® (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA five times on 1-day (intra-session and on five separate days (inter-session. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (COV, and test-retest variability (TRT values were calculated for mean and quadrant RNFL in each group separately. Reproducibility values were correlated with age and stage of glaucoma. Results: For intra-session reproducibility, the ICC, COV, and TRT values for mean RNFL thickness in normal eyes were 0.993, 1.96%, and 4.02 µm, respectively, 0.996, 2.39%, and 3.84 µm in glaucomatous eyes, and 0.996, 2.41%, and 3.70 µm in advanced glaucoma. The corresponding inter-session values in normal eyes were 0.992, 2.16%, and 4.09 µm, 0.995, 2.62%, and 3.98 µm in glaucoma and 0.990, 2.70%, and 4.16 µm in advanced glaucoma. The mean RNFL thickness measurements were the most reproducible while the temporal quadrant had the lowest reproducibility values in all groups. There was no correlation between reproducibility and age or mean deviation on visual fields. Conclusions: Peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements using Cirrus OCT ® demonstrated excellent reproducibility in normal and glaucomatous eyes, including eyes with advanced glaucoma. Mean RNFL thickness measurements appear to be the most reproducible and probably represent the best parameter to use for longitudinal follow-up.

  10. Reproducibility of techniques using Archimedes' principle in measuring cancellous bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L; Bloebaum, R D; Bachus, K N

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have been interested in developing techniques to accurately and reproducibly measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Historically bone researchers have used Archimedes' principle with water to measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Preliminary results in our lab suggested that the calibrated water technique did not provide reproducible results. Because of this difficulty, it was decided to compare the conventional water method to a water with surfactant and a helium method using a micropycnometer. The water/surfactant and the helium methods were attempts to improve the fluid penetration into the small voids present in the cancellous bone structure. In order to compare the reproducibility of the new methods with the conventional water method, 16 cancellous bone specimens were obtained from femoral condyles of human and greyhound dog femora. The volume fraction measurements on each specimen were repeated three times with all three techniques. The results showed that the helium displacement method was more than an order of magnitudes more reproducible than the two other water methods (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis also showed that the conventional water method produced the lowest reproducibility (p < 0.05). The data from this study indicate that the helium displacement technique is a very useful, rapid and reproducible tool for quantitatively characterizing anisotropic porous tissue structures such as cancellous bone.

  11. Voxel-level reproducibility assessment of modality independent elastography in a pre-clinical murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Katelyn M.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2015-03-01

    Changes in tissue mechanical properties, measured non-invasively by elastography methods, have been shown to be an important diagnostic tool, particularly for cancer. Tissue elasticity information, tracked over the course of therapy, may be an important prognostic indicator of tumor response to treatment. While many elastography techniques exist, this work reports on the use of a novel form of elastography that uses image texture to reconstruct elastic property distributions in tissue (i.e., a modality independent elastography (MIE) method) within the context of a pre-clinical breast cancer system.1,2 The elasticity results have previously shown good correlation with independent mechanical testing.1 Furthermore, MIE has been successfully utilized to localize and characterize lesions in both phantom experiments and simulation experiments with clinical data.2,3 However, the reproducibility of this method has not been characterized in previous work. The goal of this study is to evaluate voxel-level reproducibility of MIE in a pre-clinical model of breast cancer. Bland-Altman analysis of co-registered repeat MIE scans in this preliminary study showed a reproducibility index of 24.7% (scaled to a percent of maximum stiffness) at the voxel level. As opposed to many reports in the magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) literature that speak to reproducibility measures of the bulk organ, these results establish MIE reproducibility at the voxel level; i.e., the reproducibility of locally-defined mechanical property measurements throughout the tumor volume.

  12. Reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of exhaled breath fingerprint in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The electronic nose (e nose provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. OBJECTIVES: To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. METHOD: 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1-3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001, but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. CONCLUSIONS: VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1-3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns.

  13. Reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of exhaled breath fingerprint in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Pennazza, Giorgio; Scarlata, Simone; Santonico, Marco; Petriaggi, Massimo; Chiurco, Domenica; Pedone, Claudio; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    The electronic nose (e nose) provides distinctive breath fingerprints for selected respiratory diseases. Both reproducibility and respiratory function correlates of breath fingerprint are poorly known. To measure reproducibility of breath fingerprints and to assess their correlates among respiratory function indexes in elderly healthy and COPD subjects. 25 subjects (5 COPD patients for each GOLD stage and 5 healthy controls) over 65 years underwent e-nose study through a seven sensor system and respiratory function tests at times 0, 7, and 15 days. Reproducibility of the e nose pattern was computed. The correlation between volatile organic compound (VOC) pattern and respiratory function/clinical parameters was assessed by the Spearman's rho. VOC patterns were highly reproducible within healthy and GOLD 4 COPD subjects, less among GOLD 1-3 patients.VOC patterns significantly correlated with expiratory flows (Spearman's rho ranging from 0.36 for MEF25% and sensor Co-Buti-TPP, to 0.81 for FEV1% and sensor Cu-Buti-TPP p<0.001)), but not with residual volume and total lung capacity. VOC patterns strictly correlated with expiratory flows. Thus, e nose might conveniently be used to assess COPD severity and, likely, to study phenotypic variability. However, the suboptimal reproducibility within GOLD 1-3 patients should stimulate further research to identify more reproducible breath print patterns.

  14. Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Allergy: Development and Reproducibility of a Questionnaire for Clinical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza R. S. Lyra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a questionnaire as a screening tool for adverse reactions to foods in children and to assess the technical reproducibility by test-retest. Methods. Reproducibility of the questionnaire was performed by the literature review, preparing the preliminary questionnaire, peer review, pretest, and retest analysis. The study of the test-retest reproducibility was cross-sectional and descriptive. Kappa coefficient was used to study the reproducibility of the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 125 2–4 year-old children from 15 daycare centers in Recife, Brazil, and interviews with parents or caregivers were used to collect data. Results. From the total children, sixty-three were boys (50.4%, forty-six were two years old (36.8%, forty-seven were three years old (37.6%, and thirty-two were four years old (25.6%. Forty caregivers reported that their child had health problems with food. Most frequently reported offending foods were milk, peanuts, shrimp, and chocolate. Nine questions showed a good Kappa index (≥0,6. Conclusions. The questionnaire used needs to be resized and reshaped on the basis of the issues with good internal consistency and reproducibility. The use of a validated and reproducible questionnaire in the children represents an important contribution towards assessing an eventual rise in overt food allergy.

  15. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproducing {sup 137}Cs vertical migration in Spanish soils - Reproducing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr vertical migration in Spanish mainland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olondo, C.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R. [The University of the Basque Country - UPV/EHU, Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics Dept. Faculty of Engineering, Alda. Urquijo 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    As a result of caesium's and strontium's activity migration study developed in Spanish mainland soils, there has been obtained convective - diffusive migration equation that will reproduce adequately the movement that an activity deposit would follow in this land. Taking into account the dependence on rain that apparent convection velocity shows, it has been defined a new migration parameter that depends only on soil's properties. By means of a least square method and fitting the migration equation to experimental activity profiles, the values showed by the migration parameters in the studied soils, characteristics of that area, have been obtained. After that, there have been obtained the mean values of these parameters for each defined group that, depending on soil's texture, have been observed in the study performed about the movement of both radionuclides in soils and to whom these soils belong. Using these mean values and obtained equation, it has been properly reproduce those vertical activity profiles that were experimentally determined. In order to validate these values, a new sampling programme is carrying out in the north of Spain and, with obtained new sampling points' information, is going to verify if, indeed, obtained mean values also reproduce these new sampling points' activity vertical profile. (authors)

  17. High reproducibility of histological characterization by whole virtual slide quantification; an example using carotid plaque specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce E P Vrijenhoek

    Full Text Available Tissue biobanks are an important source for discovery and validation studies aiming for new proteins that are causally related with disease development. There is an increasing demand for accurate and reproducible histological characterization, especially for subsequent analysis and interpretation of data in association studies. We assessed reproducibility of one semiquantative and two quantitative methods for histological tissue characterization. We introduce a new automated method for whole digital slide quantification. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were used to test reproducibility.50 atherosclerotic plaques that were obtained during carotid endarterectomy were analysed. For the semiquantitative analysis, 6 different plaque characteristics were scored in categories by two independent observers, and Cohen's κ was used to test intra- and interobserver reproducibility. The computer-aided method (assessed by two independent observers and automated method were tested on CD68 (for macrophages and α smooth muscle actin (for smooth muscle cells stainings. Agreement for these two methods (done on a continuous scale was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs.For the semiquantitative analysis, κ values ranged from 0.55 to 0.69 for interobserver variability, and were slightly higher for intraobserver reproducibility in both observers. The computer-aided method yielded intra- and interobserver ICCs between 0.6 and 0.9. The new automated method performed most optimal regarding reproducibility, with ICCs ranging from 0.92 to 0.97.The analysis of performance of three methods for histological slide characterization on carotid atherosclerotic plaques showed high precision and agreement in repeated measurements for the automated method for whole digital slide quantification. We suggest that this method can fulfill the need for reproducible histological quantification.

  18. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penning Ludo I F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27 or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31 participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31 were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27. There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were −6 degrees (affected side, 9 (contralateral side and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side and 10 degrees (contralateral side. Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within −6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter

  19. Three-Year Reproducibility of Natural Head Position; A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nouri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Few longitudinal studies have evaluated the reproducibility of natural head position (NHP with more than six months follow-up.Purpose: The present investigation was conducted to estimate the reproducibility of NHP in adult cases after three years.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 27 volunteer dental students, 19-29 years of age. One radiograph and two photographs were taken in a NHP.The time interval between the two photographs was 4 to 10 minutes (short-term periodand a radiograph was taken approximately 2 years, 6 months after the first photograph.These were obtained by one operator and device in standing subjects. In order to evaluate NHP reproducibility, the photographs and radiographs were superimposed on the true vertical line and the angle between the true horizontal (from N' and N'-Pog'was assessed. The mean, standard deviation (SD and confidence interval of the three angles along with short- and long-term method errors were calculated. Correlation coefficient of the angles was analyzed according to time. The differences of registration in genders were determined by t-test.Results: Short-term reproducibility between the two photographs was 2.44º and the long term reproducibility between the first photograph-radiograph and the second photograph-radiograph was 3.23º and 3.38º, respectively. Method error in registration of NHP by photography and radiography showed no systematic bias. Gender had no significant effect on reproducibility.Conclusion: NHP is a reproducible position in adults after 3 years. This position is more consistent in men. Photographic and radiographic registrations of NHP indicate similar results.

  20. Reproducibility between conventional and digital periapical radiography for bone height measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Simancas-Pallares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several diagnostic aids are available for bone height measurement. Digital and conventional radiographs are the two ones most used in Dentistry. Few studies accounting for accuracy and precision have been conducted to compare these methods. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate reproducibility between conventional and digital periapical radiography in bone height measurement in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods. a consistency diagnostic test study was performed. 136 patients with chronic periodontitis were included, selecting the worst prognosis teeth and two radiographs -conventional and digital- were taken for each one. Two experienced and blinded examiners performed radiographic measurements. Reproducibility was obtained through Lin's concordance correlation coefficient by using the statistical package STATA™ for Windows. Results. Average age was 38.8 (SD: 9.9 and 61.6 % were female patients. 125 pairs of matched radiographs for 1000 measurements were evaluated. Overall reproducibility between the methods for mesial and distal measurements were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.55-0.70 and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.57-0.71 respectively. Conclusions. Reproducibility between methods was considered poor, including subgroup analysis, therefore, reproducibility between methods is minimal. Usage of these methods in periodontics should be made implementing the whole knowledge of the technical features and the advantages of these systems.

  1. Reproducibility of X-rays and CT arthrography in SLAC, SNAC, SCAC wrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaouane, R; Lebeau, N; Maes-Clavier, C; Hustin, C; Krief, E; Bonnaire, B; Warin, M; Rotari, V; David, E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility of the interpretation of CT arthrography and plain X-rays for scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC), scaphoid non-union advanced collapse (SNAC) and scaphoid chondrocalcinosis advanced collapse (SCAC) wrist conditions, as well as the clinical relevance of these imaging modalities. The CT and X-rays images were reviewed twice in a blinded and randomized manner by two experienced orthopedic surgeons specialized in hand surgery, two orthopedic surgery residents and two experienced radiologists specialized in bone and joint imaging. Cohen's kappa and Fleiss' kappa coefficients were used to analyze the reproducibility of interpretation of the radiological examinations. With CT arthrography, the overall diagnosis was often a problem, in terms of both inter- or intra-observer reproducibility. The assessment of the joint line appeared to be fairly reproducible for each observer but was poorly reproducible between different observers. Plain X-rays are not sufficient to assess cartilage quality in degenerative wrist disease. CT arthrography is a reliable examination, but its interpretation is not always standardized. Diagnostic arthroscopy may be justified in doubtful cases.

  2. Test-retest reproducibility for regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)]|[VAMC, Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism as assessed with PET and FDG in response to acute administration of benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men were scanned with positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: prior to placebo and prior to lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 weeks later to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained for the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased whole brain metabolism and the magnitude as well as the regional pattern of the changes was comparable for both studies (12.3 {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7 {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were largest in thalamus (22.2 {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures ROI/global were highly reproducible both for drug as well as replication condition. This is the first study to measure test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic response to a pharmacological challenge. While the global and regional absolute metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam was highly reproducible.

  3. Human brain: reliability and reproducibility of pulsed arterial spin-labeling perfusion MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Song, Enmin; Zhu, Xiao-Ping; Matson, Gerald B; Weiner, Michael W; Schuff, Norbert

    2005-03-01

    The Committee of Human Research of the University of California San Francisco approved this study, and all volunteers provided written informed consent. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the global and regional reliability and reproducibility of noninvasive brain perfusion measurements obtained with different pulsed arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and to determine the extent to which within-subject variability and random noise limit reliability and reproducibility. Thirteen healthy volunteers were examined twice within 2 hours. The pulsed ASL methods compared in this study differ mainly with regard to magnetization transfer and eddy current effects. There were two main results: (a) Pulsed ASL MR imaging consistently had high measurement reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.75) and reproducibility (coefficients of variation less than 8.5%), and (b) random noise rather than within-subject variability limited reliability and reproducibility. It was concluded that low signal-to-noise ratios substantially limit the reliability and reproducibility of perfusion measurements.

  4. Estimation of contrast agent bolus arrival delays for improved reproducibility of liver DCE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Manil D.; Bainbridge, Alan; Atkinson, David; Punwani, Shonit; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Taylor, Stuart A.

    2016-10-01

    Delays between contrast agent (CA) arrival at the site of vascular input function (VIF) sampling and the tissue of interest affect dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI pharmacokinetic modelling. We investigate effects of altering VIF CA bolus arrival delays on liver DCE MRI perfusion parameters, propose an alternative approach to estimating delays and evaluate reproducibility. Thirteen healthy volunteers (28.7  ±  1.9 years, seven males) underwent liver DCE MRI using dual-input single compartment modelling, with reproducibility (n  =  9) measured at 7 days. Effects of VIF CA bolus arrival delays were assessed for arterial and portal venous input functions. Delays were pre-estimated using linear regression, with restricted free modelling around the pre-estimated delay. Perfusion parameters and 7 days reproducibility were compared using this method, freely modelled delays and no delays using one-way ANOVA. Reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis of agreement. Maximum percent change relative to parameters obtained using zero delays, were  -31% for portal venous (PV) perfusion, +43% for total liver blood flow (TLBF), +3247% for hepatic arterial (HA) fraction, +150% for mean transit time and  -10% for distribution volume. Differences were demonstrated between the 3 methods for PV perfusion (p  =  0.0085) and HA fraction (p  liver DCE MRI quantification. Pre-estimation of delays with constrained free modelling improved 7 days reproducibility of perfusion parameters in volunteers.

  5. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure in treated and untreated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Kazuo; Hoshide, Satoshi; Hoshide, Yoko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-05-01

    We tested the reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), BP variability, and BP reduction in hypertensive patients. Forty-two hypertensive patients were enrolled, and ABP monitoring (ABPM) was performed four times in each patient: twice before and twice after the treatment. Morning BP was defined as the average of 2 h after waking, and morning BP surge (MBPS) was defined by four ways: sleep-trough, preawake, morning-evening and morning-after-bed surge. The BP variability was evaluated by standard deviation, weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation and average real variability. The reproducibility was compared using the repeatability coefficient and the Bland-Altman's method. The awake, sleep, 24-h and morning BP were well corresponded in the first and the second ABPM values in each period. The four measures of BP variability also corresponded well between the first and the second ABPM values in each period. MBPS did not correspond well in each period when it was defined by diaries, but the extent of correlation was improved when it was defined by actigraphy. The reproducibility of BP-lowering effect was fair when it was defined by a single parameter, but not very good when it was defined by two parameters (e.g. MBPS). The reproducibility of ABP levels and BP variability was fairly good and that of MBPS was moderate when defined by actigraphy. The good reproducibility of BP reduction means that each single ABPM, before and after the treatment, is acceptable for the assessment of drug efficacy.

  6. Reproducibility of transcutaneous oximetry and laser Doppler flowmetry in facial skin and gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalestad, J; Hellem, S; Vaagbø, G; Irgens, A; Thorsen, E

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO(2)) are non-invasive techniques, widely used in the clinical setting, for assessing microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygen tension, e.g. recording vascular changes after radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With standardized procedures and improved reproducibility, these methods might also be applicable in longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of facial skin and gingival LDF and facial skin TcPO(2). The subjects comprised ten healthy volunteers, 5 men, aged 31-68 years. Gingival perfusion was recorded with the LDF probe fixed to a custom made, tooth-supported acrylic splint. Skin perfusion was recorded on the cheek. TcPO(2) was recorded on the forehead and cheek and in the second intercostal space. The reproducibility of LDF measurements taken after vasodilation by heat provocation was greater than for basal flow in both facial skin and mandibular gingiva. Pronounced intraday variations were observed. Interweek reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.96 for LDF and from 0.44 to 0.75 for TcPO(2). The results confirm acceptable reproducibility of LDF and TcPO(2) in longitudinal studies in a vascular laboratory where subjects serve as their own controls. The use of thermoprobes is recommended. Repeat measurements should be taken at the same time of day.

  7. Twenty-eight Patients with Restless Leg's Syndrome Treated by Modified Bugan Decoction%加味补肝汤治疗不宁腿综合征28例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡向阳

    2005-01-01

    不宁腿综合征(restless leg’s syndrome)是指在静息状态下,特别是在夜间睡眠时出现的小腿部难以形容的不适感,必须活动才能缓解的一种病症。因病因及发病机理未明确,且医患双方对本病都不太重视,故临床报道较少。笔者自1996年以来,应用加味补肝汤治疗本病28例,收到满意疗效,现报道如下。

  8. Ideal ratios of isoleucine, methionine, methionine plus cystine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine relative to lysine for white leghorn-type laying hens of twenty-eight to thirty-four weeks of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven separate experiments were conducted with Hy-Line W-36 hens to determine the ideal ratio of Arg, Ile, Met, Met+Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val relative to Lys for maximal egg mass. The experiments were conducted simultaneously and were each designed as a randomized complete block design with 60 experime...

  9. Clinical analysis of twenty-eight elderly patients with convulsive status epilepticus%老年惊厥性癫痫持续状态28例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤鹰; 余敏; 顾勤; 邓冰; 姜嘟嘟; 詹青

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察老年惊厥性癫痫持续状态( CSE)的临床特点。方法收集神经重症监护室( NICU)年龄≥60岁的CSE患者28例,回顾性分析其临床特点。结果脑血管病为28例老年CSE的首位病因。接受抗癫痫药物治疗后,CSE症状控制的中位时间为0.9 h,其中16例患者在1 h内症状控制,12例为难治性癫痫持续状态(RSE)。28例患者中,存活16例、死亡12例。死亡者与存活者相比,合并中枢神经系统新发疾病(P=0.027)和RSE的比例显著不同(P=0.027)。结论老年CSE患者基础情况差,病因多样,合并有中枢神经系统新发疾病或有RSE者的死亡率高。%Objective To observe the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 28 aged patients (age above 60) with CSE admitted to our neurological intensive care unit ( NICU) . Results The most common etiology of CSE in elder patients was cerebrovascular disease .Median time from antiepileptic drugs ( AEDs ) treatment to CSE successful terminated was 0.9 hour.Among these patients, CSE was terminated successfully in 16 patients within 1 hour, while other 12 patients were in status of refractory status epilepticus (RSE).As a result, 16 patients survived and 12 died. Compared died patients with those survived , the rates of new-onset central nervous system lesions ( P=0.027 ) and RSE ( P=0.027 ) were significantly different . Conclusion The elderly patients with CSE have poor health basis and various etiologies of CSE .Presenting of new-onset of central nervous system lesions and RSE are associated with the increased rate of death .

  10. Effects of macroparasites on the energy allocation of reproducing small mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction,including lactation,is the most costly activity in terms of energy expenditure in female mammals.Consequently,the energy requirements of the reproducing female may not be met at this time,especially if other energy demanding activities are occurring concomitantly.Such activities could be the activation and maintenance of an immune system in response to parasitic infestation.These protective processes are energetically demanding and require trade-off decisions among competing energy demands.In the case of a reproducing mammal,the trade-offs occur mainly between defence against parasites and reproductive costs of the host.In this paper,I discuss the effects of macroparasites on the energy allocation of reproducing small mammals.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament graft tensioning. Is the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique reproducible?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Barry J

    2011-07-20

    Abstract Background Tensioning of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts affects the clinical outcome of the procedure. As yet, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimum initial tension in an ACL graft. Most surgeons rely on the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique for graft tension. We aim to determine if this technique is reproducible from patient to patient. Findings We created a device to simulate ACL reconstruction surgery using Ilizarov components and porcine flexor tendons. Six experienced ACL reconstruction surgeons volunteered to tension porcine grafts using the device to see if they could produce a consistent tension. None of the surgeons involved were able to accurately reproduce graft tension over a series of repeat trials. Conclusions We conclude that the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique of ACL graft tensioning is not reproducible from trial to trial. We also conclude that the initial tension placed on an ACL graft varies from surgeon to surgeon.

  12. Durations of extended mental rehearsals are remarkably reproducible in higher level human performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L; Shaw, G L; Wright, E L

    1993-12-01

    It has been extremely difficult to quantify temporal aspects of higher level human brain function. We have found that mental rehearsals of musical performance of several minutes duration provide such a measure in that they can be highly reproducible, varying to less than 1%. These remarkable results pose fundamental neurophysiological problems. It is necessary to understand the underlying neuronal bases for this accuracy in the spatial-temporal activity of billions of neurons over minutes without sensory input. Further, they present a powerful constraint on neuronal models of brain function. Such highly reproducible (in duration) mental rehearsals might be used in conjunction with multielectrode EEG recordings to look for reproducible spatial-temporal patterns. Further, we suggest that our results may provide an extremely useful behavioural correlate for high level performance.

  13. Induced sputum is a reproducible method to assess airway inflammation in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bacci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reproducibility of induced sputum analysis, and to estimate the sample size required to obtained reliable results, sputum was induced by hypertonic saline inhalation in 29 asthmatic subjects on two different days. The whole sample method was used for analysis, and inflammatory cells were counted on cytospin slides. Reproducibility, expressed by intra-class correlation coefficients, was good for macrophages (+0.80, neutrophils (+0.85, and eosinophils (+0.87, but not for lymphocytes (+0.15. Detectable differences were 5.5% for macrophages, 0.6% for lymphocytes, 5.2% for neutrophils, and 3.0% for eosinophils. We conclude that analysis of induced sputum is a reproducible method to study airway inflammation in asthma. Sample sizes greater than ours give little improvement in the detectable difference of eosinophil percentages.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament graft tensioning. Is the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirpara Kieran M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensioning of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction grafts affects the clinical outcome of the procedure. As yet, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimum initial tension in an ACL graft. Most surgeons rely on the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique for graft tension. We aim to determine if this technique is reproducible from patient to patient. Findings We created a device to simulate ACL reconstruction surgery using Ilizarov components and porcine flexor tendons. Six experienced ACL reconstruction surgeons volunteered to tension porcine grafts using the device to see if they could produce a consistent tension. None of the surgeons involved were able to accurately reproduce graft tension over a series of repeat trials. Conclusions We conclude that the maximal sustained one-handed pull technique of ACL graft tensioning is not reproducible from trial to trial. We also conclude that the initial tension placed on an ACL graft varies from surgeon to surgeon.

  15. A Low-Cost Anthropometric Walking Robot for Reproducing Gait Lab Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Eduardo da Silva Santana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis is one of the resources that may be used in the study and treatment of pathologies of the locomotive system. This paper deals with the modelling and control aspects of the design, construction and testing of a biped walking robot conceived to, in limited extents, reproduce the human gait. Robot dimensions have been chosen in order to guarantee anthropomorphic proportions and then to help health professionals in gait studies. The robot has been assembled with low-cost components and can reproduce, in an assisted way, real-gait patterns generated from data previously acquired in gait laboratories. Part of the simulated and experimental results are addressed to demonstrate the ability of the biped robot in reproducing normal and pathological human gait.

  16. Back pain and body posture evaluation instrument (BackPEI): development, content validation and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Tarragô Candotti, Cláudia; Vieira, Adriane; Fagundes Loss, Jefferson

    2013-08-01

    Following a search conducted in several databases, no instrument was found that jointly evaluates the prevalence of back pain and its associated demographic, social-economic, hereditary, behavioral and postural risk factors. Thus, the present study aims to develop the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument (BackPEI) for school-age children and verify its validity and reproducibility. Twenty-one questions were elaborated to compose the BackPEI instrument, eight experts checked the content validity, and its reproducibility was tested by applying the questionnaire to 260 primary schoolchildren, at two different times with a 7-day interval. The reproducibility data for the first 20 questions, analyzed using the kappa (k) coefficient, were classified as "very good" (k > 0.8) or "good" (0.6 back pain and its associated risk factors.

  17. Extension of Wirtinger's Calculus in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces and the Complex Kernel LMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouboulis, Pantelis

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, kernel methods for nonlinear processing have successfully been used in the machine learning community. The primary mathematical tool employed in these methods is the notion of the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space. However, so far, the emphasis has been on batch techniques. It is only recently, that online techniques have been considered in the context of adaptive signal processing tasks. Moreover, these efforts have only been focussed on and real valued data sequences. To the best of our knowledge, no kernel-based strategy has been developed, so far, that is able to deal with complex valued signals. In this paper, we present a general framework to attack the problem of adaptive filtering of complex signals, using either real reproducing kernels, taking advantage of a technique called \\textit{complexification} of real RKHSs, or complex reproducing kernels, highlighting the use of the complex gaussian kernel. In order to derive gradients of operators that need to be defined on the associat...

  18. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Quantized correlation coefficient for measuring reproducibility of ChIP-chip data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouyong; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Park, Peter J

    2010-07-27

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) is used to study protein-DNA interactions and histone modifications on a genome-scale. To ensure data quality, these experiments are usually performed in replicates, and a correlation coefficient between replicates is used often to assess reproducibility. However, the correlation coefficient can be misleading because it is affected not only by the reproducibility of the signal but also by the amount of binding signal present in the data. We develop the Quantized correlation coefficient (QCC) that is much less dependent on the amount of signal. This involves discretization of data into set of quantiles (quantization), a merging procedure to group the background probes, and recalculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient. This procedure reduces the influence of the background noise on the statistic, which then properly focuses more on the reproducibility of the signal. The performance of this procedure is tested in both simulated and real ChIP-chip data. For replicates with different levels of enrichment over background and coverage, we find that QCC reflects reproducibility more accurately and is more robust than the standard Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. The quantization and the merging procedure can also suggest a proper quantile threshold for separating signal from background for further analysis. To measure reproducibility of ChIP-chip data correctly, a correlation coefficient that is robust to the amount of signal present should be used. QCC is one such measure. The QCC statistic can also be applied in a variety of other contexts for measuring reproducibility, including analysis of array CGH data for DNA copy number and gene expression data.

  20. Reproducibility and discriminability of brain patterns of semantic categories enhanced by congruent audiovisual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Li

    Full Text Available One of the central questions in cognitive neuroscience is the precise neural representation, or brain pattern, associated with a semantic category. In this study, we explored the influence of audiovisual stimuli on the brain patterns of concepts or semantic categories through a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. We used a pattern search method to extract brain patterns corresponding to two semantic categories: "old people" and "young people." These brain patterns were elicited by semantically congruent audiovisual, semantically incongruent audiovisual, unimodal visual, and unimodal auditory stimuli belonging to the two semantic categories. We calculated the reproducibility index, which measures the similarity of the patterns within the same category. We also decoded the semantic categories from these brain patterns. The decoding accuracy reflects the discriminability of the brain patterns between two categories. The results showed that both the reproducibility index of brain patterns and the decoding accuracy were significantly higher for semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli than for unimodal visual and unimodal auditory stimuli, while the semantically incongruent stimuli did not elicit brain patterns with significantly higher reproducibility index or decoding accuracy. Thus, the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli enhanced the within-class reproducibility of brain patterns and the between-class discriminability of brain patterns, and facilitate neural representations of semantic categories or concepts. Furthermore, we analyzed the brain activity in superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG. The strength of the fMRI signal and the reproducibility index were enhanced by the semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli. Our results support the use of the reproducibility index as a potential tool to supplement the fMRI signal amplitude for evaluating multimodal integration.

  1. Comparison of inter subject variability and reproducibility of whole brain proton spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenith, Tonny V; Mada, Marius; Carter, Eleanor; Grossac, Julia; Newcombe, Virginia; Outtrim, Joanne; Lupson, Victoria; Nallapareddy, Sridhar; Williams, Guy B; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Menon, David K; Maudsley, Andrew A; Coles, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to provide reference data on intersubject variability and reproducibility of metabolite ratios for Choline/Creatine (Cho/Cr), N-acetyl aspartate/Choline (NAA/Cho) and N-acetyl aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr), and individual signal-intensity normalised metabolite concentrations of NAA, Cho and Cr. Healthy volunteers underwent imaging on two occasions using the same 3T Siemens Verio magnetic resonance scanner. At each session two identical Metabolic Imaging and Data Acquisition Software (MIDAS) sequences were obtained along with standard structural imaging. Metabolite maps were created and regions of interest applied in normalised space. The baseline data from all 32 volunteers were used to calculate the intersubject variability, while within session and between session reproducibility were calculated from all the available data. The reproducibility of measurements were used to calculate the overall and within session 95% prediction interval for zero change. The within and between session reproducibility data were lower than the values for intersubject variability, and were variable across the different brain regions. The within and between session reproducibility measurements were similar for Cho/Cr, NAA/Choline, Cho and Cr (11.8%, 11.4%, 14.3 and 10.6% vs. 11.9%, 11.4%, 13.5% and 10.5% respectively), but for NAA/Creatine and NAA between session reproducibility was lower (9.3% and 9.1% vs. 10.1% and 9.9%; p <0.05). This study provides additional reference data that can be utilised in interventional studies to quantify change within a single imaging session, or to assess the significance of change in longitudinal studies of brain injury and disease.

  2. Reproducibility of BOLD, perfusion, and CMRO2 measurements with calibrated-BOLD fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Oleg; Buxton, Richard B

    2007-03-01

    The coupling of changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during brain activation can be characterized by an empirical index, n, defined as the ratio between fractional CBF change and fractional CMRO(2) change. The combination of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging with CBF measurements from arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides a potentially powerful experimental approach for measuring n, but the reproducibility of the technique previously has not been assessed. In this study, inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the method were determined. Block design %BOLD and %CBF responses to visual stimulation and mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) were measured, and these data were used to compute the BOLD scaling factor M, %CMRO(2) change with activation, and the coupling index n. Reproducibility was determined for three approaches to defining regions-of-interest (ROIs): 1) Visual area V1 determined from prior retinotopic maps, 2) BOLD-activated voxels from a separate functional localizer, and 3) CBF-activated voxels from a separate functional localizer. For estimates of %BOLD, %CMRO(2) and n, intra-subject reproducibility was found to be best for regions selected according to CBF activation. Among all fMRI measurements, estimates of n were the most robust and were substantially more stable within individual subjects (coefficient of variation, CV=7.4%) than across the subject pool (CV=36.9%). The stability of n across days, despite wider variability of CBF and CMRO(2) responses, suggests that the reproducibility of blood flow changes is limited by variation in the oxidative metabolic demand. We conclude that the calibrated BOLD approach provides a highly reproducible measurement of n that can serve as a useful quantitative probe of the coupling of blood flow and energy metabolism in the brain.

  3. Highly Efficient Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Low-Temperature Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PEDOT:PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C60 layer before deposition of the top electrode. No high temperature annealing step is needed, which also allows processing on flexible plastic substrates. Only the optimization of all of these layers leads to highly efficient and reproducible results. In this work, we describe the effects of different processing conditions, especially the influence of the C60 top layer on the device performance.

  4. Reproducibility analysis of the stability and treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reproducibility among spine surgeons in defining the treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions, taking into account the mechanical stability of injuries. METHODS: Twenty cases of isolated vertebral metastatic lesions were presented to ten experts. Their opinion was then asked about the stability of the lesion, as well as their treatment option. RESULTS: The interobserver Kappa coefficient obtained both for stability analysis as to the decision of the treatment was poor (0.334 and 0.248, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Poor interobserver reproducibility was observed in deciding the treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions when considering the stability of the lesions.

  5. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne A.; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal...... problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within...

  6. Highly Efficient Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Low-Temperature Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Wong, Ka Kan; Kollek, Tom; Hanusch, Fabian; Polarz, Sebastian; Docampo, Pablo; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-04-23

    In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C60 layer before deposition of the top electrode. No high temperature annealing step is needed, which also allows processing on flexible plastic substrates. Only the optimization of all of these layers leads to highly efficient and reproducible results. In this work, we describe the effects of different processing conditions, especially the influence of the C60 top layer on the device performance.

  7. A New Method for Riccati Differential Equations Based on Reproducing Kernel and Quasilinearization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method for solving Riccati differential equations, which is based on reproducing kernel method and quasilinearization technique. The quasilinearization technique is used to reduce the Riccati differential equation to a sequence of linear problems. The resulting sets of differential equations are treated by using reproducing kernel method. The solutions of Riccati differential equations obtained using many existing methods give good approximations only in the neighborhood of the initial position. However, the solutions obtained using the present method give good approximations in a larger interval, rather than a local vicinity of the initial position. Numerical results compared with other methods show that the method is simple and effective.

  8. Precision, consistency, and reproducibility of blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn Friis; Rosgaard, Anni; Lousen, Thea;

    2007-01-01

    A monitor (Spacelab 90207) was compared with sphygmomanometric blood pressure (BP) with respect to reproducibility and variations on precision and consistency. Some 133 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 59 non-diabetic women were recruited. During pregnancy, systolic BP was between 6 and 12...... mmHg higher in the oscillometric than the auscultatory readings, and diastolic BP was between 1 and 2.6 mmHg. The association of difference with the mean BP disappeared with progression of pregnancy and the repetition of measurements in diabetic pregnancy. The precision, reproducibility, and trend...

  9. Lung cancer perfusion at multi-detector row CT: reproducibility of whole tumor quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Quan-Sing; Goh, Vicky; Fichte, Heinz; Klotz, Ernst; Fernie, Pat; Saunders, Michele I; Hoskin, Peter J; Padhani, Anwar R

    2006-05-01

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess, in patients with lung cancer, the reproducibility of a quantitative whole tumor perfusion computed tomographic (CT) technique. Paired CT studies were performed in 10 patients (eight men, two women; mean age, 66 years) with lung cancer. Whole tumor permeability and blood volume were measured, and reproducibility was evaluated by using Bland-Altman statistics. Coefficient of variation of 9.49% for permeability and 26.31% for blood volume and inter- and intraobserver variability ranging between 3.30% and 6.34% indicate reliable assessment with this whole tumor technique.

  10. A model project for reproducible papers: critical temperature for the Ising model on a square lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Dolfi, M; Hehn, A; Imriška, J; Pakrouski, K; Rønnow, T F; Troyer, M; Zintchenko, I; Chirigati, F; Freire, J; Shasha, D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple, yet typical simulation in statistical physics, consisting of large scale Monte Carlo simulations followed by an involved statistical analysis of the results. The purpose is to provide an example publication to explore tools for writing reproducible papers. The simulation estimates the critical temperature where the Ising model on the square lattice becomes magnetic to be Tc /J = 2.26934(6) using a finite size scaling analysis of the crossing points of Binder cumulants. We provide a virtual machine which can be used to reproduce all figures and results.

  11. Fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel es demostrada usando un método electroquímico. Las puntas son hechas a partir de alambre de tungsteno de 0.5 mm de diámetro. Controlando las condiciones de fabricación: la inmersión en la solución electrolítica, rangos de voltaje-corriente y duración del proceso se logra realizar puntas con relaciones de aspecto de 0.68 y radios de punta de 330 nm en el mejor caso./ Reproducible fabrication of Scanning Tunnelin...

  12. Procedure for the Analysis of Repeatability and Reproducibility in Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González Rey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility conditions (R&R in a manufacturing system is presented. The analysis of repeatability and reproducibility is based in measurement of dimensions from a piece or manufactured part. The procedure is fi xed by means of method of average and range with great acceptance and exclusivity in the study of measurement system analysis. This procedure and results derived of R&R analysis prove that method of average and range could be used in the stability study of manufacturing systems.

  13. Assessing reproducibility by the within-subject coefficient of variation with random effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, H; Shih, W J

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we consider the use of within-subject coefficient of variation (WCV) for assessing the reproducibility or reliability of a measurement. Application to assessing reproducibility of biochemical markers for measuring bone turnover is described and the comparison with intraclass correlation is discussed. Both maximum likelihood and moment confidence intervals of WCV are obtained through their corresponding asymptotic distributions. Normal and log-normal cases are considered. In general, WCV is preferred when the measurement scale bears intrinsic meaning and is not subject to arbitrary shifting. The intraclass correlation may be preferred when a fixed population of subjects can be well identified.

  14. Respiratory muscle activity measured with a noninvasive EMG technique : technical aspects and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, EJW; Van Eykern, LA; Sprikkelman, AB; Hoekstra, MO; Van Aalderen, WMC

    A new method is being developed to investigate airway obstruction in young children by means of noninvasive electromyography (EMG) of diaphragmatic and intercostal muscles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the EMG measurements. Eleven adults, 39 school children (20

  15. Validity and reproducibility of motion sensors in youth: A systematic update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Hirtum, H.W.J.E.M. van; Bakker, I.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Hirasing, R.A.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review recently published studies on the reproducibility, validity, and feasibility of motion sensors used to assess physical activity in healthy children and adolescents (2-18 yr). Methods: On October 2004, a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO was performed. Th

  16. Reproducing Monocultural Education: Ethnic Majority Staff's Discursive Constructions of Monocultural School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of ethnic majority staff in the perpetuation of monocultural education that excludes non-western, ethnic minority cultures and reproduces institutional racism in schools. Based on qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews in four ethnically diverse schools in the Flemish educational system, we…

  17. Reproducible long-term disc degeneration in a large animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, R.J.W.; Helder, M.N.; Kroeze, R.J.; Bank, R.A.; Smit, T.H.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Twelve goats were chemically degenerated and the development of the degenerative signs was followed for 26 weeks to evaluate the progression of the induced degeneration. The results were also compared with a previous study to determine the reproducibility. OBJECTIVES. The purpose of th

  18. Reproducibility and relative validity of the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine reproducibility and relative validity of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH). Methods: Participants (36 men and 14 women, aged 27-58) were asked to complete the SQUASH twice with an inbetween period of app

  19. In-vitro accuracy and reproducibility evaluation of probing depth measurements of selected periodontal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Al Shayeb

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Depth measurements with the Chapple UB-CF-15 probe were more accurate and reproducible compared to measurements with the Vivacare TPS and Williams 14 W probes. This in vitro model may be useful for intra-examiner calibration or clinician training prior to the clinical evaluation of patients or in longitudinal studies involving periodontal evaluation.

  20. Repeatability and reproducibility of Population Viability Analysis (PVA and the implications for threatened species management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Morrison

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage focuses on prioritizing species, populations or habitats based on urgency, biodiversity benefits, recovery potential as well as cost. Population Viability Analysis (PVA is frequently used in population focused conservation prioritizations. The critical nature of many of these management decisions requires that PVA models are repeatable and reproducible to reliably rank species and/or populations quantitatively. This paper assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of a subset of previously published PVA models. We attempted to rerun baseline models from 90 publicly available PVA studies published between 2000-2012 using the two most common PVA modelling software programs, VORTEX and RAMAS-GIS. Forty percent (n = 36 failed, 50% (45 were both repeatable and reproducible, and 10% (9 had missing baseline models. Repeatability was not linked to taxa, IUCN category, PVA program version used, year published or the quality of publication outlet, suggesting that the problem is systemic within the discipline. Complete and systematic presentation of PVA parameters and results are needed to ensure that the scientific input into conservation planning is both robust and reliable, thereby increasing the chances of making decisions that are both beneficial and defensible. The implications for conservation triage may be far reaching if population viability models cannot be reproduced with confidence, thus undermining their intended value.

  1. Reproducibility of self-reported melanoma risk factors in melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.C. de; Rossum, M.M. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    As melanoma researchers continue to investigate environmental and lifestyle-related risk factors, questionnaire data remain important. The reproducibility of a questionnaire on melanoma risk factors was investigated using a test-retest approach in 389 Dutch melanoma patients. In 2011, 389 melanoma

  2. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  3. Improving the reproducibility of hydrogel-coated glutamate microsensors by using an automated dipcoater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, Weite Hendrik; Beukema, W.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogel-coated microsensors based oil carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs) are promising tools for in vivo analysis of endogeneous compounds such as glutamate. However. their construction generally depends on manual fabrication. which often results in pool reproducibility. The aim of this study was to im

  4. Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Peyton Smith, A.; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-01

    Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed—by funders, journals, governments, and their peers—to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits of, making their data and fully-reproducible analyses publicly available. Here we describe a recent ‘open experiment’, in which we documented every aspect of a soil incubation online, making all raw data, scripts, diagnostics, final analyses, and manuscripts available in real time. We found that using tools such as version control, issue tracking, and open-source statistical software improved data integrity, accelerated our team’s communication and productivity, and ensured transparency. There are many avenues to improve scientific reproducibility and data availability, of which is this only one example, and it is not an approach suited for every experiment or situation. Nonetheless, we encourage the communities in our respective fields to consider its advantages, and to lead rather than follow with respect to scientific reproducibility, transparency, and data availability.

  5. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, L.; Groen, B.E.; Speyer, R.; Limbeek, J. van; Sanden, M.W. van der

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masti

  6. Histological assessment of pre-transplant kidney biopsies is reproducible and representative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijs, M.G.; Boonstra, L.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Goldschmeding, R.; Suylen, R.J. van; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Peutz-Kootstra, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Histological examination of pre-transplant renal biopsy specimens can be used to select grafts from older donors after cardiac death (DCD) with a satisfactory transplant outcome. The aim was to determine whether such biopsy specimens can be reproducibly scored between pathologists and are repr

  7. Reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A concentrations measured during pregnancy in the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Shaw, P.A.; Snijder, C.A.; Pierik, F.H.; Koch, H.M.; Hauser, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Burdorf, A.; Hofman, A.; Tiemeier, H.; Longnecker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential human health effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure are a public health concern. In order to design adequately powered epidemiological studies to address potential health effects, data on the reproducibility of BPA concentration in seri al urine specimens taken during pregnancy are need

  8. A new paradigm for reproducing and analyzing N-body simulations of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Hanno; Tamayo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is one of the main principles of the scientific method. However, numerical N-body experiments, especially those of planetary systems, are currently not reproducible. In the most optimistic scenario, they can only be replicated in an approximate or statistical sense. Even if authors share their full source code and initial conditions, differences in compilers, libraries, operating systems or hardware often lead to qualitatively different results. We provide a new set of easy-to-use, open-source tools that address the above issues, allowing for exact (bit-by-bit) reproducibility of N-body experiments. In addition to generating completely reproducible integrations, we show that our framework also offers novel and innovative ways to analyze these simulations. As an example, we present a high-accuracy integration of the Solar System spanning 10 Gyrs, requiring several weeks to run on a modern CPU. In our framework we can not only easily access simulation data at predefined intervals for which we save snapshots, but at any time during the integration. We achieve this by integrating an on-demand reconstructed simulation forward in time from the nearest snapshot. This allows us to extract arbitrary quantities at any point in the saved simulation exactly (bit-by-bit), and within seconds rather than weeks. We believe that the tools we present in this paper offer a new paradigm for how N-body simulations are run, analyzed, and shared across the community.

  9. Improving the reproducibility of hydrogel-coated glutamate microsensors by using an automated dipcoater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenziel, W H; Beukema, W; Westerink, B H C

    2004-12-30

    Hydrogel-coated microsensors based on carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs) are promising tools for in vivo analysis of endogeneous compounds such as glutamate. However, their construction generally depends on manual fabrication, which often results in poor reproducibility. The aim of this study was to improve the reproducibility and performance of glutamate microsensors. CFEs (10 microm diameter, 300-500 microm long) were coated with a cross-linked redox-polymer hydrogel containing l-glutamate oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase. Various parameters that are likely to influence the reproducibility of the glutamate microsensors were studied. It appeared that the most crucial step in determining the microsensor performance is the manual hydrogel-application procedure. To control this procedure an automated dipcoater was constructed, which allowed mechanical application of the hydrogel on the CFE under standardized conditions. Significant improvements in performance were seen when the CFEs were dipcoated for 10 min at 37 degrees C. Further improvements were obtained when the automated hydrogel application was combined with other cross-link methods, such as electrodeposition and electrostatic complexation. A crucial factor in determining the microsensor performance is the hydrogel thickness. Microscopic observations revealed that, despite the use of an automated dipcoater, the layer thickness was not constant. By combining the automated dipcoat technique with amperometry, the layer thickness could be indirectly monitored and controlled, which resulted in significant improvements of the reproducibility of the sensors.

  10. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  11. Respiratory muscle activity measured with a noninvasive EMG technique : technical aspects and reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, EJW; Van Eykern, LA; Sprikkelman, AB; Hoekstra, MO; Van Aalderen, WMC

    2000-01-01

    A new method is being developed to investigate airway obstruction in young children by means of noninvasive electromyography (EMG) of diaphragmatic and intercostal muscles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the EMG measurements. Eleven adults, 39 school children (20 he

  12. Can cerebral blood volume be measured reproducibly with an improved near infrared spectroscopy system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Walraven, D.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In some circumstances, cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as a measure for cerebral blood flow. A new near infrared spectroscope was used for determining the reproducibility of CBV measurements assessed by the O2-method. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were investigated. An intrasubject coefficie

  13. Comparison of the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs between dentulous and edentulous patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woong; Huh, Kyung Hee; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs of dentulous and edentulous patients. The reproducibility of panoramic radiographs was evaluated using the panoramic radiographs acquired from 30 anterior dentulous patients by using a common biting positioning device (dentulous group) and 30 anterior edentulous patients by using chin-support devices to take a panoramic radiograph (edentulous group), respectively; these patients had undergone 3 or more panoramic radiographs. The widths and angles between the designated landmarks were measured on the panoramic radiographs, and the reproducibility was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation. In the dentulous and edentulous groups, the ICCs of the mandibular ramus and mandibular angle areas were higher than the condylar head and zygomatic areas. The mandibular ramus and angle areas showed statistically lower mean coefficients of variation than the condylar head and zygomatic areas in the dentulous group. The mandibular angle area showed a significantly lower mean coefficient of variation than the zygomatic area in the edentulous group. By comparing the two groups, each ICC of the edentulous group was lower than that of the dentulous group, and the mean coefficients of variation of the mandibular ramus area, zygomatic area, left condylar inclination, and ramus ratio between the right and the left in the edentulous group were significantly higher than those in the dentulous group. Biting positioning for dentulous patients provided better positioning reproducibility than chin-support positioning when performing panoramic radiography for edentulous patients.

  14. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  15. Reproducibility of 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Measurements of Placental Volume at Gestational Ages 11 - 14 Weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M L; Naver, K V; Kjaer, M M;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of placental volume using three-dimensional ultrasound. METHODS: The VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) technique involves rotating an image of an object along an established axis using predefined angles. This provides a number of sections to ...

  16. Reproducibility of 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Measurements of Placental Volume at Gestational Ages 11 - 14 Weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M L; Naver, K V; Kjaer, M M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of placental volume using three-dimensional ultrasound. METHODS: The VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis) technique involves rotating an image of an object along an established axis using predefined angles. This provides a number of sections to ...

  17. Improved swimming pool achieves higher reproducibility and sensitivity to effect of food components as ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kengo; Yamada, Ayumi; Mita, Yukiko; Goto, Ayako; Ishimi, Tomoe; Mabuchi, Haruko; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    2009-06-01

    A previously developed current swimming pool for mice has been used to evaluate many food components that enhance endurance exercise performance. In this article, to improve reproducibility, reliability and sensitivity of this assay system, we improved the spout part to generate a uniform current and divided the pool into six lanes to avoid physical interference between swimming mice. The stability of the current flow was assessed by measuring the surface current speed and water volume from the spout part. Maximum swimming times of ddY and BALB/c mice were measured to assess the reproducibility of the maximum swimming time. The improvement in sensitivity compared to the original equipment was estimated under three physiological conditions: low carbohydrate diet feeding, low blood hemoglobin level, and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The new spout part improved uniformity and quick adjustment of surface current, yielding an increase of workload in a stepwise manner during swimming. Exercise workload was increased in proportion to surface current speed, as evidenced by cadence of kicks and serum lactic acid levels. The improved swimming pool showed higher reproducibility of swimming time until fatigue (pswimming time was improved in the swimming pool. The improved swimming pool yielded higher sensitivity for low carbohydrate diet feeding (pswimming pool. The improvement of the swimming pool achieved higher sensitivity and reproducibility in assessing various diet and food components compared to the original swimming pool.

  18. Repeatability and reproducibility of optic nerve head perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Bojikian, Karine D.; Xin, Chen; Wen, Joanne C.; Gupta, Divakar; Zhang, Qinqin; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Chen, Philip P.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has increasingly become a clinically useful technique in ophthalmic imaging. We evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of blood perfusion in the optic nerve head (ONH) measured using optical microangiography (OMAG)-based OCTA. Ten eyes from 10 healthy volunteers are recruited and scanned three times with a 68-kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5000-based OMAG prototype system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California) centered at the ONH involving two separate visits within six weeks. Vascular images are generated with OMAG processing by detecting the differences in OCT signals between consecutive B-scans acquired at the same retina location. ONH perfusion is quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux within the ONH for the prelaminar, lamina cribrosa, and the full ONH. Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are used to evaluate intravisit and intervisit repeatability, and interobserver reproducibility. ONH perfusion measurements show high repeatability [CV≤3.7% (intravisit) and ≤5.2% (intervisit)] and interobserver reproducibility (ICC≤0.966) in all three layers by three metrics. OCTA provides a noninvasive method to visualize and quantify ONH perfusion in human eyes with excellent repeatability and reproducibility, which may add additional insight into ONH perfusion in clinical practice.

  19. Assessing Cognitive Performance in Badminton Players: A Reproducibility and Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanja; Faber, Irene; Elferink-Gemser, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT), fifteen elite (25 ± 4 years) and nine non-elite (24 ± 4 years) Dutch male badminton players participated in the study. The BRIT measured four components: domain-general reaction time, badminton-specific reaction time, domain-general inhibitory control and badminton-specific inhibitory control. Five participants were retested within three weeks on the badminton-specific components. Reproducibility was acceptable for badminton-specific reaction time (ICC = 0.626, CV = 6%) and for badminton-specific inhibitory control (ICC = 0.317, CV = 13%). Good construct validity was shown for badminton-specific reaction time discriminating between elite and non-elite players (F = 6.650, p 0.05). Concurrent validity for domain-general reaction time was good, as it was associated with a national ranking for elite (p = 0.70, p 0.05). In conclusion, reproducibility and validity of inhibitory control assessment was not confirmed, however, the BRIT appears a reproducible and valid measure of reaction time in badminton players. Reaction time measured with the BRIT may provide input for training programs aiming to improve badminton players’ performance. PMID:28210347

  20. Inter-laboratory evaluation of instrument platforms and experimental workflows for quantitative accuracy and reproducibility assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Tamura-Wells, Jessica; Albar, Juan Pablo; Aloria, Kerman; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Araujo, Gabriel D T; Arizmendi, Jesus M.; Blanco, Francisco J.; Canals, Francesc; Cho, Jin Young; Colomé-Calls, Núria; Corrales, Fernando J.; Domont, Gilberto; Espadas, Guadalupe; Fernandez-Puente, Patricia; Gil, Concha; Haynes, Paul A.; Hernáez, Maria Luisa; Kim, Jin Young; Kopylov, Arthur; Marcilla, Miguel; McKay, Mathew J.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Molloy, Mark P.; Ohlund, Leanne B.; Paik, Young Ki; Paradela, Alberto; Raftery, Mark; Sabidó, Eduard; Sleno, Lekha; Wilffert, Daniel; Wolters, Justina C.; Yoo, Jong Shin; Zgoda, Victor; Parker, Carol E.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2015-01-01

    The reproducibility of plasma protein quantitation between laboratories and between instrument types was examined in a large-scale international study involving 16 laboratories and 19 LC-MS/MS platforms, using two kits designed to evaluate instrument performance and one kit designed to evaluate the

  1. Histological assessment of pre-transplant kidney biopsies is reproducible and representative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeijs, M.G.; Boonstra, L.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Goldschmeding, R.; Suylen, R.J. van; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Peutz-Kootstra, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Histological examination of pre-transplant renal biopsy specimens can be used to select grafts from older donors after cardiac death (DCD) with a satisfactory transplant outcome. The aim was to determine whether such biopsy specimens can be reproducibly scored between pathologists and are repr

  2. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation: different signal processing methods without influence on results and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommer, Erik D; Shijaku, Eri; Mess, Werner H; Reulen, Jos P H

    2010-12-01

    Cerebral autoregulation controls cerebral blood flow under changing cerebral perfusion pressure. Standards for measurement and analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) are lacking. In this study, dCA reproducibility, quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient, is evaluated for different methodological approaches of transfer function analysis (TFA) and compared with multimodal pressure flow analysis (MMPF). dCA parameters were determined in 19 healthy volunteers during three 15-min lasting epochs of spontaneous breathing. Every spontaneous breathing epoch was followed by 5 min of paced breathing at 6 cycles/min. These six measurements were performed in both a morning and an afternoon session. Analysis compared raw data pre-processing by mean subtraction versus smoothness priors detrending. The estimation of spectral density was either performed by averaging of subsequent time windows or by smoothing the spectrum of the whole recording. No significant influence of pre-processing and spectral estimation on dCA parameters was found. Therefore, there seems to be no need to prescribe a specific signal-processing regime. Poor reproducibility of gain and phase was found for TFA as well as for MMPF. Based on reproducibility, no preference can be made for morning versus afternoon measurements, neither for spontaneous versus paced breathing. Finally, reproducibility results are not in favour of TFA or MMPF.

  3. Application of optical coherence tomography enhances reproducibility of arthroscopic evaluation of equine joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemelä, Tytti; Virén, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; te Moller, Nikae; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, R.M.; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopy is widely used in various equine joints for diagnostic and surgical purposes. However, accuracy of defining the extent of cartilage lesions and reproducibility in grading of lesions are not optimal. Therefore, there is a need for new, more quantitative arthroscopic methods. A

  4. Reproducibility of contractile properties of the human paralysed and non-paralysed quadriceps muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, H.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Sargeant, A.J.; Haan, A. de

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of electrically evoked, isometric quadriceps contractile properties in eight people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and eight able-bodied (AB) individuals. Over all, the pooled coefficients of variation (CVps) in the SCI group were significantly lower (ranging

  5. Validity and reproducibility of motion sensors in youth: A systematic update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Hirtum, H.W.J.E.M. van; Bakker, I.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Hirasing, R.A.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review recently published studies on the reproducibility, validity, and feasibility of motion sensors used to assess physical activity in healthy children and adolescents (2-18 yr). Methods: On October 2004, a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO was performed.

  6. Validity and reproducibility of motion sensors in youth: a systematic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Sanne I; Van Hirtum, Helmi W J E M; Bakker, Ingrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Hirasing, Remy A; Van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-04-01

    To review recently published studies on the reproducibility, validity, and feasibility of motion sensors used to assess physical activity in healthy children and adolescents (2-18 yr). On October 2004, a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO was performed. This search has been updated on October 2007. In this update, the clinimetric quality of three pedometers (Digi-Walker, Walk4Life, and Sun TrekLINQ) and nine accelerometers (ActiGraph, BioTrainer, StepWatch Activity Monitor, Actiwatch, Actical, Tritrac-R3D, RT3, ActivTracer, and Mini-Motionlogger) has been evaluated and compared using a checklist. Thirty-two recently published clinimetric studies have been reviewed. All 12 motion sensors have been validated in youth in one or more studies. There is strong evidence for moderate validity of the StepWatch in children and adolescents (4-18 yr) and moderate to good validity of the ActiGraph in preschool children and young children (2-8 yr). There is less evidence for the reproducibility and feasibility of the 12 motion sensors. Strong evidence exists for good reproducibility of the ActiGraph in preschool children (2-4 yr). Compared to the review performed in 2004, there is increased evidence for the clinimetric quality of pedometers and accelerometers in youth. Most motion sensors seem reproducible, valid, and feasible in assessing physical activity in youth.

  7. Bitwise identical compiling setup: prospective for reproducibility and reliability of earth system modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and reliability are fundamental principles of scientific research. A compiling setup that includes a specific compiler version and compiler flags is essential technical supports for Earth system modeling. With the fast development of computer software and hardware, compiling setup has to be updated frequently, which challenges the reproducibility and reliability of Earth system modeling. The existing results of a simulation using an original compiling setup may be irreproducible by a newer compiling setup because trivial round-off errors introduced by the change of compiling setup can potentially trigger significant changes in simulation results. Regarding the reliability, a compiler with millions of lines of codes may have bugs that are easily overlooked due to the uncertainties or unknowns in Earth system modeling. To address these challenges, this study shows that different compiling setups can achieve exactly the same (bitwise identical results in Earth system modeling, and a set of bitwise identical compiling setups of a model can be used across different compiler versions and different compiler flags. As a result, the original results can be more easily reproduced; for example, the original results with an older compiler version can be reproduced exactly with a newer compiler version. Moreover, this study shows that new test cases can be generated based on the differences of bitwise identical compiling setups between different models, which can help detect software bugs or risks in the codes of models and compilers and finally improve the reliability of Earth system modeling.

  8. Reproducing oil paint gloss in print for the purpose of creating reproductions of Old Masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhuizen, Willemijn S.; Lenseigne, Boris A. J.; Baar, Teun; Verhofstad, Wim; Tempelman, Erik; Geraedts, Jo M. P.; Dik, Joris

    2015-03-01

    In the field of Fine Art reproduction, 3D scanning plus 3D printing, combined with dedicated software, now allows to capture and reproduce the color and texture of oil paintings. However, for life-like reproduction of the material appearance of such paintings, the typical gloss and translucency must also be included, which is currently not the case. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the challenges and results of capturing and reproducing oil paint gloss (next to texture and color) using a scanning and printing system. A sample was hand-made using oil paint and acrylic varnish, and its gloss was then reproduced. A gloss map of the painted sample was acquired using a high end DLSR camera and a simple acquisition protocol. Next, Océ High Resolution 3D printing technology was used to create samples with spatially varying gloss. For this, two different strategies were combined: (1) multilevel half-toning of the colors was used to reproduce matte color layers, and (2) varnish was half-toned on top in increasing coverage to recreate increasing gloss levels. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art literature in gloss reproduction and perception, our process of reproduction as well as the visual evaluation of the quality of the created reproduction.

  9. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    The jaw ontogeny of Dorvillea albomaculata and D. bermudensis was studied in cultured specimens, reproducing asexually by transverse fission. Mandibular growth was found to occur by lateral apposition. Maxillary development exhibited a gradual growth pattern, as opposed to the maxillary moults fo...

  10. The linearization of boundary eigenvalue problems and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ćurgus, Branko; Dijksma, Aad; Read, Tom

    2001-01-01

    The boundary eigenvalue problems for the adjoint of a symmetric relation S in a Hilbert space with finite, not necessarily equal, defect numbers, which are related to the selfadjoint Hilbert space extensions of S are characterized in terms of boundary coefficients and the reproducing kernel Hilbert

  11. Reproducibility of self-reported melanoma risk factors in melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.C. de; Rossum, M.M. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    As melanoma researchers continue to investigate environmental and lifestyle-related risk factors, questionnaire data remain important. The reproducibility of a questionnaire on melanoma risk factors was investigated using a test-retest approach in 389 Dutch melanoma patients. In 2011, 389 melanoma p

  12. Reproducibility of In-Vivo OCT Measured Three-Dimensional Human Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available PurposeTo determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D lamina cribrosa (LC microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT.MethodsThirty-nine eyes (8 healthy, 19 glaucoma suspects and 12 glaucoma from 49 subjects were scanned twice using swept-source (SS− OCT in a 3.5×3.5×3.64 mm (400×400×896 pixels volume centered on the optic nerve head, with the focus readjusted after each scan. The LC was automatically segmented and analyzed for microarchitectural parameters, including pore diameter, pore diameter standard deviation (SD, pore aspect ratio, pore area, beam thickness, beam thickness SD, and beam thickness to pore diameter ratio. Reproducibility of the parameters was assessed by computing the imprecision of the parameters between the scans.ResultsThe automated segmentation demonstrated excellent reproducibility. All LC microarchitecture parameters had an imprecision of less or equal to 4.2%. There was little variability in imprecision with respect to diagnostic category, although the method tends to show higher imprecision amongst healthy subjects.ConclusionThe proposed automated segmentation of the LC demonstrated high reproducibility for 3D LC parameters. This segmentation analysis tool will be useful for in-vivo studies of the LC.

  13. GUIdock: Using Docker Containers with a Common Graphics User Interface to Address the Reproducibility of Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hong Hung

    Full Text Available Reproducibility is vital in science. For complex computational methods, it is often necessary, not just to recreate the code, but also the software and hardware environment to reproduce results. Virtual machines, and container software such as Docker, make it possible to reproduce the exact environment regardless of the underlying hardware and operating system. However, workflows that use Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs remain difficult to replicate on different host systems as there is no high level graphical software layer common to all platforms. GUIdock allows for the facile distribution of a systems biology application along with its graphics environment. Complex graphics based workflows, ubiquitous in systems biology, can now be easily exported and reproduced on many different platforms. GUIdock uses Docker, an open source project that provides a container with only the absolutely necessary software dependencies and configures a common X Windows (X11 graphic interface on Linux, Macintosh and Windows platforms. As proof of concept, we present a Docker package that contains a Bioconductor application written in R and C++ called networkBMA for gene network inference. Our package also includes Cytoscape, a java-based platform with a graphical user interface for visualizing and analyzing gene networks, and the CyNetworkBMA app, a Cytoscape app that allows the use of networkBMA via the user-friendly Cytoscape interface.

  14. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into ou

  15. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, van H.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Winter, de A.F.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2 week

  16. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, H.H. van; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Winter, A.F. de; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2 week

  17. THE BAFFLED FLASK TEST FOR DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS: A ROUND ROBIN EVALUATION OF REPRODUCIBILITY AND REPEATABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    After two previous investigations demonstrated that the Baffled Flask Test (BFT) was an effective and reproducible method for screening the effectiveness of dispersant products in the laboratory, the USEPA decided that before the new protocol cold be considered for replacement of...

  18. Detection of antigen in sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis : Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, PE; Erjavec, Z; Sluiters, W; Goessens, W; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Debets-Ossenkopp, YJ; Guiot, HFL; Meis, JFGM

    1998-01-01

    The intra-and interlaboratory reproducibilities of a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan in serum (Platelia Aspergillus; Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marnes-La-Coquette, France) were evaluated in six laboratories of university h

  19. RAS testing in metastatic colorectal cancer: excellent reproducibility amongst 17 Dutch pathology centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boleij, A.; Tops, B.B.; Rombout, P.D.; Dequeker, E.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) restricted the indication for anti-EGFR targeted therapy to metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with a wild-type RAS gene, increasing the need for reliable RAS mutation testing. We evaluated the completeness and reproducibility of RAS-testing in the Netherl

  20. Could Blockchain provide the technical fix to solve science’s reproducibility crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartling, Sönke; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain technology has the capacity to make digital goods immutable, transparent, and provable. Sönke Bartling and Benedikt Fecher look at the technical aspects of blockchain and also discuss its application in the research world. Blockchain could strengthen science’s verification process, helping to make more research results reproducible, true, and useful.

  1. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...

  2. Reproducing the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Factor Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One of the ways to increase the reproducibility of research is for authors to provide a sufficient description of the data analytic procedures so that others can replicate the results. The publishers of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) do not follow these guidelines when reporting their confirmatory factor…

  3. Improving the reproducibility of hydrogel-coated glutamate microsensors by using an automated dipcoater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, Weite Hendrik; Beukema, W.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogel-coated microsensors based oil carbon fiber electrodes (CFEs) are promising tools for in vivo analysis of endogeneous compounds such as glutamate. However. their construction generally depends on manual fabrication. which often results in pool reproducibility. The aim of this study was to

  4. Scapular dyskinesis in trapezius myalgia and intraexaminer reproducibility of clinical tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hilt, Kenneth; Enoch, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aims were to test the intraexaminer reproducibility and report the presence of specific clinical variables of scapular dyskinesis in cases with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls, along with general health and work ability. A total of 38 cases and 23 controls were tested for scapular dysk...

  5. Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Smith, Ashly P.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-07-29

    Researchers in soil and ecosystem science, and almost every other field, are being pushed--by funders, journals, governments, and their peers--to increase transparency and reproducibility of their work. A key part of this effort is a move towards open data as a way to fight post-publication data loss, improve data and code quality, enable powerful meta- and cross-disciplinary analyses, and increase trust in, and the efficiency of, publicly-funded research. Many scientists however lack experience in, and may be unsure of the benefits of, making their data and fully-reproducible analyses publicly available. Here we describe a recent "open experiment", in which we documented every aspect of a soil incubation online, making all raw data, scripts, diagnostics, final analyses, and manuscripts available in real time. We found that using tools such as version control, issue tracking, and open-source statistical software improved data integrity, accelerated our team's communication and productivity, and ensured transparency. There are many avenues to improve scientific reproducibility and data availability, of which is this only one example, and it is not an approach suited for every experiment or situation. Nonetheless, we encourage the communities in our respective fields to consider its advantages, and to lead rather than follow with respect to scientific reproducibility, transparency, and data availability.

  6. CONNJUR R: an annotation strategy for fostering reproducibility in bio-NMR—protein spectral assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Hoch, Jeffrey C. [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Ulrich, Eldon [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Gryk, Michael R., E-mail: gryk@uchc.edu [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Reproducibility is a cornerstone of the scientific method, essential for validation of results by independent laboratories and the sine qua non of scientific progress. A key step toward reproducibility of biomolecular NMR studies was the establishment of public data repositories (PDB and BMRB). Nevertheless, bio-NMR studies routinely fall short of the requirement for reproducibility that all the data needed to reproduce the results are published. A key limitation is that considerable metadata goes unpublished, notably manual interventions that are typically applied during the assignment of multidimensional NMR spectra. A general solution to this problem has been elusive, in part because of the wide range of approaches and software packages employed in the analysis of protein NMR spectra. Here we describe an approach for capturing missing metadata during the assignment of protein NMR spectra that can be generalized to arbitrary workflows, different software packages, other biomolecules, or other stages of data analysis in bio-NMR. We also present extensions to the NMR-STAR data dictionary that enable machine archival and retrieval of the “missing” metadata.

  7. Lack of reproducibility of linkage results in serially measured blood pressure data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, [No Value; Celedon, JC; Weiss, ST; Palmer, LJ

    2003-01-01

    Background: Using the longitudinal Framingham Heart Study data on blood pressure, we analyzed the reproducibility of linkage measures from serial cross-sectional surveys of a defined population by performing genome-wide model-free linkage analyses to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and history of hype

  8. The reproducibility of cephalometric measurements: a comparison of analogue and digital methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Katsaros, C.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Bodegom, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reproducibility of longitudinal cephalometric measurements between analogue and digital methods using two different resolutions. Cephalometric radiographs of 20 patients were selected at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment: 24 cephalometric variables

  9. Accuracy and reproducibility of dental replica models reconstructed by different rapid prototyping techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeveld, Aletta; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: Rapid prototyping is a fast-developing technique that might play a significant role in the eventual replacement of plaster dental models. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of physical dental models reconstructed from digital data by several rapid

  10. A standardised and reproducible model of intra-abdominal infection and abscess formation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha, K; Nieuwenhuijs, VB; Gooszen, AW; van Duijvenbode-Beumer, H; Visser, MR; Verweij, Willem; Akkermans, LMA

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standardised and reproducible model of intra-abdominal infection and abscess formation in rats. Design: Experimental study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects: 36 adult male Wistar rats. Interventions: In 32 rats, peritonitis was produced using two differ

  11. Improving reproducibility of VEP recording in rats: electrodes, stimulus source and peak analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuyi; Klistorner, Alexander; Thie, Johnson; Graham, Stuart L

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate and improve the reproducibility of visual evoked potential (VEP) measurement in rats and to develop a mini-Ganzfeld stimulator for rat VEP recording. VEPs of Sprague-Dawley rats were recorded on one randomly selected eye on three separate days within a week, and the recordings were repeated three times on the first day to evaluate the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility. The VEPs were recorded with subdermal needle and implanted skull screw electrodes, respectively, to evaluate the effect of electrode configuration on VEP reproducibility. We also designed a mini-Ganzfeld stimulator for rats, which provided better eye isolation than the conventional visual stimuli such as flash strobes and large Ganzfeld systems. The VEP responses from mini-Ganzfeld were compared with PS33-PLUS photic strobe and single light-emitting diode (LED). The latencies of P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 and the amplitude of each component were measured and analysed. Intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviations (Sw), coefficient of variation, repeatability (R95) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. The VEPs recorded using the implanted skull electrodes showed significantly larger amplitude and higher reproducibility compared to the needle electrodes (P<0.05). The mini-Ganzfeld stimulator showed superior repeatability and reproducibility in VEP recording. The intra/intersession ICCs of latency were 0.85/0.70 for mini-Ganzfeld, 0.72/0.62 for PS33-PLUS and only 0.59/0.42 for single LED. The latencies of the early peaks (N1 and P2) demonstrated better reproducibility than the later waves. The mean intrasession and intersession ICCs were 0.96 and 0.86 for the early peaks. Using a combination of skull screw electrodes, mini-Ganzfeld stimulator and early peak analysis, we achieved a high reproducibility in the rat VEP measurement. The latencies of the early peaks of rat VEPs were more consistent

  12. Longitudinal in vivo reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface in osteoarthritis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brem, M.H. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Musculoskeletal Division, Department of Radiology, ASB-1, L-1, Room 003E, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Division of Trauma Surgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Pauser, J.; Yoshioka, H.; Stratmann, J.; Kikinis, R.; Duryea, J.; Lang, P. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Musculoskeletal Division, Department of Radiology, ASB-1, L-1, Room 003E, Boston, MA (United States); Brenning, A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hennig, F.F. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Division of Trauma Surgery and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Winalski, C.S. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Musculoskeletal Division, Department of Radiology, ASB-1, L-1, Room 003E, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Division of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface area measurements in moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We analysed 5 MRI (GE 1.5T, sagittal 3D SPGR) data sets of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (Kellgren Lawrence grade I-II). Two scans were performed: one baseline scan and one follow-up scan 3 months later (96 {+-} 10 days). For segmentation, 3D Slicer 2.5 software was used. Two segmentations were performed by two readers independently who were blinded to the scan dates. Tibial and femoral cartilage volume and surface were determined. Longitudinal and cross-sectional precision errors were calculated using the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%=100 x [SD/mean]) from the repeated measurements in each patient. The in vivo reproducibility was then calculated as the root mean square of these individual reproducibility errors. The cross-sectional root mean squared coefficient of variation (RMSE-CV) was 1.2, 2.2 and 2.4% for surface area measurements (femur, medial and lateral tibia respectively) and 1.4, 1.8 and 1.3% for the corresponding cartilage volumes. Longitudinal RMSE-CV was 3.3, 3.1 and 3.7% for the surface area measurements (femur, medial and lateral tibia respectively) and 2.3, 3.3 and 2.4% for femur, medial and lateral tibia cartilage volumes. The longitudinal in vivo reproducibility of cartilage surface and volume measurements in the knee using this segmentation method is excellent. To the best of our knowledge we measured, for the first time, the longitudinal reproducibility of cartilage volume and surface area in participants with mild to moderate OA. (orig.)

  13. On the reproducibility of science: unique identification of research resources in the biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Vasilevsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific reproducibility has been at the forefront of many news stories and there exist numerous initiatives to help address this problem. We posit that a contributor is simply a lack of specificity that is required to enable adequate research reproducibility. In particular, the inability to uniquely identify research resources, such as antibodies and model organisms, makes it difficult or impossible to reproduce experiments even where the science is otherwise sound. In order to better understand the magnitude of this problem, we designed an experiment to ascertain the “identifiability” of research resources in the biomedical literature. We evaluated recent journal articles in the fields of Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Immunology, Cell and Molecular Biology and General Biology, selected randomly based on a diversity of impact factors for the journals, publishers, and experimental method reporting guidelines. We attempted to uniquely identify model organisms (mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm, fly and yeast, antibodies, knockdown reagents (morpholinos or RNAi, constructs, and cell lines. Specific criteria were developed to determine if a resource was uniquely identifiable, and included examining relevant repositories (such as model organism databases, and the Antibody Registry, as well as vendor sites. The results of this experiment show that 54% of resources are not uniquely identifiable in publications, regardless of domain, journal impact factor, or reporting requirements. For example, in many cases the organism strain in which the experiment was performed or antibody that was used could not be identified. Our results show that identifiability is a serious problem for reproducibility. Based on these results, we provide recommendations to authors, reviewers, journal editors, vendors, and publishers. Scientific efficiency and reproducibility depend upon a research-wide improvement of this substantial problem in science today.

  14. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  15. Reproducibility analysis on shear wave elastography (SWE)-based quantitative assessment for skin elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Chuan; Liang, XiaoLong; Wang, Run; Fu, Ying; Wang, ShuMin; Cui, LiGang; Zhang, ChunLei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) is an objective and non-invasive method widely used to quantify the tissue solidity. However, there are concerns about the accuracy of the skin SWE results due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) caused by subcutaneous fat, muscle and bone. This article analyzed the reproducibility of the result for skin SWE and therefore evaluated the availability of SME for skin elasticity involved diseases. Thirty volunteers (mean age: 37 ± 12 years) were selected. SWE were taken on the skin of abdomen and the middle tibia in order to assess the impact of fat, muscle and bone on SWE results. Skin in the area of anterior and lateral tibia marked with seven parallel lines, and each line indicated an identical thickness of the subcutaneous fat from 1–7 mm. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to evaluate the intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility. The solidity of abdominal skin showed soft and small individual differences (12.4 ± 2.7 kPa), whereas high shear moduli (25–48 kPa) were observed in the skin above tibia and tibialis anterior muscle. When the subcutaneous fat was thicker than 3 mm (≥3), we obtained excellent intra-observer reproducibility (ICC range 0.78–0.98) and inter-observer reproducibility (ICC range 0.75–0.98). The thickness of subcutaneous fat could affect the reproducibility of skin SWE. The further study on skin SWE standardization should be taken. PMID:28489803

  16. Feasibility and observer reproducibility of speckle tracking echocardiography in congenital heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhles, Palwasha; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Vletter-McGhie, Jackie S; Van Domburg, Ron T; Ruys, Titia P E; Kauer, Floris; Geleijnse, Marcel L; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2013-09-01

    The twisting motion of the heart has an important role in the function of the left ventricle. Speckle tracking echocardiography is able to quantify left ventricular (LV) rotation and twist. So far this new technique has not been used in congenital heart disease patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of LV rotation parameters in adult patients with congenital heart disease. The study population consisted of 66 consecutive patients seen in the outpatient clinic (67% male, mean age 31 ± 7.7 years, NYHA class 1 ± 0.3) with a variety of congenital heart disease. First, feasibility was assessed in all patients. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed for the patients in which speckle tracking echocardiography was feasible. Adequate image quality, for performing speckle echocardiography, was found in 80% of patients. The bias for the intra-observer reproducibility of the LV twist was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -2.5° and 2.5° and for interobserver reproducibility the bias was 0.0°, with 95% limits of agreement of -3.0° and 3.0°. Intra- and inter-observer measurements showed a strong correlation (0.86 and 0.79, respectively). Also a good repeatability was seen. The mean time to complete full analysis per subject for the first and second measurement was 9 and 5 minutes, respectively. Speckle tracking echocardiography is feasible in 80% of adult patients with congenital heart disease and shows excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Scientific Reproducibility in Biomedical Research: Provenance Metadata Ontology for Semantic Annotation of Study Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Valdez, Joshua; Rueschman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reproducibility is key to scientific progress as it allows the research community to build on validated results, protect patients from potentially harmful trial drugs derived from incorrect results, and reduce wastage of valuable resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a systematic guideline titled "Rigor and Reproducibility " for supporting reproducible research studies, which has also been accepted by several scientific journals. These journals will require published articles to conform to these new guidelines. Provenance metadata describes the history or origin of data and it has been long used in computer science to capture metadata information for ensuring data quality and supporting scientific reproducibility. In this paper, we describe the development of Provenance for Clinical and healthcare Research (ProvCaRe) framework together with a provenance ontology to support scientific reproducibility by formally modeling a core set of data elements representing details of research study. We extend the PROV Ontology (PROV-O), which has been recommended as the provenance representation model by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to represent both: (a) data provenance, and (b) process provenance. We use 124 study variables from 6 clinical research studies from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR) to evaluate the coverage of the provenance ontology. NSRR is the largest repository of NIH-funded sleep datasets with 50,000 studies from 36,000 participants. The provenance ontology reuses ontology concepts from existing biomedical ontologies, for example the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), to model the provenance information of research studies. The ProvCaRe framework is being developed as part of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) data provenance project.

  18. Multimodal sensory testing of the rectum and rectosigmoid: development and reproducibility of a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Nissen, T D; Gravesen, F H; Frøkjaer, J B; Omar, H; Gale, J; Gregersen, H; Svendsen, O; Drewes, A M

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation of rectal and rectosigmoid sensation is important in basic, clinical and pharmacological studies. New methods to evoke and assess multimodal (electrical, thermal and mechanical) experimental pain of the upper gut activate distinct pathways and mimics clinical pain. The aims of the current study were to characterize the sensory response and reproducibility to multimodal stimulation of rectum and the rectosigmoid. A multimodal rectal probe was developed. Mucosal electrostimulation was delivered at the recto-sigmoid junction. In Rectum, impedance planimetry was used for measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) during distension. Circulation of water within the bag at either 4 or 60 degrees C was applied for thermal stimulation. The method was tested in 12 healthy volunteers (six men mean age 32 years) on two subsequent days. Mechanical and sensory responses and referred pain areas were assessed. Stimulation with electrical, thermal and mechanical modalities resulted in different sensory perceptions. The relationship between stimulus intensity and sensory response was linear for all modalities. Sensory response to different modalities did not differ between investigation days (all P-values > 0.1). Approximately 75% of subjects felt referred pain in distinct skin locations. Between-days reproducibility was good for all modalities [intra-class correlation (ICC) > or = 0.6]. At sensory threshold, CSA showed best reproducibility (ICC > or = 0.9). At pain detection threshold stretch ratio, CSA and electrostimulation showed best reproducibility (ICC = 1.0; 0.9; 0.9). The present model was easily implemented, robust and showed good reproducibility. It can be used to study pathophysiology or pharmacological interventions in healthy controls and in patients with diseases involving the distal hindgut.

  19. The MARS for squat, countermovement, and standing long jump performance analyses: are measures reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Beaven, C Martyn

    2014-07-01

    Jump tests are often used to assess the effect of interventions because their outcomes are reported valid indicators of functional performance. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of performance parameters from 3 common jump tests obtained using the commercially available Kistler Measurement, Analysis and Reporting Software (MARS). On 2 separate days, 32 men performed 3 squat jumps (SJs), 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs), and 3 standing long jumps (LJs) on a Kistler force-plate. On both days, the performance measures from the best jump of each series were extracted using the MARS. Changes in the mean scores, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and coefficients of variations (CVs) were computed to quantify the between-day reproducibility of each parameter. Moreover, the reproducibility quantifiers specific to the 3 separate jumps were compared using nonparametric tests. Overall, an acceptable between-day reproducibility (mean ± SD, ICC, and CV) of SJ (0.88 ± 0.06 and 7.1 ± 3.8%), CMJ (0.84 ± 0.17 and 5.9 ± 4.1%), and LJ (0.80 ± 0.13 and 8.1 ± 4.1%) measures was found using the MARS, except for parameters directly relating to the rate of force development (i.e., time to maximal force) and change in momentum during countermovement (i.e., negative force impulse) where reproducibility was lower. A greater proportion of the performance measures from the standing LJs had low ICCs and/or high CVs values most likely owing to the complex nature of the LJ test. Practitioners and researchers can use most of the jump test parameters from the MARS with confidence to quantify changes in the functional ability of individuals over time, except for those relating to the rate of force development or change in momentum during countermovement phases of jumps.

  20. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica CW

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320. Methods In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2 weeks of pain and/or stiffness in the neck were randomly assessed, in a test- retest design with blinded raters using a standardized measurement protocol. Cervical flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation were assessed. Results Reliability expressed by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (lateral flexion or higher for intra-rater reliability and 0.89 (lateral flexion or higher for inter-rater reliability. The 95% limits of agreement for intra-rater agreement, expressing the range of the differences between two ratings were -2.5 ± 11.1° for flexion-extension, -0.1 ± 10.4° for lateral flexion and -5.9 ± 13.5° for rotation. For inter-rater agreement the limits of agreement were 3.3 ± 17.0° for flexion-extension, 0.5 ± 17.0° for lateral flexion and -1.3 ± 24.6° for rotation. Conclusion In general, the intra-rater reproducibility and the inter-rater reproducibility were good. We recommend to compare the reproducibility and clinical applicability of the EDI-320 inclinometer with other cervical ROM measures in symptomatic patients.

  1. phyloseq: an R package for reproducible interactive analysis and graphics of microbiome census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J McMurdie

    Full Text Available the analysis of microbial communities through dna sequencing brings many challenges: the integration of different types of data with methods from ecology, genetics, phylogenetics, multivariate statistics, visualization and testing. With the increased breadth of experimental designs now being pursued, project-specific statistical analyses are often needed, and these analyses are often difficult (or impossible for peer researchers to independently reproduce. The vast majority of the requisite tools for performing these analyses reproducibly are already implemented in R and its extensions (packages, but with limited support for high throughput microbiome census data.Here we describe a software project, phyloseq, dedicated to the object-oriented representation and analysis of microbiome census data in R. It supports importing data from a variety of common formats, as well as many analysis techniques. These include calibration, filtering, subsetting, agglomeration, multi-table comparisons, diversity analysis, parallelized Fast UniFrac, ordination methods, and production of publication-quality graphics; all in a manner that is easy to document, share, and modify. We show how to apply functions from other R packages to phyloseq-represented data, illustrating the availability of a large number of open source analysis techniques. We discuss the use of phyloseq with tools for reproducible research, a practice common in other fields but still rare in the analysis of highly parallel microbiome census data. We have made available all of the materials necessary to completely reproduce the analysis and figures included in this article, an example of best practices for reproducible research.The phyloseq project for R is a new open-source software package, freely available on the web from both GitHub and Bioconductor.

  2. Reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study physical activity questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Jin, Fan; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Liu, Dake; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    In this investigation, the authors evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which was administered in a cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women aged 40-70 years. Reproducibility (2-year test-retest) was evaluated using kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Validity was evaluated by comparing Spearman correlations (r) for the SWHS PAQ with two criterion measures administered over a period of 12 months: four 7-day physical activity logs and up to 28 7-day PAQs. Women were recruited from the SWHS cohort (n = 200). Results indicated that the reproducibility of adolescent and adult exercise participation (kappa = 0.85 and kappa = 0.64, respectively) and years of adolescent exercise and adult exercise energy expenditure (ICC = 0.83 and ICC = 0.70, respectively) was reasonable. Reproducibility values for adult lifestyle activities were lower (ICC = 0.14-0.54). Significant correlations between the PAQ and criterion measures of adult exercise were observed for the first PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.50; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.62) and the second PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.74; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.80). Significant correlations between PAQ lifestyle activities and the 7-day PAQ were also noted (r = 0.33-0.88). These data indicate that the SWHS PAQ is a reproducible and valid measure of exercise behaviors and that it demonstrates utility in stratifying women by levels of important lifestyle activities (e.g., housework, walking, cycling).

  3. Respiratory effort correction strategies to improve the reproducibility of lung expansion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kaifang; Reinhardt, Joseph M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Christensen, Gary E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Ding, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Bayouth, John E. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to make measurements of pulmonary function longitudinally. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify change depends on measurement uncertainty. Previously, intrasubject reproducibility of Jacobian-based measures of lung tissue expansion was studied in two repeat prior-RT 4DCT human acquisitions. Difference in respiratory effort such as breathing amplitude and frequency may affect longitudinal function assessment. In this study, the authors present normalization schemes that correct ventilation images for variations in respiratory effort and assess the reproducibility improvement after effort correction.Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 24 patients prior to radiation therapy (RT) were used for this analysis. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. In addition to computing the ventilation maps from end expiration to end inspiration, the authors investigated the effort normalization strategies using other intermediated inspiration phases upon the principles of equivalent tidal volume (ETV) and equivalent lung volume (ELV). Scatter plots and mean square error of the repeat ventilation maps and the Jacobian ratio map were generated for four conditions: no effort correction, global normalization, ETV, and ELV. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2 mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference.Results: The pattern of regional pulmonary ventilation changes as lung volume changes. All effort correction strategies improved reproducibility when changes in respiratory effort were greater than 150 cc (p < 0.005 with regard to the gamma pass rate). Improvement of reproducibility was

  4. Reproducibility of high-resolution MRI for the middle cerebral artery plaque at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wan-Qun [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: cjr.huangbiao@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Liu, Xin-Tong [Department of Neurology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Liu, Hong-Jun; Li, Pei-Jun [Department of Radiology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080 (China); Zhu, Wen-Zhen, E-mail: zhuwenzhen@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of HR-MRI for the identification of MCA atherosclerotic plaque components and quantification of stenosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-three consecutive subjects who initially had ischemic stroke or asymptomatic MCA stenosis (>50%) were enrolled in the study. All subjects were scanned using 3.0 T MRI. Two independent readers reviewed all images and one reader reevaluated all images four weeks later. The tissue components of plaques were analyzed qualitatively and the vessels were quantitative measured. Results: HR-MRI displayed the artery wall and lumen clearly. The intra-observer reproducibility was excellent for the identification of plaques (kappa [κ] = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.83–1.04) and contrast enhancement (κ = 0.89; 0.78–0.95); it was substantial for intra-plaque hemorrhage (κ = 0.79; 0.57–0.96) and the fibrous cap (κ = 0.65; 0.42–0.86). The inter-observer reproducibility was excellent for plaques (κ = 0.92; 0.73–1.06), substantial for contrast enhancement (κ = 0.80; 0.65–0.93), intra-plaque hemorrhage (κ = 0.68; 0.47–0.92) and moderate for the fibrous cap (κ = 0.58; 0.44–0.79). Both intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility were excellent for quantitative vessel, lumen and wall measurements with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.91 to 0.97 and 0.87 to 0.96, respectively. However, vessel and wall areas and the intervals defined by the Bland–Altman plots were wide in comparison to the mean. Conclusions: The identification of MCA atherosclerotic plaque components and the quantification of vessel and lumen measurements are reproducible. The reproducibility is overall acceptable. HR-MRI may provide a useful tool for clinical risk evaluation in MCA atherosclerosis.

  5. Reproducibility of postural control measurement during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duquet William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control tests like standing and sitting stabilometry are widely used to evaluate neuromuscular control related to trunk balance in low back pain patients. Chronic low back pain patients have lesser postural control compared to healthy subjects. Few studies have assessed the reproducibility of the centre of pressure deviations and to our knowledge no studies have investigated the reproducibility of three-dimensional kinematics of postural control tests in a low back pain population. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reproducibility of a seated postural control test in low back pain patients. Methods Postural control in low back pain patients was registered by a three dimensional motion analysis system combined with a force plate. Sixteen chronic low back pain patients having complaints for at least six months, were included based on specific clinical criteria. Every subject performed 4 postural control tests. Every test was repeated 4 times and lasted 40 seconds. The force plate registered the deviations of the centre of pressure. A Vicon-612-datastation, equipped with 7 infra-red M1 camera's, was used to track 13 markers attached to the torso and pelvis in order to estimate their angular displacement in the 3 cardinal planes. Results All Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC calculated for the force plate variables did not exceed 0.73 (ranging between 0.11 and 0.73. As for the torso, ICC's of the mean flexion-extension and rotation angles ranged from 0.65 to 0.93 and of the mean lateral flexion angle from 0.50 to 0.67. For the pelvis the ICC of the mean flexion-extension angle varied between 0.66 and 0.83, the mean lateral flexion angle between 0.16 and 0.81 and the mean rotation angle between 0.40 and 0.62. Consecutive data suggest that the low test-retest reproducibility is probably due to a learning effect. Conclusion The test-retest reproducibility of these postural control tests in

  6. Numerical Simulation Characteristics of Logging Response in Water Injection Well by Reproducing Kernel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jing Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM is an effective method. This paper, for the first time, uses the traditional RKHSM for solving the temperature field in two phase flows of multilayer water injection well. According to 2D oil-water temperature field mathematical model of two phase flows in cylindrical coordinates, selecting the properly initial and boundary conditions, by the process of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, the analytical solution was given by reproducing kernel functions in a series expansion form, and the approximate solution was expressed by n-term summation. The satisfied numerical results were carried out by Mathematica 7.0, showing that the larger the difference between injected water temperature and initial borehole temperature or water injection conditions, the more obvious the indication of water accepting zones. The numerical examples evidence the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method of the two phase flows in engineering.

  7. Reproducibility of mean nuclear volume and correlation with mean nuclear area in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baak, J P; Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that quantitative, histopathologic features obtained from a carefully selected area in the tumor section ("selective" approach) have a strong prognostic value in breast cancer. On the other hand, it was found that mean nuclear volume estimation in the whole area...... as to their intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility in 22 invasive breast cancer cases. The mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) was assessed both in the most atypical area (AREA) (selected on morphologic criteria) and in the whole tumor section (TOTAL). Furthermore, the correlation with mean nuclear (profile) area...... reproducible and strongly correlated with nuclear vv assessed in the TOTAL. In invasive breast cancer assessments in the whole tumor section can be used if delineation of the measurement area cannot be done easily. In small areas with a limited number of nuclei (eg, microinvasive parts) MNA can be easier...

  8. Application of Reproducing Kernel Method for Solving Nonlinear Fredholm-Volterra Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abu Arqub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the numerical solution of nonlinear Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations using reproducing kernel Hilbert space method. The solution ( is represented in the form of series in the reproducing kernel space. In the mean time, the n-term approximate solution ( is obtained and it is proved to converge to the exact solution (. Furthermore, the proposed method has an advantage that it is possible to pick any point in the interval of integration and as well the approximate solution and its derivative will be applicable. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented technique. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple.

  9. Study of the reproducibility of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of urothelial neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate urinary bladder biopsies showing papillary urothelial neoplastic lesions based on the 2004 WHO/ISUP classification of Urothelial Neoplasms of the Urinary Bladder, to assess the reproducibility of the bladder carcinoma grade. Fifty consecutive transurethral tumor resection biopsies were evaluated by four pathologists independently. The final diagnoses of each pathologist were subjected to statistical analysis to assess the degree of interobserver variability and reproducibility of this classification. Significant interobserver variation was found in the reporting of urothelial neoplasms. In 22 instances there was difference in opinion between PUNLMP and low-grade carcinoma, and in 59 instances between low and high grade carcinoma. The 4 observers never unanimously agreed on the diagnosis of PUNLMP.

  10. Madagascar: open-source software project for multidimensional data analysis and reproducible computational experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Fomel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Madagascar software package is designed for analysis of large-scale multidimensional data, such as those occurring in exploration geophysics. Madagascar provides a framework for reproducible research. By “reproducible research” we refer to the discipline of attaching software codes and data to computational results reported in publications. The package contains a collection of (a computational modules, (b data-processing scripts, and (c research papers. Madagascar is distributed on SourceForge under a GPL v2 license https://sourceforge.net/projects/rsf/. By October 2013, more than 70 people from different organizations around the world have contributed to the project, with increasing year-to-year activity. The Madagascar website is http://www.ahay.org/.

  11. Verification and large deformation analysis using the reproducing kernel particle method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, Frank [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) is a meshless method used to solve general boundary value problems using the principle of virtual work. RKPM corrects the kernel approximation by introducing reproducing conditions which force the method to be complete to arbritrary order polynomials selected by the user. Effort in recent years has led to the implementation of RKPM within the Sierra/SM physics software framework. The purpose of this report is to investigate convergence of RKPM for verification and validation purposes as well as to demonstrate the large deformation capability of RKPM in problems where the finite element method is known to experience difficulty. Results from analyses using RKPM are compared against finite element analysis. A host of issues associated with RKPM are identified and a number of potential improvements are discussed for future work.

  12. Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McCoy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using an infrared scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The thermal functions of a commercially available infrared scanner (Insight Subluxation Station® were evaluated for clinical reliability. Two practicing clinicians conducted the measures on 100 subjects. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs were calculated from the collected data. RESULTS: Mean bilateral paraspinal skin temperature was 89.78° F and ranged from 88.77° F to 91.43° F. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs for agreement and consistency ranged from 0.959 to 0.976. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs ranged from 0.783 to 0.859 with tight confidence intervals indicating robust estimates of these quantities. CONCLUSION: This study revealed excellent intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using a commercially available unit.

  13. Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reproducibility of Paraspinal Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Matthew; Campbell, Ismay; Stone, Pamela; Fedorchuk, Curtis; Wijayawardana, Sameera; Easley, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using an infrared scanner. Materials and Methods The thermal functions of a commercially available infrared scanner (Insight Subluxation Station®) were evaluated for clinical reliability. Two practicing clinicians conducted the measures on 100 subjects. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated from the collected data. Results Mean bilateral paraspinal skin temperature was 89.78° F and ranged from 88.77° F to 91.43° F. Intra class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for agreement and consistency ranged from 0.959 to 0.976. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) ranged from 0.783 to 0.859 with tight confidence intervals indicating robust estimates of these quantities. Conclusion This study revealed excellent intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography using a commercially available unit. PMID:21347290

  14. A force-based model to reproduce stop-and-go waves in pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Stop-and-go waves in single-file movement are a phenomenon that is ob- served empirically in pedestrian dynamics. It manifests itself by the co-existence of two phases: moving and stopping pedestrians. We show analytically based on a simplified one-dimensional scenario that under some conditions the system can have instable homogeneous solutions. Hence, oscillations in the trajectories and in- stabilities emerge during simulations. To our knowledge there exists no force-based model which is collision- and oscillation-free and meanwhile can reproduce phase separation. We develop a new force-based model for pedestrian dynamics able to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenon of phase separation. We investigate analytically the stability condition of the model and define regimes of parameter values where phase separation can be observed. We show by means of simulations that the predefined conditions lead in fact to the expected behavior and validate our model with respect to empirical findings.

  15. Reproducibility of ultrasonography for assessing abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2013-01-01

    Background:Visceral fat plays an important role in the development of metabolic disease independently of the effect of overall abdominal fat. Ultrasonography is an accessible method of accurately assessing abdominal fat distribution in epidemiological studies, but few details about...... the reproducibility of this method have been published.Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of ultrasonography in the assessment of abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods:Ultrasonography was used to estimate visceral...... and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Intra- and interobserver variation, short-term variation and variation between estimates in the fasting and non-fasting state were examined in three samples of 30, 33 and 23 participants from the ADDITION-PRO study. A variance components model was used to calculate intra...

  16. Reliable and reproducible classification system for scoliotic radiograph using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K; Karunakar, A K

    2014-11-01

    Scoliosis classification is useful for guiding the treatment and testing the clinical outcome. State-of-the-art classification procedures are inherently unreliable and non-reproducible due to technical and human judgmental error. In the current diagnostic system each examiner will have diagrammatic summary of classification procedure, number of scoliosis curves, apex level, etc. It is very difficult to define the required anatomical parameters in the noisy radiographs. The classification system demands automatic image understanding system. The proposed automated classification procedures extracts the anatomical features using image processing and applies classification procedures based on computer assisted algorithms. The reliability and reproducibility of the proposed computerized image understanding system are compared with manual and computer assisted system using Kappa values.

  17. Reliable and reproducible technique to mark center of ankle in total knee arthroplasty☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Anshul; Maniar, Shriji; Chaudhari, Sameer; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Aim Bony and soft tissue landmarks have been used in the past to determine the center of the ankle to facilitate the tibial cut using an extramedullary guide in total knee arthroplasty. However literature reports are scanty in regards to the most ideal method available and its reproducibility in marking the center of the ankle intra-operatively. Methods We describe a method of using an electrocardiogram (ECG) lead in determining the center of the ankle, thus facilitating the alignment of the extramedullary guide for the tibia. Results: Using this technique, in our study the mean lateral tibial component angle was 90.09(84.2°–94.3°). The number of knees in the range of 88°–92.4° were 120 out of 122 knees (98.40%). Conclusion The described method is reliable and cheap, with reproducibility in determining the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty. PMID:25983524

  18. Using the mouse to model human disease: increasing validity and reproducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica J. Justice

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments that use the mouse as a model for disease have recently come under scrutiny because of the repeated failure of data, particularly derived from preclinical studies, to be replicated or translated to humans. The usefulness of mouse models has been questioned because of irreproducibility and poor recapitulation of human conditions. Newer studies, however, point to bias in reporting results and improper data analysis as key factors that limit reproducibility and validity of preclinical mouse research. Inaccurate and incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions also contribute. Here, we provide guidance on best practice in mouse experimentation, focusing on appropriate selection and validation of the model, sources of variation and their influence on phenotypic outcomes, minimum requirements for control sets, and the importance of rigorous statistics. Our goal is to raise the standards in mouse disease modeling to enhance reproducibility, reliability and clinical translation of findings.

  19. Statistical characterization of the reproducibility of neutron emission of small plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarifeno-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile) and Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this work is to discuss the techniques related to the detection of fast pulsed neutrons produced in plasma focus (PF) devices, the statistical analysis of the corresponding data, and the methodologies for evaluation of the device performance in low emission neutron sources. A general mathematical framework is presented for the assessment of the reproducibility of the neutron emission of small PF devices given the shot-to-shot distribution and detector efficiency. The effect on the reproducibility in case of using two independent detectors is also discussed. The analysis is applied to the neutron emission of the plasma focus device PF-50J operating in repetitive mode (0.1-0.5 Hz and 65 J bank energy).

  20. Effect of slice orientation on reproducibility of fMRI motor activation at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustard, S; Fadili, J; Williams, E J; Hall, L D; Carpenter, T A; Brett, M; Bullmore, E T

    2001-12-01

    The effect of slice orientation on reproducibility and sensitivity of 3T fMRI activation using a motor task has been investigated in six normal volunteers. Four slice orientations were used; axial, oblique axial, coronal and sagittal. We applied analysis of variance (ANOVA) to suprathreshold voxel statistics to quantify variability in activation between orientations and between subjects. We also assessed signal detection accuracy in voxels across the whole brain by using a finite mixture model to fit receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to the data. Preliminary findings suggest that suprathreshold cluster characteristics demonstrate high motor reproducibility across subjects and orientations, although a significant difference between slice orientations in number of activated voxels was demonstrated in left motor cortex but not cerebellum. Subtle inter-orientation differences are highlighted in the ROC analyses, which are not obvious by ANOVA; the oblique axial slice orientation offers the highest signal detection accuracy, whereas coronal slices give the lowest.

  1. The complex variable reproducing kernel particle method for elasto-plasticity problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of reproducing kernel particle method(RKPM),using complex variable theory,the complex variable reproducing kernel particle method(CVRKPM) is discussed in this paper.The advantage of the CVRKPM is that the correction function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with one-dimensional basis function when the shape function is formed.Then the CVRKPM is applied to solve two-dimensional elasto-plasticity problems.The Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain the discretized system equation,the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions.And then,the CVRKPM for two-dimensional elasto-plasticity problems is formed,the corresponding formulae are obtained,and the Newton-Raphson method is used in the numerical implementation.Three numerical examples are given to show that this method in this paper is effective for elasto-plasticity analysis.

  2. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of ovarian cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgendahl Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Jensen, Andreas K;

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this systematic review is to give an overview of the current status of clinical protein profiling studies using MALDI and SELDI MS platforms in the search for ovarian cancer biomarkers. A total of 34 profiling studies were qualified for inclusion in the review. Comparative analysis......, and data analysis. About 47% of the peaks reported to be associated to ovarian cancer were also represented in our experimental study, and 34% of these redetected peaks also showed a significant difference between cases and controls in our study. Thus, despite known problems related to reproducibility...... an overlap in peaks between clinical studies was demonstrated, which indicate convergence toward a set of common discriminating, reproducible peaks for ovarian cancer. The potential of the discriminating protein peaks for clinical use as ovarian cancer biomarkers will be discussed and evaluated. This article...

  3. Rapid and reproducible determination of active gibberellins in citrus tissues by UPLC/ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Matías; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2015-09-01

    Phytohormone determination is crucial to explain the physiological mechanisms during growth and development. Therefore, rapid and precise methods are needed to achieve reproducible determination of phytohormones. Among many others, gibberellins (GAs) constitute a family of complex analytes as most of them share similar structure and chemical properties although only a few hold biological activity (namely GA1; GA3; GA4 and GA7). A method has been developed to extract GAs from plant tissues by mechanical disruption using ultrapure water as solvent and, in this way, ion suppression was reduced whereas sensitivity increased. Using this methodology, the four active GAs were separated and quantified by UPLC coupled to MS/MS using the isotope-labeled internal standards [(2)H2]-GA1 and [(2)H2]-GA4. To sum up, the new method provides a fast and reproducible protocol to determine bioactive GAs at low concentrations, using minimal amounts of sample and reducing the use of organic solvents.

  4. Highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for detection of phenolic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Tang, Dan; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Qingwei; Su, Shaoqiang; Hu, Die; Han, Bing; Jin, Mingliang; Ao, Xianyu; Zhan, Runze; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhou, Guofu; Senz, Stephan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-11-01

    The ordering degree of nanostructures is the key to determining the uniformity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). However, fabrication of large-area ordered nanostructures remains a challenge, especially with the ultrahigh-density (>1010 cm-2). Here, we report a fabrication of large-area ultrahigh-density ordered Ag@Al2O3/Ag core-shell nanosphere (NS) arrays with tunable nanostructures. The ultrahigh-density (2.8 × 1010 cm-2) ordered NS arrays over a large-area capability (diameter >4.0 cm) enable the uniform SERS signals with the relative standard deviation of less than 5%. The as-fabricated highly reproducible SERS substrate can be applied to detect trace phenolic pollutants in water. This work does not only provide a new route for synthesizing the ultrahigh-density ordered nanostructures, but also create a new class of SERS substrates with high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility.

  5. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  6. Reproducibility of mass spectrometry based protein profiles for diagnosis of breast cancer across clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne Kjærgaard; Vach, Werner; Jørgensen, Per E;

    2008-01-01

    Serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has achieved attention as a promising technology in oncoproteomics. We performed a systematic review of published reports on protein profiling as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for original...... studies reporting discriminatory protein peaks for breast cancer as either protein identity or as m/ z values in the period from January 1995 to October 2006. To address the important aspect of reproducibility of mass spectrometry data across different clinical studies, we compared the published lists....... Although the studies revealed a considerable heterogeneity in relation to experimental design, biological variation, preanalytical conditions, methods of computational data analysis, and analytical reproducibility of profiles, we found that 45% of peaks previously reported to correlate with breast cancer...

  7. Reproducibility of High-Throughput Plate-Reader Experiments in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Michael; Ho, Jonathan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2017-02-17

    Plate-reader assays are commonly conducted to quantify the performance of synthetic biological systems. However, on the basis of a survey of 100 publications, we find that most publications do not report critical experimental settings of plate reader assays, suggesting widespread issues in their reproducibility. Specifically, critical plate reader settings, including shaking time and covering method, either vary between laboratories or are not reported by the publications. Here, we demonstrate that the settings of plate reader assays have a significant impact on bacterial growth, recombinant gene expression, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, we show that the plate reader settings affect the apparent activity, sensitivity, and chemical kinetics of synthetic constructs, as well as alter the apparent effectiveness of antibiotics. Our results suggest the critical need for consistent reporting of plate reader protocols to ensure the reproducibility of the protocols. In addition, our work provides data for the setup of plate reader protocols in synthetic biology experiments.

  8. Applying Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for a Reproducible Set of Bioclimatic Indices in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Caudullo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Bioclimate-driven regression analysis is a widely used approach for modelling ecological niches and zonation. Although the bioclimatic complexity of the European continent is high, a particular combination of 12 climatic and topographic covariates was recently found able to reliably reproduce the ecological zoning of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for forest resources assessment at pan-European scale, generating the first fuzzy similarity map of FAO ecozones in Europe. The reproducible procedure followed to derive this collection of bioclimatic indices is now presented. It required an integration of data-transformation modules (D-TM) using geospatial tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS) software, and array-based mathematical implementation such as semantic array programming (SemAP). Base variables, intermediate and final covariates are described and semantically defined by providing the workflow of D-TMs and the mathematical formulation following the SemAP notat...

  9. Reproducing cosmic evolution of galaxy population from $z = 4$ to $0$

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamic simulations performed to study evolution of galaxy population. The simulations follow timed release of mass, energy, and metals by stellar evolution and employ phenomenological treatments of supernova feedback, pre-supernova feedback modeled as feedback by radiation pressure from massive stars, and quenching of gas cooling in large halos. We construct the fiducial model so that it reproduces the observationally estimated galaxy stellar mass functions and the relationships between the galaxy stellar mass and the host halo mass from $z = 4$ to 0. We find that the fiducial model constructed this way naturally explains the cosmic star formation history, the galaxy downsizing, and the star formation rate and metallicity of the star-forming galaxies. The simulations without the quenching of the gas cooling in large halos overproduce massive galaxies at $z < 2$ and fail to reproduce galaxy downsizing. The simulations that do not employ the radiation pressure feedback from youn...

  10. Evaluation of isocenter reproducibility in telemedicine of 3D-radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Kimura, Kouji; Takada, Yoshiki; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Kono, Michio [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Kodama, Akihisa

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the utility in telemedicine of Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Treatment Planning (tele-3D-RTP) and to examine the accuracy of isocenter reproducibility in its offline trial. CT data of phantoms and patients in the satellite hospital were transferred to our hospital via floppy-disk and 3D-radiotherapy plans were generated by 3D-RTP computer in our hospital. Profile data of CT and treatment beams in the satellite hospital were pre-installed into the computer. Tele-3D-RTPs were performed in 3 phantom plans and 14 clinical plans for 13 patients. Planned isocenters were well reproduced, especially in the immobilized head and neck/brain tumor cases, whose 3D-vector of aberration was 1.96{+-}1.38 (SD) mm. This teletherapy system is well applicable for practical use and can provides cost-reduction through sharing the resources of expensive equipment and radiation oncologists. (author)

  11. Development of Near-Isogenic Lines in a Parthenogenetically Reproduced Thrips Species, Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangdi; Wan, Yanran; Li, Xiaoyu; He, Bingqing; Zhang, Youjun; Xu, Baoyun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    Although near-isogenic lines (NILs) can standardize genetic backgrounds among individuals, it has never been applied in parthenogenetically reproduced animals. Here, through multiple rounds of backcrossing and spinosad screening, we generated spinosad resistant NILs in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with a haplo-diploid reproduction system. The resultant F. occidentalis NIL-R strain maintained a resistance ratio over 30,000-fold, which was comparable to its parental resistant strain, Spin-R. More importantly, F. occidentalis NIL-R shared 98.90% genetic similarity with its susceptible parental strain Ivf03. By developing this toolset, we are able to segregate individual resistance and facilitate the mechanistic study of insecticide resistances in phloem-feeding arthropods, a group of devastating pest species reproducing sexually as well as asexually. PMID:28348528

  12. ZIF-8 Membranes with Improved Reproducibility Fabricated from Sputter-Coated ZnO/Alumina Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jian

    2015-11-10

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membrane has shown great potential for propylene/propane separation based on molecular sieving mechanism. Although diverse synthesis strategies were applied to prepare ZIF-8 membranes, it is still a challenge for reproducible fabrication of high-quality membranes. In this study, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis under the partial self-conversion of sputter-coated ZnO layer on porous α-alumina supports. The reproducibility was significantly improved, compared with that from sol-gel coated ZnO layer, due to the highly controllable sputtering deposition of ZnO precursor. The relationship between the quality of as-synthesized membrane and amount of deposited ZnO was also determined. The effect of pressure drop in C3H6/C3H8 separation on separating performance was also examined.

  13. Macroscopic locality with equal bias reproduces with high fidelity a quantum distribution achieving the Tsirelson's bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Md. Rajjak; Banik, Manik; Das, Subhadipa; Rai, Ashutosh; Kunkri, Samir

    2013-11-01

    Two physical principles, macroscopic locality (ML) and information causality (IC), so far have been most successful in distinguishing quantum correlations from post-quantum correlations. However, there are also some post-quantum probability distributions which cannot be distinguished with the help of these principles. Thus, it is interesting to see whether consideration of these two principles, separately, along with some additional physically plausible constraints, can explain some interesting quantum features which are otherwise hard to reproduce. In this paper we show that in a Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt scenario, ML along with the constraint of equal bias for the concerned observables, almost reproduces the quantum joint probability distribution corresponding to a maximal quantum Bell violation, which is unique up to relabeling. From this example and earlier work of Cavalcanti, Salles, and Scarani, we conclude that IC and ML are inequivalent physical principles; satisfying one does not imply that the other is satisfied.

  14. Survey of Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in East of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ayachi; Alloui, Nadir; Bennoune, Omar; Kassah-Laouar, Ahmed

    2010-03-08

    Avian salmonellosis affects the poultry industry in underdeveloped and in developed countries. The aim of this study was to identify the most common Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in Eastern Algeria according to the ISO 6579 method. A total of 294 samples were obtained from two flocks of 10,000 broilers and laying breeding reproducers. Samples included livers and spleens, drag swabs of bottom boxes of young chickens, cloacal swabs, and faecal samples of chickens. Additional samples were also taken from water, feed and dusty surfaces. Only the cloacal swabs, poultry faeces and samples from dusty surfaces were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Livingstone with a detection rate of 12% and 1.6% respectively. The results showed evidence of legislative failure regarding biosafety within the poultry industry in the area of Batna, Eastern Algeria.

  15. AN IV CATHETER FRAGMENTS DURING MDCT SCANNING OF HUMAN ERROR: EXPERIMENTAL AND REPRODUCIBLE MICROSCOPIC MAGNIFICATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin Heung College, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Woong [Dept. of of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [Dept. of Radiological Science, Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hwan [Dept. of of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Korean National College of Rehabilitation and Welfare, Pyeongtaek (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Kwan [Dept. of of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The use of intravenous catheters are occasionally complicated by intravascular fragments and swelling of the catheter fragments. We present a patient in whom an intravenous catheter fragments was retrieved from the dorsal metacarpal vein following its incidental CT examination detection. The case of demonstrates the utility of microscopy and multi-detector CT in localizing small of subtle intravenous catheter fragments as a human error. A case of IV catheter fragments in the metacarpal vein, in which reproducible and microscopy data allowed complete localization of a missing fragments and guided surgery with respect to the optimal incision site for fragments removal. These reproducible studies may help to determine the best course of action and treatment for the patient who presents with such a case.

  16. Using reproducing kernel for solving a class of partial differential equation with variable-coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-lan; CHAO Lu

    2008-01-01

    How to solve the partial differential equation has been attached importance to by all kinds of fields. The exact solution to a class of partial differential equation with variable-coefficient is obtained in reproducing kernel space. For getting the approximate solution, give an iterative method, convergence of the iterative method is proved. The numerical example shows that our method is effective and good practicability.

  17. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  18. Reproducing the observed Cosmic microwave background anisotropies with causal scaling seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Durrer, R.; Kunz, M.; Melchiorri, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last years it has become clear that global O(N) defects and U(1) cosmic strings do not lead to the pronounced first acoustic peak in the power spectrum of anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background which has recently been observed to high accuracy. Inflationary models cannot easily accommodate the low second peak indicated by the data. Here we construct causal scaling seed models which reproduce the first and second peak. Future, more precise CMB anisotropy and polarization ex...

  19. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies exploring the role of diet during pregnancy are still scarce, in part due to the complexity of measuring diet and to the lack of valid instruments. The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity (against biochemical biomarkers of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in pregnant women. Methods Participants were 740 pregnant women from a population-based birth cohort study in Valencia (INMA Study. We compared nutrient and food intakes from FFQs estimated for two periods of pregnancy (reproducibility, and compared energy-adjusted intake of several carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol of the FFQ in the first trimester with their concentration in blood specimens (validity. Results Significant correlations for reproducibility were found for major food groups and nutrients but not for lycopene (r=0.06; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.51 for food groups and 0.61 for nutrients. For validity, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.18, α-carotene (0.32, β-carotene (0.22, lutein-zeaxantin (0.29 and β-cryptoxantin(0.26; non-significant correlations were observed for retinol, lycopene, α-tocopherol, vitamin B12 and folate (r≤0.12. When dietary supplement use was considered, correlations were substantially improved for folate (0.53 and to a lesser extent for vitamin B12 (0.12 and vitamin C (0.20. Conclusion This study supports that the FFQ has a good reproducibility for nutrient and food intake, and can provide a valid estimate of several important nutrients during pregnancy.

  20. Reproducibility of Resting State Connectivity in Patients with Stable Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinter

    Full Text Available Given increasing efforts to use resting-state fMRI (rfMRI as a biomarker of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS we here explored the reproducibility of longitudinal rfMRI over three months in patients with clinically and radiologically stable MS. To pursue this aim, two approaches were applied in nine rfMRI networks: First, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1 was assessed for the mean functional connectivity maps across the entire network and a region of interest (ROI. Second, the ratio of overlap between Z-thresholded connectivity maps for each network was assessed. We quantified between-session functional reproducibility of rfMRI for 20 patients with stable MS and 14 healthy controls (HC. Nine rfMRI networks (RSNs were examined at baseline and after 3 months of follow-up: three visual RSNs, the default-mode network, sensorimotor-, auditory-, executive control, and the left and right fronto-parietal RSN. ROI analyses were constrained to thresholded overlap masks for each individual (Z>0 at baseline and follow-up.In both stable MS and HC mean functional connectivity across the entire network did not reach acceptable ICCs for several networks (ICC<0.40 but we found a high reproducibility of ROI ICCs and of the ratio of overlap. ROI ICCs of all nine networks were between 0.98 and 0.99 for HC and ranged from 0.88 to 0.99 in patients with MS, respectively. The ratio of overlap for all networks was similar for both groups, ranging from 0.60 to 0.75.Our findings attest to a high reproducibility of rfMRI networks not only in HC but also in patients with stable MS when applying ROI analysis. This supports the utility of rfMRI to monitor functional changes related to disease progression or therapeutic interventions in MS.