WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty years interest

  1. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  2. Twenty-Year Reunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A massive earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter Scale struck the city of Tangshan at 3:42 a.m. on July 28, 1976. The city, which had history of well over 100 years and a population of over one million people, was left in ruins. The violent earthquake killed 242,469 people, with 164,851 people sustaining injuries, 2,652 children under 16 years of age left as orphans and 885 elderly people as widowers. Some 96 percent of the city’s buildings and houses collapsed, with a direct economic loss of 10 billion yuan. Earthquake tremors spread over a two million square kilometer area, with hundreds of millions people placed in peril by the natural disaster.The Tangshan earthquake set a record as the world’s strongest earthquake of the century. The people of Tangshan have set a new record for the rate of reconstruction accomplished over the past 20 years. The support of the People’s Liberation Army and people across the nation combined with the unyielding efforts of survivors led to the establishment of a new Ta

  3. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  4. Twenty years of dendrotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A L

    2001-01-01

    Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1-6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin. The dendrotoxins contain 57-60 amino acid residues cross-linked by three disulphide bridges. The dendrotoxins have little or no anti-protease activity, but they were demonstrated to block particular subtypes of voltage-dependent potassium channels in neurons. Studies with cloned K(+) channels indicate that alpha-dendrotoxin from green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, whereas toxin K from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis preferentially blocks Kv1.1 channels. Structural analogues of dendrotoxins have helped to define the molecular recognition properties of different types of K(+) channels, and radiolabelled dendrotoxins have also been useful in helping to discover toxins from other sources that bind to K(+) channels. Because dendrotoxins are useful markers of subtypes of K(+) channels in vivo, dendrotoxins have become widely used as probes for studying the function of K(+) channels in physiology and pathophysiology.

  5. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  6. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  7. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  8. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  9. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  10. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  11. Colorectal cancer prognosis twenty years later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Cristina; Sarasqueta; Elisabeth; Hijona; Lander; Hijona; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Jose; Luis; Elorza; Jose; I; Asensio; Santiago; Larburu; José; M; Enríquez-Navascués; Rodrigo; Jover; Francesc; Balaguer; Xavier; Llor; Xavier; Bessa; Montserrat; Andreu; Artemio; Paya; Antoni; Castells; Gastrointestinal; Oncology; Group; of; the; Spanish; Gastroenterological; Association

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate changes in colorectal cancer(CRC) survival over the last 20 years.METHODS:We compared two groups of consecutive CRC patients that were prospectively recruited:Group Ⅰincluded 1990 patients diagnosed between 1980 and 1994.GroupⅡincluded 871 patients diagnosed in 2001.RESULTS:The average follow up time was 21 mo(1-229)for GroupⅠand 50 mo(1-73.4)for GroupⅡ.Overall median survival was significantly longer in Group Ⅱthan in GroupⅠ(73 mo vs 25 mo,P<0.001)and the difference was significant for all ...

  12. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  13. Parental Interest in Children's Education, Children's Self-Esteem and Locus of Control, and Later Educational Attainment: Twenty-Six Year Follow-Up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…

  14. Parental Interest in Children's Education, Children's Self-Esteem and Locus of Control, and Later Educational Attainment: Twenty-Six Year Follow-Up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…

  15. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  16. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  17. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  18. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  19. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  20. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  1. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  2. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  3. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  4. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  5. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  6. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  7. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    While the information systems (IS) community is increasingly international, it is reasonable to expect that different regions might display different research approaches, interests and publication orientations. This paper contributes to the growing number of historical accounts in the IS field...... by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  8. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  9. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  10. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  11. Active control of combustors after twenty years' efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.; Palm, S.

    2009-09-01

    Active control of combustion was proposed by Bollay [1]. Following that idea, Tsien [2] worked out an analysis of controlling low-frequency oscillations in a liquid rocket but no successful experimental results followed. More than thirty years passed before the first laboratory demonstrations were performed at Cambridge University. Interest grew rapidly in the 1990s due to potentially wonderful applications to practical combustion systems including liquid and solid rockets, gas turbines, and thrust augmentors. Dreams have not materialized: There are presently no operational control systems, despite considerable efforts, and examples of partially controlled phenomena. Only one practical installation for control of oscillations has been documented, for a large Siemens machine [3]. Its use has been rendered unnecessary by further experimental work leading to development of successful passive control with modifications of hardware [4]. The purpose of this paper is to examine briefly some of the reasons that active control of combustion has failed to become the panacea widely anticipated two decades ago. The authors' view is that the subject is far from exhausted, but rather requires carefully planned research to understand the basis of successful applications.

  12. Public Interest Law: Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Sanford

    This report provides an account of public-interest law firm activities supported by the Ford Foundation. Public interest law is a phrase that describes efforts aimed at providing legal representation for underrepresented interests in the legal process. The report is arranged into four major sections. The first section, on the evolution of the…

  13. Twenty Years' Development of the Postdoc Program at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Until recently, the concept of a postdoctoral scholar (postdoc) was new in China although it first appeared about 125 years ago, when Johns Hopkins University adopted an ap prenticeship model of high-level training.

  14. Classification in Information Retrieval: The Twenty Years Following Dorking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and practical progress made in the classification of information for retrieval in the last 20 years and suggests alternatives to the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification systems. (JVP)

  15. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  16. Twenty-five years after the first TIPS in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao Jaureguízar, J I

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation, 25 years ago, of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, better known by the acronym TIPS, represents an indisputable improvement in the treatment and management of patients with symptoms due to portal hypertension. This article discusses the origins of the technique and the technical innovations that have been progressively added through the years. The implantation of coated stents, which protect the stent from processes in the parenchymal track that can lead to stenosis, have helped ensure long-term patency, thus reducing the need for reintervention. Solid evidence from valuable publications has situated TIPS at the forefront of the treatment options in a wide variety of clinical situations associated with portal hypertension.

  17. Selective sweeps across twenty millions years of primate evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Kasper; Nam, Kiwoong; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2016-01-01

    The contribution from selective sweeps to variation in genetic diversity has proven notoriously difficult to assess, in part because polymorphism data only allows detection of sweeps in the most recent few hundred thousand years. Here we show how linked selection in ancestral species can be quant...

  18. Weight Loss Emphasis in Popular Magazines: A Twenty Year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, Lucinda; And Others

    Cultural pressure for thinness has been cited as a contributing factor in the apparent increase in the eating disorders of anorexia and bulimia. Previous research has examined popular periodicals as an indicator of cultural pressure for thinness. This study assessed changes over the past 20 years in numbers of popular magazine articles focusing on…

  19. Career patterns : A twenty-year panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20 years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N=1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses,

  20. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years.

  1. Twenty years of protein interaction studies for biological function deciphering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, Pierre; Rain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-07-31

    Intensive methodological developments and technology innovation have been devoted to protein-protein interaction studies over 20years. Genetic indirect assays and sophisticated large scale biochemical analyses have jointly contributed to the elucidation of protein-protein interactions, still with a lot of drawbacks despite heavy investment in human resources and technologies. With the most recent developments in mass spectrometry and computational tools for studying protein content of complex samples, the initial goal of deciphering molecular bases of biological functions is now within reach. Here, we described the various steps of this process and gave examples of key milestones in this scientific story line. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez.

  2. More than Twenty Years of Svensén's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    2010-01-01

    The number of real handbooks dealing with lexicography and metalexicography is not, and has never been, impressive. When one looks at comprehensive handbooks and in addition those brought up to date, the number becomes even smaller. Because of this, but also because it has existed for more than 20...... years (i.e. in different editions/versions) and because it is - especially in Scandinavia - a quite well-known work, Svensén's handbook is an important publication. In this review article, I will consider what the critics have written over the years (i.e. on the different editions/versions of Svensén......'s handbook), and I will attempt to determine whether the book is about to become a classic....

  3. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-two years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Tompkins, R K; Urrea, P T; Longmire, W P

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-four patients underwent operation for chronic pancreatitis during a 22 year period at UCLA Hospital. Follow-up data obtained for 60% of these patients an average of 3.2 years postoperation were analyzed by computer for statistically significant benefit between paired operation combinations and the variables of pain relief, stool habits, alcohol use, readmission for pancreatitis, and narcotic use. The combined group of total and cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy proved more effective with respect to pain relief and readmission (p less than 0.05) than the group that had pseudocyst drainage. The comparison of groups that underwent resection or ductal drainage showed no statistical differences for the above variables. Regardless of type of operation, if the patient had evidence of pancreatic calcifications and had abstained from alcohol postoperatively, the likelihood of a return to normal activity was more favorable (p less than 0.05). PMID:485605

  4. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    De Miranda, Michael A.; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  5. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE) was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972) within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations). The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statu...

  6. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  7. Twenty-five years of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gomez I Gavara, Inmaculada; Ibañez Cirión, Jose L; López Andújar, Rafael; García Granero, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    It is accepted by the surgical community that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the technique of choice in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, more controversial is the standardization of system implementation in Ambulatory Surgery because of its different different connotations. This article aims to update the factors that influence the performance of LC in day surgery, analyzing the 25 years since its implementation, focusing on the quality and acceptance by the patient. Individualization is essential: patient selection criteria and the implementation by experienced teams in LC, are factors that ensure high guarantee of success.

  8. Midwifery and obstetrics: twenty years of collaborative academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Diane J; O'Brien, Barbara; Singer, Janet; Coustan, Donald R

    2012-09-01

    This review describes a collaborative educational practice model partnering midwifery and obstetrics within a department of obstetrics and gynecology. For more than 20 years, the authors' model has demonstrated sustainability and influence on medical education. The focus is on resident education in obstetrics, using midwifery faculty as teachers in the obstetric and obstetric triage settings. This noncompetitive and integrated educational practice model has achieved sustainability and success using midwives in a collaborative approach to medical education. The continuing collaboration and innovation within medical and resident education are important elements for the future of collaborative practice.

  9. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  10. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972 within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations. The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statutory objectives of PTIE are realized through experts activity and paper publication. In terms of content PTIE activity focuses on popularizing rational use and conservation of natural environment and earth’s natural resources. With the current rapid advances in science, technique, dynamic economic development and overexploitation of natural resources, environmental engineering and its activities in line with the state of environmental policy it contributes to the so-called sustainable development, protection, adapts and creates the conditions necessary for human life, plants and animals. The Society currently has a well-established position in the world of science by issuing two scientific magazines in Polish and English. It cooperates with various research and educational centers, industries and as well as with local government, administration and state in solving local environmental economic problems. This paper presents the rise and activity of PTIE and major Society achievements in the years 1990–2015.

  11. Meal-feeding scheme: twenty years of research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bazotte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Shinomiya Hell was the first researcher to investigate the physiological adaptations to a meal-feeding scheme (MFS in Brazil. Over a period of 20 years, from 1979 to 1999, Naomi's group determined the physiological and metabolic adaptations induced by this feeding scheme in rats. The group showed the persistence of such adaptations even when MFS is associated with moderate exercise training and the performance to a session of intense physical effort. The metabolic changes induced by the feeding training were discriminated from those caused by the effective fasting period. Naomi made an important contribution to the understanding of the MFS but a lot still has to be done. One crucial question still remains to be satisfactorily answered: what is the ideal control for the MFS?

  12. [Twenty five years of residency training in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, W

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 25 years in the Netherlands the residency training programme for psychiatry has been concerned primarily with teaching students to use practice guidelines, providing science education, promoting internationalisation and satisfying society's requirement for transparency. This has led to the transformation of the classical training programme with its paternalistic 'master-apprentice' relationship to a programme in which the required professional competencies are taught and assessed by supervisors who in the future will need to be explicitly qualified in particular areas. The dramatic increase in the number of women wanting to become psychiatrists has made it clear that the classical training programme puts a heavy burden on students who are struggling to combine private life with a heavy work-load and enthusiasm for their chosen subject. The compulsory personal therapy in the curriculum may be helpful in solving this problem.

  13. Organising services for IMD in Thailand: twenty years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan

    2008-12-01

    The study of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in Thailand is in its infancy when compare with developed countries. Prior to 1987, majority of these disorders were clinically diagnosed since there were only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inborn errors of metabolism, lack of well-equipped laboratory facilities and government support. In developing countries, inherited metabolic disorders are not considered a priority due to the prevalence of infectious diseases such as HIV infection and congenital infections. A multicentre survey conducted in 1994 and 2001 revealed the existence of numerous cases of IMD from all over the country. Case reports and publications on IMD in Thai (and international) medical journals in past 20 years had undoubtedly raised its awareness among Thai paediatricians and scientists. In 2001, the Genetic Metabolic Centre was first established in Siriraj Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thailand. Numerous new cases of IMD had been identified since then.

  14. Twenty five years National Astronomical Observatory: Publications and dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Ilian

    The idea to estimate the merits and to measure the impact of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria by creating the list with all publications and dissertations based fully or in part on the data collected during last 25 years with its telescopes is presented. The process of compiling the list is described. Its last version contains complete bibliographical data about more than 1000 publications with total volume of about 5500 journal pages. All of them are printed out in 1980--2005. The accumulated impact-factor exceeds 1000, the number of citations is expected to be between 3000 and 5000. The number of successful dissertations is close to 40, while the bachelor and master theses are near 100.

  15. Internet Addiction: A Review of the First Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite heated debates on its addictive nature, consensus is emerging regarding the existence of this problematic behavior. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on Internet addiction in last 20 years. Purpose of this paper is to present crucial findings on Internet addiction to health profession. Besides numerous benefits of Internet use, the virtual environment brings various risks in every age group. The Internet is very significant in the everyday activities of children and youth and professional interventions with this age group should be specific considering their developmental characteristics. Exposure to online risks can have long-lasting and intense negative effects. Effective programs in prevention and treatment should include a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach. Detail review of the symptomatology, diagnosis model an possibilities of treatment can be multiple beneficial to the health professionals and other helping professions due to actual needs for interventions in the field of the internet addiction treatment. Internet addiction is slowly becoming a societal concern as it particularly affects adolescents and children, who are more exposed and consequently more vulnerable. Findings presented in the paper can benefit in practice of treatment internet addiction and also as framework for further researches in the field.

  16. The Twenty-Five Year Lick Planet Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Spronck, Julien F P

    2013-01-01

    The Lick planet search program began in 1987 when the first spectrum of $\\tau$ Ceti was taken with an iodine cell and the Hamilton Spectrograph. Upgrades to the instrument improved the Doppler precision from about 10 m/s in 1992 to about 3 m/s in 1995. The project detected dozens of exoplanets with orbital periods ranging from a few days to several years. The Lick survey identified the first planet in an eccentric orbit (70 Virginis) and the first multi-planet system around a normal main sequence star (Upsilon Andromedae). These discoveries advanced our understanding of planet formation and orbital migration. Data from this project helped to quantify a correlation between host star metallicity and the occurrence rate of gas giant planets. The program also served as a test bed for innovation with testing of a tip-tilt system at the coud{\\'e} focus and fiber scrambler designs to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer optics. The Lick planet search with the Hamilton spectrograph effectively ended when a heat...

  17. Twenty years' experience of a telehealth service in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996 a small call centre has been operated to provide instant self-help, non-medical advice to members. Non-clinical advisers work under a medical director. The scheme grew to 1,200 member-families from a regional catchment area, peaking at 2,500 across the country. About 30-50 telephone calls are received each day and up to 1,000 Web visits per day; about 20-50 postal items are sent out daily to members. In a telephone poll during 2001, half of our current members said that they used the National Health Service about 70% less than before they joined, but a third said that they used complementary and alternative medicines 80% more. Half had gained in confidence by about 50% in managing their own health. Members most often join for alternative medical help with a specific problem, but stay if they begin to appreciate the help we can give them in regaining and keeping health in the round. Our retention of new members for a second year is only 10-20%. The 'barefoot' profession of telehealth adviser appears to meet a community need.

  18. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  19. Hemodynamic characterization of recombinant inbred strains: twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunes, Jaroslav; Dobesová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlícek, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Kren, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) strains (Prague HXB/BXH set) represent a unique model that allows for permanent summation of genetic and physiological information as well as the study of age-dependent changes in phenotypes and/or gene regulation. This study compared blood pressure (BP) measured in adult animals of RI strains by radiotelemetry with BP values obtained in conscious rats of comparable age subjected to short-term carotid catheterization or with those obtained by direct carotid puncture under ether anesthesia (almost 20 years ago). After radiotelemetry recording, the contribution of major vasoactive systems to BP maintenance was studied by consecutive inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and nitric oxide synthase. We found highly significant interrelationships among baseline BP values obtained by radiotelemetry, carotid catheterization, or carotid puncture. This indicates considerable stability of RI strains over the course of their long existence, and confirms the reliability of BP values used for genetic studies performed in the past. Subsequent analysis of vasoactive system participation revealed the importance of SNS for the maintenance of BP, as determined by either radiotelemetry or catheterization. The BP of catheterized rats also correlated closely with acute captopril-induced BP changes, but this was not the case for rats measured by radiotelemetry. NO-dependent vasodilatation matched the BP effects of SNS and RAS in both measuring conditions. Residual BP (recorded at sodium nitroprusside-induced dilatation of resistance vessels) was also responsible for a significant portion of the BP variation in RI strains. Our study confirms the validity of RI strains for the further genetic and physiological research of hypertension.

  20. Twenty-one years of child advocacy: an editorial retrospective of the Teuscher years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D W

    1990-01-01

    On the eleventh anniversary of his Editorship of JDC, Dr. George Teuscher took stock of the state of the Journal, noting progress made and challenges ahead, writing that, "A good journal cannot ride on its reputation... Constant effort to improve, resourcefulness, and prolific reading and study are required of the editor of a prestigious journal." He has written extensively on the importance of writing and effective communication in the face of an information explosion, stating that, "The journal is still the best means of presenting new information to the professions." Writing a note of encouragement to the editor of a new dental journal, he observed, "Of course the dental and medical literature can boast of some great editors, who earned their reputations because they were able to apply intelligence, writing ability, knowledge of the scientific method, and imagination to a new undertaking." After twenty-one years, it is safe to say that Dr. Teuscher is such an Editor; he has filled our minds with knowledge and our hearts with wisdom; he has reminded us of the best that is in us; he has helped us to feel the anguish of the afflicted and oppressed; he has brought knowledge and skill to help the infirm: and he has taught us to stand in awe before the mystery of being.

  1. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  2. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  3. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  4. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  5. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  6. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  7. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  8. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  9. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  10. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  11. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  12. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

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    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  13. Twenty-seven-year nonunion of a Hoffa fracture in a 46-year-old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yirui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hoffa fracture is an uncommon clinical entity typically seen in adults after high-energy trauma. Nonunion of a Hoffa fracture appears to be even more uncommon. To our knowledge, only three cases of nonunion of a Hoffa fracture have been documented in the literature to date, including two children and one adult. This article presents a case of an adult who had nonunion of a Hoffa fracture for 27 years and was treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and the varus deformity corrected with xenogenous bone graft. An excellent result has been achieved to date. This unusual case reminds us that we cannot neglect the possibility of nonunion of a cancellous bone fracture, especially the Hoffa fractures of the medial femoral condyle if they are treated nonoperatively. It also demonstrates that internal fixation with bone graft is effective, even for the 27-year Hoffa fracture.

  14. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  15. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Miana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective: This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to 21 years with a mean of 8.8±5.7 years and a median of 5.2 years. The underlying diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61.5%, congenital heart disease in 26.6% and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 11.9%. All patients above 17 years old had congenital heart disease. Results: Survival rate at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 90.4%, 81.3%, 70.9%, 60.5%, 44.4% and 26.7%, respectively. Mean cold ischemic time was 187.9 minutes and it did not correlate with mortality (P>0.05. Infectious complications and rejection episodes were the most common complications (P<0.0001, occurring, respectively, in 66% and 57.4% of the survivors after 10 years. There was no incidence of graft vascular disease and lymphoproliferative disease at year one, but they affected, respectively, 7.4% and 11% of patients within 10 years. Conclusion: Twenty-year pediatric heart transplant results at our institution were quite satisfactory and complication rates were acceptable.

  16. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  17. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  18. Twenty-Year Optical Variability of The Blazar PKS 1749+096: Exponential Outbursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Lam, M. T.; Patrick, P. A.; Scott, E. L.; Kaercher, A. J.; Rupert, J.; Taber, T.; Hegel, P.; Tam, Y. H. N.; Morin, A.; Levandowski, K.; Graber, E. L.; Quirk, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the twenty-year R-band optical variability light curve for the BL Lac type quasar PKS 1749+096. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensity of outbursts and flares by fitting exponential profiles to the variations. PKS 1749+096 underwent strong optical outbursts during the summers of 2007 and 2008, reaching its brightest optical level in two decades, and exhibited an inactive period during summer 2009. We compare these two outbursts with lower amplitude well-sampled variations in 2000 through 2003. Observations were obtained as part of the intensive blazar variability monitoring program at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, the NASA / New York Space Grant, and the Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research Fund at Colgate University.

  19. [Development of health promotion in Brazil in the last twenty years (1988-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Carvalho, Antonio Ivo de

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the institutionalization of health promotion (HP) in Brazil in the twenty years following the proclamation of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The legal and institutional foundations of HP are delineated, as well as its recent reassertion as a national policy. Moreover, the praxis of HP within the health system and other instances are analyzed, and the institutional capacity building - by means of research and training of human resources - is examined. Around 100 papers were revised, including institutional policy documents, decrees, laws, and annals of congresses and other events. The authors' personal experience in the ideational conception of the area and in the institutionalization of health promotion as a public policy in the country was also drawn upon. Finally, major restrictions to the theoretical and practical development of health promotion are criticized and a few ideas that might benefit such development are presented.

  20. Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons: twenty-five years of doing MATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mel

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago this past autumn, we published a short article entitled 'Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: a simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity' in Volume 9 of FEMS Microbiology Letters. Together with my Ph.D. supervisors, Eugene Rosenberg and David Gutnick, we proposed a method of measuring bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity based on bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon ('BATH', later known as 'MATH', for microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon). The method became popular soon after it was published, and the paper was, for at least the following decade, the Journal's most cited article. It became an ISI 'citation classic' in 1991. This minireview is a rather personal look at the development of the method and its various modifications and other scientific offspring, with the perspective of a quarter-century.

  1. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  2. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  3. [The first Obesity Unit in Czechoslovakia was established twenty years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    The first Obesity Unit in former Czechoslovakia was established at the Fourth Department of Internal Medicine of the Faculty of General Medicine and Faculty Hospital I twenty years ago. Both personal resources (physicians specialized in metabolism and obesity, psychologist, dietician, physiatrist and medical nurses trained in the care of obese patients) and diagnostic tools (body composition assessment by hydrodensitometry, determination of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, evaluation of energy and nutrient intake by PC assessment of dietary records, hormonal and biochemical examinations etc.) enabled comprehensive examinations of obese patients. Obesity unit included a specialized in-patient department where the patients with severe and complicated obesity underwent a comprehensive treatment programme which consisted of very low energy diet developed in collaboration with the Obesity Unit. The article summarizes not only clinical experiences of the unit but also its engagement in education on obesity, in research projects and international collaboration over the past 20-years period. Obesity unit succeeded to keep its continuity in spite of repeated moving between 1997-2002. Since 2002 Obesity Unit has been a part of the Institute of Endocrinology which provided additional modern facilities for hormonal and molecular genetic examinations.

  4. Twenty-five Years of PTHrP Progress from Cancer Hormone to Multifunctional Cytokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Laurie K.; Martin, T. John

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a ‘new’ protein was identified from cancers that caused hypercalcemia. It was credited for its ability to mimic parathyroid hormone, and hence was termed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Today it is recognized for its widespread distribution, its endocrine, paracrine, and intracrine modes of action driving numerous physiologic and pathologic conditions with a central role in organogenesis. The multiple biological activities within a complex molecule with paracrine modulation of adjacent target cells present boundless possibilities. The protein structure of PTHrP has been traced, dissected and deleted comprehensively and conditionally, yet numerous questions lurk in its past that will carry into the future. Issues of the variable segments of the protein including the enigmatic nuclear localization sequence are only recently being clarified. Aspects of PTHrP production and action in the menacing condition of cancer are emerging as dichotomies that may represent intended temporal actions of PTHrP. Relative to PTH, the hormone regulating calcium homeostasis, PTHrP ‘controls the show’ locally at the PTH/PTHrP receptor throughout the body. Great strides have been made in our understanding of PTHrP actions, yet years of exciting investigation and discovery are imminent. PMID:22549910

  5. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  6. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  9. Twenty years of experience with the rabbit model, a versatile model for tracheal transplantation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margot Den Hondt; Bart M Vanaudenaerde; Pierre Delaere; Jan J Vranckx

    2016-01-01

    Pathologies comprising more than half the length of the trachea are a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Innovative tracheal transplantation techniques aim to offer the patient a curative solution with a sustained improvement in quality of life. This review summarizes the authors’ experience with the rabbit as a versatile model for research regarding tracheal transplantation. Because of the segmental blood supply of the trachea, it is not feasible to transplant the organ together with a well-defined vascular pedicle. As such, the key element of successful tracheal transplantation is the creation of a new blood supply. This vascularized construct is created by prelaminating the rabbit trachea heterotopically, within the lateral thoracic fascia. After prelamination, the construct and its vascular pedicle are transferred to the orthotopic position in the neck. This model has become gold standard because of the advantages of working with rabbits, the anatomy of the rabbit trachea, and the reliability of the lateral thoracic artery flap. In this paper, the key elements of surgery in the rabbit are discussed, as well as the tracheal anastomosis and the harvest of the lateral thoracic artery flap. Practical tips and tricks are presented. The data described in this review represent the fundaments of ongoing translational research in the center over the past twenty years.

  10. Twenty Years of Ablative Photodecomposition (Industrial Applications of Physics Prize Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rangaswamy

    2004-03-01

    It was a little over twenty years ago that two groups, one in the U.S. and another in Hull, U.K. working independently, reported that ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration were capable of etching organic polymer films without any need for further development.In 1982, our group at the IBM Research Center which studied this phenomenon at 193nm named the process "Ablative Photodecomposition". Dyer and his group in Hull reported similar results at 248nm and 308nm in 1983. We also showed that the process worked well in the etching of tissue and had the potential to be of use in surgery since there was no detectable heat damage around the exposed area. These reports led to a burst of activity from numerous groups all over the world which has not slowed down significantly to the present day. The driving force behind the activity was and continues to be the potential for applications in several areas of computer hardware technology as well as in corneal refractive surgery. Today these applications can be said to be firmly in place and well-accepted. Strangely, the science behind the process is still a subject for serious discussion. The reason for this is the mix of physicists, chemists, medical doctors and engineers who have stepped into the debate. The result is a true 'Babel' which will be pointed out.

  11. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  12. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  13. Twenty five years of antismoking movement started by medical students: some further goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizic-Borjanovic, S; Jerinic, M; Igic, R

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, medical students of the former Yugoslavia accepted an idea that emerged from the Medical School in Tuzla to carry out a national preventive campaign "January 31st, a Day without Cigarette". This campaign was soon recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of "the most successful preventive achievement of medical students in Europe". The only contribution that the government made was printing and releasing a postal stamp on January 31st, 1990. During the war in Bosnia, the UN sanctions imposed to Serbia, and the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) weakened this antismoking campaign. At the time of the civil war in several Yugoslav republics, more citizens, including children and youth, started to smoke than in previous years. In 2002, January 31st was proclaimed as the National Antismoking Day in Serbia and the "Republic of Srpska" in Bosnia & Herzegovina; the Republic of Slovenia, and to a smaller extent the rest of the "Bosnian Federation", continued to observe this antismoking campaign. In the future, the medical professionals have to look for new ways to help smokers quit smoking and to maintain abstinence. In addition to education and professional advice, they may use smoking cessation interventions, especially to smokers that require elective surgery. Medical students should continue to participate in the national antismoking campaigns, and they could be included in the comprehensive smoking intervention programs to improve their smoking cessation counseling skills. However, the governments should plan and rigorously realize needed measures to control smoking at public places, offices, and other closed working places. Such measures are especially needed in poor and developing countries where many people die unnecessarily.

  14. A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C., Ed.

    This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

  15. Personal networks and mortality risk in older adults: a twenty-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ellwardt

    Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have

  16. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  17. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  18. Twenty Years of Litter and Root Manipulations: Insights into Multi-Decadal SOM Dynamics and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, J.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reforestation, reducing deforestation, and sustainable forest management are often recommended by policy makers to mitigate the greenhouse gas contributions of the forestry sector. However, underlying many of these policy recommendations is the assumption that increasing above-ground carbon stocks corresponds to long-term increases in ecosystem carbon stocks, the majority of which is stored in soils. We analyzed soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forest soils that had undergone twenty years of continuous manipulations of above- and below-ground organic inputs as part of the Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) network. Although we expected that increased C inputs would correspond to significantly elevated C in surface mineral soils, our data suggest that increasing above-ground litter inputs has had a positive priming effect in this soil. Positive priming occurs when increased rates of litter addition to soil lead to disproportionate increases in microbial respiration rates of native soil C, resulting in a net decrease of soil C. Soil respiration rates in a year-long laboratory incubation support this theory: increased above-ground litter inputs led to decreased respiration rates, suggesting a relative deficit of labile organic matter. Removal of below ground inputs, either with or without above-ground litter inputs, also led to decreased respiration in laboratory incubations, demonstrating the importance of fresh root inputs to labile C. Trends in non-hydrolyzable C fractions, a proxy for the more stable C pool, agree with our respiration measurements. Data from sequential density fractionation are consistent with the hypotheses that priming has occurred in response to increased above-ground litter inputs and that root inputs are an important control of the labile C pool. The importance of roots inputs for C stabilization is well documented in the literature, and our hypothesis that increased above-ground litter inputs leads to priming is supported by

  19. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  20. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  1. Twenty Years of Data Management in the British Atmospheric Data Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Pepler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC has existed in its present form for 20 years, having been formally created in 1994. It evolved from the GDF (Geophysical Data Facility, a SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council facility, as a result of research council reform where NERC (Natural Environment Research Council extended its remit to cover atmospheric data below 10km altitude. With that change the BADC took on data from many other atmospheric sources and started interacting with NERC research programmes. The BADC has now hit early adulthood. Prompted by this milestone, we examine in this paper whether the data centre is creaking at the seams or is looking forward to the prime of its life, gliding effortlessly into the future. Which parts of it are bullet proof and which parts are held together with double-sided sticky tape? Can we expect to see it in its present form in another twenty years’ time? To answer these questions, we examine the interfaces, technology, processes and organisation used in the provision of data centre services by looking at three snapshots in time, 1994, 2004 and 2014, using metrics and reports from the time to compare and contrasts the services using BADC. The repository landscape has changed massively over this period and has moved the focus for technology and development as the broader community followed emerging trends, standards and ways of working. The incorporation of these new ideas has been both a blessing and a curse, providing the data centre staff with plenty of challenges and opportunities. We also discuss key data centre functions including: data discovery, data access, ingestion, data management planning, preservation plans, agreements/licences and data policy, storage and server technology, organisation and funding, and user management. We conclude that the data centre will probably still exist in some form in 2024 and that it will most likely still be reliant on a file system. However, the

  2. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  3. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  4. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  5. Twenty-five years of quantitative PCR for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGuilder, Heather D; Vrana, Kent E; Freeman, Willard M

    2008-04-01

    Following its invention 25 years ago, PCR has been adapted for numerous molecular biology applications. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been a key enabling technology of the post-genome era. Since the founding of BioTechniques, this journal has been a resource for the improvements in qPCR technology, experimental design, and data analysis. qPCR and, more specifically, real-time qPCR has become a routine and robust approach for measuring the expression of genes of interest, validating microarray experiments, and monitoring biomarkers. The use of real-time qPCR has nearly supplanted other approaches (e.g., Northern blotting, RNase protection assays). This review examines the current state of qPCR for gene expression analysis now that the method has reached a mature stage of development and implementation. Specifically, the different fluorescent reporter technologies of real-time qPCR are discussed as well as the selection of endogenous controls. The conceptual framework for data analysis methods is also presented to demystify these analysis techniques. The future of qPCR remains bright as the technology becomes more rapid, cost-effective, easier to use, and capable of higher throughput.

  6. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  7. Pediatric urolithiasis in the central coast of Tunisia: Epidemiologic changes over the past twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najjar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Pediatric urolithiasis has been constantly decreasing during the past twenty-four years (1982-2007 in Tunisia as well as in other Mediterranean countries. This study was undertaken to observe the incidence of stone disease and its composition in children. Our study shows a downward trend of incidence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients over the last 25 years. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has constantly increased with decrease in the stones related to infections Whewellite (calcium oxalate was more frequent in children of school age. In conclusion, the decrease in struvite frequency in children patients during the past twenty-five years and the stabilization of calcium phosphate stones are the result of a significant im-provement of diagnostics and the treatment of urinary tract infections in the young children in our country.

  8. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  9. Twenty-five years requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.; Bartelds, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: World-wide there is a great deal of interest in Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from appreciation there is also concern that the increasing acceptance of E/PAS might lead to an ever growing number of requests for help to implement E/PAS.

  10. Twenty-five years requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.; Bartelds, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: World-wide there is a great deal of interest in Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from appreciation there is also concern that the increasing acceptance of E/PAS might lead to an ever growing number of requests for help to implement E/PAS. Method

  11. Lessons Learned from the Last Twenty Years of Sexual Violence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article attempts to answer important questions about the most important thing learned from the past 20 years of research on sexual violence, the most important thing to be learned about sexual violence over the next 10 years, and the most promising methodological innovation in the study of sexual violence from the last 20 years. It is…

  12. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

  13. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  14. Twenty-five years of psychology in the Journal of Sports Sciences: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Hardy, Lew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-02-15

    We provide an overview of some of the outstanding papers published in the Journal over the last 25 years within the discipline of psychology. Altogether, almost 300 papers had been published in the Journal under the psychology banner at the start of its silver anniversary year. The greatest contribution of papers has come from the motor control and learning and sport psychology sub-areas, with papers focusing on exercise psychology being a more recent addition. Prominent research themes that have emerged from each of the different sub-areas are reviewed and some notable omissions highlighted. Finally, some issues for sport and exercise psychologists to consider in coming years are briefly highlighted.

  15. Twenty years since ‘antibody mimics’ by molecular imprinting were first proposed: A critical perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenna L. Bowen; Panagiotis Manesiotis; Chris J. Allender

    2013-01-01

    ... ‘a useful, general alternative to antibodies’. This perspective article examines how far we have come in the 20 years since this publication in terms of realising this hypothesis and poses the question of whether we actually need molecularly...

  16. Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adult dysplastic hips: ten to twenty three year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Vávra, Jaroslav; Chochola, Antonín

    2012-12-01

    Hip shelf arthroplasty is currently considered to be a salvage procedure. The aim of the study is to present outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adolescent dysplastic hips with a minimum ten-year follow-up. The basic group comprised 25 hips in 18 patients with the mean age of 31 years (range, 16-52) at the time of operation. Subgroup A included 20 hips that were evaluated prior to operation as spherical, centric hips without osteoarthritic changes (acetabular dysplasia). The heterogeneous subgroup B comprised five hips. Of these, three hips were evaluated as aspheric, without osteoarthritic changes, and two hips as aspheric, with osteoarthritic changes of grade 2 according to Tönnis. In addition, two hips in subgroup B were evaluated as decentred (subluxated), one hip without and one hip with osteoarthritic changes. The mean follow-up was 15 years (range, ten-23). In subgroup A, the positive effect of operation had lasted at the time of the final follow-up for ten to 22 years postoperatively (average follow-up 14 years) in 19 hips. Only one female patient, 46 years old at the time of operation, developed hip osteoarthritis within ten years, that was treated by THA. In subgroup B, a lasting positive effect of operation was recorded in two cases at the time of the final follow-up (12 and 15 years). The third female patient with an aspheric and decentred hip developed severe hip osteoarthritis 21 years after shelf procedure that was treated by THA. In two patients who had hip osteoarthritis already before the operation, the positive effect of the shelf procedure survived over 13 and 20 years. Although hip osteoarthritis progressed, THA was performed as late as 15 and 23 years after the shelf procedure. The mean Harris hip score in 21 hips with a still functional hip shelf was 68 (range, 56-82) before and 90 (range, 76-100) after the surgery. The best outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty may be expected in a dysplastic spherical centred hip

  17. Aortico-left ventricular tunnel in adulthood: twenty-two year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rose; Kafka, Henryk

    2009-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that is usually managed by surgical or catheter intervention. This case documents the 22 year follow up of a 44 year old man who has been managed medically through a programme of close clinical and echocardiographic monitoring. This report illustrates that conservative management of Type I ALVT can be undertaken without adverse clinical consequences.

  18. DYNASTY-Leading Wine Brand for Twenty-Eight Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Co.,Ltd.,since the establishment in 1980,has had a history of steady development of 28 years.In the past 28 years,Dynasty Winery continues the market expansion,and increasing the market share,and strengthening the influence of the brand and the company.Till now,"Dynasty Wine",has become popular among the consumors.

  19. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  20. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.

    2017-03-31

    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  1. [Incidence of major lower limb amputation in Geneva: twenty-one years of observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G A; Lacraz, A; Hoffmeyer, P; Assal, M

    2014-10-22

    Between 1990 and 2010 the incidence of major lowerlimb amputations (by definition any level of amputation above the foot) in the canton of Geneva was 10.02 per 100,000 inhabitants/ year. The analysis of various population groups revealed that the presence of diabetes increased the relative risk of amputation by a factor of 20, and age 65 years or older by a factor of 9. During this 21 years period we observed a gradual decline in the incidence of amputation and an increased age at the time of amputation, despite the increasing prevalence of diabetes and an aging population. This was a reflection on the efforts of primary and secon- dary prevention, initiated in the 1980s in which Geneva was a pioneer.

  2. Analysis of the Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence in Tianjin Over a Recent Twenty-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Kexin Chen; Min He; Shufen Dong; Haixin Li; Fengju Song

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the incidence rate and trend of thyroid cancer in Tianjin over a recent 20-year period.METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to study the occurrence of thyroid cancer.RESULTS During 1981~2001, the average incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 1.770 per 100,000 with a male to female incidence ratio of 1:2.74, the occurrence being higher in females than in males. Thyroid cancer incidence increased gradually with time over the 20 years in both males and females, especially the incidence peaked in females of 35~50 years of age.CONCLUSION The rapid increase in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer, especially in females, suggests that further research on the risk factors and preventive efforts related to high-risk women should be conducted.

  3. Intraoperative EBRT and resection for renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-year outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F.A. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Sole, C.V. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Spain). Service of Radiation Oncology; Martinez-Monge, R.; Aristu, J. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Azinovic, I. [Hospital de San Jaime, Torrevieja (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zudaire, J.; Berian, J.M. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Urology; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General Surgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: We report the outcomes of a multimodality treatment approach combining maximal surgical resection and intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with locoregionally (LR) recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy or LR advanced primary RCC. Patients and methods: From 1983 to 2008, 25 patients with LR recurrent (n = 10) or LR advanced primary (n = 15) RCC were treated with this approach. Median patient age was 60 years (range, 16-79 years). Fifteen patients (60%) received perioperative EBRT (median dose, 44 Gy). Surgical resection was R0 (negative margins) in 6 patients (24%) and R1 (residual microscopic disease) in 19 patients (76%). The median dose of IOERT was 14 Gy (range, 9-15). Overall survival (OS) and relapse patterns were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 22.2 years (range, 3.6-26 years). OS and DFS at 5 and 10 years were 38% and 18% and 19% and 14%, respectively. LR control (tumor bed or regional lymph nodes) and distant metastases-free survival rates at 5 years were 80% and 22%, respectively. The death rate within 30 days of surgery and IOERT was 4% (n = 1). Six patients (24%) experienced acute or late toxicities of grade 3 or higher according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTCAE) v4. Conclusion: In patients with LR recurrent or LR advanced primary RCC, a multimodality approach consisting of maximal surgical resection and IOERT with or without adjuvant EBRT yielded encouraging local control results, justifying further evaluation. (orig.)

  4. Twenty years of psychoneuroimmunology and viral infections in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Robert H; Padgett, David A; Sheridan, John F

    2007-03-01

    For 20 years, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity has provided an important venue for the publication of studies in psychoneuroimmunology. During this time period, psychoneuroimmunology has matured into an important multidisciplinary science that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of mind, brain, and body interactions. This review will not only focus on the primary research papers dealing with psychoneuroimmunology, viral infections, and anti-viral vaccine responses in humans and animal models that have appeared on the pages of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity during the past 20 years, but will also outline a variety of strategies that could be used for expanding our understanding of the neuroimmune-viral pathogen relationship.

  5. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum serv

  6. From Unity to Diversity: Twenty-Five Years of Language-Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This article was written for the 25th anniversary of "English Teaching Forum" and published in 1987. In this article, the author describes methodological developments in the field of English language teaching over the past 25 years. The author has found it helpful to think of methodology being depicted as a triangle, with each angle of the…

  7. Contemporary Curriculum Discourses: Twenty Years of JCT. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    This collection of essays is taken from a 20-year span of "The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing." The volume contains 31 articles: "Living Metaphors: The Real Curriculum in Environmental Education," F. Krall; "Dialectics and the Development of Curriculum Theory," H. Giroux; "Autobiography and Reconceptualization," M. Grumet; "Women," J. Miller;…

  8. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  9. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  10. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  11. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  12. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  13. After twenty years of research on soil carbon and climate change, what's left to learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much effort over the past 230 years has been directed at investigating the roles that soils and specifically soil carbon play in the global carbon cycle and in climate change. As we begin another new decade, we ask whether there is anything left to learn on this topic? Do we kn...

  14. [Twenty years' review and prospect of modernization research on traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-li; Zhang, Jun-hua

    2015-09-01

    The modernization strategy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been implemented for 20 years, which has provided a strong impetus to the development of TCM and gained remarkable achievements in scientific research platform, research result, industry scale, clinical evaluation, internationalization and professionals training as well. The achievements of TCM modernization greatly improved the clinical service ability and level of TCM, broadened the scope of service, become the important foundation of the big health industry. TCM has played an irreplaceable role in the health care reform, benefiting people's livelihood, promoting industrial structure adjustment and cultivating strategic emerging industries. This article summarized the main achievements of the modernization of TCM and prospected the direction and tasks in the next 20 years in order to further promote the modernization process of TCM.

  15. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  16. [Twenty-five years of the amyloid hypothesis of alzheimer disease: advances, failures and new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Vasenina, E E

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been long the primary one. During the 25-year history the concept has been dramatically changed. Accumulation of β-amyloid is associated not only with the disruption of its synthesis (as it seemed after the discovery of genetic mechanisms of some familial cases of AD) but rather with the disruption of its clearance and elimination from the brain tissue via the microcirculatory system. It has been recognized that soluble oligomers of β-amyloid, but not senile plaques that consisted of insoluble conjugates described by A. Alzheimer 100 years ago, play a key pathogenic role in the brain. Interrelation of vascular and degenerative processes is confirmed by common risk factors, clinical, neuroimaging, pathomorphological and experimental data. Insulin-resistance is also one of the links between AD degenerative and vascular processes. Based on the current state of the amyloid hypothesis, perspectives of new multimodal treatment strategies are discussed.

  17. Promoting early literacy in pediatric practice: twenty years of reach out and read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Barry

    2009-12-01

    Reach Out and Read (ROR) is the first pediatric, evidence-based strategy to prevent problems of early childhood development and learning. With a start in a single clinic in Boston City Hospital in 1989, doctors working in >4000 clinics and practices gave approximately 5.7 million new books to >3.5 million children in all 50 states in 2008. ROR also has become a model for a different way of thinking about parent education during primary care encounters, based less on telling and more on creating real-time learning experiences. ROR flourished because of (1) the growth of pediatric interest in child development, (2) local leadership of pediatric champions as well as nonmedical supporters, coordinators, and volunteers, (3) evidence of effectiveness, and (4) public financial support attributable to strong bipartisan support in Congress, led by Senator Edward Kennedy. Since ROR started, an increasing amount of research confirms the importance of reading aloud for the development of language and other emergent literacy skills, which in turn helps children get ready for school and leads to later success in reading. Future goals include continued growth until all low-income children are reached with pediatric advice and books, a national campaign led by physicians encouraging all parents to read to their children every day, additional evidence-based, parent information to increase the effectiveness of parents reading to children, quality-improvement efforts to achieve the full potential, and global expansion.

  18. Twenty years after ACEIs and ARBs: emerging treatment strategies for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy A; Spurney, Robert F

    2015-11-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The disease is now the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, and both the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Current treatments are directed at controlling hyperglycemia and hypertension, as well as blockade of the renin angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and angiotensin receptor blockers. Despite these therapies, DN progresses to ESKD in many patients. As a result, much interest is focused on developing new therapies. It has been over two decades since ACEIs were shown to have beneficial effects in DN independent of their blood pressure-lowering actions. Since that time, our understanding of disease mechanisms in DN has evolved. In this review, we summarize major cell signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, as well as emerging treatment strategies. The goal is to identify promising targets that might be translated into therapies for the treatment of patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  19. Twenty years of ovulation induction with metformin for PCOS; what is the best available evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    The potential reproductive benefits of metformin, a drug endowed with the capacity to ameliorate insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), has garnered much interest over the past 2 decades. In this review, randomized-controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of RCT comparing metformin are critically appraised and summarized. PubMed and CENTRAL databases were consulted. Evidence is insufficient to favour the use of metformin or metformin plus clomiphene citrate instead of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with newly diagnosed PCOS. Evidence is also insufficient to recommend metformin as a primary treatment for non-obese women with PCOS. Metformin plus clomiphene citrate should be considered as an effective option in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS. In women with PCOS undergoing gonadotrophin ovulation induction, metformin significantly increased pregnancy and live birth rates (P PCOS patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques has been shown. No evidence was found of reduced risk of spontaneous abortion or increased risk of major anomalies in women with PCOS taking metformin during the first trimester.

  20. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Augusto Miana; Estela Azeka; Luiz Fernando Canêo; Aída Luisa Turquetto; Carla Tanamati; Juliano Gomes Penha; Alexandre Cauduro; Marcelo Biscegli Jatene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective: This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to...

  1. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus associated with eventration of diaphragm in a twenty-six-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man.

  2. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    OpenAIRE

    Frencken, Jo E.; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Navarro,Maria Fidela

    2012-01-01

    Background The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. Results Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectiveness of ART sealants using high-viscosity glass ionomers in carious lesion development prevention is not different from that of resin fissure sealants. ART using high-viscosity glass ionomer can safely...

  3. Twenty-year single-center experience with the medtronic open pivot mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nooten, Guido J; Bové, Thierry; Van Belleghem, Yves; François, Katrien; Caes, Frank; Vandenplas, Guy; De Pauw, Michel; Taeymans, Yves

    2014-04-01

    Since May 1992 the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical heart valve has been implanted routinely at the authors' institution. The study aim was to analyze, retrospectively, the 20-year clinical results of the valve. Between May 1992 and December 2011 a total of 1,520 valves was inserted into 1,382 consecutive patients (1,012 aortic, 473 mitral, 26 tricuspid, 9 pulmonary). The mean age of the patients was 61±13.2 years. Preoperatively, 65% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or greater. Frequent comorbidities included atrial fibrillation (n=419), coronary disease (n=357), and diabetes (n=255). The 99% complete follow-up totaled 10,527 patient-years (range 12 to 244 months). Ninety-day mortality was 5.2% (n=73, 8 valve related). Of the 550 total deaths, 240 were cardiac and 56 valve related. Multivariate analysis selected age, NYHA III or greater, concomitant coronary revascularization, and respiratory insufficiency as risk factors for death. Renal failure was considered a risk factor in the aortic and atrial fibrillation in the mitral subgroup. Erratic international normalized ratio (INR), NYHA class III or greater, and non-sinus rhythm were risk factors for thromboembolism; likewise redo operations in the aortic subgroup. Erratic INR and age were risk factors for bleeding as were over-coagulation and coronary revascularization in the aortic subgroup and redo operations and renal failure in mitral patients. This 20-year experience demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes with no structural valve failure. Odds ratio defined aortic patients as the lowest risk for adverse events. By contrast atrial fibrillation and elderly age, in combination with instable anticoagulation, yielded the worst long-term results. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetation Transformations of Kujawy-Pomerania Region in the Last Twenty Years Period

    OpenAIRE

    Załuski Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper contents dynamic tendencies analysis results of Kujawy-Pomerania region (N Poland) for a 20-year time period. Acreage changes as well as structure and species composition transformations of forest and shrub vegetation (associations) and non-forest vegetation (alliances) were evaluated. Main factors influencing on regressive and progressive changes were set out. Analysis was relied on results of geobotanical research and observations of selected objects. Regressive changes were note...

  5. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prättälä Ritva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002 that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the

  6. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Alves, Lafaiete; Ferreira, Cesar Augusto; Menardi, Antônio Carlos; Bassetto, Solange; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Scorzoni, Adilson; Vicente, Walter Vilella de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies. PMID:25859872

  7. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  8. Twenty-Year Outcome Following Central Duct Resection for Bloody Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R Scott; Hoehn, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients found with pathologic nipple discharge present a diagnostic dilemma to surgeons. No one diagnostic test, including cytology or radiologic imaging, has proved superior to any other in the differentiation of benign versus malignant sources of pathologic nipple discharge. Ductoscopy has been introduced as a way to assist with identification of potential sources of pathologic nipple discharge. Ductoscopy is also useful in the resection of deep or peripheral masses that may be missed with standard blind resection. This report evaluates the risk of missed malignancy following central duct resection (CDR). Methods: Records of 56 patients who underwent CDR for pathologic nipple discharge greater than 15 years previous were reviewed. Data including type of nipple discharge, future biopsy, and pathology reports were all examined. Results: Of the 56 patients, 36 had bloody, 18 serous, and 2 green initial discharges. Fifty-seven percent were found to have intraductal papilloma as the source of discharge, with fibrocystic disease and ductal ectasia providing the next most common causes. One woman was found to have ductal cancer and one lobular carcinoma in situ at time of CDR. Patients were followed for a mean period of 22 years. Fourteen women required future biopsy. Of these, 10 had benign disease and 4 had cancer, 3 on the ipsilateral side. The 3 women with breast cancer were 9, 13, and 17 years from initial resection. Conclusions: CDR for pathologic nipple discharge is an effective way to diagnose and treat pathologic nipple discharge without missing underlying cancers. PMID:16552204

  9. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  10. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  11. Supervoltage orbital radiotherapy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy; Results of a twenty-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA)); Petersen, I.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Since 1968 we have employed supervoltage orbital radiation as treatment for severe progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. A numerical ophthalmic index was used to asess pre- and post-treatment serverity. In the past 20 years we have treated 311 patients of whom 275 have been followed for {le} 1 year or until any eye surgery was performed. An orbital radiation dosage of 2000 rads in 2 weeks was used for the majority of patients (Series I and III). Series II patients received an orbital dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks. Demographic differences were observed between these series, thus mandating presentation of the results of each separately. Analyses excluded any result achieved by any post-radiation surgical procedure on the eyes. Post-theraphy worsening of ophtalmopathy occurred in only 29 of 1025 observations. Improvement or complete resolution was observed within each category of eye involvement, but lack of favorable response was also recorded in significant numbers. Improvement in proptosis occurred with the lowest frequency and magnitude. About 30% of the patients required eye muscle surgery to correct residual diplopia. Analysis of the data by step-wise linear regression analysis enabled us a. to derive formulae predicting the problable response to radiation therapy according to sign and severity, and b. identify parameters which diminished the likelihood or the extent of a favorable response. The latter included male sex, never thyrotoxic, age greater than 60 years, and requirement for concomitant treatment for hyperthyroidism. No long-term adverse reactions attributable to the radiotherapy have been observed. We conclude that supervoltage orbital radiotherapy, combined with later eye muscle surgery if necessary, is an effective treatment strategy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author).

  12. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  13. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Elżbieta; Stępińska, Janina; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently.

  14. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. Method: The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55–65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Results: Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Conclusions: Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers. PMID:26098030

  15. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  16. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  17. Twenty-five years of aerodynamic research with IR imaging: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared imaging used in aerodynamic research evolved during the last 25 years into a rewarding experimental technique for investigation of body-flow viscous interactions, such as heat flux determination and boundary layer transition. The technique of infrared imaging matched well its capability to produce useful results, with the expansion of testing conditions in the entire spectrum of wind tunnels, from hypersonic high-enthalpy facilities to cryogenic transonic wind tunnels. With unique achievements credited to its past, the current trend suggests a change in attitude towards this technique: from the perception as an exotic, project-oriented tool, to the status of a routine experimental procedure.

  18. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  19. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  20. Pseudodementia in a twenty-one-year-old with bipolar disorder and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D

    2000-12-01

    A twenty-one-year-old female known to suffer from bipolar type I disorder developed features of a pseudodementia. Following prompt initial response to treatment with antidepressants, there was an early recurrence of cognitive impairment. Blood investigations confirmed a macrocytic anaemia and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. There was dramatic resolution of cognitive impairment after vitamin replacement. This suggested the occurrence of a reversible nutritional dementia and reinforced the need to rule out secondary organic causes of psychiatric symptoms even in patients previously diagnosed with a primary psychiatric disorder.

  1. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-09-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  2. TWENTY EIGHT YEARS OF ICP VEGETATION: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Harmens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we look back at the activities and achievements in the 28 years of the International Cooperative Programme on the Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation. The ICP Vegetation is a subsidiary body of the Working Group on Effects of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP, established in 1979. An important role of the ICP Vegetation is to provide evidence for air pollution impacts on vegetation in support of policy development and review of the LRTAP Convention and its Protocols. The activities and participation in the ICP Vegetation have grown over the years. The main activities include:Collate evidence of ozone impacts on vegetation, assess spatial patterns and temporal trends across Europe;Develop dose-response relationships, establish critical levels for vegetation and provide European risk maps of ozone impacts;Reviewing the literature on ozone impacts on vegetation and produce thematic scientific reports and policy-relevant brochures;Determine spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metals, nitrogen and persistent organic pollutants concentrations in mosses as a biomonitoring tool of atmospheric deposition of these compounds.

  3. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A; Eronen, Jussi T; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-09-27

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  4. IgA Nephropathy: A Twenty Year Retrospective Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a common glomerular disease whose etiology is unknown. Previous studies have described the clinical and laboratory features but none have specifically compared patients during different time periods. This 20 year retrospective study was performed to assess trends in the severity of IgAN from 1989–2008. We reviewed 57 patient charts that contained a confirmed biopsy diagnosis of IgAN and recorded data at the time of diagnosis and the final follow-up appointment. Clinical data included physical examination, urine, and blood tests. Patients were separated into two cohorts, Cohort 1 1989–1998 and Cohort 2 1999–2008. An increase in severity was noted in Cohort 2 based on a significantly higher Up/c and lower serum albumin level. Other prognostic indicators including GFRe, hematocrit, and glomerular injury score also demonstrated a trend towards more severe disease over the past 20 years. The patients in both Cohorts received similar treatments and had comparable renal function at the last follow-up visit. Based on our findings, we suggest that although a kidney biopsy is required to diagnose IgAN, the procedure may not be necessary in patients clinically suspected of having the disease but who have normal kidney function and minimal urine abnormalities.

  5. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  6. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  7. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Jääskeläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966, which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4% had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.

  8. The evolution of perforator flap breast reconstruction: twenty years after the first DIEP flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Claragh; Allen, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    It is over 20 years since the inaugural deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. We review the type of flap utilized and indications in 2,850 microvascular breast reconstruction over the subsequent 20 years in the senior author's practice (Robert J. Allen). Data were extracted from a personal logbook of all microsurgical free flap breast reconstructions performed between August 1992 and August 2012. Indication for surgery; mastectomy pattern in primary reconstruction; flap type, whether unilateral or bilateral; recipient vessels; and adjunctive procedures were recorded. The DIEP was the most commonly performed flap (66%), followed by the superior gluteal artery perforator flap (12%), superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (9%), inferior gluteal artery perforator flap (6%), profunda artery perforator flap (3%), and transverse upper gracilis flap (3%). Primary reconstruction accounted for 1,430 flaps (50%), secondary 992 (35%), and tertiary 425 (15%). As simultaneous bilateral reconstructions, 59% flaps were performed. With each flap, there typically ensues a period of enthusiasm which translated into surge in flap numbers. However, each flap has its own nuances and characteristics that influence patient and physician choice. Of note, each newly introduced flap, either buttock or thigh, results in a sharp decline in its predecessor. In this practice, the DIEP flap has remained the first choice in autologous breast reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  10. [Infective endocarditis. Systematic review of twenty years of performances in the Sociedad Argentina de Medicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Yorio; Milian Andrés, Escudero; Luis, Camera

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. There have been very few studies published about IE in Argentina. We reviewed all the studies about IE published in the Argentine Medicine Society from 1980 to 2003 and we analyzed demographic, clinical and bacteriological data. 27 studies with 628 patients were included. Mean age of patients was 50.7 years old. The most frequent clinical data were fever, murmur and elevated sedimentation rate. Stafilococcus spp was the most common causative organism, followed by streptococcus spp. The echocardiographic demonstration allowed the definitive diagnosis in 2/3 of the patients. The IE data of Argentina are not different from other data published in different countries and this study shows some clinical features of IE in Argentina.

  11. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  12. Presentation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder after more than twenty years of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Zulma M; Cohen, Bruce A; Derwenskus, Joy

    2012-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disorder characterized by optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and aquaporin-4 autoantibodies. The term "neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder" refers neuromyelitis optica features occurring in association with other systemic rheumatologic conditions. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with long-standing systemic sclerosis who developed transverse myelitis in association with the presence aquaporin-4 autoantibodies. This is the first report case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with systemic sclerosis. Given that patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with aquaporin-4 autoantibodies have a high risk for clinical relapse, this report underscores the need for recognition of this disorder in patients with systemic sclerosis and neurological dysfunction.

  13. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 2-Towards to Practical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    After discovering high temperature super- conducting materials 20 years ago, the preparation of applicable HTS materials has been pursued along with HTS mechanism and characteristic study. At present, the focus on the applied HTS technology has been moving to the industrial preparations from the laboratory research stage, and the technology has been well verified for practical applications from small to large scales. The fabrication techniques of engineering HTS materials are being industrialized; and various HTS devices are also on the way towards practical applications. This paper provides a comprehensive summary on the applied high temperature superconductivity with regard to various applicable HTS materials, their preparation techniques and charac- terization, and applications in a wide range.

  15. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  16. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E

    2013-12-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.

  17. Twenty years of monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Greenland biota. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, F; Vorkamp, K; Bossi, R; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Dietz, R

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a working group under the Arctic Council with the aim to monitor and assess temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic ecosystems. The Greenland AMAP Core programme was established to contribute to this effort. The Core programme includes three main components; routine monitoring, retrospective studies and new POP screening studies. The programme is based on an adaptive approach, which has led to changes throughout the years. An overview of the temporal trends during the last two to three decades is presently given together with selected examples of different characteristic trends of POPs. The results show how tissue banked samples and retrospective studies has helped in establishing time-series of compounds of emerging concern. Lastly, the statistical power of the Greenlandic time-series is discussed. The lesson learned is that trend monitoring improves with samples over time, and only pays off after decades of data are generated.

  18. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  19. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments.

  20. A Twenty-Four-Year-Old Woman with Left Flank Lipoma-Like Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Shackelford

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a left flank mass that was painful on palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 cm mass consistent with lipoma. A fatty lobulated mass was excised and subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses. The specimen consisted of mature univacuolated adipocytic cells, with intermixed multivacuolated eosinophilic granular cells. No atypia or hyperchromasia was identified. Most of the cells were S100 positive and Ki-67 immunonegative. A diagnosis of a lipoma-like hibernoma was rendered. Hibernomas are rare benign lipomatous tumors that show differentiation toward brown fat. The lipoma-like hibernoma subtype is rare and can be misdiagnosed as atypical lipoma or well-differentiated liposarcoma. Here we describe an example of this rare tumor.

  1. [Military physician Colonel Robert Yout. Twenty years as a paratrooper medical officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yout, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Robert Yout was born on June 15th, 1930. A rugby player and a member of the French Volleyball team, he was already an outstanding sportsman when he began his studies at the Health Services School in Lyons. His career as an army medical officer among the paratroopers was atypical. He spent many years among the most prestigious elite paratroopers of the French army: the 2nd REP, the 1st CHOC and the CINC (The Army Training School for Combat Swimmers) . When he retired, he was Head Doctor of the Paratroopers parent company: The Airborne School of Pau. For the army medical historian, Robert Yout is the perfect example of a man with an outstanding and remarkable career: A crack soldier, a brave army medical officer, a parachuting and diving pioneer and a sportsman of international class.

  2. Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.

    2005-01-01

    Models of community regulation commonly incorporate gradients of disturbance inversely related to the role of biotic interactions in regulating intermediate trophic levels. Higher trophic-level organisms are predicted to be more strongly limited by intermediate levels of disturbance than are the organisms they consume. We used a manipulation of the frequency of hydrological disturbance in an intervention analysis to examine its effects on small-fish communities in the Everglades, USA. From 1978 to 2002, we monitored fishes at one long-hydroperiod (average 350 days) and at one short-hydroperiod (average 259 days; monitoring started here in 1985) site. At a third site, managers intervened in 1985 to diminish the frequency and duration of marsh drying. By the late 1990s, the successional dynamics of density and relative abundance at the intervention site converged on those of the long-hydroperiod site. Community change was manifested over 3 to 5 years following a dry-down if a site remained inundated; the number of days since the most recent drying event and length of the preceding dry period were useful for predicting population dynamics. Community dissimilarity was positively correlated with the time since last dry. Community dynamics resulted from change in the relative abundance of three groups of species linked by life-history responses to drought. Drought frequency and intensity covaried in response to hydrological manipulation at the landscape scale; community-level successional dynamics converged on a relatively small range of species compositions when drought return-time extended beyond 4 years. The density of small fishes increased with diminution of drought frequency, consistent with disturbance-limited community structure; less-frequent drying than experienced in this study (i.e., longer return times) yields predator-dominated regulation of small-fish communities in some parts of the Everglades. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  3. Twenty years of multidisciplinary research and practice: the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Findley, Patricia A; Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Early research of work disability in the 1980s showed a complexity of factors influencing pain and health-related functional limitation at work; hence, multidisciplinary perspectives were necessary to understand the complex interplay between biomechanical, organizational, social, and psychological factors impacting work disability. To address this need, the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation was founded in 1991 with the goal of providing a scientific, yet practical forum for presenting multidisciplinary research and practice in work disability. Now, the 20-year collection of articles in the Journal reflects important trends and directions in the field of occupational rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective summary of the past 20 years of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, including its inaugural goals and intent, rates of submission and acceptance, trends in the types of articles published, study topics, global distribution of authors, and future directions. The original goal of providing a multidisciplinary scientific and practical forum has been met, but current trends reflect a maturing scientific evidence base, with less representation of employer-based case studies and practical innovations. There has been a dramatic increase in the international representation of studies, authors, and peer reviewers outside of the US. Also, published studies now address work disability for a larger number of health concerns. Contributions to the Journal continue to reflect a multidisciplinary perspective, but the Journal has seen significant changes with respect to international representation, the expanding study of non-musculoskeletal sources of work disability, and the maturing scientific evidence base in the field of occupational rehabilitation. Future volumes of the Journal will likely reflect continuing changes in the global economy, workforce fitness, and job demands.

  4. TWENTY-THREE-YEAR LONG-TERM HEALTH OUTCOME AFTER THE WAR IN VUKOVAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko; Dujaković, Tatjana; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Jurković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Results of the first research of this kind on the 23-year long-term outcome in children born during the war in Vukovar are presented. This retrospective clinical study surveyed the potential 23-year long-term consequences and morbidity of children born between May 1, 1991 and November 19, 1991, during the siege and occupation of Vukovar. Data were obtained from women having delivered their babies in that period and from delivery protocols of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vukovar County Hospital. According to the survey and the data collected, there were 9 (3.98%) preterm deliveries, 60 (81%) of the total of 77 subjects were breastfed, 14 (19%) were not breastfed, while three babies died in the postpartum period. However, the breastfeeding period was evidently shorter, as only 10 women breastfed for a period longer than 6 months, while the mean length of the breastfeeding period was 9.9 weeks, i.e. 2.5 months. Allergy-related illnesses and proneness to infections in childhood and preschool age were found in 27.3% and 16.9% of children, respectively, while two children developed diabetes type 1. One child had atopic diathesis, two started speaking after the age of two, one child started walking late (after 20 months) and started speaking after the age of two, one child had loud sound phobia, and one used to overreact and express anger in inconvenient situations, all of them being of female gender and born prematurely. Cognitive and attention disorders and stress reactions were found in 6.5% of the children. Regular elementary school education was completed by 74 (96%) children, while three (3.8%) children experienced failure at school due bad behavior, i.e. delinquency. At the age of 23, 34 (46%) children had developed bad habits, i.e. 33 of them smoked, 2 were addicted to alcohol, whereas one was addicted to both smoking and alcohol. Forty (54%) subjects did not use any harmful substances. Psychiatric disorders related to anxiety, depression or other

  5. Twenty years of long-term Atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in Western Germany (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vonberg, D.; Putz, T.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine, one of the most frequent applied pesticides worldwide, was banned in Germany in 1991 due to exceeded threshold values in ground- and drinking waters. Monitoring of atrazine was hence introduced in the Zwischenscholle aquifer, exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells were monitored since 1991, of which 11 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the 'regression on order statistics' (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the concentrations in groundwater are on a constant level without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with observation wells exhibiting constantly concentrations above the threshold on the one hand and observation wells where concentrations are frequently below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the monitoring dataset and relationships of triazine compounds became obvious. Accordingly the metabolite desisopropylatrazine was exclusively associated with the occurrence of the parent compound simazine and not atrazine, whereas deethylatrazine was clearly related to atrazine.

  6. A twenty-one year surveillance of adenoviral conjunctivitis in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koki; Tagawa, Yoshitugu

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the clinicoetiological, serological, and molecular epidemiological features of adenoviral conjunctivitis under the auspices of the nationwide surveillance project in Sapporo, located in northern Japan. We were able to analyze the results of 1,454 cases of adenoviral, herpetic, and chlamydial conjunctivitis. We found that adenonovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37 caused severe conjunctivitis without systemic symptoms, whereas serotypes Ad3, Ad7, and Ad11 caused mild conjunctivitis with systemic involvement. Ad4 showed a broad range of symptoms, from PCF to EKC. Adenoviral conjunctivitis had seasonal outbreaks in the summer in association with adequate temperature and humidity in Sapporo. Neutralization antibodies against Ad8, Ad19, and Ad37 were detected in fewer than 20% of cases, and so the incidence of epidemics with these serotypes may rise in the coming years. The main genome types of adenovirus in Sapporo were Ad4a, Ad8e, Ad19a, Ad19b, and Ad37p, a, and b.

  7. Eye health in the future: what are the challenges for the next twenty years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking ahead, it is really important to know where we have come from. This allows us to project identified trends and to reflect on the tremendous amount of change that can happen over a relatively short period.Reflect for a moment on the intensity of the debate regarding the use of intraocular lenses (IOLs in low-income settings in the 1990s. As they were still very expensive, some insisted that aphakic correction after surgery was the best approach for these countries. The subsequent availability of low-cost IOLs made the debate irrelevant. It dramatically changed our ability to provide modern IOL cataract surgery and control cataract blindness worldwide, and it laid the basis for VISION 2020. Other dramatic changes occurred with the introduction of ivermectin for onchocerciasis and azithromycin for trachoma, which gave us the ability to eliminate these two devastating and previously intractable causes of blindness. Our medical management of glaucoma or of age-related macular degeneration today is totally different from what it was 20 years ago, although there is still a long way to go. Our approach to refractive error has also altered dramatically, thanks to the recognition of its importance and the availability of high-quality, low-cost spectacles.So, given what we know about the past, what are the challenges we face in the future?

  8. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  9. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  10. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  11. Twenty years of barrel-stave flextensional transducer technology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-04-01

    The barrel-stave flextensional transducer, a compact underwater sound source, was conceived at DRDC Atlantic in 1986 [G. W. McMahon and D. F. Jones, U.S. Patent No. 4,922,470 (1 May 1990); Canadian Patent No. 1,285,646 (2 July 1991)]. Over the years, five barrel-stave designs belonging to three flextensional classes were built and tested at DRDC Atlantic. Three Class I transducers with operating frequencies ranging from 800 to 1600 Hz were integrated into submarine communications buoys, low frequency active horizontal projector arrays, and a broadband sonar towbody. A high-power Class II and broadband (1-7 kHz) Class III transducer were deployed under the ice in the Lincoln Sea for research related to rapidly deployable surveillance systems. These barrel-stave flextensional transducers have also supported a variety of marine mammal studies including vocal mimicry in long-finned pilot whales, coda dialects in sperm whales, and the R&D of acoustic detection and tracking systems for endangered northern right whales. In August 2004 a barrel-stave transducer was used to lure a trapped juvenile humpback whale to the sluice gates of a tidal generating station on the Annapolis River in Nova Scotia by transmitting humpback whale calls underwater. The acoustic performance parameters for all 5 transducers will be presented.

  12. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally "lonely" (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period- ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect ...

  13. Twenty years' monitoring of Mèze stabilisation ponds: part II--Removal of faecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F; Andrianarison, T; Brouillet, J L; Picot, B

    2005-01-01

    The WSP system serving Mèze and Poussan (French Mediterranean coast) was constructed in 1980 and enlarged and upgraded from 1994 to 1998. Water quality along the waste stabilisation pond to (WSP) system has been monitored over the years, thus allowing us to assess the influence of enlargement and upgrading works. A significant enhancement of the average microbiological quality of the effluent was observed, with respective E. coli and streptococci average abatements of 4.1 and 3.4 log. units. Former seasonal variations of microbiological removal have vanished. The contribution of the different ponds to the disinfection performance of the WSP system was analysed. A microbiological quality model was proposed to evaluate the die-off kinetics related to the different ponds and as a tool for the design and management of WSP systems. Though the relationships between die-off coefficients and environmental factors appeared somewhat frail, this modelling is considered a promising approach for the prediction of WSP microbiological performance.

  14. Part I: twenty-year literature overview of veterinary and allopathic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant H; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Meldrum, J Blair

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, numerous reports, symposia, and workshops have focused on the challenges and changes facing veterinary and allopathic medicine. Many of these have specifically considered the changing economic and demographic profiles of the health professions, the specific roles of health professionals in society, and the importance of professional curricula in meeting changing professional and societal needs. Changing curricula to address future demands is a common thread that runs through all of these reports. Future demands most consistently noted include the fact that modern veterinary curricula must emphasize the acquisition of skills, values, and attitudes in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. Skills relating to business management, strong interpersonal communication, and problem solving have often been noted as lacking in current curricula. Furthermore, future curricula must allow for greater diversification and "specialization" among veterinary students; should promote greater opportunities for an emphasis on public health and population medicine, including food safety, food security, and bio- and agro-terrorism; and should motivate students to be active learners who possess strong lifelong learning skills and attitudes.

  15. Twenty years of load theory-Where are we now, and where should we go next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Groeger, John A; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-10-01

    Selective attention allows us to ignore what is task-irrelevant and focus on what is task-relevant. The cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie this process are key topics of investigation in cognitive psychology. One of the more prominent theories of attention is perceptual load theory, which suggests that the efficiency of selective attention is dependent on both perceptual and cognitive load. It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model. The present article supplements and extends previous reviews (Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 , 2005, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148. doi: 10.1177/0963721410370295 , 2010) by examining more recent research in what appears to be a rapidly expanding area. The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms, and (5) the future of load theory. We argue that the key next step for load theory will be the application of the model to real-world tasks. The potential benefits of applied attention research are numerous, and there is tentative evidence that applied research would provide strong support for the theory itself, as well as real-world benefits related to activities in which attention is crucial, such as driving and education.

  16. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary

  17. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  18. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  19. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Inge, E-mail: inge.lindblom@niku.no

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  20. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  1. Twenty years of the grey partridge population in the LAJTA Project (Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragó, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lajta Project covers 3,065 ha. Within this area crop cultivation is dominant. Fields are separated from each other by forest belts and tree rows, extending altogether over roughly 120 ha. This habitat structure characterized by cultivation of 12–15 field crops sustained partridge population with densities of 1.75 birds/km2 (1991. The Project started in 1991/1992 and aimed to increase the carrying capacity for grey partridge and other small game species living in the area. A full–time gamekeeper was employed and habitat improvements were initiated. Four years later, the breeding population increased to 10.1 birds/km2. Besides increased numbers of nesting pairs, the number of reared chicks also increased, from 5.1–11.2 individuals/km2 in 1990 to 27.3–38.4 individuals/km2 in 1994. However, field sizes did not change significantly. Although the lengths of field margins increased by approximately 25% (from 82 m/ha to 115 m/ha under the influence of habitat management, they still reached only half those found in the countries of Central Europe where private ownership of land properties is dominant. After the privatisation of fields in 1995 as part of the political change in Hungary —affecting approximately 50% of the project area— the possibilities of habitat improvement decreased, and the technological pressure on large–scale farming area increased. Following these processes the grey partridge population again decreased to 1.43 birds/km2 in 1997. As a result of the new management strategy applied in the project since 1996 we observed a slow increase in the breeding population, which stabilized at around 5 birds/km2, between 2007 and 2009. The August density increased in the same period from 4.5 birds/km2 to 13–17 birds/km2. During the two decades in which this research was conducted, chick mortality and winter mortality were extremely high. The key factors influencing grey partridge population dynamics in our study area seem to be

  2. JFK: Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Herbert

    1984-01-01

    The presidency of John F. Kennedy is assessed. Considered are J.F.K's positions on, and national and world leaders' reactions to, such issues as oil depletion allowances, the Civil Rights Bill, the Vietnam situation, and the Cold War missile gap. (RM)

  3. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Meire Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. METHODS: In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9% followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%. Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  4. Bacteriological conversion in twenty urinary tuberculosis patients treated with ofloxacin, rifampin and isoniazid: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeiras, A Alberte; Pérez-Pascual, P; Zarranz, J Estébanez; Della-Latta, P; Herreras, A

    2002-09-01

    Twenty patients with urinary tuberculosis were treated with ofloxacin (200 mg/day, 6 months), rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months) and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months) between 1989 and 1990. All patients were new cases, diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization) was assessed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients) with urinary tuberculosis who received conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in both groups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment. In the 20 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (>50%); the smear was positive in 45% of the patients (most were 2+). All strains were susceptible to rifampin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Two patients discontinued treatment. Beginning with the first month of treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 100%, 89.5% and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, which received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment with ofloxacin resulted in a bacteriological conversion similar to that following conventional treatment ( p>0.05, Fisher's exact test). After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination with rifampin and isoniazid (both for 3 months only is effective against M. tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.

  5. Student interest as a key driver of engagement for first year students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Kahu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the challenges faced by first year students at university. This paper adds to that literature by exploring student interest, known to be associated with persistence and learning. Using data from a qualitative study following 19 students through their first year at a regional Australian university, the paper examines the antecedents and consequences of student interest. Findings show the students’ existing individual interests and goals interact with the teaching environment to trigger situational interest. Situational interest then enhances behavioural and cognitive engagement and leads to better learning and grades. Perceived relevance of the learning task is shown to be a particularly important determinant of student interest. Students’ emotions, self-efficacy, and their sense of belonging are also important factors in explaining the links between student interest, the teaching environment, and student engagement.

  6. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  7. Cost Allocation Plan for Interest Expense on Higher Education Facilities Bonds, Fiscal Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document supports the Cost Allocation Plan for state costs incurred on behalf of, and in benefit to, the public higher education institutions of Ohio. Tables report a summary of recalled/refunded debt and initial adjustment of Fiscal Year 2006 interest payments fore refunded debt. Attached schedules calculate the allocable interest for each…

  8. Cost Allocation Plan for Interest Expense on Higher Education Facilities Bonds, Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document supports the Cost Allocation Plan for state costs incurred on behalf of, and in benefit to, the public higher education institutions of Ohio. Tables report a summary of recalled/refunded debt and initial adjustment of Fiscal Year 2005 interest payments for refunded debt. Attached schedules calculate the allocable interest for each…

  9. A twenty-year follow-up survey of medical emergency education in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Morris S; Wall, Benjamin E; Tholström, Tad C; Christensen, Edward H; Payne, Brandon C

    2006-12-01

    This article reports the results of a 2003 survey of medical emergency education taught in U.S. dental schools and compares the results to findings from surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of all U.S. dental schools, requesting completion of the survey by the faculty member responsible for medical emergency education. Forty-three of fifty-four U.S. dental schools responded, and the data were compared to similar surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. Special attention was given to changes in technology (pulse oximetry and automated external defibrillators), teaching methods (audiovisual, role-playing, and simulation), and subject matter (CPR, venipuncture, and endotracheal intubation) that affect medical emergency education. The study found a large disparity in number of hours dedicated to medical emergency training among dental schools. Surprisingly, CPR certification/recertification for both students and faculty was not provided at three of the reporting U.S. dental schools. Most schools included venipuncture and endotracheal intubation in their curriculum. Routine monitoring of vital signs remained fairly consistent over the past twenty years with a slight dip in the 1992 survey. A standardization of medical emergency education needs to take place to ensure an appropriate level of training for all dental students.

  10. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  11. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  12. Vocational Interests and Performance: A Quantitative Summary of Over 60 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Su, Rong; Rounds, James; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-07-01

    Despite early claims that vocational interests could be used to distinguish successful workers and superior students from their peers, interest measures are generally ignored in the employee selection literature. Nevertheless, theoretical descriptions of vocational interests from vocational and educational psychology have proposed that interest constructs should be related to performance and persistence in work and academic settings. Moreover, on the basis of Holland's (1959, 1997) theoretical predictions, congruence indices, which quantify the degree of similarity or person-environment fit between individuals and their occupations, should be more strongly related to performance than interest scores alone. Using a comprehensive review of the interest literature that spans more than 60 years of research, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the veracity of these claims. A literature search identified 60 studies and approximately 568 correlations that addressed the relationship between interests and performance. Results showed that interests are indeed related to performance and persistence in work and academic contexts. In addition, the correlations between congruence indices and performance were stronger than for interest scores alone. Thus, consistent with interest theory, the fit between individuals and their environment was more predictive of performance than interest alone.

  13. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post

  14. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  15. Sixty years of interest in flow and transport theories: Sources of inspiration and a few results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raats, Peter A. C.

    2016-04-01

    By choosing to major in soil physics at Wageningen now exactly 60 years ago, I could combine my interest in exact sciences with my experience of growing up on a farm. I never regretted that choice. In the first twenty years, I profited much from close contacts with members of the immediate post-WW II generation of soil physicists (especially Jerry Bolt, Arnold Klute, Ed Miller, Champ Tanner, Wilford Gardner, John Philip, and Jan van Schilfgaarde), chemical engineers (especially at UW Madison the trio Bob Bird, Warren Stewart and Ed Lightfoot) and experts in continuum mechanics (especially at Johns Hopkins Clifford Truesdell and Jerald Ericksen). As graduate student at Illinois with Klute, to describe flow and transport theories in soil science I initially explored as possible framework thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TIP), but soon switched to the continuum theory of mixtures (CTM), initiated by Truesdell in 1957. In CTM, the balance of forces gave a rational basis for flux equations. CTM allowed me to deal with swelling/shrinkage, role of inertia, boundary conditions, and structured soils. Later, I did use TIP to deal with certain aspects of transfer of water and heat in soils and selective uptake of water and nutrients by plant roots. Recently, a variety of theories for upscaling from the pore scale to the Darcy scale have clarified the potential, limits and common ground of CTM and TIP. A great advantage of CTM is that it provides geometric tools suited for kinematic aspects of flow, transport, and growth/decay processes. In particular, the concept of material coordinates of the solid phase that I used in my PhD thesis to cope with large deformation due to swelling/shrinkage of soils, later also turned to be useful to deal with simultaneous shrinkage and decay in peat soils and compost heaps, and the growth of plant tissues. Also, by focusing on the material coordinates for the water, it became possible to describe transport of solutes in unsaturated

  16. Reaching the Critical Mass: The Twenty Year Surge in High School Physics. Findings from the 2005 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. AIP Report. Number R-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…

  17. "Europe" as an Alibi: An Overview of Twenty Years of Policy, Curricula and Textbooks in the Republic of Cyprus--and Their Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article compares discourses on "Europe" in Greek-Cypriot policy, curricula and textbooks over approximately the last twenty years, from the early 1990s, when Cyprus applied for European Union (EU) membership, until 2011-12, the school year during which the recently revised curricula were gradually introduced to schools for…

  18. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  19. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  20. Differences between first and fourth year medical students' interest in pursuing careers in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Monica H; Carter, Mary

    2016-05-24

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the differences in the attitudes of first and fourth-year medical students regarding careers in academics. We also sought to identify any factors associated with an increased interest in academic medicine. A cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2013 at the University of Louisville. All first and fourth year medical students were invited to complete an online survey utilizing a survey instrument developed through literature review. Demographic data and information about background experiences were collected in addition to participants' perceptions regarding careers in academia using a 5-point Likert scale. Participants were also queried about their current interest in a career in academics and the likelihood they would pursue academic medicine. Of the 330 potential participants, 140 (42.4%) agreed to participate. Overall, fourth-years reported a higher likelihood of pursuing an academic career than first-years. Research experience, publications, distinction track interest or involvement, and belief that a career in academics would reduce salary potential were positively correlated with reported likelihood of pursuing academic medicine. Findings from this pilot study demonstrate differences in interest in academic medicine between junior and senior medical students. Additionally, several factors were associated with a high likelihood of self-reported interest in academic. Based on these findings, efforts to increase medical students' interest in academic medicine careers could be supported by providing more research and teaching opportunities or distinction track options as a structured part of the medical school curriculum.

  1. 26 CFR 1.7520-1T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the fair market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including unitrust... value of a single life remainder interest in a pooled income fund as defined in § 1.642(c)-5. See § 1... present value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust as defined in § 1.664-3. See § 1...

  2. Assessment of Research Interests of First-Year Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; McClellan, Nicholas; McFaul, Derek; Massey, Blaine; Guenther, Elisabeth; Kisby, Glen

    2016-07-01

    According to a 2014 survey, 59% of students entering allopathic medical school reported previous research experience. However, limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before entering osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year osteopathic medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. Limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before starting osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. To determine the amount of previous research experience of first-year osteopathic medical students, their level of interest in participating in research during medical school, the factors influencing their interest in research, and their research fields of interest. First-year osteopathic medical students (class of 2019) at the Western University of Health Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific in Pomona, California (WesternU/COMP), and Pacific-Northwest in Lebanon, Oregon (WesternU/COMP-Northwest), campuses were surveyed about their previous research experiences and whether they were interested in participating in research during medical school. Surveys were administered through an anonymous online portal. Responses were evaluated for evidence of interest in conducting research. Of the 346 osteopathic medical students invited to participate in the study, the response rate was 77% (N=266). A total of 167 from WesternU/COMP and 99 from the WesternU/COMP-Northwest responded. More than 215 students (81%) reported they had participated in research before entering medical school. In addition, 200 students (75%) either expressed a strong interest in participating in research during medical school or were currently conducting research

  3. Relationship between anticipatory socialization experiences and first-year veterinary students' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A; Fish, Richard E; Hammond, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore first-year veterinary students' anticipatory socialization-life, education, and social experiences that assist in preparation for professional occupations-and determine what relationship exists between those experiences and career interests. Seventy-three first-year veterinary students enrolled in the Careers in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Veterinary Careers survey. Results show that students' anticipatory vocational socialization experiences are significantly related to their stated career interests. The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "a great deal of interest" included specialty private practice (37%), research and teaching in an academic setting (33%), and international veterinary medicine (31%). The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "no interest at all" included the military (50%), equine private practice (42%), and the pharmaceutical industry (41%). Less than half of the students (42%) stated that they reconsidered their career path after the first semester of veterinary school, but the majority (87%) developed a better understanding of how to pursue a nontraditional career path should they choose to do so.

  4. Twenty Five Years in Cheminformatics - A Career Path Through a Diverse Series of Roles and Responsibilities (INVITED TALK) (ACS Spring meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Williams is a Computational Chemist at the US Environmental Protection Agency in the National Center for Computational Toxicology. He has been involved in cheminformatics and the dissemination of chemical information for over twenty-five years. He has worked for a Fortune ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... case of certain transactions after April 30, 1989, subject to income tax, the fair market value of... interests in a charitable remainder annuity trust as defined in § 1.664-2 and a pooled income fund as defined in § 1.642(c)-5. See § 20.2031-7A of this chapter for publications containing tables for valuation...

  6. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  7. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  8. A history of the journal of chiropractic education: twenty-five years of service, 1987-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N; Jacobs, Grace E; Johnson, Claire D; Phillips, Reed B

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Chiropractic Education celebrates its 25th anniversary in the year 2011. The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of the journal, which is unreported at this time. The entire collection of the journal was reviewed and information pertaining to important events and changes in the format, personnel, and processes of the journal were extracted. This information was used to create a chronology of the journal. The chronology was complemented with information obtained from people who were involved in the evolution of the journal and the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conferences. Starting as a humble newsletter in 1987 and produced for a small cadre of readers primarily from the United States, the journal is now a full-sized and bound peer-reviewed international journal. Initially cataloged by the Index to Chiropractic Literature and MANTIS, the indexing expanded to interdisciplinary indexing systems such as CINAHL and ultimately PubMed. The journal has grown to serve the needs of chiropractic educators from around the world with representatives on the editorial board from 39 colleges and universities from 15 different countries. The journal has grown in tandem with the profession's leading education and research conference and has been the primary repository for the scholarship of chiropractic education. The history of the journal represents a significant milestone in the development of the chiropractic profession, particularly the discipline of chiropractic education. The journal has had an interesting history and the future promises to bring more opportunities and challenges to the field of chiropractic education and to the journal.

  9. Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Kahu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research followed 19 mature-aged distance students through their first semester of undergraduate study. The analysis of interviews and video diaries presented in this paper focuses on two key elements of emotional engagement: interest and belonging. Findings highlight the importance of interest triggered by personal preferences and experiences. Interest led to enjoyment, increased behavioural engagement with greater time and effort expended, and improved cognitive engagement in terms of depth and breadth of learning. In contrast, there was less evidence of the social side of emotional engagement, belonging. Participants felt little connection to the university, but connecting with fellow students through face-to-face courses and online forums was important for some to reduce their sense of isolation. However, distance study was not for all. The findings highlight the need for staff to consider emotional engagement when designing and delivering the curriculum and when interacting with students, particularly in the all-important first year.

  10. Cemented rotating-platform total knee replacement: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of twenty years, of a previous report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, John J; Wells, Christopher W; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2010-07-07

    We previously evaluated 119 consecutive total knee arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in eighty-six patients with use of the cemented LCS (low contact stress) mobile-bearing, rotating-platform system and an all-polyethylene patellar component. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was seventy years. The patients were contacted as part of their routine follow-up and were asked to participate in this study. The purpose of the present study was to report the updated results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. Twenty patients (twenty-six knees) were living, and one was lost to follow-up. Three knees required a reoperation (two for periprosthetic fractures and one for infection). No component was revised as a part of the reoperations. No knee required revision since the fifteen-year follow-up evaluation. Osteolysis was present in six knees compared with only three knees at the time of the fifteen-year follow-up. One knee had radiographic signs of femoral component loosening, which was associated with osteolysis. It occurred after the fifteen-year follow-up study. The average range of motion was from 1 degrees of extension to 105 degrees of flexion. The average clinical and functional Knee Society scores were 43 and 49 points, respectively, at the preoperative evaluation and 89 and 67 points at the time of the final follow-up. We concluded that the cemented LCS rotating-platform knee performed well, with durable clinical and radiographic results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. However, the prevalence of osteolysis continues to increase with a longer duration of follow-up in these patients.

  11. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density

  12. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  13. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  14. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Victor J. Ricchezza; H.L. Vacher

    2017-01-01

    Since 1996, the Geology (GLY) program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus) in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL) course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosci...

  15. Total hip arthroplasty with cement and use of a collared matte-finish femoral component: nineteen to twenty-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Firestone, Daniel E; Yehyawi, Tameem M; Goetz, Devon D; Sullivan, Jason; Vittetoe, David A; O'Rourke, Michael R; Johnston, Richard C

    2008-02-01

    In the mid- to late 1970s, on the basis of laboratory and finite element data, many surgeons in the United States began using collared matte-finish femoral components and metal-backed acetabular components in their total hip arthroplasties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of the use of one such construct in arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in a consecutive nonselected patient cohort. Between January 1984 and December 1985, 273 patients underwent a total of 304 consecutive nonselected total hip arthroplasties with cement and use of the Iowa femoral component (which is collared, has a proximal cobra shape, and has a matte finish) and a metal-backed TiBac acetabular component performed by a single surgeon. At nineteen to twenty years postoperatively, only two patients (two hips) were lost to follow-up. For clinical evaluation, we attempted to interview all living patients and the families of the patients who had died to verify the status of the hip prosthesis or any revisions. Radiographic evaluation consisted of analysis for loosening and osteolysis as well as wear of the acetabular component. At the time of the nineteen to twenty-year follow-up, the rate of revision of the arthroplasty for any reason was 10.5% (thirty-two hips) for all patients and 25% (twenty-three hips) for living patients. The rate of revision due to aseptic femoral loosening was 2.6% (eight hips). There was radiographic evidence of loosening of the femoral component in fifteen hips (4.9%), including those that were revised, and femoral osteolysis was seen distal to the trochanters in twenty-two hips (7.2%). The rate of revision due to aseptic loosening of the acetabular component was 7.9% (twenty-four hips), and there was radiographic evidence of acetabular loosening in forty-two hips (13.8%), including those that were revised. This study demonstrates the durability of a cemented matte-finish collared femoral component at twenty years postoperatively

  16. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  17. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  19. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Ricchezza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Geology (GLY program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosciences in 2013, the merging departments re-examined their various curricular programs. An online survey of the Geology Alumni Society found that “express quantitative evidence in support of an argument” was more favorably viewed as a workplace skill (4th out of 69 than algebra (51st, trig (55th and calculus 1 and 2 (59th and 60th. In that context, we decided to find out from successful alumni, “What did you get out of Computational Geology?” To that end, the first author carried out a formal, qualitative research study (narrative inquiry protocol, whereby he conducted, recorded, and transcribed semi-structured interviews of ten alumni selected from a list of 20 provided by the second author. In response to “Tell me what you remember from the course,” multiple alumni volunteered nine items: Excel (10 out of 10, Excel modules (8, Polya problem solving (5, “important” (4, unit conversions (4, back-of-the-envelope calculations (4, gender equality (3. In response to “Is there anything from the course that you used professionally or personally since graduating?” multiple alumni volunteered seven items: Excel (9 out of 10, QL/thinking (6, unit conversions (5, statistics (5, Excel modules (3, their notes (2. Outcome analysis from the open-ended comments arising from structured questions led to the identification of alumni takeaways in terms of elements of three values: (1 understanding and knowledge (facts such as conversion factors, and concepts

  20. Twenty-Five Years after Early Intervention: A Follow-Up of Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.

    2003-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome and their families who participated in an early intervention program between 1974 and 1977 were interviewed 25 years later. Parents reported challenges such as medical complications, teasing or ostracism, and lack of adequate services and supports as children reached adulthood. Parents also described joys and…

  1. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rousi, Eirini; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-11-18

    We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993-1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. In 1993-1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval -0.11 (-0.15; -0.06) vs. -0.03 (-0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and -5.2 (-7.8; -2.7) vs. -1.03 (-3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  2. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  3. New mite invasions in citrus: A look towards the early years of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. About 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing different levels of damage in citrus leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests that require control measures. During the last few years se...

  4. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  5. Twenty years' monitoring of Mèze stabilisation ponds: part I--Removal of organic matter and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, B; Andrianarison, T; Gosselin, J P; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    The Mèze stabilisation pond system has been monitored over more than 20 years. Despite the enlargement of the plant, the organic load doubled between the early 1980s and recent years, the removal of organic matter and nutrients has been maintained at the same level for COD and increased for BOD5, N and P. Combining anaerobic, step-fed aerated and maturation ponds and multiplying the number of cells resulted in a significant improvement in the performances of the plant. Respectively 34, 24 and 23% of the applied COD was eliminated in the anaerobic, the step-fed and the first three maturation ponds, while the figures for BOD5 were 47, 26, and 19% respectively. 38% of the applied nitrogen was eliminated in the first three maturation ponds. Nitrification and denitrification seem to be a major process of nitrogen removal in warm periods. Most of the phosphorus removal was observed to take place in the two polishing ponds.

  6. Twenty-year results of combined meniscal allograft transplantation, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and advancement of the medial collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Gabriela; Milachowski, Klaus A; Weismeier, Karl; Kohn, Dieter; Wirth, Carl Joachim

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the objective and subjective long-term outcomes of the first free meniscal allograft transplantations in five patients with complete absence or non-repairable lesion of the medial meniscus after 20 years. Between 1984 and 1986 five patients underwent concomitant medial meniscal transplantation with a deep frozen meniscal allograft, ACL reconstruction and femoral advancement or temporary detachment of the MCL. The clinical outcome of the patients was evaluated 20 years postoperatively using clinical assessment, Lysholm-score, KOOS, IKDC-score, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. The Lysholm-score ranged between 21 and 97 points of 100 maximal available points. Corresponding to this the total KOOS ranged between 28.4 and 91.1%. The results of the IKDC-score were evaluated as nearly normal (B) (n = 2), abnormal (C) (n = 2) and severely abnormal (D) (n = 1). The radiological evaluation according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification showed an increase of the degenerative changes between one and four grades. The radiological results revealed clear degenerative changes with long-term follow-up after meniscal allograft transplantation even though some patients did relatively well regarding the subjective and clinical results in the 20-year follow-up examination in comparison with the literature. Despite these relative clear results the question if medial meniscal transplantation can protect against development of arthritis cannot definitely be answered because in this first case series some aspects of meniscus transplantation that have not been considered which turned out to be of importance during the last 20 years. Furthermore, it has to be taken into account that all patients revealed a cartilage damage at the time of surgery and an ACL reconstruction was performed in addition. Nevertheless from biomechanical point of view it might be taken into consideration to combine the medial meniscus transplantation at least

  7. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae) in Central Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R

    2014-04-23

    We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys) during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened) in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994-2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17). Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites), correlated positively with the previous year's growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry's elfin C. henrici (11 sites), co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist) had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin.

  8. Twenty years of temporal change in perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and carboxylate contaminants in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J; Hebert, Craig E; Chip Weseloh, D V

    2011-12-01

    In this study, temporal trends and patterns of major C(4) to C(15) chain length PFCAs and PFSAs and some sulfonamide, fluorotelomer acid and alcohol precursors were determined in herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg pools. Samples were analyzed from fifteen collection years including 1990 and all years from 1997 to 2010, and from seven colonies located throughout the Great Lakes, ranging from remote to highly urbanized areas. Other than at the Toronto Harbour colony, the slopes of ∑PFSA concentrations (C(6), C(8), and C(10)) versus time were negative indicating general declines between 1990 and 2010. PFOS was the dominant PFSA regardless of colony or year, ranging from 80 to 99% of ∑PFSA. For ∑PFCA (C(8)-C(15)), slopes of concentrations versus time were generally positive with 4 of 7 colonies showing statistically significant (p 3M Company in North America of all of C(8) PFC-related chemistry products. Increasing production volumes of fluorotelomer based compounds, and degradation of these compounds to PFCAs may explain increasing trends of PFCAs in gull eggs. Dietary changes as measured by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, showed minimal relationships to PFC levels in gull eggs, which indicates the complexity of aquatic and terrestrial food of gulls and sources of PFCs.

  9. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Montoliu, Alexandra; Marín, José Luis; Almeda, Jesús; González, Victoria; Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  genome. The largest proportion of the 493 SNPs was on porcine chromosome (SSC) 7, SSC2, SSC8 and SSC18 for a total of 204 haploblocks. Functional annotations of genomic regions, including the 493 shifted SNPs, reported a few Gene Ontology terms that might underly the biological processes that contributed to increase performances of the pigs over the 20 years of the selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population.

  11. The Importance and Interest of Introductory Psychology Textbook Topics: Student Opinions at Technical College, 2-, and 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lee I.; Immel, Kathy R.; Kadah-Ammeter, Tammy L.; Adelson, Sarah K.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory psychology students at a technical college, 2-year community college, and a regional university rated how important textbook chapters or topics were to them now and in the future and how interesting they were. Importance and interest ratings were highly correlated, and the whole course was rated of greater importance and interest than…

  12. Twenty-five-year outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting individuals with cystic fibrosis: identification of the prairie epidemic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Glezerson, Bryan A; Sibley, Christopher D; Sibley, Kristen A; Duong, Jessica; Purighalla, Swathi; Mody, Christopher H; Workentine, Matthew L; Storey, Douglas G; Surette, Michael G; Rabin, Harvey R

    2014-04-01

    Transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been described for cystic fibrosis (CF) and may be associated with a worse prognosis. Using a comprehensive strain biobank spanning 3 decades, we sought to determine the prevalence and stability of chronic P. aeruginosa infection in an adult population. P. aeruginosa isolates from sputum samples collected at initial enrollment in our adult clinic and at the most recent clinic visit were examined by a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and compared against a collection of established transmissible and local non-CF bronchiectasis (nCFB) isolates. A total of 372 isolates from 107 patients, spanning 674 patient-years, including 66 patients with matched isolates from initial and final encounters, were screened. A novel clone with increased antibacterial resistance, termed the prairie epidemic strain (PES), was found in 29% (31/107 patients) of chronically infected patients referred from multiple prairie-based CF centers. This isolate was not found in those diagnosed with CF as adults or in a control population with nCFB. While 90% (60/66 patients) of patients had stable infection over a mean of 10.8 years, five patients experienced strain displacement of unique isolates, with PES occurring within 2 years of transitioning to adult care. PES has been present in our cohort since at least 1987, is unique to CF, generally establishes chronic infection during childhood, and has been found in patients at the time of transition of patients from multiple prairie-based CF clinics, suggesting broad endemicity. Studies are under way to evaluate the clinical implications of PES infection.

  13. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10(8) (range 0.7-75×10(8)), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T.; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23–230) and 8.6×108 (range 0.7–75×108), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. PMID:28302713

  15. Twenty-year cytogenetic and molecular follow-up of a patient with ring chromosome 15: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ring chromosome 15 is a rare disorder, with only a few over 40 cases reported in the literature. There are only two previous reports of cases where patients with ring chromosome 15 have been followed-up. Case presentation We report here on the 20-year clinical and cytogenetic follow-up of a patient with a ring chromosome 15. Our patient, a Caucasoid Asian woman, presented with short stature, microcephaly, minor dysmorphic features, hyperextensible knees, generalized hirsutism, café-au-lait and small hypochromic spots spread over her face and the front of her chest and abdomen, dorsolumbar scoliosis and mild intellectual disability. She was followed-up from the age of eight to 28 years. When she was 27 years old, she was reported by her mother to present with compulsive overeating and an aggressive mood when challenged. Karyotyping revealed that the majority of her cells harbored one normal chromosome and one ring chromosome. Silver staining revealed the presence of the nucleolar organizer region in the ring chromosome. Ring loss and/or secondary aberrations exhibited a slight increase over time, from 4.67% in 1989 to 7.67% in 2009, with the presence of two monocentric rings, cells with interlocked rings, a dicentric ring, and broken or open rings. A genome-wide array technique detected a 5.5Mb deletion in 15q26.2. Conclusions We observed that some phenotypic alterations in our patient can be associated with gene loss and haploinsufficiency. Other features may be related to different factors, including ring instability and epigenetic factors.

  16. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  17. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  18. Twenty Years of Experience with the Preoperative Diagnosis of Medullary Cancer in a Moderately Iodine-Deficient Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a current debate in the medical literature about plasma calcitonin screening in patients with nodular goiter (NG. We decided on analyzing our 20-year experience with patients in an iodine-deficient region (ID. Patients and Methods. 22,857 consecutive patients with NG underwent ultrasonography and aspiration cytology (FNAC. If FNAC raised suspicion of medullary cancer (MTC, the serum calcitonin was measured. Results. 4,601 patients underwent surgery; there were 23 patients among them who had MTC (0.1% prevalence. Significantly more MTC cases were diagnosed cytologically in the second decade than in the first: 11/12 and 6/11, respectively. The frozen section was of help in 2 cases out of 3. Two patients suffered from a 3-year delay in proper therapy, and reoperation was necessary in 1 case. FNAC raised the suspicion of MTC in 20 cases that were later histologically verified and did not present MTC. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing MTC was 99.2%. Two false-positive serum calcitonin tests (one of them in a hemodialyzed patient and one false-negative serum calcitonin test occurred in 40 cases. Conclusion. Regarding the low prevalence of MTC in ID regions, calcitonin screening of all NG patients does not only appear superfluously but may have more disadvantages than advantages.

  19. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae in Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994–2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17. Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites, correlated positively with the previous year’s growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry’s elfin C. henrici (11 sites, co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin.

  20. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  1. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide.

  2. Cancer incidence in the population exposed to dioxin after the "Seveso accident": twenty years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubagotti Maurizia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Seveso, Italy accident in 1976 caused the contamination of a large population by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Possible long-term effects have been examined through mortality and cancer incidence studies. We have updated the cancer incidence study which now covers the period 1977-96. Methods The study population includes subjects resident at the time of the accident in three contaminated zones with decreasing TCDD soil levels (zone A, very high; zone B, high; zone R, low and in a surrounding non-contaminated reference territory. Gender-, age-, and period-adjusted rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using Poisson regression for subjects aged 0-74 years. Results All cancer incidence did not differ from expectations in any of the contaminated zones. An excess of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms was observed in zones A (four cases; RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.52-3.71 and B (29 cases; RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.07-2.27 consistent with the findings of the concurrent mortality study. An increased risk of breast cancer was detected in zone A females after 15 years since the accident (five cases, RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.07-6.20. No cases of soft tissue sarcomas occurred in the most exposed zones (A and B, 1.17 expected. No cancer cases were observed among subjects diagnosed with chloracne early after the accident. Conclusion The extension of the Seveso cancer incidence study confirmed an excess risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms in the most exposed zones. No clear pattern by time since the accident and zones was evident partly because of the low number of cases. The elevated risk of breast cancer in zone A females after 15 years since the accident deserves further and thorough investigation. The follow-up is continuing in order to cover the long time period (even decades usually elapsing from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals and disease occurrence.

  3. Twenty-five years of the WHO vaccines prequalification programme (1987-2012): lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Nora; Wood, David

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) vaccines prequalification programme was established in 1987. It is a service provided to United Nations procurement agencies to ensure that the vaccines supplied through these agencies are consistently safe and effective under conditions of use in national immunization programmes. This review describes the purpose and aims of the programme, its evolution during 25 years of existence, its added value, and its role in the context of the WHO strategy to ensure the global availability of vaccines of assured quality. The rationale for changes introduced during the implementation of the programme is provided. The paper also discusses the resources involved, both human and financial, its performance, strengths and weaknesses and steps taken to maximize its efficiency. This historical perspective is used to inform proposed future changes to the service. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...... be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects...

  5. Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse associations of religiosity and mortality in a secular region. The sample consisted of 734 Danish, community dwelling elderly persons, living in a secular culture, and all aged 70 when primary data were collected. Secondary data consisted of a 20 year follow......-up on vital status or exact age of death. The study was designed to be highly comparable to studies conducted in more religious environments in order to compare results. Three variables of religion were investigated in relation to survival: importance of affiliation, church attendance and listening...... to religious media. Relative hazards (RH) of dying were controlled in models including gender, education, medical and mental health, social relations, help given and received, and health behaviour. The results showed significant and positive associations between claiming religious affiliation important...

  6. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  7. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries.

  8. Dynamic knee stability estimated by finite helical axis methods during functional performance approximately twenty years after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Helena; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte K

    2015-07-16

    Finite helical axis (FHA) measures of the knee joint during weight-bearing tasks may capture dynamic knee stability following Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. The aim was to investigate dynamic knee stability during two-leg squat (TLS) and one-leg side hop (SH) in a long-term follow-up of ACL injury, and to examine correlations with knee laxity (KT-1000), osteoarthritis (OA, Kellgren-Lawrence) and knee function (Lysholm score). Participants were injured 17-28 years ago and then treated with surgery (n=33, ACLR) or physiotherapy only (n=37, ACLPT) and healthy-knee controls (n=33) were tested. Movements were registered with an optical motion capture system. We computed three FHA inclination angles, its' Anterior-Posterior (A-P) position, and an index quantifying directional changes (DI), during stepwise knee flexion intervals of ∼15°. Injured knees were less stable compared to healthy controls' and to contralateral non-injured knees, regardless of treatment: the A-P intersection was more anterior (indicating a more anterior positioning of tibia relative to femur) positively correlating with high laxity/low knee function, and during SH, the FHA was more inclined relative to the flexion-extension axis, possibly due to reduced rotational stability. During the TLS, A-P intersection was more anterior in the non-injured knee than the injured, and DI was higher, probably related to higher load on the non-injured knee. ACLR had less anterior A-P intersection than ACLPT, suggesting that surgery enhanced stability, although rotational stability may remain reduced. More anterior A-P intersection and greater inclination between the FHA and the knee flexion-extension axis best revealed reduced dynamic stability ∼23 years post-injury.

  9. The provision of compulsory school physical activity: Associations with physical activity, fitness and overweight in childhood and twenty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blizzard Leigh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the provision of higher levels of compulsory school physical activity is associated with higher physical activity and fitness levels and less overweight in childhood and 20 years later. Methods As part of the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey, 109 schools reported how much compulsory physical education (PE and school sport they provided and were classified as low (2 cutpoints. 9, 12 and 15 year-olds (n = 2,595 completed a cycle ergometer fitness test (physical working capacity at heart rate 170, PWC170. At follow-up in 2004–5, 2,346 participants kept a pedometer record, completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and/or a PWC170 fitness test; and had height and weight measured (overweight = BMI≥25 m/kg2. Results At baseline and follow-up, median total physical activity, fitness and BMI were similar in participants who attended low, medium and high physical activity schools, and those attending high physical activity schools reported only modestly higher school physical activity. There was no difference in the prevalence of high total physical activity and fitness levels in childhood or adulthood across compulsory school physical activity categories. The prevalence of overweight in childhood and adulthood was similar across low, medium and high compulsory physical activity schools. Conclusion The amount of compulsory physical activity reported by schools was not associated with total physical activity, fitness or overweight in childhood or in adulthood. Policies promoting amounts of compulsory school physical activity in this range may not be sufficient to increase physical activity and fitness or reduce the prevalence of obesity in children.

  10. Dengue: twenty-five years since reemergence in Brazil Dengue: vinte e cinco anos da reemergência no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Glória Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the epidemiology of dengue in Brazil, 25 years after its reemergence in the country, discussing the main determinants and implications for its control. The authors emphasize the clinical and epidemiological peculiarities of this viral disease in Brazil, which leads the world in both the number of cases reported and risk of occurrence of the disease. The article presents the changes occurring in the dengue epidemiological pattern in recent years, like the sudden age shift in the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and discusses possible associated factors. The article focuses specifically on the epidemic in Rio de Janeiro in 2008, this episode's impact on the international community, and the fear that the disease could spread to Europe. The authors conclude that the current situation emphasizes the need for the international scientific community to renew its efforts to generate knowledge allowing improvement and progress in the development of new tools and strategies for dengue prevention.Este artigo revisita a epidemiologia da dengue no Brasil após 25 anos da sua reemergência discutindo os principais determinantes e implicações no seu controle. Destacam-se peculiaridades clínicas e epidemiológicas desta virose neste país, que ocupa uma das primeiras posições no que diz respeito tanto ao número de casos notificados como no risco de ocorrência desta doença no mundo. Apresentam-se as mudanças que vêm ocorrendo no padrão epidemiológico da doença nos últimos anos, a exemplo do súbito deslocamento de faixa etária na incidência da febre hemorrágica da dengue, discutindo-se os possíveis fatores envolvidos. Particulariza-se a epidemia do Rio de Janeiro, em 2008, o reflexo deste episódio na comunidade internacional e o temor de disseminação da doença para a Europa. Os autores consideram que esta conjuntura aponta para a necessidade da comunidade científica mundial renovar esforços para gerar

  11. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  12. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  13. Twenty-eight-year review of childhood renal diseases from renal biopsy data: A single centre in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjie; Xiao, Zizheng; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Mo, Ying; Sun, Liangzhong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of biopsy-proven childhood renal diseases and to compare the trends and changes during two different time intervals between 1984 and 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China. We retrospectively analyzed kidney biopsy data from children with renal diseases and compared the data during two time intervals, namely 1984-1997 and 1998-2011. A total of 1313 children were enrolled in the present study. There were 921 children with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and 312 children with secondary glomerular disease (SGD), accounting for 70.1% and 23.8% of participants, respectively. The major clinical manifestation of PGD was nephrotic syndrome (NS), which accounted for 31.2% of cases, while the main aetiology of SGD was lupus nephritis (40.7%). The main biopsy patterns of PGD were IgA nephritis (27.6%), minimal change disease (24.0%), and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (16.9%). PGD was the major class of disease in both time intervals, but the ratio of PGD decreased over time, while the ratio of SGD and other glomerular diseases increased. PGD was also the major class of disease in each age group; however, the incidence of PGD decreased with increasing age. The incidence patterns of paediatric renal diseases changed over the 28-year period of this study. Our results show that different renal diseases characterize different age intervals. Furthermore, there are several associations between clinical presentation and biopsy features in childhood renal disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  15. Twenty-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Cheng-fu; REN Jing-yi; ZHOU Xiang-hai; LI Su-fang; CHEN Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension,diabetes mellitus,hypercholesterolaemia and current smoking are the strongest modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).We examined their changing trends over the last 20years.Methods The clinical data of 3498 patients hospitalized in Peking University People's Hospital with AMI from 1991 to 2010 were used.Information was collected regarding to patients' demographic data,cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension,diabetes mellitus,hypercholesterolemia and current smoking).To assess trends over time in the prevalence of risk factors,we categorized patients into four groups (1991 to 1995,1996 to 2000,2001 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010).Results Highly significant increases were observed in the prevalence of hypertension from 40.8% to 55.6% for males and from 58.0% to 69.0% for females; and diabetes mellitus from 12.9% to 30.8% for males and from 23.0% to 42.3% for females.Similarly,the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia decreased from 53.1% to 30.7% for males and from 57.0%to 44.0% for females.The prevalence of current smoking decreased in females from 29.0% to 11.1%,but remained unchanged in males.In addition,the proportion of patients with more than three modifiable risk factors increased from 19.0% to 27.1% and the age at onset of AMI extended to younger as well as older individuals.Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus are still increasing in patients with AMI in Beijing and although the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and current smoking decreased,high clustering of risk factors were commonly present.These adverse trends show a compelling need for more effective management of cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  17. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  18. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  19. A competing-risk-based score for predicting twenty-year risk of incident diabetes: the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Ageing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Chen, Zhenghong; Fine, Jason Peter; Liu, Long; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Sijia; Li, Haibin; Liu, Kuo; Luo, Yanxia; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Few risk tools have been proposed to quantify the long-term risk of diabetes among middle-aged and elderly individuals in China. The present study aimed to develop a risk tool to estimate the 20-year risk of developing diabetes while incorporating competing risks. A three-stage stratification random-clustering sampling procedure was conducted to ensure the representativeness of the Beijing elderly. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents aged 55 years and above who were free of diabetes at baseline examination. Sub-distribution hazards models were used to adjust for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. The cumulative incidence function of twenty-year diabetes event rates was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. Age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, health status, and physical activity were selected to form the score. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.76 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72–0.80), and the optimism-corrected AUC was 0.78 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.69–0.87) after internal validation by bootstrapping. The calibration plot showed that the actual diabetes risk was similar to the predicted risk. The cut-off value of the risk score was 19 points, marking mark the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients, which exhibited a sensitivity of 0.74 and specificity of 0.65. PMID:27849048

  20. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  1. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  2. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 26 CFR 1.9006-1 - Interest and penalties in case of certain taxable years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9006-1 Interest and... was amended in many important respects by the Tax Reform Act of 1969. Certain of these amendments... only one-half of the additional tax arising from an amendment made by the Act before March 30, 1970...

  4. 76 FR 1458 - Notice of Availability: Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) for Fiscal Year 2010 Transformation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief of the... Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program. The purpose of this Notice of Public Interest (NOPI) is to...

  5. Special Issues of the Journal: Topics of Interest over the Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Leonore W.; Harker, H. Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Reviews special issues of the "Personnel and Guidance Journal" and its successor, the "Journal of Counseling and Development." Categorizes the topics of the special issues as evidence of trends in the history of scholarly interests in counseling and development. Lists special issues. (Author/ABL)

  6. The tanning habits and interest in sunscreen of Google users: what happened in 12 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Michael C; Heppt, Markus V; Eigentler, Thomas K; Kirchberger, Markus A; Schuler, Gerold; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising worldwide. One possible reason for this is natural and artificial UV exposure. Only little data on actual consumer statistics from tanning studios and the usage of sunscreen are available. Therefore, it is difficult to describe trends for both and identify the impact of preventive measures. To gain knowledge about the popularity of 'tanning bed' and 'sunscreen', normalized search volumes for both search queries were obtained from Google Trends for 11 countries between January 2004 and June 2016. With few exceptions, worldwide interest in 'tanning bed' has been declining, whereas interest in 'sunscreen' has been increasing. The assessed countries from the Southern Hemisphere showed minor interest in tanning compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Both search queries were observed to fluctuate in a seasonal pattern. Skin cancer prevention measures influence the interest in tanning beds and sunscreen. Google Trends data can act as a first surrogate marker to evaluate the influence of skin cancer campaigns on the popularity of tanning beds and sunscreen. Fine-tuning of skin cancer campaigns according to seasonal and geographic trends and behaviors may help to maximize their success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  8. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-12-08

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed.

  10. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  11. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  12. 60 years of representation of the interests of coal in Europe; 60 Jahre Interessenvertretung der Kohle in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, Thorsten [Vereinigung Rohstoffe und Bergbau e.V. (VRB), Berlin (Germany); Bogalla, Bernd [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Janssens, Leopold

    2011-06-15

    The European coal producers can look back on a long period of cooperation. Numerous discussions which not only dealt with the reconstruction of the European economy, but also with the coal shortage prevailing at the time in Western Europe, already took place at the League of Nations in Geneva after the First World War. The contribution describes stages in the establishment of representation of the interests of the coal mining industry in Europe in the last 60 years and gives an insight into future developments. It is based on the EURACOAL publication ''60 years of voicing coal interests in Europe''. (orig.)

  13. Thirty years of disclosure of conflict of interest in surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Pascal; Hüttner, Felix J; Klaiber, Ulla; Diener, Markus K; Büchler, Markus W; Knebel, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    A conflict of interest (COI) creates the risk that a professional judgment will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. In practice, the leading concern is the creation of bias by industry sponsorship. Several organizations for ethics in scientific publishing exist, and standardized disclosure forms have been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the present status of the definition, management, and disclosure of COI in journals devoted to general and abdominal surgery. Information on publisher, definition of COI, whether COI disclosure was mandatory, publication of the disclosure statement with the article, and when publication of disclosure statements was introduced were gathered from instructions for authors and from journal editors and presented descriptively. The hypothesis that journals with a disclosure policy have greater impact factors was tested with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A sample of 64 journals was investigated. In 8 journals (13%) disclosure was deemed unnecessary. In the remaining 56 journals (88%) disclosure of COI was mandatory and in 39 of these journals (61%) the COI statement was published with the article. Journals declaring COI disclosure as mandatory had a greater impact factor (0.626 vs 1.732; P = .006). Transparency is critical to the reliability of evidence-based medicine. All efforts should be made to give the reader the maximum amount of information. We recommend that every surgeon maintain a standardized, up-to-date disclosure form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability of vocational interests among the intellectually gifted from adolescence to adulthood: a 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, D; Benbow, C P; Ryan, J

    1995-02-01

    A sample of 162 intellectually gifted adolescents (top 1%) were administered the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory at age 13. Fifteen years later, they were administered the Strong again. This study evaluated the intra- and interindividual temporal stability of the 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) themes and the Strong's 23 Basic Interest Scales. Over the 15-year test-retest interval, RIASEC's median interindividual correlation for the 6 themes was .46; the median of all 162 intraindividual correlations was .57. Configural analyses of the most dominant theme at age 13 revealed that this theme was significantly more likely than chance to be either dominant or adjacent to the dominant theme at age 28--following RIASEC's hexagonal structure. For intellectually gifted individuals, it appears to be possible to forecast salient features of their adult RIASEC profile by assessing their vocational interests during early adolescence, but some RIASEC themes seem more stable than others.

  15. Twenty Lives Revisited: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of Literacy on the Occupations and Schooling of Students Who Were Low Reading Readiness in First Grade (1964-1978)--With Special Attention to Model, Motivation, Interest, Perseverance, and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    As part of a longitudinal study, student and parent interviews were conducted to collect data on the research question, "What is the impact of literacy on the occupations/schooling of 20 1976 high school graduates who had been classified as low readiness students in the first grade?" Of the 20 students originally in the "Twenty Lives" longitudinal…

  16. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  17. The Relationship between Television Viewing Preferences and Interest in Science among 11-15 Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Harry M.; Francis, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    Explores the relationship between television viewing preferences and interest in science among 11- to 15-year olds (n=5432). After controlling for age, sex, and social class differences, the data demonstrate a negative relationship between attitude toward science and watching soap operas, a positive relationship with current awareness programs and…

  18. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  19. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  20. 中韩经济关系20年回顾与展望%China -South Korea Economic Relations for Twenty Years: Retrospect and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永浩

    2012-01-01

    中韩两国自1992年8月建交以来,双边经贸关系发展迅速,两国已互为对方重要经济合作伙伴。本文从贸易、直接投资和人员交流合作角度分析了过去20年来中韩经济合作取得的成果。展望未来,中韩之间经贸合作前景广阔。两国在增强政治互信、推进民间双向交流及国际化人才培养的基础上进一步推进经济合作机制建设,特别是促进中韩FTA早日签署将为双边经贸关系深入发展提供新动力。%Since the establishment of diplomatic relationship between China and South Korea in the August of 1992, the bilateral trade and economic relations are developing fast and they have become important economic co- operation partner of each other. In perspectives of trade, direct investment and personnel exchange and coopera- tion, achievements of the economic cooperation obtained in the past twenty years are analyzed. The two countries also have expansive prospect of trade and economic cooperation in the future. On the basis of strengthening political t:~t.,st, prompting non -government communication and internationalized talent training, they should further advance the construction of economic cooperation mechanism. driving force for the develooment of the bilateral trade Particularly, to sign the free trade agreement will pour new and economic relations.

  1. Islamic banking: 40 years later, still interest-based? Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As Islamic banking comes of age 40 years after its beginning, scholars and academics are calling for a better version 2. Regulators in Malaysia and Pakistan are pushing the industry to adopt more Islamic contracts which live up to the spirits of Shariah. Malaysia, specifically, has launched the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 (IFSA) as a step in this direction. To facilitate the transition, this study has two objectives; to test whether conventional rates is still cointegrated with Islami...

  2. Understanding first-year students’ curiosity and interest about physics—lessons learned from the HOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Hemmer, Sabine; Laherto, Antti; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Pantano, Ornella; Tasquier, Giulia

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on results of an interview based survey of first-year university physics students, carried out within the EU Horizons in Physics Education (HOPE) project (http://hopenetwork.eu/). 94 interviews conducted in 13 universities have been analyzed to investigate the factors that inspire young people to study physics. In particular, the main motivational factor, which was proven to consist of personal interest and curiosity, was unfolded into different categories and detailed interest profiles were produced. The results are arguably useful to help academic curriculum developers and teaching personnel in physics departments to provide guidance to students in developing and focusing their interest towards specific sub-fields and/or to design targeted recruitment and outreach initiatives.

  3. Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance, power-sharing has (so far not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktlösung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewalttätigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere während des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Versöhnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschließenden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur

  4. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  5. 二十年来国内任璧莲研究述评%A Review of Related Researches of Gish Jen in the Twenty Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高稳

    2016-01-01

    The introduction and researches of Gish Jen have been made for more than twenty years in China. Thus,a timely review of the research achievements will play a certain role in further carrying out the studies of her works. Overview shows that researches of Gish Jen at home focus on such framework as feminism,post -colonial-ism,post-modern theory and her works are interpreted from such perspectives as cultural attribute,cultural iden-tity,racial discrimination,gender discrimination and mother-daughter relationship. The author thinks that the sys-tematic study of her works should pay attention to the following aspects:strengthening the research of cultural poet-ics,the research of ethics value orientation and the interactive research of any relationship among Gish Jen,other Chinese-American writers and other minority writers.%国内对任璧莲的介绍和研究已有20余年,适时地回头梳理已有的研究成果,对进一步开展任璧莲作品的研究将起到一定的总结和反省作用。总览来国内学界所进行的任璧莲研究,大都是在女性主义、后殖民、后现代等理论的框架下,从文化属性、文化认同、种族歧视、性别歧视、母女关系等视角解读其作品。作者认为,任璧莲作品的系统化研究需要注意以下几个方面:应加强对其作品文化诗学、伦理价值取向、任璧莲与其他华裔作家及其他少数族裔作家(譬如犹太作家、非裔作家等)之间的关联与互动等研究。

  6. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  7. Self-Perception of Medical Students' Knowledge and Interest in Disaster Medicine: Nine Years After the Approval of the Curriculum in German Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Robert; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Grundgeiger, Jan; Bickelmayer, Jens Werner; Domres, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Following the recommendations of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) to develop standards for training the undergraduates in disaster-relevant fields (2004), a German curriculum was approved in 2006. This paper aims to describe the level of training and interest of medical students nine years later. Problem The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of medical students' knowledge and interest in disaster medicine nine years after the implementation of a standardized disaster medicine curriculum in German medical schools. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with medical students in Germany using a web-based, purpose-designed questionnaire consisting of 27 mandatory and 11 optional questions. Nine hundred ninety-two students from 36 of 37 medical schools in Germany participated. More than one-half of medical students were aware of the field of disaster medicine. One hundred twenty-one students undertook training internally within their university and 307 undertook training externally at other institutions. Only a small content of the curriculum was taught. A difference in self-perception of knowledge between trained and untrained participants was found, despite the level of training being low in both groups. Participants were generally highly motivated to learn disaster medicine in a variety of institutions. German students are still largely not well educated regarding disaster medicine, despite their high motivation. The curriculum of 2006 was not implemented as originally planned and the number of trained students still remains low as the self-perception of knowledge. Currently, there is no clear and standardized training concept in place. A renewal in the agreement of implementation of the curriculum at medical schools should be targeted in order to follow the recommendation of WADEM. Wunderlich R Ragazzoni L Ingrassia PL Della Corte F Grundgeiger J Bickelmayer JW

  8. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  9. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  10. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.

  11. Twenty-Five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Broeren, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood anxiety disorders during the past 25 years, and this increase…

  12. Twenty years of activity of the radiation protection service of the El Cabril storage center; Veinte anos de actividad del servicio de proteccion radiologica del centro de almacenamiento de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, L.; Pinilla, J. L.; Ortiz, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    All controls of internal contamination by body radioactivity counter have been lower than the level of logging for internal doses (1 mSv/year). External personal pollution incidents have not occurred. With respect to the dose to the public these remain very low and lower than the limits specified in the authorization. Also the results of the PVRA indicate no influence of the installation in your environment. During the twenty years of operation of the El Cabril Storage Center has not occurred any incidents radiological and doses both to workers and the public in general, are kept very low and lower than the established dose limits. (Author)

  13. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991); Il controllo dell`inquinamento da mercurio nell`area industriale di Rosignano marittimo negli anni 1971-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertani, R. [Unita Sanitaria Locale 14, Cecina, Livorno (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure.

  14. Safeguard Rights and Interests of Women in Accordance with the Law——the Five-Year Anniversary of the Implementation of the Law of the PRC on the Protection of Righ Is and Interests of Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON April 3, 1992, the Law of the PRC on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women (Protection Law), the first basic law for protecting rights and interests of women and promoting equality between men and women in China, was adopted at the fifth session of the Seventh National People’s Congress (NPC), and entered into force on October 1 of the same year.

  15. Stability and Change of Interest in Obstetrics-Gynecology among Medical Students: Eighteen Years of Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Iraj; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated, first, the percentage of medical students maintaining interest in obstetrics/gynecology during medical school compared to those maintaining interest in other specialties and, second, changes of interest from obstetrics/gynecology to other specialties and other specialties to obstetrics/gynecology. Results indicate instability…

  16. Stability and Change of Interest in Obstetrics-Gynecology among Medical Students: Eighteen Years of Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Iraj; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated, first, the percentage of medical students maintaining interest in obstetrics/gynecology during medical school compared to those maintaining interest in other specialties and, second, changes of interest from obstetrics/gynecology to other specialties and other specialties to obstetrics/gynecology. Results indicate instability…

  17. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  18. Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood

  19. Patient-reported health outcomes after total hip and knee surgery in a Dutch University Hospital Setting: results of twenty years clinical registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Wammes, J.J.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Westert, G.P.; Kampen, A. van; Hannink, G.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Schreurs, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measurement is a method for measuring perceptions of patients on their health and quality of life. The aim of this paper is to present the results of PRO measurements in total hip and knee replacement as routinely collected during 20 years of surgery in a

  20. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  1. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  2. Improved outcomes after autologous bone marrow transplantation for children with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: twenty years experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Phillip M; Link, Michael P; Donaldson, Sarah S; Advani, Ranjana H; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Porteus, Matthew; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Agarwal-Hashmi, Rajni

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival of pediatric patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (auBMT) for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) and to identify factors that might contribute to their outcome. We reviewed the records and clinical course of 89 consecutive rrHL patients ≤ 21 years old who underwent auBMT at Stanford Hospitals and Clinics and the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford between 1989 and 2012. We investigated, by multiple analyses, patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with outcome. Endpoints were 5-year overall and event-free survival. Our findings include that cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) as a conditioning regimen for auBMT is effective for most patients ≤ 21 years old with rrHL (5-year overall survival, 71%). Transplantation after the year 2001 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with our earlier experience (80% compared with 65%). Patients with multiply relapsed disease or with disease not responsive to initial therapy fared less well compared with those with response to initial therapy or after first relapse. Administration of post-auBMT consolidative radiotherapy (cRT) also appears to contribute to improved survival. We are able to conclude that high-dose chemotherapy with CBV followed by auBMT is effective for the treatment of rrHL in children and adolescents. Survival for patients who undergo auBMT for rrHL has improved significantly. This improvement may be because of patient selection and improvements in utilization of radiotherapy rather than improvements in chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to describe the role of auBMT across the entire spectrum of patients with rrHL and to identify the most appropriate preparative regimen with or without cRT therapy in the treatment of rrHL in young patients.

  3. Ewing's sarcoma in children: twenty-five years of experience at the Instituto Portugês de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil (I.P.O.F.G.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, M B; Vilhena, M; Neves, M; Raposo, S; Catita, J; De Sousa, V; Martins, A G

    1991-05-01

    Fifty children with Ewing's sarcoma were consecutively treated from 1962 to 1987 and retrospectively analyzed at the I.P.O.F.G. of Lisbon. At first diagnosis, 10 cases had distant metastases. The remaining 40 patients had clinically localized disease, and different protocols were followed over the years. The best results were obtained with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without surgery; and for these children the two-year survival rate was 42.8% vs. 8.3% for the group of patients submitted to local treatment alone. Besides the treatment modality, other factors influenced the prognosis, such as inflammatory signs, sex, tumor volume, and tumor site as well as evidence of distant metastases.

  4. DESC - Providing Energy to Train, to Fight to Win. Defense Energy Support Center Fact Book, Fiscal Year 2006, Twenty-Ninth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-14

    Pershing Support) in Neu Ulm, Germany, as the Petroleum Officer and later as a Company Commander. From 1987 to 1990 he served as the Petroleum Officer...Sep 04Hardin County Water District #1 Wastewater/ Stormwater Fort Knox Kentucky 41%$164,071$11.9M (For 50 Years) Jun 04Dominion Virginia Power...Kwajalein, Montana, Nevada , Oregon, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Wake Island, and El Paso, TX. PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY & STANDARDIZATION DIVISION Technical

  5. Forecasting the declining rate of chronic hepatitis-B carrier status at a Taiwanese university: twenty years after implementation of an universal HBV vaccination program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fu-Hsiung; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Hong-Jer; Jeng, Jin-Ju; Liu, Yi-Hui; Chen, Chih-Dao

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Taiwan in 1984, 15-20% of the general population were chronic HBV carriers. We forecasted and quantified the declining HBV carrier rate 20 years subsequent to the implementation of universal HBV vaccination in Taiwan. At a Taiwanese university, 28,763 freshmen tested for serum HBsAg level were divided into ten age cohorts by date of birth, from July 1976 to June 1986 inclusive. Comparisons of HBsAg carrier rates according to gender were examined with the Z test. Regression methods and a time series model were applied to our sample to forecast trends in changes to the HBsAg carrier rate for the next five years. Regression analysis demonstrated a trend toward declining HBsAg-positive carrier rates. The HBsAg carrier rate for male students decreased from 16.8% (for those born between July 1976 and June 1977) to 2.2% (for those born between July 1985 and June 1986). The carrier rate for their female counterparts over the same period declined from 12.2% to 2.4%. The HBsAg carrier rate for male participants was significantly greater than that of their female counterparts for certain years during the test period. The results of time series analysis suggests the HBsAg carrier status rate will approach zero for students born after July 1987 (expected to enrol in the university in 2006). Our data demonstrate that in order for the HBV carrier rate to approximate zero, universal vaccination programs need to continue for at least 21 years.

  6. Correlation of quantity of dental students' clinical experiences with faculty evaluation of overall clinical competence: a twenty-two-year retrospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Michael; Holmes, David C; Doering, John V

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the quantity of a student's clinical experiences in the final year of dental school and the student's overall clinical competence at graduation, as evaluated by faculty at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. Further, the authors sought to determine whether this correlation changed over time, as new generations of students come to dental school. Information including year of graduation, age at graduation, final grade in the course Clinical Competencies in Comprehensive Care, and final total Clinical Experience Units (CEUs) earned by each student in the D4 Family Dentistry Clinic was collected for 1987-2008 graduates of the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) was computed for the association of final clinical course grade and final CEU total for each graduation year. The correlation between final course grade and final CEU total was variable, ranging from moderately strong (r(s)=0.614, Class of 1991) to negligible (r(s)=-0.013, Class of 2008). This correlation generally tended to become weaker over time. The results of this study suggest that the terminal quality of a dental student's work is not solely a function of repetitions of prescribed procedures and that repetition of procedures may have even less influence on the quality of clinical performance for the new generation of dental students.

  7. Twenty-five years of the international Bled course for teachers of family medicine in Europe: Glancing back and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Svab, Igor; Petek-Ster, Marija; Bulc, Mateja; Buchanan, Josephine; Finnegan, Henry; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2016-12-01

    The international Bled course for teacher training has played a central role in faculty development in family medicine for the past 25 years. The course was originally designed to promote faculty development for family medicine teachers in the new academic discipline of family medicine in Slovenia in 1990 and to introduce new topics into the family medicine curriculum. In this background paper, we perform a SCOT analysis (strengths, challenges, opportunities, and threats) of the current course, evaluating participant feedback and reviewing past topics and their impact on local and international teaching programmes. We also review the place of the course in the context of other teacher-training programmes in family medicine in Europe. We found that the structure and learning aims of the Bled course have remained stable over 25 years. It provides a safe, well-structured learning environment for the participants even though the course topic is different every year. The course has had a significant impact on curriculum development and teacher training in Slovenia as well as in many other countries in Europe and beyond. Because of the positive impact of the course and the high degree of satisfaction of the participants and course directors, it seems worthwhile to continue this endeavour. New directions for the course will depend on the learning needs of the participants and the evolving medical curricula in the countries they represent.

  8. Twenty-year outcome in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus: assessment of surgical outcome, work participation, and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, A Henriette; Lundar, Tryggve; Lindegaard, Karl-Fredrik

    2010-12-01

    Shunting of CSF is one of the most commonly performed operations in the pediatric neurosurgeon's repertoire. The 1st decade after initial shunt insertion has been addressed in several previous reports. The goals of the authors' study, therefore, were to determine 20-year outcomes in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus and to assess their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients younger than 15 years of age, in whom a first-time shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus in the calendar years 1985-1988, were included in a retrospective study on surgical morbidity, mortality rates, academic achievement, and/or work participation. Information concerning perceived health and functional status was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Barthel Index, which were completed by patients still alive by September 1, 2009. Overall, 138 patients participated, no patient being lost to follow-up. For the 20-year period, the overall mortality rate was 21.7%. The mortality rate was not significantly higher in the 1st decade after initial shunt insertion than in the 2nd decade (p = 0.10). Ten percent of the patients surviving still live with their primary shunt in place, whereas 81% required at least one revision, and among these individual the mean number of revisions was 4.2 (median 3, range 0-26). There was a significantly higher revision rate during the 1st decade after initial shunt insertion compared with the 2nd decade (p = 0.027). The majority of patients live lives comparable with those of their peers. At follow-up, 56% were employed in open-market jobs or were still students, 23% had sheltered employment, and 21% were unemployed. The HRQOL was slightly lower in the hydrocephalic cohort than in the normative population. A significant difference was found in 2 of 8 SF-36 domains-Physical Functioning and General Health. During the 20-year follow-up period, 81% of the patients required at least one revision of the CSF shunt. The

  9. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  10. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability; Tchernobyl: 20 ans apres, le systeme international de responsabilite civile nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahorgue, M.B. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France)

    2006-06-15

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  11. Bovine Pericardial Patch Augmentation of One Insufficient Aortic Valve Cusp with Twenty-three-year Positive Clinical Follow-up Independent of the Patch Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Arcêncio, Lívia; Evora, Patrícia Martinez; Menardi, Antônio Carlos; Chahud, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Scientific progress shall ultimately boost the current acceptance level for conservative aortic valve surgery. The present text aimed to report the 23-year long-term follow-up of one patient operated with bovine pericardium cusp extension. Growing confidence in the efficacy of the operation will allow a more expeditious indication for surgical treatment, as is already the case in mitral valve repair. This change of attitude will certainly make it possible for patients to be sent for operation in mild aortic valve regurgitation. The present report reinforces the concept and highlights the impression that the aortic valvoplasty, independent of the progressive bovine pericardium degeneration, may positively change the natural history of the aortic valve insufficiency.

  12. Educational process in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Service; twenty six years later, University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Rafael Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With this small historical review we want to acknowledge the work of a group of professors who began teaching at a very young age, since the founding of Higher Medical Teaching in the Medical school Raúl Dorticós Torrado in Cienfuegos, and in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Service in the University hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima. The first group of Pre and Post Graduated courses began in September, 1st 1982, with the arrival of the first group of fifth year of Medicine from Santa Clara Medical School and the beginning of the residency by Dr. Eduardo Sarmiento Sánchez after an educational accreditation of the Service by a National Commission headed by Professor René Lorie Pérez.

  13. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  14. “中国创业教育二十年”引论%Introduction of China's entrepreneurship education in the past twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 贾万刚

    2011-01-01

    中国创业教育自1990年启动以来,已经经历了二十年的时间。通过对这二十年的初步梳理,可以发现中国的创业教育还多局限于大学生创业,还没有纳入到整个现代国民教育体系之中;创业教育的土壤还没有丰饶,还需要社会各界的共同培育;高校举办的创业教育还没有跟社会发展紧密关联,还是处在某种救急性的、片面的功利性职业训练中。中国创业教育之路任重而道远。%Since its initiation in 1999,entrepreneurship education in China has been carried out for more than 20 years.Through an initial study of the experience in the 20 or so years,entrepreneurship education has been mostly limited to the undertakings by college students rather than been introduced into the whole system of modern national education.The foundation of the entrepreneurship is still in an immature state which calls for collective efforts and attention of the whole society.Lacking close connections with social development,the entrepreneurship education promoted by higher educations institutions is still too utilitarian and unbalanced.Therefore the task for promoting entrepreneurship education in China is still very challenging.

  15. Twenty-two years of warming, fertilisation and shading of subarctic heath shrubs promote secondary growth and plasticity but not primary growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Campioli

    Full Text Available Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses, fertilisation (nutrients addition and shading (hessian fabric, and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth and cambial growth (secondary growth, and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such

  16. Os 22 anos da Horticultura Brasileira: a revista chega a maioridade Twenty-two years: Horticultura Brasileira reaches the adult age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2004-12-01

    .The genesis and growth of a scientific journal are unique events to be observed and studied. Horticultura Brasileira (HB is the official journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, and in 2004 the journal accomplishes 22 years of uninterrupted publishing since the release of its first issue in 1983. The journal succeeded 'Olericultura' (later 'Revista de Olericultura', the previous annual journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, published between 1961 and 1980, which presented abstracts and full papers of the annual meetings. Back to 1983, HB was a semestrally journal, created to publish original research papers of horticultural sciences, with an editorial board of four members and the peer review system, all new for the Society members. HB differed from the previous journal by its new format (28 cm x 20.5 cm, the colorful cover changed at each issue and the modern graphic design. HB was divided in distinct sections to include all segments of the Society, such as vegetable growers, rural extensionists, researchers, professors and students. During the last 22 years, HB published a total of 1,083 papers in 5,207 pages, divided in different sections: 'Letters to the Editor', 24 articles; 'Invited Articles', 37; 'Research', 561; 'Grower's Page', 133; 'Pesticides and Fertilizers in Test', 131; 'Economy and Rural Extension', 31; 'New Cultivar', 43; 'Note', 153 (this last section was abolished in 1996. During the 1983-1995 period, the journal published 34.6 articles/year, 47.3 articles/year during 1996-2001 and 116.3 articles/year from 2002 to 2004. Presently, HB is quarterly issued and has an editorial board of 30 editors of different research areas and institutions. The challenges faced by HB today are the raise of publication costs and the constant improvement of the publishing processes.

  17. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Lockhart, Karen; Dyck, Carmen; Wilson, Andrea; O'Hara, Lyndsay; Yassi, Annalee

    2012-08-06

    Although information systems (IS) have been extensively applied in the health sector worldwide, few initiatives have addressed the health and safety of health workers, a group acknowledged to be at high risk of injury and illness, as well as in great shortage globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Adapting a context-mechanism-outcome case study design, we analyze our team's own experience over two decades to address this gap: in two different Canadian provinces; and two distinct South African settings. Applying a realist analysis within an adapted structuration theory framing sensitive to power relations, we explore contextual (socio-political and technological) characteristics and mechanisms affecting outcomes at micro, meso and macro levels. Technological limitations hindered IS usefulness in the initial Canadian locale, while staffing inadequacies amid pronounced power imbalances affecting governance restricted IS usefulness in the subsequent Canadian application. Implementation in South Africa highlighted the special care needed to address power dynamics regarding both worker-employer relations (relevant to all occupational health settings) and North-south imbalances (common to all international interactions). Researchers, managers and front-line workers all view IS implementation differently; relationships amongst the workplace parties and between community and academic partners have been pivotal in determining outcome in all circumstances. Capacity building and applying creative commons and open source solutions are showing promise, as is international collaboration. There is worldwide consensus on the need for IS use to protect the health workforce. However, IS implementation is a resource-intensive undertaking; regardless of how carefully designed the software, contextual factors and the mechanisms adopted to address these are critical to mitigate threats and achieve outcomes of interest to all parties. Issues specific to IS development

  18. Tool, weapon, or white elephant? A realist analysis of the five phases of a twenty-year programme of occupational health information system implementation in the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Jerry M

    2012-08-01

    outcomes of interest to all parties. Issues specific to IS development, including technological support and software licensing models, can also affect outcome and sustainability – especially in the North–south context. Careful attention must be given to power relations between the various stakeholders at macro, meso and micro levels when implementing IS. North–South-South collaborations should be encouraged. Governance as well as technological issues are crucial determinants of IS application, and ultimately whether the system is seen as a tool, weapon, or white elephant by the various involved parties. "You may call me a fool, But was there a rule The weapon should be turned into a tool? And what do we see? The first tool I step on Turned into a weapon. - Robert Frost" "White (albino elephants were regarded as holy in ancient times in Thailand and other Asian countries. Keeping a white elephant was a very expensive undertaking, since the owner had to provide the elephant with special food and provide access for people who wanted to worship it. If a Thai King became dissatisfied with a subordinate, he would give him a white elephant. The gift would, in most cases, ruin the recipient. - The Phrase Finder"

  19. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of <1 μeq L(-1) per year from 1988 to 2006. Precipitation chemistry, hydrology, vegetation, and temperature drive seasonal stream chemistry. Low flow periods were typical in June-October, with relatively greater contributions of deeper flow solutions with higher pH; higher concentrations of acid-neutralizing capacity, Si, and non-marine Na; and low concentrations of inorganic Al. High flow periods during November-May were typically dominated by solutions following shallow flow paths, which were characterized by lower pH and higher Al and DOC concentrations. Biological activity strongly controlled NO3- and K(+). They were depressed during the growing season and elevated in the fall. Since 1987, East Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the

  20. Twenty-Year Predictors of Peripheral Arterial Disease Compared With Coronary Heart Disease in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Peters, Sanne A E; Woodward, Mark; Struthers, Allan D; Belch, Jill J F

    2017-09-18

    Coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affect different vascular territories. Supplementing baseline findings with assays from stored serum, we compared their 20-year predictors. We randomly recruited 15 737 disease-free men and women aged 30 to 75 years across Scotland between 1984 and 1995 and followed them through 2009 for death and hospital diagnoses. Of these, 3098 developed coronary heart disease (19.7%), and 499 PAD (3.2%). Hazard ratios for 45 variables in the Cox model were adjusted for age and sex and for factors in the 2007 ASSIGN cardiovascular risk score. Forty-four of them were entered into parsimonious predictive models, tested by c-statistics and net reclassification improvements. Many hazard ratios diminished with adjustment and parsimonious modeling, leaving significant survivors. The hazard ratios were mostly higher in PAD. New parsimonious models increased the c-statistic and net reclassification improvements over ASSIGN variables alone but varied in their components and ranking. Coronary heart disease and PAD shared 7 of the 9 factors from ASSIGN: age, sex, family history, socioeconomic status, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and systolic blood pressure (but neither total nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); plus 4 new ones: NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cystatin-C. The highest ranked hazard ratios for continuous factors in coronary heart disease were those for age, total cholesterol, high-sensitivity troponin, NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, apolipoprotein A, and waist circumference (plus 10 more); in PAD they were age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, expired carbon monoxide, cotinine, socioeconomic status, and lipoprotein (a) (plus 5 more). The mixture of shared with disparate determinants for arterial disease in the heart and the legs implies nonidentical pathogenesis: cholesterol dominant in the former, and inflammation (high-sensitivity C

  1. Effects of Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity: a twenty-year time series analysis in the northeastern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante E; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; da Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of supplementation between 1987 and 2007, and to measure the impact of this on morbidity. Five sequential cross-sectional studies in a 20-year time span were analyzed. Each had a sample of 8,000 domiciles representative of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, followed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Increases in coverage, ranging from 9.6 to 65.8 % were verified, and the study found that the impact of supplementation in reducing morbidity may not be significant. The study also found that supplementation may be associated with higher frequency of certain morbidities (OR 1.8, CI 95 % 1.20-2.95). When the supplementation variable was adjusted for socioeconomic factors, the risk was higher for diarrhea (OR 5.56, CI 95 % 2.63-11.75). The study concluded that in Brazil, vitamin A supplementation may have little benefit in reducing morbidity.

  2. One hundred and twenty years from the former 'Pavilion for Clinical Observation' to the National Lunatic Asylum, later Institute of Psychiatry - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Cátia; Verçosa, Neide; Anselmé, Célia; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-08-01

    The Pavilion for Clinical Observation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, also known as the Pavilion for Admissions, was designed by Professor of Psychiatry João Carlos Texeira Brandão (1854-1921). It was based on the influence of French alienism as a forum for the screening and evaluation of possible mental illness and the forwarding to the National Lunatic Asylum of patients so diagnosed. It was officially created by the Federal Brazilian Decree number 1559 of October 1893 in order to assess the appropriate disposal of suspects sent by the police. The Pavilion was the first University Psychiatric Hospital in Brazil, a pioneer in the integration of teaching, research and clinical practice. The Chair of Clinical Psychiatry, established in 1881, did not until then have a specific place for teaching and practical experience. Over the years subjects were examined and treated, based not only on theories arising from French and later German medical literature but also on the psychiatric practice developed in the Pavilion for Clinical Observation. This was the germ of the consolidation of psychiatric knowledge in Brazil, giving it status and generating a genuinely Brazilian Psychiatric Science.

  3. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Juhanson, Jaanis; Michelsen, Anders; Ľuptáčik, Peter

    2017-03-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  4. During twenty years of Cisplatin-based therapy the face of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors is still changing: an evaluation of presentation, management, predictive factors and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Heinzelbecker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the changing presentation and treatment of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSGCT and to investigate predictive factors for the status of metastasis at diagnosis and on relapse and death. Materials and Methods: Retrospective record review of 147 patients that underwent inguinal orchiectomy from 1987-2007. Follow-up data was available for 102 patients (median follow-up: 80 months (0-243; 96 patients alive. Results: Mean patients age increased (p = 0.015 and more patients were diagnosed in clinical stage I (CSI (p = 0.040. The fraction of yolk sac (YS elements inclined (p = 0.030 and pT2 tumors increased (p I showed a declined CSS compared to CSI patients (p = 0.055. The presence of YS elements was associated to an improved RFS (p = 0.038. Conclusions: In our single institution study the face of NSGCT markedly changed over 20 years even after the introduction of Cisplatin-based chemotherapy. These changes were accompanied by an improvement in RFS and CSS. When dealing with NSGCT patients such observations now and in the future should be taken into account.

  5. Esape from death. Twenty years of forest die-back - stock taking of a paradox; Dem Tod entronnen. Zwanzig Jahre Waldsterben - die Bilanz eines Widerspruchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakott, J.

    1993-12-01

    In several popular-scientific abstracts the 12/93 issue of `bild der wissenschaft` describes the stage of forest decline and of research into this phenomenon. It sketches out the development of forest damage and its reception by popular-scientific publications in Germany and Europe over the past ten years. Specifically, it deals with the decline of oak forests since 1300; the percentages of oak, beech, silver birch, pine, spruce, and fir in forest stands; causes of forest decline and their complex interrelations; nutrient circulation (esp. nitrogen); air pollution through livestock farming and road traffic; game as a damage factor; and the tasks of research into climate effects. (orig.) [Deutsch] In mehreren populaerwissenschaftlichen Abstracts beschreibt die bild der wissenschaft-Ausgabe 12/93 den Stand der Waldschaeden und ihrer Erforschung sowie die Entwicklung der Waldschaeden und ihrer populaerwissenschaftlichen Aufarbeitung in Deutschland (und Europa) ueber die vergangenen 10 Jahre. Der Rueckgang der Eichenwaelder seit 1300, der Bestandsanteil an Eichen, Buchen, Birken, Kiefern, Fichten und Tannen, Waldverlust und Wiederaufforstung, die Ursachen des Waldsterbens und ihre komplexen Wirkgefuege, Naehrstoffkreislaeufe (bes. Stickstoff), Luftbelastungen durch Tierhaltung und Strassenverkehr, der Schadfaktor Wild und die Aufgaben der Klimafolgenforschung werden angesprochen. (orig.)

  6. Peripheral neuropathies in systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical features, disease associations, and immunologic characteristics evaluated over a twenty-five-year study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomatia, A; Fang, H; Petri, M; Birnbaum, J

    2014-04-01

    To characterize peripheral neuropathy subtypes, ancillary studies, and immunologic profiles associated with peripheral neuropathies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this 25-year study of 2,097 SLE patients, we characterized peripheral neuropathies due to SLE and compared clinical and SLE-related features in patients with versus those without neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was 5.9% (123 of 2,097 patients), and 66.7% of these patients (82 of 123) had peripheral neuropathies attributable to SLE. We noted that 17.1% of the patients with peripheral neuropathies due to SLE (14 of 82 patients) had small-fiber neuropathy, which is a painful neuropathy not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) case definitions. SLE patients with small-fiber neuropathies could present with unorthodox neuropathic pain patterns not consistent with a stocking-glove distribution and had associated skin biopsy results suggestive of dorsal root ganglion neuronal cell loss. Compared to SLE patients without peripheral neuropathies, those with peripheral neuropathies had lower mean disease activity (P = 0.01) and higher disease damage (P neuropathies, is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Twenty-year follow-up of a familial case of PTH1R-associated primary failure of tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Cláudia Misue; de Oliveira, José Américo; Garcia, José Fernando; Roth, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2017-03-01

    Nonsyndromic primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of dental eruption with no obvious dental or soft tissue interference. The purposes of this study were to genetically and clinically characterize a family with many members affected by PFE and to describe the natural evolution of the disorder. Three generations of a family with 18 members, 10 of them clinically affected by PFE, were evaluated periodically during 20 years of clinical follow-up. PFE was observed in varying degrees of severity in both sexes. Clinical presentation became more severe in adulthood. One patient had spontaneous reeruption of 2 posterior teeth. Cervical root resorptions were observed in 3 members. Genetic analysis showed a deleterious heterozygous mutation in intron 9 of the PTH1R gene (c.639-2A>G) and diagnosed an additional affected member. The long-term follow-up of PFE cases in this family permitted the following observations: (1) the onset occurred from the preemergence to the postemergence phases, (2) PFE appeared to be closely related to ankylosis, (3) affected teeth maintained the eruptive potential even in adulthood, (4) the earlier the onset the more severe the open bite, and (5) cervical root resorptions occurred in 3 affected members. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  9. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  10. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  11. Review of Studies on Chongqing Japanese Concession in the Past Twenties Years%近二十年重庆日租界研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2016-01-01

    重庆日租界是中国近代史上列强在西部地区开辟的唯一租界,自1901年正式建立至1937年彻底废除,共历36年有余。1980年代初开始直到今天,有关重庆日租界的研究方兴未艾,取得了一系列有价值的研究成果,比如对租界内部活动的广泛探索、对租界回收过程的精确界定等等。在未来对重庆日租界的研究中,还应进一步探索重庆日租界设立过程中的两国外交谈判细节、重庆日租界内部企业及其活动等亟待解决的问题。%Chongqing Japanese concession is the only concession in the western areas of China, opened by the imperialist powers in China’s modern history. The concession existed for 36 years, from the formal establishment in 1901 to the complete abolition in 1937. Since early 1980s, studies on Chongqing Japanese concession have been on the rise, yielding a series of results, valuable studies, such as extensive exploration on activities at the concession, well-definition on the process of recovering concession, etc. However, the details of diplomatic negotiations between China and Japan in the process of setting up Japanese concession, internal enterprises and related activities at the concession should be further explored in the future study.

  12. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of

  13. Twenty-year perspective of randomized controlled trials for surgery of chronic nonspecific low back pain: citation bias and tangential knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas S; Flynn, John P; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    nonsurgical therapy. The research agenda of RCTs for surgery of CNLBP has not changed substantially in the last 20 years. Technical trials evaluating nuances of surgical techniques significantly predominate. Despite the publication of four RCTs reporting equivocal benefits of surgery for CNLBP between 2001 and 2006, there was no change in the research agenda of subsequent RCTs, and technical trials continued to outnumber indication trials. Rather than clarifying what, if any, indications for surgery exist, investigators in the field continue to analyze variations in surgical technique, which will probably have relatively little impact on patient outcomes. As a result, clinicians unfortunately have little evidence to advise patients regarding surgical intervention for CNLBP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. O SUS nos seus 20 anos: reflexões num contexto de mudanças Twenty years of SUS: reflections in a context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Costa de Araújo Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma breve retrospectiva sobre o direito à saúde conquistado pelo cidadão brasileiro, este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ao longo da sua trajetória de 20 anos, destacando em forma de análise crítica os avanços conquistados na saúde e os desafios a serem superados. São discutidas as temáticas do direito à saúde como responsabilidade do Estado a partir da Conferência de Alma-Ata, da Constituição Federal e das Leis Orgânicas da Saúde; as diretrizes do SUS envolvendo as competências da União, do Estado e do Município. Discute ainda a importância da Estratégia Saúde da Família na consolidação da Atenção Básica no Brasil, as dificuldades do processo de regionalização e o papel da gestão e da participação social como bases para a construção do SUS que queremos.From a brief review of the right to healthcare won by the Brazilian citizens, this article aims to discuss Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System throughout its trajectory of 20 years, providing a critical review of the progress achieved in healthcare and the challenges to be overcome. It discusses the issues of: the right to healthcare as the State's responsibility based on the Alma-Ata Conference, the Federal Constitution and the Organic Laws on Health; SUS guidelines involving the competences of the Union, States and Municipalities. It also approaches the importance of the Family Health Strategy for the consolidation of Primary Care in Brazil, the difficulties in the process of regional health planning, and the role of management and social participation as the bases for the construction of the SUS we want.

  15. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. Strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. Still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems even in EU countries. In order to determine the spatial and temporal variation of pollutant and nutrient loads in different environmental media a unique ecological response cadastre (Okologisches Wirkungskataster, OKWI) was set up in the Land of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) in the mid 1980s. As a part of the program a state-wide bioindicator network was established in 64 forest and 18 permanent grassland ecosystems, in which selected chemical elements were measured over time. Here, we report on the results of these analyses and discuss the general spatio-temporal trends in pollution loads. Sixty-four forest and 18 permanent grassland plots were established in state-owned forest and nature conservation areas of SW Germany representing different landscapes and geologies of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Apart from performing vegetation relevées in marked plots of either the grassland or forest sites, plant samples were collected in intervals of 2 to 3 years following a standardised protocol. To be able to compare the different monitoring sites, four common species were chosen as indicator species in the grasslands. Later on, also bulk grassland samples were taken regardless of the species. In the forests, foliage of the dominant tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Abiea alba or Fraxinus excelsior) was sampled in the crown of marked trees and from the same species in the herb layer. The elements analysed in the plant material were the essential plant

  16. Twenty years of elemental analysis of marine biota within the German Environmental Specimen Bank--a thorough look at the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdel, Heinz; Fliedner, Annette; Kösters, Jan; Schröter-Kermani, Christa

    2010-06-01

    As one component of the German ecological environment observation, the Environmental Specimen Bank program was initiated in the mid-1980s. Under the program, representative specimens of marine, fresh water, and terrestrial ecosystems are sampled regularly and archived under chemically stable conditions. An initial characterization of the samples provides data regarding the status quo of the respective ecosystems. The aim of the present publication is to give insight into these real-time monitoring data, which have been generated for the last 10 to 20 years. This is done exemplarily for the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in marine specimens of the Baltic and the North Sea. Bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), and eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled at one location in the Baltic Sea and at two sites in the North Sea (Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea and Lower Saxony Wadden Sea). Annual samples were pooled, homogenized, and analyzed for a set of elements. Cd and Pb were quantified after freeze-drying and microwave digestion using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Total Hg in freeze-dried samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using a direct mercury analyzer. Time series data covering up to two decades revealed comparable cadmium levels at all three locations. Concentrations in bladder wrack ranged between 0.10 and 0.37 microg/g on a wet weight basis (ww). Respective values for blue mussel and eelpout liver were 0.07-0.29 and 0.01-0.10 microg/g ww. Herring gull eggs were not included in cadmium analyses. Declining trends were observed in North Sea bladder wrack and mussels, eelpout from the Lower Saxony site, and mussels from the Baltic Sea. Upward trends were apparent in eelpout from the Schleswig-Holstein location. Mercury concentrations in Baltic Sea specimens ranged from 1.1-2.7 ng/g ww in bladder wrack to 2.6-5.1, 26-52, and 86-226 ng/g ww

  17. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  18. Twenty years of acanthamoeba diagnostics in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5.

  19. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  20. It was twenty years ago today ...

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsparg, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To mark the 20th anniversary of the (14 Aug 1991) commencement of hep-th@xxx.lanl.gov (now arXiv.org), I've adapted this article from one that first appeared in Physics World (2008), was later reprinted (with permission) in Learned Publishing (2009), but never appeared in arXiv. I trace some historical context and early development of the resource, its later trajectory, and close with some thoughts about the future. This version is closer to my original draft, with some updates for this occasion, plus an astounding $2^5$ added footnotes.

  1. Twenty Years of Diagnosis and the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1999-01-01

    The process of diagnosing mental disorders and the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been increasingly important for counselors. This article provides information on the hallmarks of this shift. Reviews and discusses the changes form the third and fourth editions of the DSM. Offers predictions as to future…

  2. Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard

    2011-03-01

    One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.

  3. The New Economic History after Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Douglass C.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews contributions of economic history to an understanding of the economic past. A discipline which has developed since 1957, economic history deals with causes of economic growth or decline in a society over time, and the well-being of different groups in the society over time. It makes systematic use of theory and quantitative methods.…

  4. Microdata Simulation Modeling After Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the method and the development of microdata simulation modeling over the past two decades. After tracing a brief history of this evaluation method, its problems and prospects are assessed. The effects of this research method on the development of the social sciences are examined. (JAZ)

  5. Neutrino masses twenty-five years later

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass marks a turning point in elementary particle physics, with important implications for nuclear and astroparticle physics. Here I give a brief update, where I summarize the current status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters from current solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data, discuss the case for sterile neutrinos and LSND, and also the importance of tritium and double beta decay experiments probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass. In this opininated look at the present of neutrino physics, I keep an eye in the future, and a perspective of the past, taking the oportunity to highlight Joe Schechter's pioneering contribution, which I have had the fortune to share, as his PhD student back in the early eighties.

  6. Comparative Study of Effective Factors on Students’ Interests in Fashion at Islamic Azad University Arak Unit and South Tehran Unit Academic Year 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tahmineh Zareei

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a comparative study of effective factors on students’ interests in fashion at Faculty of Human Sciences – Islamic Azad University – Arak unit and also Islamic Azad University- South Tehran Unit through academic year 2010- 2011. According to the findings, it is obvious that fashion and any interests in fashion changed into a great social problem among university students. This paper used any thoughts of different specialists including Siemel and Veblen as the high...

  7. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  8. Elevated Triglyceride Level Is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Established Coronary Heart Disease: Twenty-Two-Year Follow-Up of the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study and Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempfner, Robert; Erez, Aharon; Sagit, Ben-Zekry; Goldenberg, Ilan; Fisman, Enrique; Kopel, Eran; Shlomo, Nir; Israel, Ariel; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The independent association between elevated triglycerides and all-cause mortality among patients with established coronary heart disease is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large cohort of patients with proven coronary heart disease. The study cohort comprised 15 355 patients who were screened for the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) trial. Twenty-two-year mortality data were obtained from the national registry. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to strata of fasting serum triglycerides: (1) low-normal triglycerides (triglycerides (100-149 mg/dL); (3) borderline hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (150-199 mg/dL); (4) moderate hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (200-499 mg/dL); (5) severe hypertriglyceridemia triglycerides (≥500 mg/dL). Age- and sex-adjusted survival was 41% in the low-normal triglycerides group than 37%, 36%, 35%, and 25% in groups with progressively higher triglycerides (Ptriglycerides elevation was associated with a corresponding 6% (P=0.016) increased risk of 22-year all-cause mortality. The 22-year mortality risk for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia was increased by 68% when compared with patients with low-normal triglycerides (Pdisease, higher triglycerides levels are independently associated with increased 22-year mortality. Even in patients with triglycerides of 100 to 149 mg/dL, the elevated risk for death could be detected than in patients with lower triglycerides levels, whereas severe hypertriglyceridemia denotes a population with particularly increased mortality risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  10. Reoperations after first lumbar disc herniation surgery; a special interest on residives during a 5-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautiainen Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall rate of operations after recurrent lumbar disc herniation has been shown to be 3–11%. However, little is known about the rate of residives. Thus the aim of this study was to explore the cumulative rates of re-operations and especially residive disc herniations at the same side and level as the primary disc herniation after first lumbar disc herniation surgery and the factors that influence the risk of re-operations over a five year follow-up study. Methods 166 virgin lumbar disc herniation patients (mean age 42 years, 57% males were studied. Data on patients' initial disc operations and type and timing of re-operations during the follow-up were collected from patient files. Back and leg pain on visual analog scale and employment status were collected by questionnaires. Results The cumulative rate of re-operations for lumbar disc herniation was 10.2% (95% Cl 6.0 to 15.1. The rate of residives at initial site was 7.4% (95% Cl 3.7 to 11.3 and rate of lumbar disc herniations at other sites was 3.1% (95% Cl 0.6 to 6.2. The occurrence of residive lumbar disc herniations was evenly distributed across the 5 years. Neither age, gender, preoperative symptoms, physical activity nor employment had effect on the probability of re-operation. Conclusion Seven percent of the lumbar disc patients had a residive lumbar disc operation within five years of their first operation. No specific factors influencing the risk for re-operation were found.

  11. Association of gender and specialty interest with video-gaming, three-dimensional spatial analysis, and entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Heather R; Towle Millard, Heather A; Millard, Ralph P; Constable, Peter D; Freeman, Lyn J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students. PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants' entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills. RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.

  12. Direitos sociais na constituição cidadã: um balanço de 21 anos Social rights in the citizen Constitution: a balance of twenty-one years of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço dos direitos sociais previstos na Constituição de 1988, destacando seus avanços e limitações ao longo destes últimos 21 anos. Começando pelos direitos dos trabalhadores e, em seguida, pelos dispositivos relativos à Seguridade Social, o trabalho busca compreender as motivações do legislador constituinte e o histórico de constantes disputas no interior da sociedade, em torno da regulamentação, manutenção e aprimoramento desses direitos ao longo dos anos.This paper is an attempt to make a balance of the social rights forseen in the Brazilian 1988 Constitution, stressing its advances and limitations during the last twenty one years. Beginning with the labour rights and following with the Social Security articles, it is an effort to understand both the motivations of the legislators and the historic of permanent disputes within the Brazilian society around the regulation, maintenance and improvement of these rights along the years.

  13. Vocational interests assessed at the end of high school predict life outcomes assessed 10 years later over and above IQ and Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Gundula; Rieger, Sven; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2017-07-01

    Vocational interests are important aspects of personality that reflect individual differences in motives, goals, and personal strivings. It is therefore plausible that these characteristics have an impact on individuals' lives not only in terms of vocational outcomes, but also beyond the vocational domain. Yet the effects of vocational interests on various life outcomes have rarely been investigated. Using Holland's RIASEC taxonomy (Holland, 1997), which groups vocational interests into 6 broad domains, the present study examined whether vocational interests are significant predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over and above the Big Five personality traits. For this purpose, a cohort of German high school students (N = 3,023) was tracked over a period of 10 years after graduating from school. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictive validity of RIASEC interests and Big Five personality traits. Nine outcomes from the domains of work, relationships, and health were investigated. The results indicate that vocational interests are important predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits. Vocational interests were significant predictors of 7 of the 9 investigated outcomes: full-time employment, gross income, unemployment, being married, having children, never having had a relationship, and perceived health status. For work and relationship outcomes, vocational interests were even stronger predictors than the Big Five personality traits. For health-related outcomes, the results favored the personality traits. Effects were similar across gender for all outcomes-except 2 relationship outcomes. Possible explanations for these effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Validation of a scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Potard, C; Réveillère, C; Moltrecht, B

    2011-02-01

    Early adolescence, which we also call prime adolescence, is marked by the transformations of puberty and the sexualisation of the body, changes in cognition and the progressive involvement in sexuality. This study is the continuation of an earlier work dealing with the construction and validation of a questionnaire on sexuality during adolescence (Courtois et al., 1998) [8]. Population. The sample was composed of 312 middle-school students (7 to 9(th) grade) from four middle-schools in Tours and its suburbs (Indre-et-Loire, France): 164 girls (52.6%) and 148 boys (47.4%); with a mean age of 13.8 (S.D.=1.02; from 10.7 to 16.9) (without significant differences between boys and girls). Material. The material was composed of 22 items calling for true or false answers and including 13 items from the initial questionnaire by Courtois et al. (1998) [7,8] structured in three dimensions ("Behavioral engagement in sexuality", "Love and fidelity" and "Taste for flirting"). Procedure. The study was carried out in 2008 in the classroom (anonymity guaranteed). The results of the factorial analysis (as the main component and by the method which maximizes variance, Varimax) made it possible to find three factors which explain 41% of total variance: "Going out with someone" (value of 4.6, explaining 21% of the total variance); "Giving priority to love" (value of 2.8 explaining 13% of the variance); "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" (value of 1.6 explaining 7% of variance). The Cronbach alphas are 0.79, 0.70 and 0.66 respectively. The first and third factors are correlated. In order to obtain a shorter final instrument and to favor the orthogonality between factors, we only retained the items which are strongly saturated by the factors (>0.50). A confirmatory analysis revealed the good adequation of the model retained (Chi(2): 162, 87 dof, Psexuality significant in prime adolescence (in accordance with interests, emotions and relationships). The analyses were

  15. Surgical Approach, Findings, and Eight-Year Follow-Up in a Twenty-Nine Year Old Female With Freeman-Sheldon Syndrome Presenting With Blepharophimosis Causing Near-Complete Visual Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Augusto L; Poling, Mikaela I; McCormick, Rodger J

    2016-07-01

    The authors describe the surgical approach, findings, and 8-year follow-up in a 29-year-old woman, with severe Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, presenting with congenital blepharophimosis of both upper eyelids resulting in near-complete functional visual obstruction. To avoid possible Freeman-Sheldon syndrome-associated complications of malignant hyperthermia, difficult vascular access, and challenging endotracheal intubation, the surgery was completed under local anesthesia without sedation, and anatomical and functional correction was immediate and remained stable at 8-year follow-up. Unlike many congenital craniofacial syndromes, which frequently involve life-long impairments, important implications exist for plastic surgeons to facilitate opportunities for patients to overcome functional limitations.

  16. Impact of case-based radiology education on first-year medical students knowledge, perceptions, and interests in the field of radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Rohr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical training institutions utilize a variety of approaches to present specialty educational material such as radiology. Typically, this material is introduced during the latter years of medical school and includes interactive modules, individual contexts, and case-based learning. This is a quasiexperimental study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of case-based radiology education presented to first-year medical students. Pre- and post-surveys were administered to measure changes in knowledge, perceptions of, and career interest in radiology. The results suggest that the use of case-based learning may improve medical students’ perceived knowledge of radiology and perceived importance of radiologists in the patient care process.

  17. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  18. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  19. The Overriding Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Twenty years ago,far-sighted leaders of China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN)launched a dialogue that deep-ened mutual understanding and trust,and helped forge close cooperation between the two sides.Since then,China and ASEAN have bolstered part-nerships in

  20. 静脉溃疡病人愈合后皮肤结构变化的远期随访%Long-term mortality of ultrasound structure in patients with venous leg ulcers-healed from one week to twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银辉; 贾赤字; 等

    2002-01-01

    目的观察静脉溃疡患者愈合后皮肤超声结构的变化,探讨创面愈合质量.方法应用皮肤超声仪检测静脉溃疡病人愈合后瘢痕表皮及真皮的厚度,分析真皮中低回声区像素(LEPs).结果与正常皮肤比较,静脉溃疡愈合后瘢痕的平均表皮厚度显著增加(P<0.01),平均真皮厚度显著降低(P<0.01),而真皮中LEPs的数量及分布均无明显变化.皮肤的回声参数与创面愈合时间、创面大小、创面存在时间及病人年龄均无显著相关性.结论静脉溃疡患者创面愈合后,真皮中液体的数量及分布无显著改变,表明愈合后水肿得到有效控制.%Objective To obtain information about the quality of scars of healed venous leg ulcers compared with intact skin on the opposite leg by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twenty-eight patients (16 women, 12 men, aged 31-89 years) whose venous ulcers had healed and scars formed were included in this study. The echogenicities of scars were measured with a 20 MHz high-frequency ultrasound Dermascan. The thickness of epidermis and dermis was assessed and the number of low echogenic pixels (LEPs) in the papillary dermis and reticular dermis were counted using image analysis software.Results The average epidermal thickness of the scars after 1 week to 20 years of healing was significantly increased compared to those of the control (P<0.01), whereas the average dermal thickness of scars after healing was significantly decreased compared to the control (P<0.01). The numbers of LEPs and the distributions of LEPs between scars and controls had no statistically significant differences. There were no correlations among scar echogenicities, age of healed venous ulcers, initial ulcer areas, age of venous ulcers or age of patients. In the control skin samples, the young group aged 31-69 years had fewer LEPs than did the elderly group aged 70-89 years.Conclusion Our study demonstrates that after the healing of venous leg ulcers

  1. 20年合作“北斗”项目历史回顾%Twenty years of cooperation--A brief history of the“Bei Dou”project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    . Spurred by the expanding landings of anchovy, analyses were made on the long-term annual yield of anchovy and discussions raised on the need to introduce some fisheries management regulations in order to avoid over-exploitation and possible collapse of the stock.   This and other management issues dominated the Project during the last 5-year period. Norwegian experts, particularly from the Directorate of Fisheries, have participated in a series of seminar organised by the Bureau of Fisheries covering topics in fisheries management such as management objectives, fisheries law, statistics, inspection and coastal zone management. At the same time, workshops have been held at the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute to prepare assessments of fish resources and provide advice to central government authorities on fisheries management.   Project evaluations have demonstrated that the “Bei Dou” Project in its various phases has made important contributions to the development of fisheries in China. It has also brought together scientists, technicians and administrators from China and Norway in fruitful cooperation, thus expanding their professional and cultural knowledge for mutual benefit.   NORAD has offered to support continued cooperation between fisheries institutions in Norway and China and a Project Document for 2001-2005 has been prepared. The Project will during the nearest years provide information on the Norwegian experience related to establishing and managing fisheries in Exclusive Economic Zones.   This will continue the well-established fisheries cooperation beyond the twenty years marked by the present “Bei Dou” Seminar in Qingdao.

  2. An Overview and Reflection on Classroom Observation and Evaluation in the Past Twenty Years in China%我国听评课研究二十年:回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方洁

    2014-01-01

    When school-based research goes further , the practice and research of classroom observation and evaluation are heading to prosperity gradually as well . With the ongoing mature of classroom observation techniques nowadays , the contents and forms of research on classroom observation and evaluation has developed and innovated further . In the past twenty years , the researches on classroom observation and evaluation include the nature , meaning and value , types and lens , contents and standards ,models ,strategies .Through reflecting on the researches mentioned above ,we have already achieved fruitful results . However , there are still some problems , such as simplex research method , priority to theory and minor attention to practice . Therefore , multi-dimension research , practice-oriented research , subject-related research multiple research methods are seriously needed .%听评课活动的实践与研究是随着校本教研的深入而逐渐走向繁荣的。在课堂观察技术日趋成熟的今天,听评课研究的内容与形式都得以拓展与创新。近二十年来,听评课活动的研究主要包括:听评课的内涵、意义与价值、类型与视角、内容与标准、模式与路径、策略与方法以及听评课活动中存在的问题等多个方面。反思听评课研究,虽然取得了丰硕的成果,但是不难发现尚存在研究主体与方法单一、重理论轻实践等问题。因此,听评课的研究主体应该多元化、研究取向应该走向实践、研究内容应该深入学科、研究方法应该多样化。

  3. Twenty-year Sino-Russian Relations:Strategic Cooperation of Stable Development%中俄关系二十年:稳步发展的战略协作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆; 张萍

    2013-01-01

      1992年,中俄两国友好国家关系正式确立。20多年来,中俄关系经历了跨越式发展的叶利钦时期,也经历了全面、务实推进的普京、梅德韦杰夫时期,中俄战略协作关系稳步发展,在政治、经贸、军事、文化等各个方面都取得了引人瞩目的成就。在当前复杂多变的国际大背景下,中俄关系具有坚实的战略协作基础,但也面临着缺乏深层互信、经贸合作长期滞后等重要问题。2012年,普京第三次入主克里姆林宫,中共十八大选举出新一届中央领导集体。2012—2013年度,中俄新一届领导人实现了互访,为中俄战略协作把脉。未来十年,中俄关系的发展存在巨大潜力与机遇。%In 1992, China and Russia officially established relations of friendly countries. For more than twenty years, the Sino-Russian relations have undergone the time of Yeltsin in which the relations had a leap-over development and the time of Putin and Medvedev in which the relations were pushed on in an all-round and pragmatic way. The Sino-Russian relations of strategic cooperation have won a stable development and made noticeable achievements in politics, economy, military affairs and culture, etc. The Sino-Russian relations have a firm basis of strategic cooperation against a complex and changeable international background, but also meet some problems such as a shortage of deep-level mutual trust and a long-term stagnation of economic and trade cooperation. In 2012, Putin became the master of Kremlin for the third time and the Chinese leaders collective of the central government were elected at the Eighteenth National Congress. In the year of 2012-2013, the new leaders of China and Russia had mutual visits and held the helm of the Sino-Russian strategic cooperation. The development of the Sino-Russian relations has a great potential and opportunity in the ten years to come.

  4. The variation of psychiatric in -patients' clinical diagnosis and treatment during past twenty years%20年间精神病住院患者的临床诊疗变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇雅菊; 高静芳; 谭忠林

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study was to investigate the variations of psychiatric in - patients' clinical diagnosis and treatment in order to explore its discipline and tendency. Method We drew off in - patients' cases in 1991, 2000 and 2009 of the Seventh People's Hospital of Hangzhou, with the method of case data searches. Result ①The study was conducted on 5635 cases of psychosis,the proportion of receiving and curing schizophrenia is relatively stable, it divines more than half( 55.04% ) of all the patients. ②Mood disorders to 16.24% ranked only second to schizophrenia, it consisted 16.24% of all the diseases, the scale of 2000 and 2009 was less than 1991 a little( P = 0.002 ). ③Change of the use of psychotropic drugs was mainly for the following two aspects. First,more and more doctors chose to use second - generation antipsychotic drugs( 29.95% ,50.78% and 75.28% in year of 1991,2000 and 2009 separately ). Second,combination was more and more common( 54.42% ,55.43% and 70. 52% separately ). Conclusion Schizophrenia remains the prime target of specialized hospital of mental disease in late twenty years, and,the trend of dropping of in - patients with mood disorder may concerning with therapeutic change. second - generation antipsychotic drugs'clinical superiority and diversification tendency of medical treatment are accepted by more and more clinicians.%目的 为了探讨近20年来精神病专科医院中住院患者的分布及相关的药物治疗变化趋势.方法 通过病例资料检索方法分别抽取1991年、2000年及2009年在杭州市第七人民医院住院治疗的全部病例资料.结果 共获得病例资料5635例,精神分裂症在各年度中的收治比例无显著差异,占所有精神障碍患者的半数以上(55.04%);心境障碍仅次于精神分裂症,占所有疾病数的16.24%,在2000和2009年度中收治比例略低于1991年(P=0.002);精神药物治疗方面的变化主要表现为新一代的抗精

  5. Síndrome de Cushing: veinticinco años de experiencia clínica en Navarra Cushing´s syndrome: twenty-five years of clinical experience in Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pérez García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación del Síndrome de Cushing (CS en cuanto a etiología, diagnóstico, tratamiento y curación en los últimos 25 años en Navarra. Material y métodos. Este estudio -retrospectivo, observacional-, se ha llevado a cabo sobre 36 pacientes diagnosticados de SC entre 1985 y 2010. Resultados. El 80,5% eran mujeres y el 19,5% hombres. La edad media al diagnóstico fue 39,3±13 años. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: obesidad (85,3%, cara de luna llena (35,3% y miopatía (50%. Etiológicamente, el 58,3 % tenían origen hipofisario, el 36,1% adrenal y el 5,5% ectópico. La media de CLU fue 343,5±310,1 μg/24horas. El cortisol sérico tras el Nugent fue de 15,6±8,6 μg/dl. La media del cortisol plasmático tras el frenado débil fue 15,1±14,2 μg/dl. Existe correlación lineal directa estadísticamente significativa (pBackground. The aim of this work is to determine the situation of Cushing´s Syndrome (CS with respect to aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and cure in the last 25 years in Navarre. Methods. Retrospective, observational study on 36 patients diagnosed with CS between 1985 and 2010. Results. Eighty point five percent were women and 19.5% were men. The average age on diagnosis was 39.3±13 years. The main clinical manifestations were: obesity (85.3%, full moon face (35.3% and myopathy (50%. Aetiologically, in 58.3% the origin was hypophisiary, in 36.1% it was adrenal, and in 5.5% it was ectopic. The UFC average was 343.5±310.1 μg/24hours. Serum cortisol after Nugent test was 15.6±8.6 μg/dl. Low dose plasma cortisol average was 15.1±14.2 μg/dl. There is a statistically significant (p< 0.01 direct lineal correlation between UFC and the Nugent test, as well as between the Nugent test and low dose cortisol test. There are no statistically significant differences between adrenal and hypophisiary aetiology in either demographic factors or analytical results

  6. 某院急性心肌梗死近20年治疗药物及疗效分析%Drug Therapy and Efficiency Analysis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Nearly Twenty Years in Some Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红军; 尹成; 梅廷方; 孙超; 李科民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe medication changes of acute myocardial infarction nearly twenty years in Bengbu NO1 hospital ,and to explore acute myocardial infarction drug therapy. Methods 402 cases of acute myocardial infarction(group A) were from January 1989 to December 1999, and 414 cases( group B) of acute myocardial infarction were from January 2000 to December 2010,the routine drug therapy proportion and the efficacy were analyzed to explore acute myocardial infarction drug therapy. Statistics was conducted. Results 380 among 402 cases in group A were treated with aspirin in, with the usage rate of 94.5% ;the use of heparin or low molecular weight heparin in 262 patients,with the rate of 65.2% ,the use of β-receptor blocker metoprolol in 132 cases,with the rate of 57.7% ,the use of statin drugs in 240 cases,with the rate of 59.7% .412 cases in group B were treated with aspirin in,with usage rate of 99.5% ,the use of heparin or low molecular weight heparin in 408 patients, with usage rate of 98. 6% , the use of p-receptor blocker metoprolol in 302 cases, with usage rate of 72.9% , the use of statin drugs in 396 cases,with usage rate of 95.7%. Decreased length of stay and reduction of hospital mortality associated with syndrome were observed in group B. Conclusion In recent ten years,aspirin,heparin or low molecular weight heparin,β-receptor blocker metoprolol, and statin usage rate was apparently increased, which indicated that the drug therapy of acute myocardial infarction was markedly improved.%目的 分析蚌埠市第一人民医院急性心肌梗死近20年药物治疗的变化,探讨急性心肌梗死药物治疗进展.方法 分别统计该院1989年1月-1999年12月402例(A组)急性心肌梗死和2000年1月-2010年12月414例(B组)急性心肌梗死的常规药物治疗比例和疗效,探讨急性心肌梗死药物治疗进展.结果 A组402例,应用阿司匹林380例,使用率为94.5%,应用肝素或低分子肝素262例,使用率为65.2%,β-受

  7. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  8. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  9. Twenty-seven years follow-up of a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome and additional congenital malformations (Bonnet-dechaume-blanc syndrome or wyburn-mason syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Follow-up of vascular changes in a patient with congenital retinocephalofacial vascular malformation syndrome. Methods MRI and cerebral angiography. Results In a 36-year-old man, magnetic resonance im aging of the skull and cerebral angiography revealed left intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Follow-up observation of 27 years revealed no essential change of retinal and cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Additional congenital deficits in this patient were described. Conclusion Patients with retinal arteriovenous malformations should be early examined with neuroradiological methods.

  10. Twenty-five years of change in scleractinian coral communities of Daya Bay (northern South China Sea)and its response to the 2008 AD extreme cold climate event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN TianRan; YU KeFu; SHI Qi; LI Shu; Gilbert J. Price; WANG Rong; ZHAO MeiXia; CHEN TeGu; ZHAO JianXin

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are becoming increasingly and detrimentally impacted upon by a variety of factors including significant climate changes, such as global warming and increased EI Nino-Southern Oscillation activity. Generally, the persistence of coral reefs, especially at low-latitudes, is governed, in part, by sea surface temperatures not exceeding the critical limit (~30℃) at which mass mortality can occur. Thus, it is thought that corals living at high-latitudes (i.e., currently cooler sea surface temperatures) will likely respond more favourably to hypothesized future temperature increases than corals living at low-latitudes (i.e., currently warmer sea surface temperatures). Consequently, high-latitude coral communities may have the potential to act as regions of refugia for many coral species in the face of potential future global warming. The Daya Bay (22°31′-22°0′N), northern South China Sea, contains several high-latitude non-reefal coral communities and represents one of the most northerly distributions of scleractinian corals within the region. Significantly, Daya Bay has experienced dramatic warming in both air and sea surface temperatures throughout the past 50 years. In this paper, we analyze 25 years of change in the Daya Bay coral communities, based both on historic surveys and our latest 2006-2008 regional ecological surveys. Our results suggest that, contrary to predictions, there have been significant declines in coral cover within the Daya Bay during the past 25 years (i.e., 76.6%coral cover in 1983/1984 to only 15.3% coral cover by 2008). Such changes also reflect a significant shift in the most abundant coral species, from Acropora pruinosa to Favites abdita. Most of the modern coral communities became established between 15 and 30 years ago, corresponding to a period of increased winter sea surface temperature. However, very few colonies have become established within the last 15 years, despite a more intense period of warming. By

  11. Vinte e cinco anos de reações, estratégias e metodologias em Química Orgânica Twenty five years of strategies, methodologies and reactions in organic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roque D. Correia

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the developments that occurred in the field of organic chemistry in Brazil in the last 25 years is presented. These developments are briefly compared to those observed worldwide, including some modern trends. The main source of information was the annual meeting of the Brazilian Chemical Society (RASBQ covering the period 1979-2001 and the biennial Brazilian Meeting on Organic Synthesis (BMOS. All the contributions presented at these two meetings were classified according to six main indicatives, to permit a discussion about the past, present and future activities of Organic Chemistry in Brazil.

  12. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  13. 26 CFR 20.2031-7A - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 4 percent a year, compounded annually, and life contingencies as to each life involved from values... of 31/2 percent a year, compounded annually, and life contingencies as to each life involved are..., and life contingencies are determined as to each male and female life involved, from values that...

  14. Forensics as a Gateway: Promoting Undergraduate Interest in Science, and Graduate Student Professional Development through a First-Year Seminar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Louise K.; Heymann, Jared J.; Adler, Marc J.; Haas, Kathryn L.; Mies, Kassy A.; Bonk, James F.

    2008-01-01

    A group of five graduate students and a faculty mentor used the cultural popularity of forensics to develop a first-year undergraduate seminar. This course fulfilled two main objectives: First, the graduate student instructors developed professionally through a two-year process of creating, instructing, and revising a course. Second, a variety of…

  15. 国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的文献计量分析%Literature metrology Analysis on Domestic Studies on Chinese Medicine in Treating Cerebral Infarction in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究文献发表数量及内容的研究现状,总结规律,指导临床。方法采用文献计量学整理文献年度发表量、发表趋势,总结此领域的治疗方法、分期论治、辨证分型、治则治法及中药运用情况等。结果该领域文献发表数较多且逐年增加,临床随机对照研究文献数呈上升趋势,非随机对照研究文献数呈下降趋势;脑梗死急性期研究最多,且各期辨证用药及干预措施各有侧重;气虚血瘀证、痰瘀阻络证贯穿病程始终,为脑梗死的基本病机;中医药治疗脑梗死方法多样,中药运用细致周到。结论中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究发展迅速且日趋成熟,治疗中体现出辨证论治的中医特色;但还需进一步提高研究水平,扩大该领域研究范围。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate the quantity,and content of research status, summary of regulation,clinical instruction of the domestic clinical trials on Chinese medicine in treating cere-bral infarction in the past 20 years. Methods Literature metrology was used to analyze the annual publishing amount,publishing trends,so as to summarize treatment methods,stage of governance,syndrome differentia-tion,therapeutic principle and application of traditional Chinese medicine and so on in this area. Results ①Clinical trials published in past20 years on the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction increased and the total number of randomized controlled trials showed increasing trend year by year;the number of randomized con-trolled clinical trials literature on the rise,the number of non -randomized controlled trial literature de-creased;②Acute cerebral infarction took account of the most studies and TCM drugs and interventions were used;③QDBS ,phlegm and blood stasis syndrome had always been throughout the course of cerebral infarc-tion,and ischemic stroke′s basic pathogenesis

  16. Twenty-five-year-old Woman with Bilateral Borderline Ovarian Tumour Desiring to Preserve Fertility - Case Report and Literature Review on the Current State of Fertility Preservation in Women with Borderline Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S; Lotz, L; Heusinger, K; Hoffmann, I; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W

    2016-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are semimalignant tumours occurring unilaterally or bilaterally with a peak incidence among women of reproductive age. Since the affected women often wish to preserve fertility, particular precautions must be taken when counselling the patient and obtaining consent prior to planning an individual treatment. Options for preserving fertility include an organ-sparing surgical procedure and cryopreservation of oocytes and/or ovarian tissue. In this article, we report on a 25-year-old patient with a bilateral seromucinous borderline tumour who desired all fertility-preserving options. In order to perform the procedure without delay, we opted to perform luteal phase stimulation prior to oocyte retrieval. We conclude by discussing the current literature on the state of fertility preservation in the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours.

  17. Multifocal osteonecrosis in a patient with anamnestic ulcerative colitis. Is there a relationship with the disease and the use of glucocorticoids twenty years before? A brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, G; Abdi-Ali, L; Sacco, S; Dalle Carbonare, L G

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 a 40 year old man came to visit in our Rheumatology Unit because of a recent bilateral shoulder and hip pain. He had been treated from 1990 to 2000 with Cyclosporin A and Sulfasalazyn because of an ulcerative colitis which was completely in remission from 2000 . Glucocorticoids at the mean daily dose of 50 mg were administered only in the first period (1990-92). X-plain rays showed a suspicious multifocal osteonecrosis of both femoral and humeral heads. Magnetic Resonance confirmed the diagnosis (stage III and IV following Ficat and Arlet's criteria). The patient was treated with a cycle of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with two cycles of intravenous clodronate and with a 2-month cycle of teriparatide. The treatment was able to save a sufficient function for both shoulders, while for both hips arthroplasty the surgery was required. The risks of osteonecrosis linked to inflammatory bowel diseases or to its therapy are discussed.

  18. 二十年来南通市滨海地区景观格局变化分析%Landscape Pattern Changes in Coastal Area of Nantong City in Recent Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚红; 游珍

    2013-01-01

    Coastal areas have the characteristics of rich biodiversity,productivity and high ecological effect and potential economic value.Based on the TM images and ETM images of 1991,2000 and 2010,the changes of 6 landscape patterns including tidal salt marsh,silt beach,delta/sandbar,aquaculture farms,construction land and other land use types of coastal areas in Nantong city in the recent 20 years were analyzed.The result indicated that the terrestrial landscape areas increased notably,while ocean landscape,especially the inter-tidal salt marsh areas reduced,sea-land demarcation line moved continuously in the direction of ocean.The changes in the first 10 years(1991~2000) were small,while in the last 10 years (2001~2010) was significant.The landscape changes in coastal areas of Nantong were inseparable with the coastal development,it changed slowly in 1991-2000 and changed notably in 2001-2010.It was suggested that the design and implementation of coast development plan including development mode,scale,speed and strength should be cautious to avoid irreversible damages.%滨海地区具有生物多样性丰富、生产力高且生态效应大、潜在经济价值大的特点.试验选用1991年、2000年和2010年三个时期的TM和ETM遥感影像为主要数据源,定量分析了南通市滨海地区20年来的潮间盐水沼泽、淤泥质海滩、三角洲(沙洲、沙岛)、水产养殖场、滨海建设用地和陆域其他类型用地6类景观的面积变化情况.结果表明,20年闽南通市滨海地区陆域景观面积不断增加,海域景观尤其是潮间盐水沼泽面积大幅减少,海陆分界线不断向海洋方向移动,且前10年(1991~2000年)变化幅度较小,后10年(2001~2010年)变化显著.南通市滨海地区的景观格局变化与沿海开发程度密不可分,建议在进行沿海开发时,包括开发方式、开发范围、开发速度及力度等在内的沿海开发方案制定与实施需慎之又慎,以避免造成不可逆转的不良后果.

  19. 小儿门脉高压症外科治疗二十三年回顾%Twenty three Year Review of the Surgical Treatment of Portal Hypertention in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振东; 张道荣; 牟弦琴; 孙静生; 牛爱国; 林文举; 赵莉; 李明红

    1989-01-01

    作者对23年间收治的77例小儿门脉高压症进行了随访.认为食道静脉曲张破裂出血是危及患儿生命的主要问题.针对出血的各种术式均未达到令人满意的效果.脾肾分流加冠状静脉结扎加大网膜腹膜后固定术联合手术可减少再出血的发生.%Seventy-seven children with portal hypertention were admitted in 1965-1987.Intrahe patic and extrahepatic types were equal.Hematemesis end melena happened in 47(61.4%).28 crises came in with acute hemorrhage.Various degree of hypersplenism were found in all cases.9 kinds of operation were performed on 66 cases.66 cases was followed up for a mean of 9.7 years.In 59 operated patients,rebleeding occurred in 25(38.1%).of the 15 dead cases,8 died of esophageal bleeding.Splenorenal shunt is suitable for the patient who has bleeding before operation.Ligation of the coronary vein and retroperitoneal omentopexy had lowered the rebleedingrate to 20%.OPSI was also discussed in this paper.

  20. The prevalence of disc aging and back pain after fusion extending into the lower lumbar spine. A matched MR study twenty-five years after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, A.J.; Nachemson, A.L. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Cederlund, C.G.; Ekholm, S. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    To determine the long-term outcome after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in terms of degenerative disc findings diagnosed using MR imaging and to elucidate the clinical consequences. Material and methods: Thirty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who had undergone spinal fusion using Harrington rods to the lower lumbar spine with one or two unfused discs below the fusion, were re-examined 25 years after the fusion. The re-examinations included validated questionnaires, clinical examination, full standing frontal and lateral radiographs and MR examination of the lower lumbar region. Curve size and degenerative findings on MR images were evaluated by two unbiased radiologists, blinded to the clinical findings. A matched control group of 32 persons without scoliosis was subjected to the same examinations. Results and conclusion: There were significantly more degenerative disc changes (p<0.0001), disc height reduction (p=0.0010) and end-plate changes (p<0.0001 for both upper and lower end-plates) in the lowest unfused disc in the patient group compared with the control group. The MR findings in the lowest unfused disc, but not the one above, in the patient group correlated to lumbar pain intensity as well as to the diminished lumbar lordosis.

  1. Mineralogia de um latossolo vermelho distrófico submetido a diferentes manejos por 24 anos Mineralogy of a red latosol under different management systems for twenty-four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, procuram-se sistemas de manejo que preservem ou melhorem as qualidades do solo, tanto mineralógicas como orgânicas, priorizando maior produtividade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar qualitativamente, por meio das técnicas de fluorescência de raios X, difração de raios X e infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, os efeitos provocados pela utilização dos manejos: plantio convencional, preparo mínimo e plantio direto, por 24 anos, na mineralogia de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico de Ponta Grossa, PR. Não foram observadas mudanças significativas na mineralogia do Latossolo estudado, por meio das técnicas utilizadas, quanto aos diferentes manejos durante os anos de sua aplicação. Pôde-se verificar, qualitativamente, a presença dos minerais gibbsita, caulinita, haloisita, montmorilonita, hematita, rutilo, anatásio, goethita e quartzo.The search for management systems that preserve or improve soil qualities, the mineralogical as well as the organic composition, with a view to higher yields, is becoming more and more intense. The objective this study was to qualitatively verify the mineralogical effects of different management types: conventional , minimum and no-tillage for 24 years on a Red Latosol in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil, by the following techniques: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared. No significant changes in the mineralogy of the Red Latosol were observed by the techniques applied, as a result of the different management types. It was however possible to qualitatively verify the presence of the following minerals: gibbsite, kaolinite, halloysite, montmorillonite, hematite, rutile, anatase, goethite and quartz.

  2. The Review and Reflection of the Development of Shanghai Community College in Recent Twenty Years%上海社区学院发展20年的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亦芳

    2013-01-01

    自1993年上海提出组建社区学院到现在已有20年的历程,伴随着上海社区教育和学习型社会建设的稳步推进,上海社区学院也经历了一段不平凡的发展过程,既面临体制与机制架构之难题,也经历功能定位之困惑,在不断探索与实践中逐步找到自己的位置并得到稳步的发展。在“完善终身教育体系,建设学习型社会”的新形势下,上海社区学院应怎样发展,应如何进一步发挥其作用,需要我们进一步探索和思考。%Since 1993 ,Shanghai proposed to set up community college till now for 20 years .With Shanghai community education and the construction of learning society ,Shanghai’s community college has gone through an extraordinary development process ,facied the problem of system and mechanism framework and experienced the confusion of functional localization .In the continuous exploration and practice gradually found their ow n positions and achieve steady development . In new situation “to perfect lifelong education system and build a learning society” ,it is necessary to further explore and think that the Shanghai community college should be how to develop and how to further play its role .

  3. Morte materna em hospital terciário do Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil: um estudo de 20 anos Maternal mortality at a tertiary hospital in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil: a twenty-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Lopes Ramos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os casos de morte materna ocorridos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, hospital universitário de referência para gestação de alto risco no Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: realizamos estudo retrospectivo analisando os prontuários médicos das mulheres entre 10 e 49 anos que morreram no HCPA no período de 1980 a 1999. Foram analisadas apenas as mortes relacionadas a gestação e puerpério (até 365 dias após o término da gestação, independente do tipo e duração da gestação. As causas foram separadas em causas obstétricas diretas, obstétricas indiretas e causas não obstétricas. RESULTADOS: entre as causas obstétricas diretas (61,7%, destacaram-se a hipertensão arterial (18,5%, a infecção pós-cesariana (16% e o aborto séptico (12,3%. Dentre as causas obstétricas indiretas (23,5%, as mais prevalentes foram a cardiopatia (8,6%, o fígado gorduroso agudo (3,5% e o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (2,5%. Dentre as causas não obstétricas (15,0%, destacam-se as neoplasias malignas (7,4% e a AIDS (3,7%. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência das principais causas de morte materna não sofreu modificação nas últimas duas décadas, sendo que a principal causa continua sendo a hipertensão arterial. Também, há número significativo de mortes relacionadas à cesariana (relacionadas ao procedimento e às infecções. Podemos concluir que a prevalência de causas obstétricas diretas aponta para a baixa capacidade de prevenção de morte materna no nosso sistema de saúde.PURPOSE: to analyze maternal death cases that occurred at the "Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre", a reference university hospital for high-risk pregnancies in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: we carried out a retrospective study of medical records of 10- to 49-year-old women who died at the hospital between 1980 and 1999. Deaths related to pregnancy and puerperium were analyzed independently of the kind and duration of

  4. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  5. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  6. Has ECB communication been helpful in predicting interest rate decisions? An evaluation of the early years of the Economic and Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.J.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the usefulness of communication by the European Central Bank for predicting its policy decisions during the early years of the European Economic and Monetary Union. Using ordered probit models based on the Taylor rule, we find that statements on the main refinancing rate and future inflat

  7. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  8. Twenty-first century Irvings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawler, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Irving family is the most powerful family in Atlantic Canada and one of the richest families in the world. The family is valued at $5.9 billion. This book discussed the family's growth and gradual domination over the forestry, energy, and transportation industries in Atlantic Canada. The book examined how the family has managed to remain dominant and powerful, and examined the ability of future Irving generations to maintain their power in the future, as the family expands and disperses. Details of the Irvings' particular style of entrepreneurship and their use of vertical integration were presented, and their relationships with government agencies were also discussed. The book examined the business practices and methods of different generations of Irvings, from the origins of the family business. The book demonstrated how the family has remained a progressive economic force for more than 150 years. An Irving family business history was also provided. Family attitudes towards the environment, philanthropy, and the media were also discussed. refs.

  9. Vinte anos do MST: a psicologia nesta história Veinte años de lo movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra: la psicología en esta historia Landless peasants’ movement after twenty years: psychology and the movement’s history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Domingues

    2007-12-01

    resultados y conclusiones de las pesquisas. Se destaca la necesidad de estudios sobre la infancia, desterritorialización y sufrimiento psíquico y salud mental en el campo.The Landless Peasants’ Movement (MST in Brazil commemorated twenty years in 2004. Throughout its lifetime, it has aroused the interest of researchers hailing from different areas, mainly from those involved in Education and Sociology. Few researches on the movement are extant within Psychology. The mapping of general scientific production on the Movement and an analysis of the specific production within Psychology are the objects of current research. An online search was undertaken at the CAPES data bank with regard to the 1987-2004. All abstracts were printed and classified. Whereas the abstracts revealed the theses and dissertations developed in postgraduate programs for Master’s degree in Psychology, the dissertations were read to identify pre-oriented subject matter in the researches, their main results and their conclusions. The need for further studies concerning childhood, de-territorialization, psychic suffering and mental health conditions in the rural area is emphasized.

  10. Twenty years of child and teenager’s statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 2010 completaremos 20 anos do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA, instituído pela Lei 8.069, em julho de 1990(1. O seu papel é de fundamental importância, pois até então as políticas relacionadas a crianças e adolescentes surgiam com o objetivo de resolução de problemas sociais. O ECA consiste na forma de regulamentação dos direitos das crianças e dos adolescentes de nosso país.O ECA surgiu a partir das diretrizes da Constituição Federal de 1988(2, explicitadas em seu art 227.Art. 227. É dever da família, da sociedade e do Estado assegurar à criança e ao adolescente, com absoluta prioridade, o direito à vida, à saúde, à alimentação, à educação, ao lazer, à profissionalização, à cultura, à dignidade, ao respeito, à liberdade e à convivência familiar e comunitária, além de colocá-los a salvo de toda forma de negligência, discriminação, exploração, violência, crueldade e opressão.A partir destes dois importantes documentos sociais e em resposta às lutas sociais que vinham sendo travadas desde 1980 em prol da redemocratização e da defesa dos direitos da criança e do adolescetes, estes passaram a ser considerados como “sujeitos de direitos”. Desde então, são considerados em sua “peculiar condição de pessoas em desenvolvimento” e a quem se deve assegurar “prioridade absoluta” na formulação de políticas públicas e destinação privilegiada de recursos nas dotações orçamentárias das diversas instâncias político-administrativas do País(3.Os direitos concernentes à convivência familiar e comunitária e ao lazer como parte fundamental de sua socialização e de seu florescimento enquanto ser humano, também são estabelecidos pelo documento. Entretanto, apesar de serem considerados como direitos básicos de todas as crianças, este aspecto da legislação não recebe ainda a devida atenção. O problema do trabalho infantil, apesar de todos os esforços das organizações governamentais, não governamentais e da sociedade, ainda está longe de ser resolvido (3.O ECA, além de criar mecanismos de proteção nas áreas de educação, saúde, trabalho e assistência social, estabelece o fim da aplicação de punições para adolescentes, tratados com medidas de proteção em caso de desvio de conduta e com medidas socioeducativas em caso de cometimento de atos infracionais. Ponto este que tem sido alvo de debates e de necessidade de maiores estudos acerca da violência. Não só daquela sofrida pelo jovem, mas principalmente aquela que é exercida por ele(4.Com o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente surgem os Conselhos e Fundos dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente – municipais, estaduais e nacional –, e o Conselho Tutelar – apenas na esfera municipal –, obrigatórios em todo Município. Passa-se assim a responsabilidade para o município.No ano de 2009 foi realizada uma avaliação da Associação Nacional dos Centros de Defesa (ANCED, tendo sido organizado, pela segunda vez, um relatório sobre a situação dos direitos da criança e do adolescente no país. Neste levantamento sobre os principais eixos temáticos que albergam as políticas públicas, destacaram-se aquelas que envolviam: Sistema Geral de Proteção; Medidas Gerais de Implementação da Convenção dos Direitos da Criança (CDC; Homicídios, Atentados à Vida, à Integridade Física, Tortura e Punições Corporais; Convivência Família e Comunitária; Violências Sexuais e Exploração Econômica; Direito à Saúde, Direito à Educação e Justiça Juvenil. Concluindo-se que o estado tem fracassado no seu papel primordial de defesa dos direitos da criança e do adolescente(5.Neste número da Revista Brasileira em Promoção da Saúde publicamos um artigo que aborda o tema Políticas Públicas de Saúde (PPS voltadas para a criança. Esta pesquisa foi realizada nos Centros Municipais de Educação Infantil (CMEI e nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS na Cidade de Santa Maria no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul(6.Os achados corroboram o que tem sido vis

  11. Baltic cooperation twenty years later / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    2. detsembril Tallinnas toimunud Baltimaade ja Poola presidentide kohtumisel arutati Rail Balticu projektiga seonduvat. 2. detsembril Kaunases toimunud Baltimaade kaitseministrite Mart Laari, Rasa Jukneviciene ja Artis Pabriksi kohtumisel arutati Balti riikide kaitsekoostööga seotud küsimusi. Samal ajal Visaginases toimunud Läti ja Leedu peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti Visaginase tuumaelektrijaama projektist. LNG terminaliga seotud vaidlustest

  12. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  13. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  14. Baltic cooperation twenty years later / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    2. detsembril Tallinnas toimunud Baltimaade ja Poola presidentide kohtumisel arutati Rail Balticu projektiga seonduvat. 2. detsembril Kaunases toimunud Baltimaade kaitseministrite Mart Laari, Rasa Jukneviciene ja Artis Pabriksi kohtumisel arutati Balti riikide kaitsekoostööga seotud küsimusi. Samal ajal Visaginases toimunud Läti ja Leedu peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti Visaginase tuumaelektrijaama projektist. LNG terminaliga seotud vaidlustest

  15. Twenty years of treatment for Gaucher disease: emerging challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dussen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Type I Gaucher disease, the so-called non-neuronopathic variant, is mainly characterised by cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone complications. Gaucher disease was the first LSD for which enzyme replacement the

  16. A Twenty Year Path: Learning about Assessment; Learning from Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L. Gilchrist

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the development of educational assessment from the 1970’s to the present, including discussions of basic working definitions and models of assessment in information literacy. It reflects on what librarians have learned from assessment and about assessment, and how this information is being used to improve current and future assessment offerings.

  17. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  18. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome sequencing? There are many practical applications, such as genome-scale metabolic modeling, biosurveillance, bioforensics, and infectious disease epidemiology. In the near future, high-throughput sequencing of patient metagenomic samples could revolutionize medicine in terms of speed and accuracy of finding pathogens and knowing how to treat them.

  19. Twenty Years of Commercial Lasers--A Capsule History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauminzer, Gary K.

    1986-01-01

    Since the commercial laser industry was born, laser sales and services have grown to billion dollar proportions. This period of growth is reviewed. Discusses types of lasers, expansion of applications and growth in laboratory usage, technical improvements, and current laser development trends. (CT)

  20. Twenty Years on: Reflections on the CEDISYS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudol, Gerard; Castellani, Ilaria; Hennessy, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We recall some memories of the Esprit Basic Research Action CEDISYS, a small, well-focussed and fruitful project which brought together researchers at the meeting point of true concurrency and process algebra, in the period 1988-1991. The project was initiated and effectively animated by Ugo...

  1. Twenty Years of Prīmary Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    something butcando nothing and psychiatrists as those who ... department of Professor (Mrs) O Olurin and Professor. (Mrs) O .... and the other emergency) died from inadequate fluid therapy. ... Students of laboratory science in our various.

  2. PROGRESS OF CHINESE REGIONAL GEOGRAPHYSTUDIES IN RECENT TWENTY YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Regional geography, embodying the regionality and integration, is the kernel of Geography. Since the 1980s, the Chinese geographers have extensively taken part in the social practical activities and made progress in physicogeographical regionalization, economic regionalization, territorial (regional) development planning, construction of special economic zone, and integrated research in the major areas of China. Through these works, the theories of regional geography have been richened and the capacity participating in the social practice promoted as well. In China, many regional researches had been conducted respectively from the aspects of regional physico-geography and regional economic geography,etc. According to the cases, this paper gives a review on the studies of regional geography during the latest two decades in China. It ought to be indicated that the natural and human components should be combined and the disciplines intersected and permeated, with the support of advanced technology. In order to serve the regional sustainable development, on the background of global change, this is an inevitable tendency for the development of the regional geography.

  3. Twenty five years of organic chemistry with diiodosamarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Henri B. [Laboratoire de Synthese Asymetrique (UMR 8075), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: kagan@icmo.u-psud.fr

    2006-02-09

    An historical account of the introduction of samarium diiodide in organic chemistry is presented in the first section, with the main initial results obtained. The basic organic transformations published in the author laboratory and by other groups during the initial period (1977-1987) are detailed. Some of the progresses subsequently obtained will be selected such as various transformations in synthesis, including asymmetric synthesis and total synthesis of natural products. The possible use of SmI{sub 2} in catalytic amount together with a terminal reducing agent is discussed. In the conclusion is summarized the wide scope of the chemistry induced by SmI{sub 2} with some comments on the future of this chemistry.

  4. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, L A; Telugu, B P V L

    2012-08-01

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that an ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self-renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the terminally differentiated cells of a conceptus. These attributes make the ESC an ideal source for genome editing for both agricultural and biomedical applications. Although, ESC lines have been successfully established from rodents and primates, authentic ungulate stem cell lines on the contrary are still not available. Outstanding issues including but not limited to differences in pluripotency characteristics among the existing ESC lines, pre-implantation embryo development, pluripotency pathways, and culture conditions plague our efforts to establish authentic ESC lines from farm animals. In this review, we highlight some of these issues and discuss how the recent derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) might augur the establishment of robust authentic ESC lines from farm animals.

  5. Twenty years of treatment for Gaucher disease: emerging challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dussen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Type I Gaucher disease, the so-called non-neuronopathic variant, is mainly characterised by cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone complications. Gaucher disease was the first LSD for which enzyme replacement

  6. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that the ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the...

  7. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Twenty-five years of Social Science in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens

    2011-02-01

    In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.

  9. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  10. Twenty years of treatment for Gaucher disease: emerging challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dussen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). Type I Gaucher disease, the so-called non-neuronopathic variant, is mainly characterised by cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and bone complications. Gaucher disease was the first LSD for which enzyme replacement the

  11. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gail Super has a PhD in Law and Society from New York ... combatting has the potential to unleash violent technologies in the quest for 'ethics' and 'morality'. When .... control over a crime situation about which citizens .... empowerment and grassroots localism, have given popular .... Personal communication, 10 April 2014.

  12. Twenty-seven Years of Cerebral Pyruvate Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdán, Sebastián

    2017-01-18

    Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates. Its cellular localization between the neuronal or astrocytic compartments of the in vivo brain has been controversial, with evidences favoring either a primarily neuronal or glial localizations, more recently accepted to occur in both environments. This review provides a brief history on the detection and characterization of the pathway, its relations with the early developments of cerebral high resolution (13)C NMR, and its potential neuroprotective functions under hypoglycemic conditions or ischemic redox stress.

  13. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    branded lessons on the consciousness of the now independent USAF. Further, the employment of atomic weapons had forever changed airpower and...fellow specialists; and their loyalties followed their profession rather than the operational...the book The Icarus Syndrome: The Role of Air Power Theory in the Evolution and Fate of the U.S. Air Force. Clearing Off The Coffee Table Carl

  14. Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panattoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To shed light on trends about elimination of viruses from plants, a bibliographic research was conducted to identify thermotherapy, chemotherapy and tissue culture trials published from 1991 through 2010. Among woody plants, grapevine, apple and peach are the most frequent targets of sanitation protocols because their health status is strictly regulated. Even if thermotherapy represents the preferred method for the host, grapevine viruses can also be eliminated with chemotherapy and tissue culture; apple viruses respond to chemotherapy as well. Although a similar trend was reported among herbaceous plants, chemotherapy was the most frequently used technique in potato. With regard to virus, thermotherapy was successfully applied against viruses belonging to 13 families and an unassigned genus. Instead, chemotherapy and tissue culture techniques eradicated viruses belonging to fewer families (nine. An interpretation of thermotherapy effects considers the new metabolic “pathways” triggered by the natural antiviral response emitted by the infected plant, with particular reference to virus-induced gene silencing. With regard to chemotherapy, several groups of antiviral drugs belong to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors. Tissue culture, usually adopted to regenerate plantlets in biotechnological breeding programs, represents the less used tool for eliminate viruses from plants.

  15. Congenital choledochal cysts in adults: twenty-five-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-bin; CAO Li-ping; PENG Shu-you; WANG Jian-wei; Khagendra Raj Devkota; JI Zhen-ling; LI Jiang-tao; WANG Xu-an; MA Xiao-ming; CAI Wei-long; KONG Ying

    2007-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst is rare in western countries. The relatively high incidence of coexistent hepatobiliary disease increases the difficulty of the surgical management of choledochal cyst. Here we analyze the diagnosis and treatment of congenital bile duct cyst in 122 Chinese adults.Methods The clinical data of 122 patients with congenital choledochal cysts admitted from 1981 to 2006 were analyzed.Results Clinical symptoms in most cases were nonspecific, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Sixty-one patients (50%) had coexistent pancreatobiliary disease. Among the 122 patients, 119 patients underwent ultrasonic examination;ERCP/MRCP was performed in 63 cases and CT in 102 cases. Abnormal pancreatobiliary duct junction was found in 48 patients. Sixteen patients had malignant lesions in the bile duct, arising in 11 of them from incomplete choledochal cyst that underwent various operations including cystenterostomy or cystojejunostomy. There was significant difference between the patients who underwent incomplete cyst resection and complete cyst resection in malignancy rate of bile duct (Chi square test, P= 0.000; odds ratio, 7.800; 95 % confidence interval, 2.450 to 24.836).Conclusions ERCP, CT and MRCP had proved their great values in the classification of the disease. Cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is recommended as the treatment of choice for patients with type Ⅰ or type Ⅳ cysts. For type Ⅴ cyst (Caroli's disease) with recurrent cholangitis, liver transplantation should be considered.

  16. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, "What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers?" by obtaining information from students about (1 various methods used in surgical training (2 numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3 their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1 st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction.

  17. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  18. Interdependence And Forecasting Of S&P500, Oil, Euro / Dollar And 10-Year U.S. Interest Rate Markets: An Attempt Of Modelling Through The Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed KSAIER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We observe from the late 1990s an increasing phenomenon of volatility on these following markets: Oil (WTI price, Foreign Exchange (nominal Euro/Dollar, Stock Market (S&P 500 Index and Bond market (U.S.10-Year. After seizing the concept of volatility and overcoming its first definition of risk measure, we have evaluated their interdependencies from a VAR model, we have investigated the presence of long memory phenomenon in these series and we have carried out their forecasted trajectories from FIGARCH model. This paper is presented as follows: Section 1 opens on a definition of the volatility, Section 2 examines the interdependence of the studied markets; Section 3 provides a FIGARCH model in order to capture the dynamics and predict future market volatilities changes and Section 4 concludes."

  19. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  20. An Inquiry into Juan Ramon's Interest in Walter Pater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Wilcox

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for Juan Ramon's interest in Pater, which began around 1920 and was still active twenty years later, is discussed in this paper. Pater's view of death and dying and his attitude toward the decadent persona are described in so far as they indicate the spiritual affinity that exists between him and Juan Ramón. Pater's aesthetic idealism, and the presence of similar ideals in Juan Ramon's own work are then examined. The second part of the paper concentrates on the great interest Juan Ramón took in Pater's evocation of the Mona Lisa. The potential impact of the aesthetic idealism inherent in this passage, its Platonism in particular, receives special analysis in the light of Espacio , and in consideration of Juan Ramon's 1943 remark: "I am, have been, and always will be a Platonist."

  1. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  2. Twenty-Channel Voice Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    programs and vocabulary. 0 Telephone Company (TELCO) Switched Lines - provides access to VRS using telephones. * Bell 407C Data Sets - Converts the Touch...from the twenty 407C units. 0 DLII-E - Asynchronous interface to the 11/34 unibus for the VOTRAX unit. * 20 Channel ADPCM Decoder - a specially designed

  3. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  4. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  5. 法庭科学的真谛——重温林几教授《二十年来法医学之进步》%The True Meaning of Forensic Science — A Retrospective Study of a Dissertation Developments of Forensic Medicine in The Past Twenty Years written by professor Lin Ji(1897-1951)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞亭

    2012-01-01

    The Dissertation,,Developments of Forensic Medicine in The Past Twenty Years(Lin,1946),was written based on a combinational research results with regards to forensic history,connotation,definition,education,academic,legislation,humanity and personality.This dissertation is a sample representation of Lin Ji's overall educational methods and academic theories.Moreover,the article revealed the truth of forensic science,which is of historic and practical importance.%《二十年来法医学之进步》一文,是林几对法庭科学史、法庭科学内涵、范围、管理、教育、学术、立法及法庭科学人文、人格等的研究成果,是林几的教育思想及学术思想的集中体现。文章揭示了法庭科学的真谛,对今天仍有十分重要的历史和现实意义。

  6. 近二十年来西方语言、文化、身份三者关系的研究综述%A Review on the Studies of the Relationship between Language, Culture and Identity in the West in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹燕萍; 杨燕

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have the function of constructing identity.This article analyzes the re-search periods and content of the relationship between language,culture and identity.The concept of identity and the theory of identity construction put forward by western scholars in the past twenty years are introduced. The influence of western scholarsresearch on Chinese scholars'research and the implication for the further re-search of Chinese scholars are also discussed.%语言、文化具有身份建构的功能。文章对近二十年来西方语言、文化、身份三者关系的研究阶段和研究内容进行了梳理,在此基础上从语言、文化的视角介绍了身份概念、身份建构理论,并探讨了西方身份问题研究对国内身份研究的影响和启示。

  7. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.;

    2006-01-01

    similarities; especially that entrepreneurship within universities has to be welcomed and facilitated top-down, but organically occurs and develops bottom-up. Implementing entrepreneurship at universities is thus about stimulating a culture of organic intrapreneurship and we provide practical recommendations...... studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...... by the interviewees was surveyed. We showed that the practices have been implemented only to various degrees and rather unsystematically. There are important differences among the universities, to some extent depending on the level of ambition that each university has regarding each practice. There are also important...

  8. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  9. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  10. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  11. What Makes a Mathematical Task Interesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Rimma

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…

  12. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zoellner, F.G. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zahn, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [Heidelberg University, Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  13. Recent evolution of the physical-chemical characteristics of a Site of National Interest-the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea)-and changes over the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Martina; De Vittor, Cinzia; Comici, Cinzia; Relitti, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Alabiso, Giorgio; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo of Taranto, classified as a 'Site of National Interest' (SIN), is a semi-enclosed basin divided into two inlets with lagoon features and sea influences, seriously affected by anthropic activities. In the framework of the RITMARE project, a study has been carried out to evaluate the functionality of this ecosystem. As part of this work, measurements of the water abiotic parameters were performed in order to assess the physical-chemical features of this area after the activation, in the last decade, of treatment plants for various urban and industrial dumping. Seawater intrusions and continental inputs, as well as several submarine freshwater springs, clearly affect physical-chemical characteristics of the water column in the two inlets. This finding suggests that small-scale patterns in water circulation have the potential to influence the chemical properties of the seawater. The comparison with a 20-year dataset reveals a drastic decrease in nutrient concentrations after the year 2000, validating the functionality of the treatment plants. The reduction of nutrient inputs into the basin (up to -90 % in the first inlet characterized by lower hydraulic residence time) has changed the biogeochemical characteristics of the Mar Piccolo from being relatively eutrophic to moderately oligotrophic.

  14. Genetic interest assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  15. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  16. A Comparative Study between Mainland China and Taiwan on the “Life and Death Study” in Twenty Years%20年来两岸学界关于“生死问题”的不同进路及其比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永超

    2015-01-01

    生死问题构成人生的起点与终点。学界关于“生死问题”的研究有两条线索:第一条是大陆学者段德智与郑晓江等分别基于西方哲学史和中国儒释道精神所做的关于“西方死亡哲学”和“中国生死智慧”的进路,在生死观探讨中,大陆学者也逐渐由生死智慧走向“生命教育”;第二条线索起源于美国的“死亡学”传统,华人学者傅伟勋教授接续此“死亡学”传统并将其创造性的引向台湾学界,这便是“生死学”学科的确立。尽管大陆与台湾关于“生死学”的研究进路不同,但最终都走向“生命关怀”和“生死教育”。%Born and death are the beginning and end of life,which are both key problems for everyone. In twenty years,there are three main different perspectives for life-and-death studies:philosophy of death,life-and-death studies (thanatology),life-and-death education.With a comparative perspective,there are obvious different ways between mainland China and Taiwan on the study of life and death.In mainland China,take Professor Duan Dezhi and Zheng Xiaojiang as an example,their studyies focus on the philosophy of death and the wisdom of life.However,in Taiwan,take professor Fu Weixun as an example,he developed the thanatology to life-and-death studies.Although there are two different ways on life and death study,we still find that they are chasing for the same aim in mainland China and Taiwan.

  17. Twenty Lives Nineteen Years Later: A Longitudinal Study (1964-1983) of the Impact of Literacy on the Occupations, Schooling, and Educational Growth of Young Adults Who Were Low-Reading Readiness in First Grade with Special Attention Given to Model, Motivation, Interest, Perseverance, and Pressure as Aspects of Background and Mental Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    The study described in this report had a threefold purpose: (1) to examine, over time, the development of young adults who, when in the first grade in a midwestern school system, were in the lower third of their classes; (2) to examine the effect of literacy on their educational attainment, occupational level, and achievement; and (3) to examine…

  18. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  19. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  20. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coopersmith

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  1. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  2. Twenty Strategies to Increase Student Motivation. Information Capsule. Volume 0907

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Keeping students interested in school and motivating them to succeed are challenges that even the most experienced teachers face every year. A host of student variables can lead to low levels of motivation, but research indicates that educational settings also influence motivation levels. Some studies have found that motivation is a stronger…

  3. The Dynamic Change and Trend of Groundwater Level in Jinan Yellow River Irrigation Region More Than Twenty Years%济南引黄灌区近20年地下水位动态变化及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑波; 徐立荣; 梅泽本

    2016-01-01

    利用多年观测资料,对济南引黄灌区地下水位动态变化特征及趋势进行了分析,结果表明:①近二十年济南引黄灌区地下水位年际变化趋势主要受引黄灌溉水量的影响,2002-2013年来地下水位波动下降明显;多年月均地下水位变化出现两个峰值,主峰值主要受汛期降水的影响,次峰值主要受春季引黄灌溉的影响。②对地下水位多年序列和季节序列进行M -K趋势和参数特征分析表明,灌区2000年以后地下水位呈下降趋势,且在2012年以后下降趋势较显著;春季和夏季地下水位总体上无明显趋势,而秋季和冬季分别在2003年和2006年以后呈现较明显的下降趋势。③由于秋季灌区引黄供水远远不能满足实际需水量,为缓解地下水位下降,应适当增加秋季引黄量。%Based on the observational data of many years ,the Mann-Kendall trend test method was adopted to analyze the dynamic change and trend of groundwater level in Jinan Yellow River Irrigation Region .The results indicate that :The trend of annual varia‐tion of groundwater level was mainly affected by irrigation water in irrigation area of Jinan in recent twenty years ,the fluctuation of groundwater level decreased significantly from 2002 to 2013 ;monthly groundwater level has two peaks ,the primary peak mainly af‐fected by the precipitation of flood season and the secondary peak by water supply from the Yellow River in spring .Mann-Kendall trend test of annual and seasonal groundwater level showed that groundwater level declined from 2000 to 2013 ,significantly after 2012 .The rising trend of groundwater level both in spring and summer is not significant ,while significant declining trend of ground‐water level in autumn and in winter can be found after 2003 and 2006 respectively .In autumn drawing groundwater leads to falling of water table as a result of inadequate water supply from the Yellow River for

  4. EDITORIAL: Interesting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-01-01

    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  5. How Much Carbon Pricing is in Countries' Own Interests? The Critical Role of Co-Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian; Veung, Chandara; Heine, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This paper calculates, for the top twenty emitting countries, how much pricing of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is in their own national interests due to domestic co-benefits. On average, nationally efficient prices are substantial, $57.5 per ton of CO2 (for year 2010), reflecting primarily health co-benefits from reduced air pollution at coal plants and, in some cases, reductions in automobile externalities (net of fuel taxes/subsidies). Pricing co-benefits reduces CO2 emissions from the to...

  6. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  7. Affection and Law, Which Is Light or Heavy?-Comparative Study the Connotation of O. Henry's Short Stories After Twenty Years and The Retrieved Reformation%情与法,孰轻孰重?--对比欧·亨利短篇小说《二十年后》与《重新做人》的折射内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任诚刚; 杨丽华; 杨波; 卢静; 李其曙

    2014-01-01

    Based on O. Henry's short stories After Twenty Years and A Retrieved Reformation the comparative study of the differ-ent characteristics and connotation of the refraction in two novels are made. In the first story, O. Henry let us believe that the"law"must overrule the"affection". Law is greater than Mount Tai, one can not pervert the law because of personal affair, Jimmy allows the affection to be overruled by the law, and has Bob arrested. The author, in the second story on the other hand, ex-pounds for us the strong creative side of human nature being more powerful than law can perform. In his stories, in the face of true love the deed of prodigal son is more valuable than gold. Ben Price, the detective with a calm state of mind, and the objec-tive consciousness, has carefully examined Jimmy's past, present, and future. In front of the power of human nature, the law is to get rid of the coldness. At this time, Ben Price finally let go of Jimmy Valentine for the moveness to"affection"and the knowl-edge to "reason". All reflect O. Henry’s connotation of a refraction of "conquering the unyielding with the yielding, and from one’s innermost part".%通过对欧·亨利短篇小说《二十年后》及《重新做人》的解读,对比研究了两篇小说的不同特点及折射内涵。在第一篇中欧·亨利让我们相信,“法”战胜了“情”。法律重于泰山,不可因私枉法,吉米让警察的职责战胜了朋友间的私情,毅然决然逮捕了鲍勃。在第二篇里小说家从另一方面为我们阐释了人性比法律更具强大的改造力量的一面。在他的笔下,在真情真爱面前浪子回头“金不换”。普赖斯侦探用平静的心态、和客观的意识,审视着吉米的过去、现在、和未来。在人性的力量面前,法律也脱去了冰冷的外衣。这时,普赖斯让警察的动之以“情”和晓之以“理”,广开一面,放了吉米·瓦伦汀。这正反映了欧亨利

  8. Caracterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated from South Brazil in the last twenty years by restriction enzyme analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus de Aujeszky isoladas na região Sul do Brasil nos últimos vinte anos através de análise de restrição enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Schaefer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV belongs to Herpesviridae family and is an important etiological agent which infects pigs causing economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide and international trade restrictions to products of swine origin. An eradication program for ADV was established in Santa Catarina State since 2001. The last outbreak was reported in July 2004 and since then none has been reported. The disease has been controlled with the use of a genetic modified vaccine and elimination of seropositives. Aiming the characterization of ADV isolated in the South of Brazil in the last twenty years (1983-2003, a retrospective study based on the genomic analysis of the isolates through a digestion of viral genomic DNA with restriction enzyme Bam HI was done. Thirty-seven ADV samples isolated from swine from the States of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. These isolates were compared to the reference strains NIA-4, Bartha and Begonia. The most predominant genomic arrangement was type II found in 33 samples isolated in Santa Catarina State and in one isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State. Genomic arrangement type I, characteristic of vaccine strains was identified in 2 isolates from Parana State and in 1 isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State.O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA pertencente à família Herpesviridae é um importante agente etiológico que infecta suínos causando perdas na produção de suínos no mundo inteiro e restrições para o comércio internacional de suínos ou de seus subprodutos. No estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foi instituído em 2001 um programa de erradicação da doença de Aujeszky (DA. O último surto da DA foi reportado em julho de 2004 e desde então não foram notificados mais casos. A doença tem sido controlada com o uso de uma vacina geneticamente modificada e eliminação de animais soropositivos para o VDA. Visando caracterizar amostras do VDA isoladas nos últimos vinte

  9. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  10. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  11. Pronounced Practice & Learners’ Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作棋

    2009-01-01

    <正>The present s tudy presents a detailed report of the project implemented to solve the problem that most of my students don’t like doing the oral practice I assign them to do after class. It is hypothesized that learners’ interest in pronunciation after class will be increased by a better organization in this

  12. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1990. Twenty-third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This is the 23rd in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and DOE contractor facilities during 1990. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1990 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimated from expert groups. This report is the third that is based on detailed exposure data for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. Prior to 1988, only summarized data from each facility were available. This report contains information on different types of radiation doses, including total effective, internal, penetrating, shallow, neutron, and extremity doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report also continues the precedent established in the Twenty-First (1988) Annual Report by conducting a detailed, one-time review and analysis of a particular topic of interest. The special topic for this report is a comparison of total effective, internal, and extremity dose equivalent values against penetrating dose equivalent values.

  13. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  14. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  15. Innovation and social interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratuša-Žunjić Vera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on socially and historically structured circumstances surrounding and moral problems involved in the pragmatic definition of innovation as 'novelty proven useful by its users'. Contending conceptions and strategies of innovation of the organization of social relations in dialectical social systems are compared and socially and historically contextualized in the so-called 'transition countries' on the new Eastern border of the European Union. The conclusion is that the cited pragmatic definition of innovation may be misused for an apology of morally dubious new ends and means in the narrow interest of particular groups of users, often at the expense and against the interest of a majority of other individuals and social groups.

  16. Managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  17. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means of a descript......The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means......-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent...

  18. A twenty first century approach to inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.K. [R. Brooks Associates, Inc., Williamson, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Over the past ten years, visual inspection tooling has changed dramatically. Driven by both the consumer and industrial vision markets, CCD technology is advancing in pace with computer technology. Just ten years ago, cameras were mostly tube type, very expensive, black and white and large in diameter. There were few practical inspection uses. Times have changed. High resolution images are now achievable through a 1 millimeter probe. Very high resolution cameras are available in 6 millimeter diameter. Advancements in robotic, remote positioning now allows one to access previously inaccessible locations. Visual recognition of deposits is now a reality. A recent trip to Mars is testimony to this. Visual inspection is becoming one of the most worthwhile, cost effective technologies for inspections in the world. Current visual technology, and the advancements to come, will save companies billions of dollars.

  19. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  20. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  1. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  2. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper......We present a model of political selection in which voters elect a president from a set of candidates. We assume that some of the candidates are benevolent and that all voters prefer a benevolent president, i.e. a president who serves the public interest. Yet, political selection may fail in our...

  5. Rising interest rates, bank loans, and deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Hesna Genay; Darrin Halcomb

    2004-01-01

    The authors show how the relationships between interest rate changes, deposit growth rates, and loan growth rates have changed in the last ten years, discuss some possible reasons, and assess the likely impact of rising interest rates on loans and deposits going forward.

  6. Reading Interests of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rubin, C.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the reading genre preferences of 254 male and female high school students in Pennsylvania. Draws comparisons with similar research done 10 years earlier. Finds a substantial change in reading interests. Notes the top 10 areas of interest are adventure, horror, mysteries, humor, murder, love, fantasy, crime, sports, and movies. (RS)

  7. 26 CFR 1.861-2 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation. If such interest is effectively connected for... nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation this paragraph (a) applies whether or not the interest is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States...

  8. Reading Interests of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rubin, C.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the reading genre preferences of 254 male and female high school students in Pennsylvania. Draws comparisons with similar research done 10 years earlier. Finds a substantial change in reading interests. Notes the top 10 areas of interest are adventure, horror, mysteries, humor, murder, love, fantasy, crime, sports, and movies. (RS)

  9. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  10. Twenty First Century Science: Insights from the Design and Implementation of a Scientific Literacy Approach in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Robin

    2006-10-01

    Although the term “scientific literacy” has been increasingly used in recent years to characterise the aim of school science education, there is still considerable uncertainty about its meaning and implications for the curriculum. A major national project in England, Twenty First Century Science, is evaluating the feasibility of a more flexible science curriculum structure for 15-year-old and 16-year-old students, centring around a core course for all students with a scientific literacy emphasis. Over 12,000 students in 78 schools have followed this course since September 2003. The development of a detailed teaching programme is an important means of clarifying the meanings and implications of a “scientific literacy” approach. Questionnaire data from teachers at the end of the first and second years of the project (N = 40 and N = 51) show a strongly positive evaluation of the central features of the course design. Teachers perceive the scientific literacy emphasis as markedly increasing student interest and engagement. Key challenges identified are the language and reasoning demands in looking critically at public accounts of science, and the classroom management of more open discussion about science-related issues.

  11. When I am Twenty-eight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方朝晖

    2006-01-01

    In fifteen years, I think I’ll be a big fish(大人物). I think I’ll live in New York. I love the city very much, for it is a beautiful city. I think I’ll have a villa and a personal computer, and I’ll have a robot. It can do everything, for example, do the dishes, sweep the floor and so on. I’ll go to Canada on vacation. That’s also a beautiful country. I will have many pets. I don’t have any pets at pre- sent, because my father doesn’t like them at all. At weekends, I’ll wear beautiful clothes. I think my drea...

  12. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  13. Conflicts of interest among committee members in the National Academies’ genetically engineered crop study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) publishes numerous reports each year that are received with high esteem by the scientific community and public policy makers. The NASEM has internal standards for selecting committee members that author its reports, mostly from academia, and vetting conflicts of interest. This study examines whether there were any financial conflicts of interest (COIs) among the twenty invited committee members who wrote the 2016 report on genetically engineered (GE) crops. Our results showed that six panel members had one or more reportable financial COIs, none of which were disclosed in the report. We also report on institutional COIs held by the NASEM related to the report. The difference between our findings and the NASEM reporting standards are discussed. PMID:28245228

  14. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  15. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years? Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Holland, G R; Giannobile, W V; Hancocks, S; Robinson, P G; Lynch, C D

    2014-05-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Chris Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/ position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years?: transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Rex Holland, G; Giannobile, William V; Hancocks, Stephen; Robinson, Peter G; Lynch, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Christopher Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow-up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the Seattle meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd. for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig

    2017-07-01

    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  18. Macroeconomic control of interest rate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鸣; 叶元煦; 何绍元

    2002-01-01

    The macroeconomic control of interest rate is studied using the elastic theory and correlation analysisand the concrete influence of interest rate on the consumption, savings and investment in China are investiga-ted. It is pointed out that although the interest rate mechanisms in China has gone through several adjustmentsand reforms, the results are not yet fully up to expectations. The interest rate does not adjust the national eco-nomic structure, and direct the trend of funds, nor regulate the general social supply and demand and balancethe price and currency in circulation, to achieve a rational distribution of social resources. The interest rate pol-icy of Central Bank does not have much actual influence on the economic departments, and this influence wascontinuously weakened in recent years. Countermeasures are suggested for improving the macro control of inter-est rate.

  19. Dos décadas de trabajo con la técnica de Ivor Lewis en la cirugía del cáncer del esófago Twenty years of application of Ivor Lewis' technique in esophageal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Leal Mursulí

    2012-06-01

    of interest such as location of lesion, staging, type of surgery, complications and survival rate were researched on. Results: one hundred and thirty two patients were treated, 64.4 % were males and 59 % were in the 60-69 y group. The epidermoid carcinoma was more common than the adenocarcinoma (54.5 vs. 41 % and the main location of carcinoma was the middle third (42.4 %. Morbidity was 28.8 % and the main postoperative complications were respiratory infection and pulmonary thromboembolism. The operative mortality was 12.9 % and the survival rate at 5 years was 2 %. Conclusions: the multidisciplinary treatment is one of the fundamental achievements in treating this disease. However, even when higher results has been attained with respect to surgical morbidity and mortality rates of previous decades, the long-term survival rate is still discouraging. Nevertheless, surgery continues to be the only treatment with curing intentions. It is up to us to upgrade it.

  20. Assessment of interests and cognitive styles of learning in science in students 7th and 8th years of teaching basic and 1st and 2nd of teaching secondary in the province of Llanquihue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eladio Toledo Muñoz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest for studying science in our country should considerate a new didactic approach and a new curricular model, related to the environment and to the regional social economical development, in order to motivate students and help them to find the sense of life through science. The samples utilized in this research were: a private school, a semi- private school, a primary public school and a public vocational school. The results show that 60% of students have a positive attitude towards the science learning. However, contextualization in the science teaching is not noticed.