WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty year periods

  1. Water quality changes in a polluted stream over a twenty-five-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.; Skousen, J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. for Plant & Soil Science

    2003-04-01

    The Deckers Creek watershed in northern West Virginia (United States), containing a land area of 166 km{sup 2}, has along history of industrial development and attendant environmental abuses from both land and Water pollution practices. The water in Deckers Creek was sampled in 1974 at 9 locations along the main stem and resampled in 1999-2000 to determine water quality changes over this 25-year period. Water samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, alkalinity, iron, and calcium at both times, while aluminum, manganese, zinc, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria densities were added in 1999-2000. Water at almost all sampling points showed lower acidity and metal contents in 1999-2600 compared with 1974. Water pH increased at the mouth from 5.4 in 1974 to 6.0 in 1999-2000. Acidity and iron concentrations, were decreased an average of 70% in the upper stretches of the creek. however, one major untreated point source of water from an abandoned underground mining complex continues to degrade the quality of-the creek in its lower stretches. In the upper section, the. water quality in Deckers Creek has improved due to decreased surface and underground coal-mining activities, reclamation of abandoned and recently permitted surface mined lands, and natural healing of past land use scars from timbering and mining over time. The decrease in mineral. extraction activities and the reclamation of disturbed lands has occurred due to the passage and enforcement of water quality and land reclamation laws and regulations.

  2. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). All were newly constructed and used dry wood for the framing members with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19 percent. Building envelope performance was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic, and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1,013 thermographic images recorded, and 167 airtightness tests conducted.

  3. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the airtight drywall approach (ADA). All were newly built and used dry wood for framing members, i.e. with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19%. Building envelope performace was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1013 thermographic images recorded and 167 airtightness tests conducted. Both the energy efficient and conventional building envelope systems performed satisfactory manner although fewer problems were found in the energy efficient houses. Lower mean WMC levels were measured in the walls and attics and fewer WMC excursions above 19% were recorded. The energy efficient houses also displayed fewer thermographic anomalies, particulary those of a severe nature. The energy efficient houses were found to be more airtight. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in the energy efficient houses. Both the polyethylene air barriers and the ADA system demonstrated predominately stable WMC levels, thermographic characteristics and airtightness. The building envelopes constructed using polyethylene barriers generally performed in a superior fashion to those which used ADA, although both systems provided satisfactory performance. WMC levels were slightly lower in the polyethylene houses as were the number of thermographic faults, particularly those of a severe nature. 11 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luci Meire Pereira da; Muccioli, Cristina; Oliveira, Filipe de; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio; Gonzaga, Lucas Renó; Nakanami, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9%) followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%). Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis) and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%). In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  5. Twenty years of JHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, Daniele; Bonora, Loriano

    2017-01-01

    On July 1st of twenty years ago we launched the first issue of JHEP. It was a real challenge to try the adventure of a scientific journal thought and managed by scientists, independent of private or institutional publishers. The idea was that physicists who were performing the work, writing the papers, and refereeing those of their peers, could also edit them in an electronic format. Thus, at a limited cost which could be handled by academic or scientific institutions, giving open access to the published information, and avoiding the heavy burden at that time placed on our libraries. In order to avoid the failure that - as we well remember was predicted to us by publishing companies and institutions, we needed the active support of the scientific community. A support in collaborating to the scrutiny of papers and scientific policies but, mainly, in sending to us their good papers. We contacted in that sense several of our most active and renowned colleagues, restricting of course to our high energy physics field. We received many enthusiastic responses as can be specifically seen from the papers that appear in the first issues of the journal, as well as the respected names listed in the advisory and in the editorial boards featuring in the opening page of the first issue of JHEP attached to this letter. We were optimists, but perhaps not as much as to foresee the success of the journal, which, in his first 20 years, turned out to be one of the most (if not the most) prestigious one in our field. Success for which --- as first project chairman and executive editor - we must essentially thank the scientific community who supported JHEP by considering it ''their journal'', as was our intention from the start. In this occasion we would like to recall the important contribution of Marco Fabbrichesi who designed the software on which the journal is based, and the technical personnel who implemented it and made it work. It is our pleasure to mention

  6. CND twenty years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.; Pritchard, C.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of people who were supporters or leaders in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) in the 1950s and 1960s. Information is given from questionnaires completed by 403 respondents, about their social and political development during the past 20 years. (author)

  7. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  8. Flair Homes Project report no. 5. Airtightness performance of twenty detached houses over a two-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.; Beckman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Airtightness tests were performed on 20 new houses over a 2-year period in Winnipeg. The houses were constructed with a variety of air/vapor barrier systems and 3 different types of main walls. Polyethylene was used as the air/vapor barrier in 6 of the houses while the remaining 14 used the airtight drywall approach (ADA). The houses had similar floor plans and were constructed by the same builder. Both the polyethylene and ADA systems were found to be capable of meeting the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 standard with the tightest structures being double wall houses. No significant or permanent change in airtightness was observed for any of the houses over the monitoring period. Application of stucco as an exterior finish was found to improve airtightness of the ADA houses, but not of the double wall houses with polyethylene vapor barriers. Consistent sources of air leakage in the ADA houses were found to be the electrical outlets on exterior walls. Window leakage was also noted in many houses and the frequency of this leakage increased over the monitoring period. A significant leakage source was found to be an integrated mechanical system, which ducted in large volumes of outdoor air. It was also concluded there is a need to re-examine the design pressure requirements for residential air barrier systems. Specifically, this should investigate how transient wind-induced pressure loads are resisted by air barrier systems and whether some portion of the load is taken by other envelope components. An air leakage detection system was proposed consisting of a simple non-instrumented blower, which would be suitable for use by builders to aid in the construction of low leakage houses. 17 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. [Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; García-Altés, Anna; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Pérez, Katherine; Kunst, Anton E; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the trend in socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Barcelona from 1983 to 2004. We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004), with the basic health area (BHA) as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR) for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of children born with Down syndrome in western Herzegovina in the period of the last twenty years (1994-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanović-Glamuzina, Darinka; Zovko, Ana; Letica, Ivona; Jerković-Raguž, Marjana; Mustapić, Antonija; Božić, Tomica; Vukojević, Mladenka

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are an everyday casuistry of pediatric clinical medicine. The prevalence of DS is dependent on socio-demographic and cultural conditions of a community. Antenatal screening is not carried out mainly due to religious views, and the prevalence of DS in our region is really considered a "natural phenomenon". The aim of the study was to analyze some epidemiological characteristics of infants with Down syndrome in the western region of Herzegovina in the period between year 1994-2013. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital records of children who were supervised and treated at Children's Hospital through the twenty-year period. In this period there were 44,100 liveborn infants. Down syndrome was detected in 78 children (54 male and 24 female). The prevalence is estimated at 1.8/1,000 of live births. Aborted fetuses and stillbirths were not analyzed. 37 (47%) of the parent couples were over 35 years of age. Out of that 65 cytogenetic analysis, a regular type of trisomy 21 was found in 94% of cases, and the translocation in 6%. From major malformations (MM) heart failure was more often present (47%), then the anomaly of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Ten children (12%) died, most often in the early period of infancy due to complications of the cardiovascular system. The prevalence of DS throughout these two decades has been uniform in the region of western Herzegovina. Improvement in perinatal care in recent years caused higher survival and a better quality of life for the children with DS and thus their families. DS is less a desirable family tragedy, and increasingly a tolerable family fate.

  12. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  13. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  14. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  15. Twenty years after the embargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.; DeCicco, J.; Laitner, S.; Dyson, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the direct and indirect oil import costs and examines actions that can be taken to reduce future imports. We find that the USA could greatly reduce its oil imports during the next 20 years by increasing energy efficiency and accelerating the introduction of fuels derived from renewable energy sources, particularly in the transport sector. (author)

  16. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  17. The next twenty years - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of an institution is an appropriate time to look back and to ask what has been achieved. It is also an appropriate time to look ahead and to ask what should be the mission for the future. How can the strengths of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) be best utilized, what new opportunities should be seized upon, and what challenges should the IAEA be prepared to meet in the next twenty years? Forward planning is a very necessary activity in today's world. There are so many demands on national or institutional resources that careful analysis of options is necessary to establish priorities and ultimately to provide for implementation. But such planning must be done carefully with full appreciation for the validity and sensitivity of the input assumptions and data. Furthermore, today's plan, while setting goals and directions, cannot be so inflexible that it cannot be responsive to ever-changing political, economic and technical constraints or opportunities. Thus in looking ahead, the plan must contain provisions for flexibility to provide for further modifications in the light of ever-changing knowledge, attitudes, and world conditions. The experience of the past five years in the energy field, and especially in nuclear energy, underscores this need. In looking ahead for the next twenty years, we are attempting to describe the International Atomic Energy Agency and its role through the twentieth century. In doing so, we are automatically laying the base for the Agency's work going into the twenty-first century. In short, we are trying to visualize a programme that can serve the coming generation and, in doing so, creating a base from which the needs of the succeeding generation can be met. This is a large order and the crystal ball is less than clear. (author)

  18. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  19. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  20. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  1. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  2. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  3. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  4. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  5. Twenty-five years of life lessons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Annemieke; Dorren, Luuk; Noord, Van Hans; Veraart, Josja; Cusell, Casper; Sterk, Henk Pieter

    2017-01-01

    For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns,

  6. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  7. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, Dusan

    2004-01-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made

  8. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razem, Dusan E-mail: razem@irb.hr

    2004-10-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m{sup 3} kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m{sup 3} kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  9. Cryogenic air separation: the last twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Petit, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the last 20 years cryogenic air separation plant sizes have increased from 150 tons per day to 2800 tons per day. Progressively reversing heat exchangers have replaced regenerators. However, with this arrangement, the quantity of pure product output is limited to about 50% of the air input. With the appearance on the market of molecular sieve, another arrangement was developed, which allows one to produce a combined pure product flow equivalent to 85% of the air input. Recently, there has been a strong tendency for the reversing exchangers to be superseded by this arrangement. Due to the ever increasing cost of energy, optimization studies are today pushed much further than they used to be; as a consequence there have been major changes in the size of equipment, improvements in the machinery, and simultaneous developments in instrumentation

  10. The second twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1993-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1968, the liberal Catholic press had prepared the laity for the change expected to occur after the release of Pope Paul VI's encyclical "Humanae Vitae," but almost no one read it when it was released in July 1968. The media gave the impression that no one agreed with the Pope. The Archbishop of Baltimore denounced his dissenting priests. The media publicized the discord, resulting in his fellow bishops not supporting him or the Pope. Sound theology was limited then. Today many Catholic leaders and scholars openly defend the encyclical, e.g., since 1978, Pope John Paul II has supported the doctrine of marital noncontraception. Pope Pius XII called for every woman to breast feed. The 1969 publication of the Breastfeeding and Natural Child Spacing was the catalyst for 10 years of research which confirmed breast feeding's contraceptive effect. Family planning specialists and demographers agreed in the Bellagio Consensus in 1988 that mothers who practiced exclusive breast feeding and were amenorrheic need not use a contraceptive for the first 6 months postpartum. Recent research shows that this rule depends on the population, e.g., women in Bangladesh meeting the criteria do not need to use contraceptives for 1 year. Few natural family planning groups existed in 1968 (e.g., 1 diocese), but today there are natural family planning teachers in 49 US states and in 13 countries. Some Catholics are calling for couples wanting to marry to take a course in natural family planning. The media widely publicized the new unnatural family planning methods, especially the pill. Recently a baby magazine allocated natural family planning 2/3rd of a page. A reporter for the "Washington Post" plans to interview a Catholic leader about natural family planning, completely on his/her own initiative.

  11. Twenty years of immunocontraceptive research: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Eckery, Douglas C

    2013-12-01

    The National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) began immunocontraception vaccine research by testing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Early PZP research demonstrated that PZP induced infertility; however, increased length of the rut was observed in PZP-treated deer. An alternative vaccine using a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (KLH-GnRH) conjugate formulated with modified Freund's adjuvant was developed at NWRC. Suppression of GnRH has reduced reproduction in both sexes but is most effective in females. This vaccine was effective in preventing contraception in female deer for several years after a prime and boost. Due to adverse side effects of Freund's adjuvant, NWRC developed a new adjuvant called AdjuVac, a mineral oil/surfactant adjuvant with the addition of Mycobacterium avium as an immunostimulant. The price of KLH prompted a search for a more economical hemocyanin carrier protein for the GnRH peptide. Blue protein, derived from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas, proved to be a successful option. Formulation improvements resulted in a vaccine that can be effective as a single injection for multiple years, now called GonaCon. GonaCon is registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in white-tailed deer in urban/suburban areas and for wild horses (Equus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus). Future GonaCon applications may include reducing reproduction to manage populations of other wildlife species, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in urban areas and suppressing reproduction to reduce the spread of venereal diseases such as brucellosis. Research is being conducted to develop a GnRH vaccine used in combination with the rabies vaccine to control population growth in free-roaming dogs, with the secondary effect of managing the spread of rabies. The EPA would regulate all these uses. Research is also ongoing on a GnRH vaccine to delay the onset of adrenocortical

  12. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  13. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  14. Twenty Years of French "Didactique" Viewed from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    One cannot begin considering the topic of this colloquium without asking, why twenty years? Why not two hundred? Two hundred years ago, Silvestre Franois Lacroix was about to be named chief officer of the Commission Executive de L'Instruction Publique. Out of that experience, together with his long career in instruction, especially as professor of…

  15. Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitt, Julian

    In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…

  16. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    research and training, during the last few years many improvements were invented, such as: a dry central thimble for irradiations of isotopes, a new pneumatic facility for loading and unloading the samples in the new rotary specimen rack or central thimble, automatic data logging by a configuration, based on two microcomputers was developed, modernisation of the instrumentation which consists of additional safety channel (fuel temperature meters), water level indicator, an instrument integrator which measures the power of the reactor (digital display), a reactivity meter, etc. The surveillance of the reactor by the infrared detectors was also introduced. During the last twenty years the reactor was in operation without any longer periods of shut-down. Until now, two dummy elements had failed, two fuel elements' cladding failures had occurred and the rotary specimen rack has to be replaced. (author)

  17. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  18. Twenty five years of clusters -- from Bochum to Strasbourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the area of clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions over the past twenty-five years are reviewed. The viewpoint is that the nucleus is an assembly of clusters. The question is whether clusters actually exist in the nucleus. Although there is abundant evidence for this in light nuclei, the situation for more complex clusters in heavier nuclei is much worse. Differential cross sections for scattering of alpha particles and heavy ions are shown

  19. Examination of Abiotic Drivers and Their Influence on Spartina alterniflora Biomass over a Twenty-Eight Year Period Using Landsat 5 TM Satellite Imagery of the Central Georgia Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. R. O’Donnell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of abiotic drivers on inter-annual and phenological patterns of aboveground biomass for Marsh Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, on the Central Georgia Coast. The linkages between drivers and plant response via soil edaphic factors are captured in our graphical conceptual model. We used geospatial techniques to scale up in situ measurements of aboveground S. alterniflora biomass to landscape level estimates using 294 Landsat 5 TM scenes acquired between 1984 and 2011. For each scene we extracted data from the same 63 sampling polygons, containing 1222 pixels covering about 1.1 million m2. Using univariate and multiple regression tests, we compared Landsat derived biomass estimates for three S. alterniflora size classes against a suite of abiotic drivers. River discharge, total precipitation, minimum temperature, and mean sea level had positive relationships with and best explained biomass for all dates. Additional results, using seasonally binned data, indicated biomass was responsive to changing combinations of variables across the seasons. Our 28-year analysis revealed aboveground biomass declines of 33%, 35%, and 39% for S. alterniflora tall, medium, and short size classes, respectively. This decline correlated with drought frequency and severity trends and coincided with marsh die-backs events and increased snail herbivory in the second half of the study period.

  20. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  1. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  2. Twenty years of RERTR in Russia: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian RERTR Program started approximately 20 years ago. The USSR always supported principles and goals of the policy of nonproliferation and at the end of 70's the Soviet Government decided to create such national program. Twenty years is the sufficient time to estimate preliminary results of the realization of the program and its prospects on the future. After the first successes of the program, when the enrichment of uranium in fuel elements for foreign supplies was reduced from 80 % to 36 %, the realization of the program was suspended in connection with financial difficulties. But in the beginning of the 90's the Program has received a new pulse connected to the inclusion of Russian scientists and engineers in the international Program. Now basic directions in development of new kinds of fuel are development of works on fuel on a basis dioxide of uranium and development of fuel on a basis of U-Mo alloy. In the future to basic goals of the program the problem of the management of the spent nuclear fuel should be added. The management of HEU at the final stage of a fuel cycle becomes an important objective of the program, since the basic amount of HEU is concentrated in storage of SNF. (author)

  3. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  4. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  5. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  6. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  7. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  8. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  9. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    mission of the United States Air Force is to "fly, fight, and win…in air, space and cyberspace"--as an intergral member of the Joint team that...Scenarios: A Military Futurist Explores War in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Bantam Books Trade Paperbacksl, 2009), 17. 33 Carl H. Builder

  10. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. P. [University Of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Archaeloogy; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Anthropology

    1998-12-31

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  11. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J. P.; Torrence, R.

    1998-01-01

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  12. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  13. Twenty years of audiology in a patient with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Chris; Sims, Katherine

    2008-11-01

    To describe disease progression and treatment outcomes over a 20-year period (ages 5-25) in a young man with Norrie disease (occuloacousticocerebral dysplasia), ND; OMIM #310600. Affected individuals are born blind and develop progressive sensory loss with onset in adolescence. This disease is X-linked and has been associated with mutations of the NDP gene (Xp11.4). The patient was followed using repeated audiograms, as well as reports of educational progress and hearing aid use. The specific mutation was found by molecular analysis. The patient demonstrated progressive sensory loss with good preservation of word recognition. The loss was initially high frequency and asymmetric in adolescence and became more severe, more symmetric and affected practically all frequencies by the end of childhood. Educational progress was affected by the cognitive effects of the syndrome, and hearing aid use was very effective. A bilateral progressive sensory loss with good preservation of word recognition was documented in detail. The residual word recognition supported good use of hearing aids in this case.

  14. Twenty Years on: Reflections on the CEDISYS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudol, Gerard; Castellani, Ilaria; Hennessy, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We recall some memories of the Esprit Basic Research Action CEDISYS, a small, well-focussed and fruitful project which brought together researchers at the meeting point of true concurrency and process algebra, in the period 1988-1991. The project was initiated and effectively animated by Ugo...

  15. Twenty years of health physics research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Gilley, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been in regular use for more than two decades. Safe operation of this fast reactor over this extended period indicates that (1) fundamental design, (2) operational procedures, (3) operator training and performance, (4) maintenance activites, and (5) management have all been eminently satisfactory. The reactor and its uses are described, the operational history and significant events are reviewed, and operational improvements and maintenance are discussed

  16. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  17. International cyclotron conferences: twenty-five years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This brief introduction reviews a few of the highlights of the nine previous meetings to perhaps convey an appreciation of the time-scale of the significant achievements of past years and to leave the thought that the future is as filled with promise as was the past

  18. Career Patterns: A Twenty-Year Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N = 1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses, we examine which socio-demographic predictors…

  19. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  20. Twenty years of Triga Mark I reactor use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiulevicius, R.; Maretti Junior, F.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a report on the 20 years of activities of the Triga Mark I, research reactor located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It contains also a list of publications, details of operation and improvements introduced in the reactor as well as some perspectives for its future. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Career patterns : A twenty-year panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20 years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N=1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses,

  2. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  3. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  4. EBR-II: twenty years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, G.L.; Buschman, H.W.; Smith, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. For the last 20 years EBR-II has operated safely, has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, has shown excellent performance of its sodium components, and has had an excellent plant factor. These years of operating experience provide a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future liquid metal fast reactors. This report provides a brief description of the EBR-II plant and its early operating experience, describes some recent problems of interest to the nuclear community, and also mentions some of the significant operating achievements of EBR-II. Finally, a few words and speculations on EBR-II's future are offered. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. [Twenty-five years of screening eugenics in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida Donoso, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the incidence of newborns with congenital defects in Spain has fallen by 56.7% primarily due to the practice of "fetal risk" abortion, after prenatal diagnosis. In some cases, such as people with Down syndrome, the strategy involves the removal of 80-90% of those affected in pregnancy. After presenting the techniques used today and statistical data, we will make a reflection about the ethical justification for prenatal diagnosis programs and practice of "eugenic" abortion.

  6. Hemodynamic Characterization of Recombinant Inbred Strains: Twenty Years Later

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlíček, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 8 (2008), s. 1659-1668 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recombinant inbred strains * blood pressure * telemetry Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  7. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Michael A. De; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  8. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    de Dear, R; Akimoto, T; Arens, E; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K.W.; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S.C.; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has ta...

  9. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  10. INTERNET ADDICTION: A REVIEW OF THE FIRST TWENTY YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-01-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite ...

  11. Isar-2 nuclear power station twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Erwin; Luginger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The Isar-2 nuclear power station (KKI 2) began commercial power operation on April 9, 1988. In these past 25 years the plant generated a total of approx. 285 billion kWh of electricity. The annual electricity production of KKI 2 of approx. 12 billion kWh corresponds to a share of approx. 15 % in the cumulated Bavarian electricity production. This amount of electricity, theoretically, could supply some 3 million three person households, or meet two thirds of the electricity requirement of the Bavarian industry, for one year. In its 25 years of power operation the Isar-2 nuclear power plant has recorded the highest annual gross electricity production of all nuclear power plants in the world nine times so far. A plant performance as impressive as this necessitates a plant availability far above the average. This, in turn, is based on short revision times and faultfree plant operation. However, high plant safety and availability must not be taken for granted, but are the result of responsible, safety-minded plant operation combined with continuous plant optimization and permanent execution of comprehensive checks, inspections, and maintenance measures. Besides plant technology also organization and administration were permanently advanced and adapted to changing requirements so as to safeguard reliable, safe, and non-polluting plant operation.

  12. Twenty years of ABACC: Accomplishments, lessons learnt and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Orpet J.M. [ABACC- Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    From the inception of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435), in 1991, ABACC has had an important role at the non-proliferation agenda and has also been an active player in the international safeguards. It was necessary for ABACC to develop a technical capacity to face the challenges to be a safeguards agency and to gain credibility in the nuclear safeguards world. This capacity means to develop and implement safeguards systems in the technical area, in the inspection framework, in the conceptual analysis of processes and approaches and in the political scenario. These tasks conducted the strategic plan of ABACC on the last 20 years. Among the accomplishments, ABACC has been involved in the application of safeguards to sensitive and complex installations, in developing safeguards instrumentation, in establishing a technical and trained inspectorate, in constructing a cooperative and coordinate environment with IAEA for safeguards application. Other challenges as R and D of equipment and quality assurance systems were also managed during all these years. ESARDA is one forum that ABACC is involved and always shares experience and ideas. On July 18th, 2011 ABACC will formally complete 20 years. This paper summarizes the accomplishments, lessons learnt and future actions for strengthen the ABACC safeguards role. It also addresses the collaboration of ABACC with other organizations in the non-proliferation and international safeguards arena.

  13. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  15. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Twenty years on: the impact of fragments on drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A; Fesik, Stephen W; Hubbard, Roderick E; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Jhoti, Harren

    2016-09-01

    After 20 years of sometimes quiet growth, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become mainstream. More than 30 drug candidates derived from fragments have entered the clinic, with two approved and several more in advanced trials. FBDD has been widely applied in both academia and industry, as evidenced by the large number of papers from universities, non-profit research institutions, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, FBDD draws on a diverse range of disciplines, from biochemistry and biophysics to computational and medicinal chemistry. As the promise of FBDD strategies becomes increasingly realized, now is an opportune time to draw lessons and point the way to the future. This Review briefly discusses how to design fragment libraries, how to select screening techniques and how to make the most of information gleaned from them. It also shows how concepts from FBDD have permeated and enhanced drug discovery efforts.

  17. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  18. Radiation protection training: twenty year experience in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, Sandor; Kanyar, Bela; Zagyvay, Peter; Solymosi, Jozsef; Bujtas, Tibor; Feher, Istvan; Giczi, Ferenc; Deme, Sandor; Uray, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    In Hungary, radiation protection training for radiation workers has been introduced in very early, just following the publication of the ICRP recommendation No. 26. Before that, in some of the institutions, radiation protection training was recommended for technicians and medical doctors working in nuclear medicine, X-ray diagnostic radiology and radiation therapy, as well as in some of industrial applications, but not on regular way. Since 1988, radiation protection training regulated by the Ministry of Health and required for all of the workers in radiation workplaces licensed by the authority the State Public Health and Medical Officers Service (SPHAMOS). Decree No. 16/2000. (VI. 8.) EuM of the Minister of Health on the enforcement of Clauses of the Nuclear Law 116/1996 regulates the radiation protection training of Radiation Workers (RW). Annex 4 of Decree sees radiation protection training and in-service training: Persons performing conducted work in the field of the use of the nuclear energy and any other work within legal relationship shall be educated in training and in-service training at an interval of 5 years. Three levels of the training introduced; basic, extended and comprehensive, based on radiation risk related to the given job. Several institutions are involved in performing radiation protection training, such universities, scientific institutions, Regional Radiological Health Centers (RRHC) of SPHAMOS, private enterprises etc. All training course material is subject to accreditation. Most of the faculties of the universities involved in training of natural sciences and engineering provide subjects on the fundamentals of dosimetry, radiobiology and radiation protection within the courses of physics, biophysics, chemistry, biology, ecology etc. These courses take 5-10 contact hours per week on average. The members of the Hungarian Committee of EUTERP Platform summarize their broad experience collected in the past 20 year. (author)

  19. Internet Addiction: A Review of the First Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite heated debates on its addictive nature, consensus is emerging regarding the existence of this problematic behavior. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on Internet addiction in last 20 years. Purpose of this paper is to present crucial findings on Internet addiction to health profession. Besides numerous benefits of Internet use, the virtual environment brings various risks in every age group. The Internet is very significant in the everyday activities of children and youth and professional interventions with this age group should be specific considering their developmental characteristics. Exposure to online risks can have long-lasting and intense negative effects. Effective programs in prevention and treatment should include a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach. Detail review of the symptomatology, diagnosis model an possibilities of treatment can be multiple beneficial to the health professionals and other helping professions due to actual needs for interventions in the field of the internet addiction treatment. Internet addiction is slowly becoming a societal concern as it particularly affects adolescents and children, who are more exposed and consequently more vulnerable. Findings presented in the paper can benefit in practice of treatment internet addiction and also as framework for further researches in the field.

  20. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  1. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  2. The technical support organization at BNL is twenty years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indusi, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Technical Support Organization was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1968 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The original idea came from a small group of scientists at BNL. The group included Willy Higinbotham, Herb Kouts, Frank Miles, Richard Dodson, and Gerhardt Friedlander. The AEC endorsed the idea of a technical support group to provide technical assistance to AEC's Office of Safeguards and Materials Management and they sent requests for expressions of interest throughout the complex. For a number of reasons, to be discussed in the paper, the Technical Support Organization was established at BNL. An early project was the Conceptual Design for Safeguarding Nuclear Material which formed the first logical and systematic description of the integration of several elements into a safeguards system for protecting nuclear materials. Many other projects were undertaken over the years. TSO today provides technical assistance to the DOE Office of Safeguards and Secuirty, the Office of Classification and Technology Policy, and the Office of Security Evaluations. Technical support to the IAEA is provided under the Program of Technical Assistance to Agency Safeguards (POTAS). Recently, TSO began a program of technical assistance to the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in the area of nuclear systems security

  3. Women in neuroscience (WIN): the first twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Laurel L

    2002-03-01

    Women in Neuroscience (WIN) is an international organization whose major goal is to promote the professional advancement of women neuroscientists. To this end, WIN facilitates contacts and communication among women working in neuroscience, and organizes appropriate activities at the annual Society for Neuroscience (SfN) meeting. WIN was created in 1980, when despite major changes and advances in 'equal opportunities', women were still not achieving a proportionate level of success in the subdiscipline of neurosciences. In 1980, women made up 40 to 50% of entering classes in medical schools or graduate programs, but often comprised only 5 to 15% of leadership in respective organizations. Although there had been women elected to serve as SfN presidents, council, and committee members, women were under-represented in other positions of the Society, such as symposium and session chairs. There was an even lesser degree of representation in leadership positions at universities and medical schools in terms of full professorships, chairs, and program directors, as well as on editorial boards, advisory boards, and councils. Over the years, WIN has worked with success toward increasing the participation of women in neuroscience.

  4. Twenty years bone banking in Macedonia application and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, L.; Videovski, G.; Nospal, T.

    1999-01-01

    After establishing the Department for Bone Transplantation and Bone Bank as a part of the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje in 1978, we started our activities in bone banking. In the beginning we stored the transplants at -20 degree C in a deep-freezer using standard storage procedures. Since 1986 we stored the transplants at-70 degree C in a special deep-freezer. 1012 transplants were preserved in the Bone Bank. 657 of them (65%) were used in different procedures, mainly in tumor surgery (407), revision total hip replacement (I 70), elongation of long bones (66), pseudoarthroses (I 5) etc. The most common transplants used in our bone bank are femoral heads taken from live donors during THR procedures, or small parts of cortical and cancellous bones taken during TKR and different types of osteotomies. 187 transplants were rejected due to infection after a defect in the storage system. We had good incorporation of the grafts in most of the patients, although we had delayed incorporation in 26 patients (4%), total resorption of the graft in 9 patients (1.4%), and infection in 4 patients (0.6%). Fracture of the graft occurred in 3 cases (0.5%). After the recognition and becoming a regular member of the United Nations as a former Yugoslav Republic in 1992, Republic of Macedonia started with the so-called 'transitional' period in all parts of life, especially in legislation. After bringing the systemic Health Law in 199 1, the Parliament brought 'The Law for taking, exchange, transportation and transplantation of parts of the human body by reason of curing' in June 1995. This Law defines the conditions under which it is possible to take, store, process, exchange, transport and transplant parts of the human body by reason of curing and the rights, obligations and conditions that have to be fulfilled by the Health Organizations and other organizations engaged in these activities. This Law accepts 'brain death' item, as biological death concept. The cell

  5. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions.

  6. Twenty Years of Research on Cytokine-Induced Sickness Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the

  7. Twenty years of operation of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is twenty years this year since the first unit WWER 440 of Slovak Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice was commissioned. There are four units WWER 440 in operation Jaslovske Bohunice site. First two units of older soviet PWR design V-230 (also known as V-1) and other two units of newer V-213 type (also known as V-2). The goal of this presentation is to summarize and evaluate the operation of Unit 1 and 2 for this period of time and mainly to describe what has been done and what is planned to be done to increase the nuclear safety and operational reliability of both units. The operating organization and regulatory authority assume that an internationally acceptable level of safety will be reached by accomplishing of the upgrading program.(author)

  8. Twenty-five years of the common market in coal, 1953--1978. [genesis and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the European Coal and Steel commmunity was established. An attempt is made to show what economic integration is, what problems have arisen, and how the community has tried to overcome them. Three phases can be distinguished during the period under review--a first phase of growth in the coal industry between 1953 and 1957; a second phase marked by a plentiful supply of cheap hydrocarbons and a rapid reduction in coal output despite exceptional growth, linked with a parallel increase in overall energy requirements; and a third phase from 1973, marked by sharp price increases by the oil producing countries with repercussions on the world market in coal.

  9. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936). Annals of Botany 115: 1–18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal’s achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. Sources of information The account draws principally on the Journal’s own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal’s owners and managers. Content In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany’s 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal’s fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal’s organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. PMID:27974325

  10. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  12. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  13. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  14. Twenty Years of Australian Educational Computing: A Call for Modern Traditionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on twenty or more years of development and research in educational computing. It argues that the emphasis on exploiting the technology in the service of contemporary ideas about learning held by many of the early workers has been lost to a focus on the technology itself and its capabilities. In schools this has led to an…

  15. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  16. The covered distance for twenty five years of the Manche waste storage 1969 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourden, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The twenty five years of the Manche plant,are narrated with the difficulties of the beginning, the problems coming from leaks or runoff that have led to improvement in the knowledge of radioactive waste behaviour and the solutions that have been brought. It is from the building of the plant until the radioactive waste management that is related in this book. (N.C.)

  17. Cardiac myxoma: diagnostic approach, surgical treatment and follow-up. A twenty years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, J; Milicić, D; Alfirević, I; Anić, D; Baudoin, Z; Bulat, C; Corić, V; Dadić, D; Husar, J; Ivanćan, V; Korda, Z; Letica, D; Predrijevac, M; Ugljen, R; Vućemilo, I

    1996-12-01

    At the University Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in Zagreb, Croatia, we treated 81 patients with primary intracardiac myxoma, in a period from January 1975 to December 1994. There were 55 female and 26 male pts, in age from 1 month to 80 years, mean 46+/-15 years. Clinical manifestations varied from no symptoms and very poor or no clinical signs to various manifestations of chronic or acute congestive heart failure, syncope and arrhythmias with or without systemic findings such as high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anaemia, leucocytosis, elevated gamma globulin, thrombocytopenia or low grade fever, as well as cerebrovascular accidents due to tumour embolization. Cardiac symptoms were predominant in 54 pts (66.6%) and cerebrovascular in 20 pts (24.7%). Seven pts (8.6%) were symptomless and discovered accidentally, mostly regarding on an unexplained heart murmur. In almost all the patients preoperative diagnosis of intracardiac myxoma was sufficiently established by echocardiography. The tumour was located in the left atrium in 62 pts (76.5%) and in the right atrium in 19 pts (23.5%). Delay from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis was 6 months in average (range 10 days to 25 months). The average waiting for the operation was 9 days (range from 1 to 60 days). The echocardiographic diagnosis was confirmed during intraoperative examination followed by histological analysis. All pts underwent excision of myxoma using cardiopulmonary bypass with core and topical hypothermia and cold crystaloid cardioplegia. According to the additional preoperative and intraoperative findings, in 6 pts sinchronous mitral valve reconstruction, in 3 pts artificial mitral valve implantation and in 2 pts atrial wall reconstruction was performed. There was no perioperative mortality. After the operation, we could not evaluate all the patients long enough, mostly because of some paramedical circumstancies, such as war, migrations, etc. Twenty two pts undevent evaluation for at least 5

  18. Trends in CPAP adherence over twenty years of data collection: a flattened curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Brian W; Murariu, Dorian; Pang, Kenny P

    2016-08-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, and continuous airway positive pressure (CPAP) is considered to be the gold standard of therapy. CPAP however is known to have problems with adherence, with many patients eventually abandoning the device. The purpose of this paper is to assess secular trends in CPAP adherence over the long term to see if there have been meaningful improvements in adherence in light of the multiple interventions proposed to do so. A comprehensive systematic literature review was conducted using the Medline-Ovid, Embase, and Pubmed databases, searching for data regarding CPAP adherence over a twenty year timeframe (1994-2015). Data was assessed for quality and then extracted. The main outcome measure was reported CPAP non-adherence. Secondary outcomes included changes in CPAP non-adherence when comparing short versus long-term, and changes in terms of behavioral counseling. Eighty-two papers met study inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall CPAP non-adherence rate based on a 7-h/night sleep time that was reported in studies conducted over the twenty year time frame was 34.1 %. There was no significant improvement over the time frame. Behavioral intervention improved adherence rates by ~1 h per night on average. The rate of CPAP adherence remains persistently low over twenty years worth of reported data. No clinically significant improvement in CPAP adherence was seen even in recent years despite efforts toward behavioral intervention and patient coaching. This low rate of adherence is problematic, and calls into question the concept of CPAP as gold-standard of therapy for OSA.

  19. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  20. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed......-power) and reliable systems (redundant RNS). Advances in microelectronics and CAD tools play an important role in favoring one technology over another, and a winning choice of the past may become at disadvantage today. In this paper, we address a number of factors influencing the choice of RNS as the winning solution...

  1. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  2. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  3. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  4. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  5. Twenty-year review of medical findings in a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of results of medical examinations of inhabitants of the Marshall Islands during the 20-year period following the exposure of Rongelap people to radioactive fallout in 1954. The initial effect observed was β burns of the skin of some individuals. Few significant findings were observed during the subsequent 9-year period, although an increase in miscarriages and stillbirths among the exposed women was noted. In 1963 some thyroid abnormalities and growth retardation of some children were noted. (177 references)

  6. Achievements in the past twenty years and perspective outlook of crop space breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong

    2007-01-01

    Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement, which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987. A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years. More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice, wheat, cotton, sweet pepper, tomato, sesame and alfalfa have been developed, officially released and put into production. A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained. Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses. Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties, exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced. In this paper, the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed. The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed. (authors)

  7. Over Twenty Years Of Experience In ITU TRIGA MARK-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Hasbi

    2008-01-01

    I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor, rated at 250 kW steady-state and 1200 MW pulsing power is the only research and training reactor owned and operated by a university in Turkey. Reactor has been operating since March 11, 1979; therefore the reactor has been operating successfully for more than twenty years. Over the twenty years of operation: - The tangential beam tube was equipped with a neutron radiography facility, which consists of a divergent collimator and exposure room; - A computerized data acquisition system was designed and installed such that all parameters of the reactor, which are observed from the console, could be monitored both in normal and pulse operations; - An electrical power calibration system was built for the thermal power calibration of the reactor; - Publications related with I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor are listed in Appendix; - Two majors undesired shutdown occurred; - The I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor is still in operation at the moment. (authors)

  8. Maxillofacial fractures: twenty years of study in the department of maxillofacial surgery in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Sejfija, Osman; Salihu, Sami; Gjinolli, Fellanza; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze maxillofacial region fractures during the past 20 years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina. We have analyzed the histories of all patients with trauma who were hospitalized in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Prishtina since the opening of the clinic in 1983 through 2005. Narrowing the subject of our research, we concentrated on fractures of the maxillofacial region treated at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery for the period 2001-2005. We have analyzed those fractures and compared them with the period from 1983 to 2005 only when it was reasonable. During this period, 1,945 patients were treated for trauma in the maxillofacial region by the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery. This group included 19.8% females and 80.2% males. The largest age group were those between 20 and 20 years of age. Causes of trauma for both periods were predominantly traffic accidents; however, during the period 2001-2005, interpersonal conflicts were increasingly the cause of fractures. Interpersonal conflict as a cause of maxillofacial trauma has risen in recent years. With this increase the methods of treating fractures in this region are also changing.

  9. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  10. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  11. Twenty Five Years of Cognitive Care Education Research: Time for a Revolutionary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Berry, Jeremy; Cude, Kellie; Anderson, Stephen; Britt, Sanfrena

    2018-01-01

    This is the third study of Cognitive Care Education in New York State nursing homes using cross-sectional methods over a 25 year period. The data indicate that the Cognitive Care Education increased at statistically significant levels, albeit by evolutionary means. It is now time for "A Revolutionary Change," for Cognitive Care…

  12. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  13. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V

    2009-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442

  14. Veintidós años de evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad en la ciudad de Barcelona Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dalmau-Bueno

    2010-01-01

    from 1983 to 2004. Methods: We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, with the basic health area (BHA as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. Results: In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Conclusions: Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA.

  15. Reactions to combat stress in Israeli veterans twenty years after the 1982 Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Shklar, Rami; Singer, Yaffa; Mikulincer, Mario

    2006-12-01

    During the war or shortly thereafter, the most common manifestation of combat induced psychopathology is combat stress reaction (CSR). The long-term consequences of CSR have so far received little scientific attention. The aim of this study was to examine whether CSR is a marker for long-term PTSD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Two groups of veterans from the 1982 Lebanon war were assessed 20 years after the war: one comprised 286 CSR casualties and the other comprised 218 matched non-CSR soldiers. Participants were assessed for PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology, social functioning, physical health, and postwar life events. Twenty years after the war, veterans with antecedent CSR reported more PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology and distress, social dysfunction, and health problems than did non-CSR veterans. We conclude that CSR should be seen as a marker for long-term psychiatric distress and impairment. In addition, the implications of combat-related trauma are broad and varied, and go beyond the narrow scope of PTSD.

  16. Twenty Years After the 1988 Yellowstone Fires: Lessons About Disturbance and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, W.H.; Boyce, M.S.; Gresswell, R.; Merrill, E.H.; Minshall, G.W.; Whitlock, C.; Turner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The 1988 Yellowstone fires were among the first in what has proven to be an upsurge in large severe fires in the western USA during the past 20 years. At the time of the fires, little was known about the impacts of such a large severe disturbance because scientists had had few previous opportunities to study such an event. Ecologists predicted short- and long-term effects of the 1988 fires on vegetation, biogeochemistry, primary productivity, wildlife, and aquatic ecosystems based on scientific understanding of the time. Twenty-plus years of subsequent study allow these early predictions to be evaluated. Most of the original predictions were at least partially supported, but some predictions were refuted, others nuanced, and a few postfire phenomena were entirely unexpected. Post-1988 Yellowstone studies catalyzed advances in ecology focused on the importance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, contingent influences, and multiple interacting drivers. Post-1988 research in Yellowstone also has changed public perceptions of fire as an ecological process and attitudes towards fire management. Looking ahead to projected climate change and more frequent large fires, the well-documented ecological responses to the 1988 Yellowstone fires provide a foundation for detecting and evaluating potential changes in fire regimes of temperate mountainous regions. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  18. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual Illinois energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Twenty-Third Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled, ''Energy and Environmental Policy in a Period of Transition'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on November 20--21, 1995. The conference program explored how federal policy in energy and environment is changing and how these shifts will impact the economy of the Midwest. The conference was divided in four plenary sessions. Session 1 focused on the national policy scene where speakers discussed proposed legislation to change federal energy and environmental policy. Session 2 looked at the future structure of the energy industry, projecting the roles of natural gas, the electric utility industry, and independent power producers in the overall energy system of the 21st century. Session 3 examined current federal policy in research and development as a baseline for discussing the future role of government and industry in supporting research and development. In particular, it looked at the relationship between energy research and development and global competitiveness. Finally, Session 4 attempted to tie these issues together and consider the impact of national policy change on Illinois and the Midwest

  19. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Twenty-Third Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled, ``Energy and Environmental Policy in a Period of Transition`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on November 20--21, 1995. The conference program explored how federal policy in energy and environment is changing and how these shifts will impact the economy of the Midwest. The conference was divided in four plenary sessions. Session 1 focused on the national policy scene where speakers discussed proposed legislation to change federal energy and environmental policy. Session 2 looked at the future structure of the energy industry, projecting the roles of natural gas, the electric utility industry, and independent power producers in the overall energy system of the 21st century. Session 3 examined current federal policy in research and development as a baseline for discussing the future role of government and industry in supporting research and development. In particular, it looked at the relationship between energy research and development and global competitiveness. Finally, Session 4 attempted to tie these issues together and consider the impact of national policy change on Illinois and the Midwest.

  20. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally ``lonely'' (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period-ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect is very small, but a loud minority of stars, including, apparently, HD 154345, show very strong RV-activity correlations.

  1. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  3. Twenty years research of chronic gamma-ray irradiation on seed crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years of the works on the chronic gamma-ray irradiation of seed crops are summarized. Radiosensitivity and the mutation rate per unit exposure varies not only with the genetic factor but also depend on whether treatment is given to seeds or growing plants. The relation between the radiosensitivity of seeds and growing plants also varies with plant species. In Hordeum, Avena and Nicotiana, the highest mutation rate obtained by the chronic irradiation of growing plants is similar to that in seed irradiation, but in Oryza and Setalia, chronic irradiation was two to three times more effective for attaining a higher mutation rate. The mutation spectrum also varies with the mutagen, the factors modifying the effects of mutagen, and the dose of mutagen. The suitability of a particular mutagenic treatment to a species should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of mutagenic treatment. For instance, NaN 3 is highly mutagenic to barley, but less mutagenic to rice. The gene ea7 controlling the maturing earliness of barley seems to be mutable in chronic irradiation, and the mutants obtained by chronic irradiation are healthy. The author emphasized that the chronic irradiation at the gamma-field is a useful mutagenic treatment, even though some negative results have been reported in European countries. (Kaihara, S.)

  4. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with fair skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ratrout J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypopigmented variant of mycosis fungoides (MF is charactrized by the presence of hypopigmented patches as the sole manifestation of the disease. This variant is usually observed in the dark skin of African or Asian individuals particularly children, but nevertheless is an uncommonly reported presentation of the disease. The incidence of hypopigmented MF in Caucasian patients and others of fair skin color is rare. We describe hypopigmented lesions arising in a twenty-year-old Saudi woman with type IV skin color. The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides stage IA was made based on the clinico-radiological and histological features. The patient responded well to PUVA therapy and is currently clear of lesions. MF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypopigmented macular lesions in patients of any skin color and age. Multiple skin biopsies must be performed on different occasions so as not to miss the diagnosis; and long term follow up is recommended since recurrence is common and occasional cases behave aggressively.

  5. Twenty Years of National Minority Protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Tatalović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of policies towards national minorities in the Republic of Croatia in the past twenty years, with reference to the perspective of minority rights implementation. The topic has been analysed in relation to two independent variables – the influence of external factors, i.e. the international community, and internal political processes that have had influence on the realisation of national minority rights. Today, as a country and society on the eve of accession to the European Union, along with a legislatively developed and institutionally branched model of the implementation of national minority rights, we can not claim to have established permanent protection of their rights. The degree of national minority integration in society is the only true indicator of policy success in relation to national minorities. The goal of this policy ought to be complete integration of national minorities into public, cultural, economic and political life, but accompanied by the preservation of their cultural and national identity. The Croatian model has been set up in such a way, but the manner in which it functions will depend on the political will to implement it, the willingness of national minority members to be active subjects of social and political life, as well as on civil society and Croatian society as a whole.

  6. Twenty years of student sexual behavior: subcultural adaptations to a changing health environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, Nancy S; Burnett, Matthew L

    2004-01-01

    This twenty-year study analyzes changes in sexual behavior among students at Okanagan University College in British Columbia, Canada. Surveys conducted in 1980, 1990, and 2000 reveal a steady increase in safer sexual practices. Most students now question potential partners about their past, use condoms with a new sexual partner, and maintain fairly long-term monogamous relationships. Three sexual subcultures continue to coexist in fairly stable proportions: celibacy (about 30%), monogamy (about 60%), and free experimentation (about 10%). Each subculture has created its own response to the danger of HIV/AIDS: celibates exaggerate the danger they face, monogamists rely on love and fidelity for protection, and free experimenters have increased their use of condoms. While romantic feelings lead many monogamous couples to abandon condoms without objective HIV/AIDS knowledge, free experimenters still face the highest risk. Although they now use condoms more than half the time, their lifestyle, which involves multiple partners, risky sexual acts, and frequent drug and/or alcohol use, clearly remains dangerous. The persistence of distinct subcultures has implications for health education programs, which would be most effective if based on key values held by specific target groups.

  7. A Tale of Ambivalence: Salman Rushdie's "Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ziyad Gulcu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s memoirs, essays and novels contribute to the appreciation of the contradictions in his outlook on life. His experiences in his family enable Rushdie to make efforts for objective and tolerant judgement of British lifestyle and culture. However, his isolation from the society in Britain despite his struggle for adaptation to British cultural values cause contradictions in his cultural identity. While Rushdie expresses his allegiance to India and its culture in The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999, he reflects his alienation from his homeland in this novel as well. Similarly, in his Imaginary Homelands (1981-1991 whereas Rushdie questions the injustice and inequality caused by imperialism in The New Empire within Britain (1982, he justifies the colonialist discourse in Kipling (1990. He elaborates on the contradictions in his outlook on life in terms of his cultural ambivalence in his fictions such as Midnight’s Children (1981 and Shame (1983. However, in his latest novel, Two Years, Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015, Rushdie reflects his cultural identity conflict in terms of rationalism-mysticism dichotomy. With the use of allegory as well as the lack of linearity in time and space, Rushdie justifies his cultural ambivalence in relation to the dynamism of contemporary world. Thus, Rushdie’s latest novel invites reading for its representation of the oppositions in his approach to life.

  8. The fate of stranded oil at the BIOS site twenty years after the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.; Prince, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the 1981 Baffin Island Oil Spill (BIOS) Project, 15 cubic metres of aged crude oil was released onto the shores of an experimental beach at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, Canada. The oil was left to weather naturally and the distribution, quantity and character of the oil was monitored over time. The experiment provided a unique opportunity to study and sample oil as it weathers over a 20 year period in a low-energy, arctic environment. Over the 20 years of the study, the oil was exposed to weathering processes for about 40 months during ice-free periods. While most of the stranded oil was removed in the first few months of open water immediately following the experiment, some small surface patches still persist. It was noted that there has been very little change in the distribution or in the physical condition of the oil patches between 1993 and 2001. Geochemical analysis reveals that some samples are unaltered despite more than 20 years of exposure to elements. Other samples indicate that biodegradation and photo-oxidation play a major role in removing most of the components of the oil in this low-energy arctic environment. Some highly biodegraded samples had less than 87 per cent of the original hydrocarbons. The study revealed that there are 4 stages in the evolution of the stranded oil: (1) initial rapid refloating of oil during the first 24 to 48 hours in 1981, (2) period of relative stability up to the formation of an asphalt pavement within 4 open-water months, (3) degradation of an asphalt pavement in the upper intertidal zone over a 10-month open-water period from August 1983 to August 1989, and (4) disintegration of the pavement after 1989 and before August 1991, with soft interstitial surface oil still present in 2001. 21 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  10. Commercial NAA — Is It a Success? Evaluation of a Twenty Year Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.

    2013-01-01

    The commercial service at Imperial College was maintained for twenty years by juggling staff, equipment and irradiation facilities, building when required and downsizing when necessary. At no point was the service entirely self-sufficient since staff had more than one role and participated in teaching and research as well as the analytical service. The balance was of benefit everyone concerned, including students who have studied with us and gained experience of working within a well maintained and quality assured laboratory. The benefits of collaborating with industry cannot be overestimated, with the secondary effects for research and teaching identified previously. A key change took place in the early 2000s, which can be seen in Figure 5 by the fall in income from 2002. The author’s academic department became a separate cost centre to the Reactor Centre, and irradiations were charged at a more realistic price. Once the true costs were built in, including space, overheads and irradiation charges, it was not possible to maintain a viable business plan without reducing staff to a non-viable number. As a result, in 2003 the analytical service was handed to the Reactor Centre, in which the business could remain viable because the irradiation charge became income not expenditure. Without the continued interactions that academic research generated, the NAA service has diminished with very few customers in the past few years. Staff are occupied with internal work for the reactor such as routine monitoring using gamma spectrometry. In summary the introduction and operation of a commercial service is to be recommended, particularly in those situations where it can complement other parts of the organisation such other analytical or academic activities. It is not practical to fund reactor operations entirely on commercial activities, but it can result in a number of spin-offs that can increase other income streams such as teaching and research projects. Over the past 28

  11. Twenty years of meta-analyses in orthopaedic surgery: has quality kept up with quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Bernadette G; Abouali, Jihad A K; Kooistra, Bauke W; Conter, Henry J; Poolman, Rudolf W; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

    2010-01-01

    As the number of studies in the literature is increasing, orthopaedic surgeons highly depend on meta-analyses as their primary source of scientific evidence. The objectives of this review were to assess the scientific quality and number of published meta-analyses on orthopaedics-related topics over time. We conducted, in duplicate and independently, a systematic review of published meta-analyses in orthopaedics in the years 2005 and 2008 and compared them with a previous systematic review of meta-analyses from 1969 to 1999. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was performed to identify meta-analyses published in 2005 and 2008. We searched bibliographies and contacted content experts to identify additional relevant studies. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the studies, using the Oxman and Guyatt index, and abstracted relevant data. We included forty-five and forty-four meta-analyses from 2005 and 2008, respectively. While the number of meta-analyses increased fivefold from 1999 to 2008, the mean quality score did not change significantly over time (p = 0.067). In the later years, a significantly lower proportion of meta-analyses had methodological flaws (56% in 2005 and 68% in 2008) compared with meta-analyses published prior to 2000 (88%) (p = 0.006). In 2005 and 2008, respectively, 18% and 30% of the meta-analyses had major to extensive flaws in their methodology. Studies from 2008 with positive conclusions used and described appropriate criteria for the validity assessment less often than did those with negative results. The use of random-effects and fixed-effects models as pooling methods became more popular toward 2008. Although the methodological quality of orthopaedic meta-analyses has increased in the past twenty years, a substantial proportion continues to show major to extensive flaws. As the number of published meta-analyses is increasing, a routine checklist for

  12. Combined immunodeficiencies: twenty years experience from a single center in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, H. Haluk; Patiroglu, Turkan; Hershfield, Michael; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) include a group of inherited monogenic disorders. CIDs are characterized by defective cellular and humoral immunities that lead to severe infections. CIDs can be classified according to immunologic phenotypes as T?B?NK? CID, T?B?NK+ CID, T?B+NK? CID and T?B+NK+ CID. In a 20-year period, from 1994 to 2014, a total of 40 CID patients were diagnosed at the Pediatric Immunology of Erciyes University Medical Faculty in Kayseri, Turkey. The gender ratio (F/M) was ...

  13. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  14. 'Twenty-five years after Chernobyl accident: Safety for the future'. 2011 National report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shindo, Mahito

    2016-02-01

    This is the Japanese translation of the Ukrainian National Report 'Twenty-five Years after Chernobyl Accident: Safety for the Future', published by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies in 2011 (in Ukrainian and English). This Japanese translation is published as an outcome of the KAKENHI research project on liquidations of Nuclear Disasters in the World (headed by Tetsuji Imanaka), in which Shindo participates, and as a KUR report of the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University. The objective of publishing this Japanese translation is to provide basic information on how to overcome the consequences of a large-scale Nuclear Disaster for the wide range of public, including decision-makers and administrative staff. By doing so, this publication aims at invigorating discussions over measures to be applied for overcoming the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster (started in 11th March 2011 at Fukushima), and at forming proper schemes to minimise the consequences on current and future generations. The original text of this translation tightly summarised the whole picture of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, which had been the only large-scale Nuclear Disaster until 11th March 2011. More importantly, it describes all sorts of measures and schemes taken in Ukraine from 1986 to 2011 in order to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, in a quite well structured manner. In other words, from the contents of this text, Japanese readers are able to learn a lot about the very problems currently facing with. Therefore, I wish many Japanese readers will read this text, and utilise the knowledge written here effectively to overcome the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster. (J.P.N.)

  15. Twenty-year trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisley, Kelly R; Preston, Jennifer F; Dolan, James P; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2017-08-01

    Trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the U.S. over time have not been previously described. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we analyzed patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia over a 20-year period (1992-2011) to estimate rates of Heller myotomy, locations where the procedures were performed (rural, urban or teaching) and changes in technique (laparoscopic vs open) as well as outcomes of length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Over the last 20 years, the total number of Heller myotomies performed in the U.S. has increased (1576 cases in 1992 to 5046 cases in 2011, p = 0.001). These procedures are now being performed laparoscopically (0.9%-67.0%, p Heller myotomy at teaching institutions with decreased in-hospital mortality and shorter LOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Fast-food consumption among 17-year-olds in the Birth to Twenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Assessment of fast-food consumption in urban black adolescents. Design: The current research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Subjects attending the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) research facility at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg between September 2007 and May ...

  17. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  18. Twenty-five years of modeling multiphase flow and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation will cover some of the highlights of multiphase modeling in collaboration with Professor Dimitri Gidaspow (DG) over the last roughly twenty-five years. It all started in 1972 in Idaho Falls with Charles Solbrig, who planned and initiated a project for the former USAEC to develop a computer code to replace RELAP4 to analyze the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). DG spent his sabbatical on the project in 1973. One highlight was the discovery of complex characteristics, the implications of which are still pondered by some. Fluidization research began in 1978 when the author collaboratively developed a step-by-step building-block approach to understanding the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds, an approach closely coupled to validation experiments. A grant from the USDOE to study solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed was awarded to DG in 1978. Following that, grants from GRI, NSF, and a contract from Westinghouse Electric Corp. allowed the early work to continue. Progress was slow since computer costs were high. Subsequent continuing support from the USDOE, NSF, EPRI, and industry has allowed research to continue, as has his collaboration. A highlight of this collaboration was the development of the monolayer energy dissipation (MED) erosion model. Multiphase flow and fluidization theory took quantum leaps with the publication of DG's Multiphase Flow and Fluidization: Continuum and Kinetic Theory Descriptions (MFF), Academic Press, San Diego (1994), for which there is essentially no competition. Only the late Professor S.L. Soo's Particulates and Continuum: Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York (1989), a textbook version of the classic monograph Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Science Press, Beijing, China (1990), comes close. In MFF, the kinetic theory of granular flow has evolved as a potentially viable adjunct to the continuum multiphase theory, of which fluidization is one important manifestation. It must be

  19. Twenty-years of splenic preservation at a level 1 pediatric trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairdain, Sigrid; Litman, Heather J; Troy, Michael; McMahon, Maria; Almodovar, Heidi; Zurakowski, David; Mooney, David P

    2015-05-01

    Splenic preservation is the standard of care for hemodynamically stable children with splenic injuries. We report a 20-year single-institutional series of children with splenic injuries managed without a splenectomy. Children evaluated and treated for blunt splenic injury at Boston Children's Hospital from 1994 to 2014 were extracted from the trauma registry. Demographics, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes were reviewed. Three time-periods were evaluated based upon the development and modification of splenic injury clinical pathway guidelines (CPGs). Survival was defined as being discharged from the hospital alive. 502 suffered isolated splenic injuries. The median AAST grade of splenic injury increased across the three CPG time periods (psplenic-injury related mortalities occurred. Hospital length of stay decreased significantly secondary to splenic injury CPGs (psplenic injury, no patient died or underwent splenectomy. Hospital length of stay decreased across time, despite an increase in the severity of splenic injuries encountered. Splenectomy has become so unusual in the management of hemodynamically stable children with a splenic injury that it may no longer be a legitimate outcome marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Absorptive Capacity and Innovation: An Overview of International Scientific Production of Last Twenty-Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennys Eduardo Rossetto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to achieve an overview of international scientific production on absorptive and innovation capacities in order to mapping the academic contributions already made between 1990 and 2015 (last 25 years. Bibliometric methods, and social network analysis were used to understand the behavior of 1,693 published articles and analysis of key works cited. Most notably, the growing publication with related topics, in approximate exponential growth, concentration of work into five groups and six cocitação periodic coupling groups, indicating possible fields for publication related to the themes absorptive capacity and innovation. The analysis of the key articles cited identifies the themes and methods used, as well as understand the context of the themes absorptive capacity and innovation.

  1. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=-.05), extraversion (β=-.03), and agreeableness (β=-.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories.

  2. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=−.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=−.05), extraversion (β=−.03), and agreeableness (β=−.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories. PMID:29651189

  3. After Twenty-Five Years: A Twenty-Five Year Follow-up Study of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High School Graduates of the Class of June 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William; Zanzalari, J. Henry

    A twenty-five-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the occupational, educational, marital and armed forces experiences of the graduating class of 1953 from the Middlesex County Vocational and Technical high schools located in New Brunswick, Perth, Amboy, and Woodbridge, New Jersey. Data, in the form of questionnaire responses, were…

  4. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  5. Gender trends in dental leadership and academics: a twenty-two-year observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Ross, Sasha; Prasad, Soni; Koerber, Anne; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender disparities in dental leadership and academics in the United States. Nine journals that represent the dental specialties and high published impact factors were selected to analyze the percentage of female dentists' first and senior authorship for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Data on appointment status and female deanship were collected from the American Dental Association (ADA) survey, and the trends were studied. The proportion of female presidents in ADA-recognized specialty organizations was also calculated. Overall, the increase in first female authorship was not statistically significant, but the increase of last female authorship was statistically significant in a linear trend over the years. The percentage of tenured female faculty members and female deans in U.S. dental schools increased by factors of 1.7 and 9, respectively, during the study period. However, female involvement in professional organizations was limited. Findings from this study indicate that female participation in authorship and leadership has increased over time. Nevertheless, females are still a minority in dental academics and leadership.

  6. Twenty-five-year experience with the Björk-Shiley convexoconcave heart valve: a continuing clinical concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, William J; Ibrahim, Michel A; Ivey, Tom D; Acheson, Donald E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Weyman, Arthur; Defauw, Joseph; Smith, J Kermit; Harrison, Donald

    2005-05-31

    The first Björk-Shiley convexoconcave (BSCC) prosthetic heart valves were implanted in 1978. The 25th anniversary provided a stimulus to summarize the research data relevant to BSCC valve fracture, patient management, and current clinical options. Published and unpublished data on the risks of BSCC valve fracture and replacement were compiled, and strategies for identifying candidates for prophylactic valve reoperation were summarized. By December 2003, outlet strut fractures (OSFs), often with fatal outcomes, had been reported in 633 BSCC valves (0.7% of 86,000 valves implanted). Fractures still continue to occur, but average rates of OSFs in 60 degrees valves are now valve characteristics, especially valve angle and size, with weaker effects associated with other manufacturing variables. OSF risks are mildly lower among women than men but decline sharply with advancing age. The risks of valve replacement typically greatly exceed those of OSF. By comparing individualized estimated risks of OSF versus valve replacement, guidelines have been developed to identify the small percentage of BSCC patients (mostly younger men) who would be expected to have a gain in life expectancy should reoperative surgery be performed. Twenty-five years after the initial BSCC valve implants, fractures continue to occur. Continued monitoring of BSCC patients is needed to track and quantify risks and enable periodic updating of guidelines for patients and their physicians.

  7. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  8. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  9. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E.; Brognez, J.

    2002-01-01

    longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  10. Effects of changes in dietary habits on colorectal cancer incidence in twenty countries from four continents during the period 1971-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Luis M; Gili, Miguel; Infantes, Beatriz; Marcott, Pamela F

    2011-10-01

    the incidence of colorectal cancer is one of the highest on a global level. Many epidemiological studies have identified risk and protective factors, many of which have a behavioral component and, therefore, are potentially avoidable or subject to modification. This study investigated the incidence rates of colorectal cancer by gender in twenty different countries, taking into account the dietary habits of the habitants of each country. adjusted incidence rates, according to gender, were obtained for each country from the International Agency for Research on Cancer during the period 1971-2002.Annual per capita consumption data of the different dietary variables were obtained for the period 1961-2007 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated comparing incidence rates according to gender with different dietary variable using ten-year delay intervals. there is an important variation in trends of colorectal cancer incidence worldwide which were found to be related with the dietary habits of each country. based on the trends observed, each country was classified into one of four different situations based on the range of values of their incidence rates and linear trends observed. Due to the potential of primary prevention programs for colorectal cancer and to the delay between changes in the exposure to risk and protective factors and the effects on the incidence of this tumor, the application of legislative and educational measures promoting a healthy diet has become an urgent issue to stop the increasing tendency of colorectal cancer reported worldwide.

  11. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  12. Twenty-year trends in benzodiazepine dispensing in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Conigrave, K M; Day, C A; Nguyen, Y; Haber, P S

    2014-01-01

    Considerable concern has been expressed about overprescribing of benzodiazepines and related harms. Past analyses have relied on World Health Organization-defined daily doses (DDD) which are sometimes out of keeping with clinical usage. This study examines 20-year (1992-2011) trends of benzodiazepine dispensing in Australia using both DDD and Ashton equivalent dose. Data from the Drug Utilisation Sub-Committee and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) website were analysed. Trends in number of prescriptions, DDD/1000 people/day and DDD/prescription were examined over time, and between states/territories. In the 20-year period, 174 080 904 scripts were recorded, with temazepam the most dispensed benzodiazepine (35% of scripts), followed by diazepam (23%). Overall recorded utilisation fell from 27.7 DDD/1000 people/day in 1992 to 20.8 in 2011 (24.9% decrease). There were striking changes in use of individual benzodiazepines over time, with reductions in oxazepam and flunitrazepam and dramatic increases in alprazolam. Since 1998, there has been a steady increase, albeit modest, in per script DDD. The DDD/1000 people/day for items dispensed through PBS/Repatriaton-PBS was highest in Tasmania and lowest in Northern Territory. Despite a modest overall decline in the amount of benzodiazepine dispensed, the level of use is still likely to reflect relative over-prescribing given the paucity of accepted indications for long-term use. Since 1998, there was a polynomial increase in quantity dispensed per script. The WHO-defined DDD for clonazepam seems inappropriate and could impede monitoring of its abuse. Other problems include lack of national data for medications not subsidised on PBS/Repatriation PBS. A broad policy approach is required, not one which targets only one particular benzodiazepine. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Eye health in the future: what are the challenges for the next twenty years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking ahead, it is really important to know where we have come from. This allows us to project identified trends and to reflect on the tremendous amount of change that can happen over a relatively short period.Reflect for a moment on the intensity of the debate regarding the use of intraocular lenses (IOLs in low-income settings in the 1990s. As they were still very expensive, some insisted that aphakic correction after surgery was the best approach for these countries. The subsequent availability of low-cost IOLs made the debate irrelevant. It dramatically changed our ability to provide modern IOL cataract surgery and control cataract blindness worldwide, and it laid the basis for VISION 2020. Other dramatic changes occurred with the introduction of ivermectin for onchocerciasis and azithromycin for trachoma, which gave us the ability to eliminate these two devastating and previously intractable causes of blindness. Our medical management of glaucoma or of age-related macular degeneration today is totally different from what it was 20 years ago, although there is still a long way to go. Our approach to refractive error has also altered dramatically, thanks to the recognition of its importance and the availability of high-quality, low-cost spectacles.So, given what we know about the past, what are the challenges we face in the future?

  14. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  15. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm

  16. [Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: twenty years of experience at a Mexican tertiary care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Oregón, D; Ramírez-Mayans, J; Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Toro-Monjaraz, E; Cázares-Méndez, M; Cadena-León, J; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Montijo-Barrios, E

    2014-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare congenital disease described by Waldmann in 1961 that is a consequence of obstruction of the lymphatic drainage of the small bowel with secondary lymph vessel dilation. This distorts the architecture of the villi and causes a leakage of lymph into the intestinal lumen, resulting in protein-losing enteropathy and malabsorption. To describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics in children with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A retrospective observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted that reviewed the case records of children diagnosed with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 1, 1992 to September 30, 2012. Four patients were found that presented with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. Three of them had been diagnosed before 3 years of age. All the patients presented with chronic diarrhea, edema, lymphopenia, hypocalcemia, and hypogammaglobulinemia, and 3 patients presented with hypocholesterolemia. Bowel transit time, endoscopy, and intestinal biopsies were characteristic of this pathology. Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected when there is a clinical picture of chronic diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy accompanied with edema at any level, as well as hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hypocholesterolemia, which are the main biochemical findings of this pathology. All children presenting with intestinal lymphangiectasia should undergo an upper gastrointestinal series with bowel transit time and endoscopy with biopsies taken at the level of the duodenum. Treatment includes diet and the periodic administration of albumin and gamma globulin. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Twenty-five years of biomonitoring lead in the Frankfurt/Main area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger; Wulff, Svenja

    2002-01-01

    The present study is an example of the historical monitoring of heavy metals. The specific question it aims to explore is: to what extent has the lead content of selected organisms used for biomonitoring in Frankfurt/Main--one of the cities in Germany most heavily affected by automobile traffic--changed as a result of legislation on leaded gasoline? Data on the lead content of the moss species Bryum argenteum Hedw. from the years 1974, 1975 and 1978 and data on the lead content of the outer bark of the ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. from 1973 served as the basis for the repeated measurements. Remeasurement was successful in 76.5% (i.e. 124 trees at 26 growth sites). The study produced the following results: As was expected, the lead content of the short-term accumulator Bryum argenteum Hedw. was distinctly lowered with a decreasing particulate lead concentration. However, the reduction factor varied greatly between the different growth sites. On the other hand, the lead content measured in the outer bark layers of Fraxinus excelsior L. has risen markedly during the past two decades. Whereas in 1973 nearly all trees examined displayed very low concentrations of lead (225 ppm). Various factors have to be taken into account to explain this increase. First of all, bark is a long-term accumulator for heavy metals like lead and its enrichment capacity could have increased as the surface becomes rougher over time. Furthermore, lead is most probably leached out of the bark to a lesser degree now than in the 1970s, owing to the reduced concentration of sulphuric acid in the rain. The dramatic growth of automobile traffic in the Frankfurt/Main area during the period covered by the study undoubtedly plays an important role as well.

  18. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  19. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  20. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event

  1. Book review: Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Dolan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Edited by Carolyn D. Dillian (Coastal Carolina University, Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin consists of 19 previously published articles from the International Association for Obsidian Studies (IAOS Bulletin. Dillian selected these articles because they provide a range of methodological and theoretical approaches concerning archaeological obsidian studies from around the world like Eretria, California, and the Near East, for example.

  2. Twenty Years after Philippine Trade Liberalization and Industrialization: What Has Happened and Where Do We Go from Here

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to review our trade liberalization policy and its contribution to the country`s industrial growth and performance. After more than twenty years of liberalization, the overall performance of the manufacturing industry has been weak, growth has been slow, and contribution to value added and employment has been limited. Total factor productivity growth declined from 1996 to 2006. The industrial structure has remained "hollow" or "missing" in the middle and medium enterprises have ...

  3. Twenty years of the grey partridge population in the LAJTA Project (Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragó, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lajta Project covers 3,065 ha. Within this area crop cultivation is dominant. Fields are separated from each other by forest belts and tree rows, extending altogether over roughly 120 ha. This habitat structure characterized by cultivation of 12–15 field crops sustained partridge population with densities of 1.75 birds/km2 (1991. The Project started in 1991/1992 and aimed to increase the carrying capacity for grey partridge and other small game species living in the area. A full–time gamekeeper was employed and habitat improvements were initiated. Four years later, the breeding population increased to 10.1 birds/km2. Besides increased numbers of nesting pairs, the number of reared chicks also increased, from 5.1–11.2 individuals/km2 in 1990 to 27.3–38.4 individuals/km2 in 1994. However, field sizes did not change significantly. Although the lengths of field margins increased by approximately 25% (from 82 m/ha to 115 m/ha under the influence of habitat management, they still reached only half those found in the countries of Central Europe where private ownership of land properties is dominant. After the privatisation of fields in 1995 as part of the political change in Hungary —affecting approximately 50% of the project area— the possibilities of habitat improvement decreased, and the technological pressure on large–scale farming area increased. Following these processes the grey partridge population again decreased to 1.43 birds/km2 in 1997. As a result of the new management strategy applied in the project since 1996 we observed a slow increase in the breeding population, which stabilized at around 5 birds/km2, between 2007 and 2009. The August density increased in the same period from 4.5 birds/km2 to 13–17 birds/km2. During the two decades in which this research was conducted, chick mortality and winter mortality were extremely high. The key factors influencing grey partridge population dynamics in our study area seem to be

  4. Twenty Golden Years of Battery R&D at CSIR,1974–1994 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the innovative materials science and engineering research conducted during this period is highlighted by the later successful implementation of batteries in powering practical systems, as well as in technology licensing. Keywords: CSIR, battery, Zebra, sodium-metal chloride, sodium-sulphur, LiAl/FeSx, lithium-ion, spinel ...

  5. Twenty years of application of Ivor Lewis' technique in esophageal cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Mursuli, Armando; Adefna Perez, Radames Isaac; Ramos Diaz, Nelida

    2012-01-01

    A case series-type descriptive and observational study was carried out in the 1987-2010 period, in which the patients operated on from this disease were included. Some variables of interest such as location of lesion, staging, type of surgery, complications and survival rate were researched on

  6. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  7. Twenty-Five Years Later: A Librarian Looks Back...and Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author thinks about the changes that have taken place in school libraries during the past 25 years that she has shared with Linworth Publishing. She remembers the first copy of "The Book Report" that arrived in the mail as a sample. As a high school librarian with several years experience, she found this new magazine an…

  8. The ASTRONET Infrastructure Roadmap: A Twenty Year Strategy for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, M.; Monnet, G.

    2008-12-01

    The process followed by ASTRONET to build a long-term strategy for European astronomy is presented. The main conclusions and priorities given in the recently unveiled report on the Infrastructure Roadmap for the next 20 years, following the establishment of a Science Vision last year, are summarised. These reports together hopefully represent a blueprint for a bright future for European astronomy.

  9. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  10. Twenty-five year outcome of sequential abdominopelvic radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellairs, Ellen E.; Twiggs, Leo B.; Potish, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study of sequential surgery, abdominopelvic radiotherapy and single agent alkylating chemotherapy was conducted to evaluate survival and toxicity in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Methods: From 1970-1976, 95 women with stage I-III epithelial ovarian carcinoma were scheduled to receive postoperative radiotherapy consisting of 20.0 Gy to the whole abdomen (1.0 Gy/day), a 29.75 Gy pelvic boost (1.75 Gy/day) and 10 subsequent courses of Melphalan (1 mg/kg/course). Endpoints were overall survival, disease-free survival(DFS), and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: The evaluable 94 patients included 19 stage I, 25 stage II, and 50 stage III. Of the latter, 21 had no palpable disease postoperatively (IIIN) and 29 had postoperative palpable disease (IIIP). Overall survival at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 42%, 30%, 23% and 22%. DFS for the entire group was 54% at 5 years and remained 50% from 10 to 25 years. All but two recurrences were noted within the first 27 months. No recurrence or treatment-related deaths occurred after 8 years. After 10 years, the survival of the study group became parallel to the general population. Prognostic factors were only related to stage (p<.001) and the presence of postoperative palpable disease(p<.001). DFS at 25 years was 95 % for stage I, 71% at 5 years and 66% from 10 to 25 years for stage II, and 17% at 5 years and 11% thereafter for stage III patients(p<.001). Although no stage IIIP patients were cured, 25% lived beyond 2 years. Five year DFS was significantly better in IIIN (45%) vs. IIIP (0%) patients (p<.001). The 65 patients without postoperative palpable disease, (stage I-IIIN) achieved DFS at 5 and 25 years of 69%, and 61%, respectively. Of 31 patients undergoing a second-look surgery, 84% were found to be free of tumor. Two recurred at 3.5 and 7 years after surgery. Acute tolerance was acceptable. Chronic toxicity included an 11.7% rate of small bowel obstruction requiring surgery and a 3% rate of

  11. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: twenty years of experience at a Mexican tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Valdovinos-Oregón

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected when there is a clinical picture of chronic diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy accompanied with edema at any level, as well as hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and hypocholesterolemia, which are the main biochemical findings of this pathology. All children presenting with intestinal lymphangiectasia should undergo an upper gastrointestinal series with bowel transit time and endoscopy with biopsies taken at the level of the duodenum. Treatment includes diet and the periodic administration of albumin and gamma globulin.

  12. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  13. Results of mammographic examinations within a period of three years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiers-Lange, K.

    Within the period of three years 5.811 mammographies were made. Mastopathies were found to occur very frequently. Report on the results of operative diagnosis and the rehability of a diagnosis obtained by mammography. (MR) [de

  14. Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alatalo, J.M.; Jägerbrand, A.K.; Čuchta, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, December (2015), s. 18161 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Collembola * alpine subarctic sites * experimental warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  15. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  16. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertani, R.

    1995-01-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure

  17. The discovery of mesoporous molecular sieves from the twenty year perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kresge, Ch. T.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2013), s. 3663-3670 ISSN 0306-0012 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : liquid crystal phases * surfactant * silica Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 30.425, year: 2013

  18. Twenty Years of European Union Support to Gene Therapy and Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancberg, David

    2017-11-01

    For 20 years and throughout its research programmes, the European Union has supported the entire innovation chain for gene transfer and gene therapy. The fruits of this investment are ripening as gene therapy products are reaching the European market and as clinical trials are demonstrating the safety of this approach to treat previously untreatable diseases.

  19. Twenty years of principal-agent research in EU politics: how to cope with complexity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delreux, Tom; Adriaensen, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the 20 years after its introduction, the principal-agent model has seen increasing use to study political processes in virtually all policy domains in which the EU is active. Relaxing the strict assumptions that guided the original economic applications has greatly widened the scope for potential

  20. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  1. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  2. Twenty Years of Brassinosteroids : Steroidal Plant Hormones Warrant Better Crops for the XXI Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.; Zhabinskii, V.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of brassinosteroids (BS) just over 20 years ago opened a new era in studies of bio-regulation in living organisms. Previously, the only known role of steroids as hormones was in animals and fungi; now a steroidal hormone in plants had been added. Progress in brassinosteroid research

  3. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1966, Twenty First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-09-30

    Federation of Malaysia . . . . 24 24 11 - - - - 13 - - - - - - Greece ....••...... 2,2Z7 1,798 30 109 443 405 - 811 429 - 54 84 145 146 DOWNGRADED AT 12 YEAR...Termination of Indefinite Enlistments Early Release for Chirstmas Obesity Early Separation from Extension of Enlistment Resignation Unconditional

  4. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhuenda-Fluixá, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Saurin, Almudena A. Navas; López, Miriam Abiétar

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views…

  5. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  6. Twenty Years On: Reflections on "Supporting the Use of External Representations in Problem Solving"…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard; Brna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reflect upon a paper we wrote that was published in 1995 (20 years ago). We outline the motivation for the work and situate it in the state of the art at that time. We suggest that a key contribution was to highlight the need to provide support for learners who reason with external representations. The support must be flexible enough to…

  7. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1967, Twenty Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-09-30

    AT 12 YEAR INTERVALS;..- NOT AUTOMATICALLY DECLASSIFIEDDOD DIR. 5200.10 ~ Federation of Malaysia . . . . 47 47 22 - - - - 25 - - - - - -Greece...Substandard Performance Resigned - Homosexuality (Class II) Resigned - Homosexuality (Class III) Resigned - Unfitness or Unacceptable Conduct Resigned - In...Performance of Duty (Voluntary) Discharged - Unfitness (Voluntary) Discharged - Marriage (Voluntary) Discharged - Pregnancy (Voluntary) Discharged

  8. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    September 2016 marks 25 years since the College of Medicine of the University of Malawi was established. In this article we reflect on its conception, birth, adolescence, and youth. The contributions of multiple stakeholders are celebrated while being mindful of the ongoing efforts to consolidate past and current gains.

  9. Twenty-eight years of wilderness campsite monitoring in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel Boyers; Mark Fincher; Jan van Wagtendonk

    2000-01-01

    The research, resource management and wilderness staffs in Yosemite National Park recently completed the third 10-year cycle of a wilderness campsite impact monitoring program. Initial results indicate an overall improvement in conditions due to a strong restoration program, decreased use and increased visitor education. Lessons learned point to the necessity for ample...

  10. Twenty Years of Women's Leadership: Have We Come "A Long Way, Baby?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    I'd like to share with you some thoughts from my last 20 years of leadership study and what I've come to understand during this time about women in relationship to leadership. Consider these remarks personal reflections on some of what has been written and discussed about leadership and especially about how women relate to leadership. Let's wonder…

  11. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervashidze, N

    1994-12-31

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.).

  12. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.

    1994-01-01

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.)

  13. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  14. [Changes in processed food expenditure in the population of Metropolitan Santiago in the last twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    During recent decades household incomes have increased steadily, leading to changes in dietary habits and food expenditure. To report changes in household food expenditure focusing on trends in processed food across income quintiles in Metropolitan Santiago. Information obtained from the Fourth (1986-1987), Fifth (1996-1997) and Sixth National Institute of Statistics (INE) Surveys (2006-2007) were used. Food expenditure data over the study periods was extracted from household expenditure surveys (HES) after verifying and adjusting food prices registered by the INE to current 2007 prices. Absolute food expenditure over the study period increased for all groups; the largest increase was found in lowest income quintiles; however, the proportion of total family budget spent on food decreased in all groups. The largest increases in food expenditure corresponded to sweetened beverages, processed fruit juices, alcoholic drinks, ready meals and "eating out". Expenditure on fish rose slightly whereas the absolute spending on legumes, eggs and oils decreased. Expenditure in processed food as percentage of total food expenditure increased from 42% to 57% of total for mean household. For the 2nd quintile it rose from 31% to 48% and for the lowest quintile increased from 53% to 68% over the three decades (1987-2007). Changes were greatest in energy rich processed foods such as bread, pastries, confectioneries and granulated sugar. These particular foods are of high energy density and contain high amounts of saturated fat, sodium and added sugars. These results confirm that food consumption patterns over the past decades have progressively departed from the recommended dietary guidelines given by national and international health organizations.

  15. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  16. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  17. Incidence of hypothyroidism more than twenty years after therapy in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronga, G.; Esposito, M.; Bschieri, I.; Fenzi, G.F.; Martino, E.; Pinchera, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is confirmed that delayed hypothyroidism is the major complication of I 131 therapy of the hyperthyroid syndromes of toxic diffuse or toxic multinodular goiter. In a homogeneous group of 94 patients taken from case histories of 454 subjects treated between 1957 and 1967, the annual increment of complications over the years appears significantly less than that found by other Authors and by us in prior review afeter a shorter interval of time

  18. Clinical and radiological evolution of a hand arthrosis in twenty-five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonje, Julio H; Botero, Misael; Gersner, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    The clinical evolution and X rays of an arthrodosis of the hand followed for 25 years is presented. This is a complement of another article published in the magazine, arthrosis viewed by a doctor patient second part. An emphasis is placed on the good results obtained with a new program of exercises. The problems related to the Alignment and instability of the wrist and its collapse are analyzed in depth in both the example X rays as well as the scannography

  19. Twenty years of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER: Historical and personal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Filardo, Edward J; Lolait, Stephen J; Thomas, Peter; Maggiolini, Marcello; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2018-02-01

    Estrogens play a critical role in many aspects of physiology, particularly female reproductive function, but also in pathophysiology, and are associated with protection from numerous diseases in premenopausal women. Steroids and the effects of estrogen have been known for ∼90 years, with the first evidence for a receptor for estrogen presented ∼50 years ago. The original ancestral steroid receptor, extending back into evolution more than 500 million years, was likely an estrogen receptor, whereas G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) trace their origins back into history more than one billion years. The classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are ligand-activated transcription factors that confer estrogen sensitivity upon many genes. It was soon apparent that these, or novel receptors may also be responsible for the "rapid"/"non-genomic" membrane-associated effects of estrogen. The identification of an orphan GPCR (GPR30, published in 1996) opened a new field of research with the description in 2000 that GPR30 expression is required for rapid estrogen signaling. In 2005-2006, the field was greatly stimulated by two studies that described the binding of estrogen to GPR30-expressing cell membranes, followed by the identification of a GPR30-selective agonist (that lacked binding and activity towards ERα and ERβ). Renamed GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) by IUPHAR in 2007, the total number of articles in PubMed related to this receptor recently surpassed 1000. In this article, the authors present personal perspectives on how they became involved in the discovery and/or advancement of GPER research. These areas include non-genomic effects on vascular tone, receptor cloning, molecular and cellular biology, signal transduction mechanisms and pharmacology of GPER, highlighting the roles of GPER and GPER-selective compounds in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer and the obligatory role of GPER in propagating cardiovascular aging, arterial

  20. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  1. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-03-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods.

  2. Twenty-six years experience of commercialization on potato irradiation at Shihoro, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, K.; Ito, H.

    2000-01-01

    The township of Shihoro is Japan's biggest and most advanced dairy and field farming district which has been producing potatoes as a key crop. The potato irradiation plant was built at Shihoro in 1973 with a potato processing complex and has been shipping some 15,000 tons of sprout-inhibited potatoes a year during the sprouting season. From a technical viewpoint, the radiation efficiency of the Shihoro irradiator is lower than that of the usual irradiation facility using a carton box. The success of the Shihoro irradiator is shown in that radiation processing has been effectively included into one of the storage systems of a huge potato distribution facility. The sprout-inhibited potatoes as such are no guarantee of better business derived from potatoes, but producers see the merit of this process, because it makes possible year-round plant operations and planned shipments, keeps employees in year-round service and prevents rural depopulation, with an increase in the volume of business by expanding the area under crop. Recently in Japan, many companies have interests in commercial irradiation of spices, medical herbs and farm animal feeds before application to common foods. (author)

  3. Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John D.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Belcher, John W.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8) and Voyager 2 spacecraft have recently detected a very strong modulation in the solar wind speed with an approximately 1.3 year period. Combined with evidence from long-term auroral and magnetometer studies, this suggests that fundamental changes in the Sun occur on a roughly 1.3 year time scale.

  4. Twenty-five years of the common market in coal, 1953--1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the common market for coal is traced from its creation on 10 February 1953 by the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community up to the recent past. Describes the position assumed by coal in the Community's energy supply, the changes on the individual markets for solid fuels and the development of the factors affecting supply, including technical progress in the Community's coal mining industry. The changes which have transformed the world energy market are also described. There follows an account of the role played by the Community, in particular the ECSC executive, in the various stages of development of the common market in coal. Chapter 3 deals with the consolidation during the transitional period provided for in the ECSC Treaty; Chapter 4 describes the events of the coal crisis and Chapter 5 is devoted to Community energy policy since the oil crisis of 1973/74 from the coal industry's viewpoint. The appendix contains 39 tables of statistics covering all important aspects of the coal sector since the common market was established.

  5. Twenty years of telemedicine in chronic disease management – an evidence synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain a high-level view of the value of telemedicine in the management of five common chronic diseases (asthma, COPD, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension). A total of 141 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was identified, in which 148 telemedicine interventions of various kinds had been tested in a total of 37,695 patients. The value of each intervention was categorised in terms of the outcomes specified by the investigators in that trial, i.e. no attempt was made to extract a common outcome from all studies, as would be required for a conventional meta-analysis. Summarizing the value of these interventions shows, first, that most studies have reported positive effects (n = 108), and almost none have reported negative effects (n = 2). This suggests publication bias. Second, there were no significant differences between the chronic diseases, i.e. telemedicine seems equally effective (or ineffective) in the diseases studied. Third, most studies have been relatively short-term (median duration 6 months). It seems unlikely that in a chronic disease, any intervention can have much effect unless applied for a long period. Finally, there have been very few studies of cost-effectiveness. Thus the evidence base for the value of telemedicine in managing chronic diseases is on the whole weak and contradictory. PMID:22674020

  6. Twenty-Seven Years Experience With Transvenous Pacemaker Implantation in Children Weighing <10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Laura; Chubb, Mark Henry; Bostock, Julian; Rogers, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Epicardial pacemaker implantation is the favored approach in children weighing pacemaker implantation in neonates and infants from 1987. To date there have been no long-term follow-up reports of what is for many a controversial strategy. Between 1987 and 2003, 37 neonates and infants-median age 6.7 months (1 day to 3 years) and median weight 4.6 kg (2.7-10 kg)-had a permanent transvenous pacing system implanted. Pacing leads were placed into the right ventricular apex/outflow tract through a subclavian vein puncture with a redundant loop in the atrium. Three patients were lost to follow-up, 4 patients died from complications of cardiac surgery, and 2 patients had their system removed. At long-term follow-up in 28 patients at a median of 17.2 (range, 11.2-27.4) years, 10 patients have a single chamber ventricular pacemaker, 14 a dual chamber pacemaker, 3 a biventricular pacemaker, and 1 has a single chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Subclavian vein patency was assessed in 26 patients. The overall subclavian vein occlusion rate was 10 of 13 (77%) 5 kg during long-term follow-up. After a median of 14.3 (range, 13.4-17.6) years of pacing, 7 patients continue with their original lead. Transvenous pacing in infants <10 kg results in encouraging short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Subclavian vein occlusion remains an important complication, occurring predominantly in those weighing <5 kg. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  8. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M.; Link, Emma; Leong, Trevor; Heriot, Alexander; Vazquez, Melisa; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T.; Lynch, Craig A.; Mackay, John; Michael, Michael; Tran, Phillip; Ngan, Samuel Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78–88), 92% (95% CI, 89–96), 73% (95% CI, 68–79), and 82% (95% CI, 77–87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  9. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  10. Actinomycosis of Distal Phalanx Twenty Years after Flap Reconstruction of Index Finger: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative infection caused by anaerobic bacteria from genus Actinomyces which are normal flora of mouth, colon and vagina. Actinomycosis of upper extremity is rare. We report a case of actinomycosis of the distal phalanx of finger many years after flap reconstruction. The patient presented with two months’ history of chronic discharging sinus from the tip of his right index finger, which had sustained a degloving injury 20 years previously. It had been treated with an anterior chest wall flap which had healed uneventfully but was bulky due to excess tissue from the donor site. Radiograph revealed osetomyelitis changes of distal phalanx. Debulking surgery with curettage of the distal phalanx was done. Wound healing was uneventful. He was treated with six weeks of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. The discharge from the distal phalanx cultured actinomycosis odontolyticus. Histopathology of the debrided tissue showed chronic inflammation. As far as we are aware, there are no reports of actinomycosis in a flap involving the finger treated previously with a chest wall skin flap. The infection was probably dormant for many years before manifesting as a discharging sinus. Although the finger flap was bulky, it was not problematic until it started to have serous discharge. With a thorough debridement of all infected tissue, six weeks of antibiotic was adequate. Ciprofloxacin was prescribed based on discharge culture sensitivity. Metronidazole was added as actinomycosis is anaerobic. Response was prompt as patient was not immunocompromised. At follow-up six months post-surgery the finger had recovered with good function. If not for the discharging sinus, patient would probably have tolerated his bulky finger for the rest of his life.

  11. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  12. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Elżbieta; Stępińska, Janina; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently.

  13. Supervoltage orbital radiotherapy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy; Results of a twenty-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA)); Petersen, I.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Since 1968 we have employed supervoltage orbital radiation as treatment for severe progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. A numerical ophthalmic index was used to asess pre- and post-treatment serverity. In the past 20 years we have treated 311 patients of whom 275 have been followed for {le} 1 year or until any eye surgery was performed. An orbital radiation dosage of 2000 rads in 2 weeks was used for the majority of patients (Series I and III). Series II patients received an orbital dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks. Demographic differences were observed between these series, thus mandating presentation of the results of each separately. Analyses excluded any result achieved by any post-radiation surgical procedure on the eyes. Post-theraphy worsening of ophtalmopathy occurred in only 29 of 1025 observations. Improvement or complete resolution was observed within each category of eye involvement, but lack of favorable response was also recorded in significant numbers. Improvement in proptosis occurred with the lowest frequency and magnitude. About 30% of the patients required eye muscle surgery to correct residual diplopia. Analysis of the data by step-wise linear regression analysis enabled us a. to derive formulae predicting the problable response to radiation therapy according to sign and severity, and b. identify parameters which diminished the likelihood or the extent of a favorable response. The latter included male sex, never thyrotoxic, age greater than 60 years, and requirement for concomitant treatment for hyperthyroidism. No long-term adverse reactions attributable to the radiotherapy have been observed. We conclude that supervoltage orbital radiotherapy, combined with later eye muscle surgery if necessary, is an effective treatment strategy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author).

  14. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. Material and Methods The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). Results In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. Conclusions The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently. PMID:26230402

  15. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  17. Twenty years of functional near-infrared spectroscopy: introduction for the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A; Elwell, Clare E; Ferrari, Marco; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-15

    Papers from four different groups were published in 1993 demonstrating the ability of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemoglobin concentration responses to brain function in humans. This special issue commemorates the first 20years of fNIRS research. The 9 reviews and 49 contributed papers provide a comprehensive survey of the exciting advances driving the field forward and of the myriad of applications that will benefit from fNIRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  19. Twenty-five years of Antarctic upper atmosphere research at Rhodes University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    South Africa, as one of the twelve signatories of the Antarctic Treaty is required to establish presence in Antarctica. In this article the past 25 years of upper atmosphere research in Antarctica, and the ionosphere programme at SANAE (South African National Antarctic Expedition) are described. The use of ionograms, Barry ionosondes, airglow photometers, oblique incidence ionograms and the digitized FM ionosonde are discussed as well as anomalous daily variations, the ionospheric effects of particle precipitation, Atmosphere Explorer-C and project ISAAC (International South Atlantic Anomaly Campaign)

  20. Twenty years of high-speed lines in Spain; Zwanzig Jahre Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in Spanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Vega, Tomas [ADIF, Madrid (Spain); Gil Ortiz, Jose Miguel [Balfour Beatty Rail Iberica, Alcobendas (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    In April 1992, i.e. 20 years ago, fast train services started in Spain when high-speed trains were put into operation on the almost 500 km long Madrid-Cordoba-Sevilla railway line. Both the 1,435 mm UIC standard gauge and the 1 AC 25 kV 50 Hz overhead line voltage level meant a big step in the development. Today the Spanish high-speed network covers some 2,200 km of railway line, and more lines are planned or already under construction. (orig.)

  1. Twenty-one year old female with an iris tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettinig, G.; Kurtaran, A.; Dudczak, R.; Maca, S.; Barisani, T.; Horvat, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 21-year-old female with multiple granulomas an the right iris with concomitant therapy refractive panuveitis was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology to exclude an ocular malignancy. The patient had a history of minimal change glomerulonephritis and cutaneous granulomas at the age of six years that were successfully treated with cyclophosphamide. Her visual acuity initially already reduced to 30 % decreased rapidly to 'counting fingers'. A clinical work-up including chest x-ray, spiral computed tomography of the lungs and a detailed serological examination including angiotensin converting enzyme showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. Planar scintigraphy 24 hours after administration of 185 MBq Gallium-67 citrate demonstrated an intense tracer accumulation in both lacrimal glands. Salivary gland uptake was normal and there was only a faint accumulation in the mediastinum interpreted as normal. A biopsy of the right iris revealed a granulomatous non caseating inflammation diagnosed as sarcoidosis. A systemic combination treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 months could not control the inflammation. After therapy was changed to cyclosporine the inflammation decreased and visual acuity decreased to 60 %. Neither a 'lambda sign' (characteristic uptake of Ga-67 in intrathoracic lymph nodes resembling the Greek letter lambda) nor a typical 'panda sign' (bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67) commonly present in sarcoidosis were seen in our patient. This case demonstrates that in individual patients with sarcoidosis, lacrimal gland uptake of Ga-67 may be the only significant noninvasive finding. (author)

  2. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  3. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  4. Twenty Years of One Astronomy Teacher Professional Development - The EXES Teacher Associate Program at UT Austin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Sneden, Chris; Lacy, John; Richter, Matthew J.; EXES Teacher Associates

    2018-01-01

    The Astronomy Department and McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin has and continues to offer a suite of different astronomy based K-12 teacher professional development programs. One of our longest running, and most successful programs, is reaching its 20th anniversary, the EXES Teacher Associate Program, which was started in 1998. The EXES Teacher Associate program features sustained and continued professional development opportunities for K-12 science and math educators. It consists of 6 times per year day-long meetings, coupled with other professional development opportunities provided at various times. In total, there are approximately 30 active members of the group currently, but more than 90 teachers have participated in this group over its 20 year history. The program has had astronomy education as its focus throughout its history, but different partnerships and collaborations with other programs have supported the group and have allowed for a variety of professional development opportunities and themes for educators to engage in. We will give an overview of this program, present evaluation data and teacher feedback related to program success and student impact, and highlight a few specific program opportunities that are unique and have been shown to be most impactful for participants.

  5. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity–productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity–productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23–1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity–productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction. PMID:27621451

  6. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  7. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases.

  8. Twenty-five years after introduction of automotive catalysts. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, M.; McCabe, R.W. [Chemical and Physical Sciences Laboratory, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, MD-3179, SRL, PO Box 2053, 48121 Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2000-09-25

    The union of catalysts and the automobile has been one of the greatest successes of heterogeneous catalysis over the last 25 years. Here, the history of automotive catalysis is briefly reviewed, followed by an assessment of where automotive catalysis stands today and where it is headed in the future. A key distinction between past automotive catalysis experience and that projected for the future is an increased focus on catalysts in upstream of power plant applications, such as on-board fuel processing units for fuel cell vehicles. Driven by ever tighter regulations, there will be continued research and development activity focused also on downstream applications (i.e. exhaust emission aftertreatment), especially for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited.

  9. [Infective endocarditis. Systematic review of twenty years of performances in the Sociedad Argentina de Medicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Yorio; Milian Andrés, Escudero; Luis, Camera

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. There have been very few studies published about IE in Argentina. We reviewed all the studies about IE published in the Argentine Medicine Society from 1980 to 2003 and we analyzed demographic, clinical and bacteriological data. 27 studies with 628 patients were included. Mean age of patients was 50.7 years old. The most frequent clinical data were fever, murmur and elevated sedimentation rate. Stafilococcus spp was the most common causative organism, followed by streptococcus spp. The echocardiographic demonstration allowed the definitive diagnosis in 2/3 of the patients. The IE data of Argentina are not different from other data published in different countries and this study shows some clinical features of IE in Argentina.

  10. [Quality assurance systems and occupational medicine system: an history twenty years along].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Along the last tventy years, in our country the quality assurance systems and the occupational medicine deeply interacted both in theoretical and practical fields of interest at three levels: (i) the need of preventive and therefore of occupational medicine in quality assurance systems; (ii) the need on reverse of quality in prevention and occupational mnedicine mainly in qualification and updating process; (iii) the evidence, proofs of efficacy or appropriateness of different preventive procedures and occupational physician activities; (iv) the connection with European and national legal directives and with technical or good practice norms. Finally we discuss about the role of occupational physician as the global consultant for enterprise, as a mandatory strategic technical figure in a typical multidisciplinary processes as the implementation of the quality systems.

  11. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  13. Twenty Years of Creativity Research in Human-Computer Interaction: Current State and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich Pedersen, Jonas; Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Creativity has been a growing topic within the ACM community since the 1990s. However, no clear overview of this trend has been offered. We present a thorough survey of 998 creativity-related publications in the ACM Digital Library collected using keyword search to determine prevailing approaches......, topics, and characteristics of creativity-oriented Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. . A selected sample based on yearly citations yielded 221 publications, which were analyzed using constant comparison analysis. We found that HCI is almost exclusively responsible for creativity......-oriented publications; they focus on collaborative creativity rather than individual creativity; there is a general lack of definition of the term ‘creativity’; empirically based contributions are prevalent; and many publications focus on new tools, often developed by researchers. On this basis, we present three...

  14. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools.

  15. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  16. Twenty years of multidisciplinary research and practice: the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Findley, Patricia A; Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Early research of work disability in the 1980s showed a complexity of factors influencing pain and health-related functional limitation at work; hence, multidisciplinary perspectives were necessary to understand the complex interplay between biomechanical, organizational, social, and psychological factors impacting work disability. To address this need, the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation was founded in 1991 with the goal of providing a scientific, yet practical forum for presenting multidisciplinary research and practice in work disability. Now, the 20-year collection of articles in the Journal reflects important trends and directions in the field of occupational rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective summary of the past 20 years of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, including its inaugural goals and intent, rates of submission and acceptance, trends in the types of articles published, study topics, global distribution of authors, and future directions. The original goal of providing a multidisciplinary scientific and practical forum has been met, but current trends reflect a maturing scientific evidence base, with less representation of employer-based case studies and practical innovations. There has been a dramatic increase in the international representation of studies, authors, and peer reviewers outside of the US. Also, published studies now address work disability for a larger number of health concerns. Contributions to the Journal continue to reflect a multidisciplinary perspective, but the Journal has seen significant changes with respect to international representation, the expanding study of non-musculoskeletal sources of work disability, and the maturing scientific evidence base in the field of occupational rehabilitation. Future volumes of the Journal will likely reflect continuing changes in the global economy, workforce fitness, and job demands.

  17. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  18. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  19. Twenty years of load theory-Where are we now, and where should we go next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Groeger, John A; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-10-01

    Selective attention allows us to ignore what is task-irrelevant and focus on what is task-relevant. The cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie this process are key topics of investigation in cognitive psychology. One of the more prominent theories of attention is perceptual load theory, which suggests that the efficiency of selective attention is dependent on both perceptual and cognitive load. It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model. The present article supplements and extends previous reviews (Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 , 2005, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148. doi: 10.1177/0963721410370295 , 2010) by examining more recent research in what appears to be a rapidly expanding area. The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms, and (5) the future of load theory. We argue that the key next step for load theory will be the application of the model to real-world tasks. The potential benefits of applied attention research are numerous, and there is tentative evidence that applied research would provide strong support for the theory itself, as well as real-world benefits related to activities in which attention is crucial, such as driving and education.

  20. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65%) studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30%) studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5%) article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23%) was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM) species in both clinical (28%) and environmental (19%) isolated samples (P < 0.05). Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM), M. simiae (103/494; 21%) demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%). These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  2. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  3. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of three antiepileptic drugs - Back on twenty years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serragui, Samira; Zalagh, Fatima; Tanani, Driss Soussi; Ouammi, Lahcen; Moussa, Latifa Ait; Badrane, Narjis; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs is a tool widely used in the management of epilepsy. In Morocco, this monitoring is carried out by the Centre Anti Poison et Pharmacovigilance (CAPM) since April 1995. This is a retrospective study spanning 20 years. It concerns the therapeutic drug monitoring of Phenobarbital (PB) of carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA). Therapeutic drug monitoring of the 3 antiepileptic drugs represent 58.85% of all applications received by the CAPM. The dosage of PB was ranked first followed by that of CBZ and finally by the VPA. Weak demand for therapeutic drug monitoring in Morocco could be explained by the low number of neurologists in addition to social factors. With its affordable price by patients, PB is the most prescribed antiepileptic drug in our country, which explains the high demand for its dosage. As for the therapeutic drug monitoring of the antiepileptic drug, they were mainly related to age, the occurrence of adverse effects, the association antiepileptic drugs or in the case of verification of patient compliance. Efforts are required for promoting the interests of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drug in the management of epilepsy in Morocco.

  4. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  5. COMPLICATIONS OF NON-ENDOSCOPIC DISCECTOMY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TWENTY-ONE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Ramírez León

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report and compare the number and grade of major complications presented with non-endoscopic thermal discectomy and nucleoplasty for the treatment of discogenic axial lumbar pain using laser and radiofrequency. Methods: A 21 years retrospective study was conducted of the clinical charts of patients whose reason for consultation was axial lumbar pain from degenerative disc disease, and who underwent surgery using non-endoscopic discectomy and nucleoplasty (NEDN. Two groups were established; the first, NEDN with laser, and second, NEDN with radiofrequency. The number and types of complications reported in the case-series were counted, and their statistical differences determined. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 643 of the medical charts. 26 complications were reported, the most common being radiculitis (n=12. Statistically significant differences were found between the complications occurring in the two groups (p=0.01. Conclusion: The number of complications showed statistically significant difference. The severity of the complications and adverse outcomes provide an argument for choosing one technology over the other. Training and the learning curve stage are important factors to be taken into account, to avoid complications.

  6. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  7. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  8. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Leibstadt nuclear power station (KKL): The Future after twenty years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenenberger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Switzerland's largest power plant, KKL (1 165 MW BWR), is situated on the Swiss side of the Rhine River, not far from the entry of the Aare River. In 2003, the plant generated some 17% of the electricity consumed in the country. In line with the importance of the plant, it shareholders are all major Swiss power utilities. KKL was connected to the power grid in December 1984. Its construction cost amounted to approx. euro 3 200 million. After some backfitting measures at an expense of approx. euro 200 million, the plant is now in excellent technical shape. Generating costs, which were very high in the beginning, have been greatly reduced in the meantime. This was helped by a decrease of borrowed capital, the favorable development of interest rates and, above all, the rise in annual production. This, in turn, was achieved in various programs increasing plant power, and by shortening the annual revision outages. From the coming year onward, costs could be below Eurocent 3.3/kWh. Also the organization and the staff of te plant are prepared for the future. They have demonstrated their fitness in various national and international reviews. Also the political environment is favorable, by and large. In 2003, the Swiss voting population so clearly rejected the two opt-out initiatives that there has been a lasting positive change in the policy of continuing the operation of existing plants. Also for KKL, the waste management problem is still unsolved. This is due primarily to political reasons. The envisaged repository for low-level waste was rejected in a referendum in 2003. Technically and in its organization, the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Station is ready for the future. The electricity generated at Leibstadt is desired and accepted politically. (orig.)

  10. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  11. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Inge, E-mail: inge.lindblom@niku.no

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  12. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  13. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  14. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After

  15. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  16. One hundred years of return period: Strengths and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, E.; Fiori, A.; Grimaldi, S.; Lombardo, F.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2015-10-01

    One hundred years from its original definition by Fuller, the probabilistic concept of return period is widely used in hydrology as well as in other disciplines of geosciences to give an indication on critical event rareness. This concept gains its popularity, especially in engineering practice for design and risk assessment, due to its ease of use and understanding; however, return period relies on some basic assumptions that should be satisfied for a correct application of this statistical tool. Indeed, conventional frequency analysis in hydrology is performed by assuming as necessary conditions that extreme events arise from a stationary distribution and are independent of one another. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of return period when the independence condition is omitted; hence, we explore how the different definitions of return period available in literature affect results of frequency analysis for processes correlated in time. We demonstrate that, for stationary processes, the independence condition is not necessary in order to apply the classical equation of return period (i.e., the inverse of exceedance probability). On the other hand, we show that the time-correlation structure of hydrological processes modifies the shape of the distribution function of which the return period represents the first moment. This implies that, in the context of time-dependent processes, the return period might not represent an exhaustive measure of the probability of failure, and that its blind application could lead to misleading results. To overcome this problem, we introduce the concept of Equivalent Return Period, which controls the probability of failure still preserving the virtue of effectively communicating the event rareness.

  17. Clinical observations over 20 years period of Bikini victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    The author outlined the results of medical examinations performed in a period of 20 years on the Japanese fishermen who were exposed at Bikini in 1954. Exposure doses were estimated, and the progress of medical examinations for skin injury, hematological changes, cytogenetic changes, and spermatogenetic disturbance was described. In view of internal exposure, none of the long half-life nuclides was retained in the body. The victims were compared with the victims exposed in Marshall Islands. (Serizawa, K.)

  18. Twenty years of socio-economic inequalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in Spain, 1987-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espelt, Albert; Kunst, Anton E.; Palència, Laia; Gnavi, Roberto; Borrell, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Background: To analyse trends in socio-economic inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes among men and women aged epsilon 35 years in Spain during the period 1987-2006. Methods: We analysed trends in the age-standardized prevalence of self-reported diabetes and obesity in relation to level of

  19. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  20. Changes in Reef Fish Abundances Associated with the Introduction of Indo-Pacific Lionfish to the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: a Twenty Year Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gittings, S.; Stallings, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a partnership between academic, private, and government researchers seeking to understand how marine biodiversity changes over long periods of time. In this context, a study of the multi-agency Reef Visual Census (RVC) data, collected over twenty years in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), was analyzed to measure possible changes in reef fish abundances as a result of possible predation by lionfish predation or due to related trophic cascading. Lionfish were first sighted in the FKNMS in January 2009, with abundances and frequency of occurrence increasing three to six fold throughout the sanctuary by 2011. Their high consumption rates of smaller fish, coupled with their rapidly increasing densities may be having a significant effect on coral reef fish communities. The study compares the natural variability in reef fish abundances from 1994-2009 in the FKNMS, 15 years prior to the first lionfish detected in the sanctuary, to changes in reef fish abundances 5 years after the invasion. The MBON project also aims to develop environmental DNA (eDNA) technology for conducting biodiversity assessments. eDNA is an emerging technique that seeks to quantify biodiversity in an area by obtaining genetic material directly from environmental samples (soil, sediment, water, etc.) without any obvious signs of biological source material. All marine organisms shed DNA into their surrounding habitat, leaving a "fingerprint." Similar to forensic science, the DNA can be collected from seawater and analyzed to determine what species were recently present. The MBON team is evaluating whether eDNA can be used to adequately monitor reef fish biodiversity in coral reef ecosystems. We will compare species detected in our samples to the taxonomic composition of reef fish communities at the sample site as recorded over the past twenty years in the Reef Visual Census data.

  1. Health effects following long-term exposure to thorium dusts: a twenty-year follow-up study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.A.; Cheng, Y.E.; Xiao, H.; Chen, L.; Yang, Y.J.; Dong, Z.H.; Zheng, R.; Feng, G.; Deng, Y.H.; Feng, Z.L.; Han, X.M.

    2004-01-01

    A twenty-year follow-up study was carried out at Baiyun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine in China, This mine has been mined since 1958. Its ore contains 0.04% of ThO 2 and 10% of SiO 2 . The purpose of this study is to investigate possible health effects in dust-exposed miners following long-term exposure to thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. By using the negative high voltage exhaled thoron progeny measurement system to estimate the miner's thorium lung burden. The highest thorium lung burden among 1 158 measurements of 638 miners was 11.11 Bq. The incidence of stage 0 + pneumoconiosis was increased among dust-exposed miners. An epidemiological study showed that the lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners was significantly (p 2 and SiO 2 ) and thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation for the dust-exposed miners and the controls were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively. (author)

  2. Twenty-Five Years of Gene Therapy for ADA-SCID: From Bubble Babies to an Approved Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrua, Francesca; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since first attempts of gene therapy (GT) in children affected by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) defect, also known by the general public as bubble babies. ADA-SCID is fatal early in life if untreated. Unconditioned hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant from matched sibling donor represents a curative treatment but is available for few patients. Enzyme replacement therapy can be life-saving, but its chronic use has many drawbacks. This review summarizes the history of ADA-SCID GT over the last 25 years, starting from first pioneering studies in the early 1990s using gamma-retroviral vectors, based on multiple infusions of genetically corrected autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes. HSC represented the ideal target for gene correction to guarantee production of engineered multi-lineage progeny, but it required a decade to achieve therapeutic benefit with this approach. Introduction of low-intensity conditioning represented a crucial step in achieving stable gene-corrected HSC engraftment and therapeutic levels of ADA-expressing cells. Recent clinical trials demonstrated that gamma-retroviral GT for ADA-SCID has a favorable safety profile and is effective in restoring normal purine metabolism and immune functions in patients >13 years after treatment. No abnormal clonal proliferation or leukemia development have been observed in >40 patients treated experimentally in five different centers worldwide. In 2016, the medicinal product Strimvelis™ received marketing approval in Europe for patients affected by ADA-SCID without a suitable human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor. Positive safety and efficacy results have been obtained in GT clinical trials using lentiviral vectors encoding ADA. The results obtained in last 25 years in ADA-SCID GT development fundamentally contributed to improve patients' prognosis, together with earlier diagnosis thanks to newborn screening. These advances

  3. Twenty-three-year trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa (1993-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Banwari

    2018-04-01

    Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes. Of these, 3935 (14.2%) deaths were related to firearm injuries. The average gunshot death rate during the study period was 29/100,000 of the population annually. The majority (3236; 82%) were males, among whom the death rate was 24.4/100,000 of the population per year. The rate of gunshot deaths was 27/100,000 of the population in 1993, while in 2015 it was 12.8/100,000. About a third (1207; 31%) of victims were between 21 and 30 years of age. Conclusion The gunshot death rate is at an unacceptably high level in the Transkei subregion of South Africa, especially among young people.

  4. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U

    2010-01-01

    was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs......Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... and patient data were retrospectively combined to calculate sex and diagnosis specific and age standardized 1-YPPR s of RBC transfusion for the complete population in a Danish county. During the calendar year of 2006, 4427 patients received RBC transfusion in Funen County. The crude 1-YPPR of RBC transfusion...

  5. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  6. Muiris O’Sullivan’s “New Storytelling”: The Art of Twenty Years A-Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Shea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its publication in 1933, Muiris O’Sullivan’s Fiche Blian ag Fás (Twenty Years A-Growing has been limited and distorted by critics who view the memoir through a lens shaped by prior assessments of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s earlier Blasket autobiography, An tOileánach (The Islandman. Muiris Mac Conghail voices the standard perspective when he states, “It was the publication of Tomás Ó Criomhthain’s An tOileánach, in 1929, which both acted as an incentive and provided an exemplar to Muiris” (150. O’Crohan’s autobiography certainly inspired O’Sullivan; however, Muiris’s more literary sensibility set him on his own inscriptive journey during which he creates a new type of narrative, one which creatively interweaves oral traditions with the contours of the novel. As we investigate what Pádraig Ó Fiannachta terms the author’s nua scéalaíocht, or “new storytelling” techniques, we can more fully appreciate O’Sullivan’s subtle dexterities as both traditional storyteller and novelistic craftsman.

  7. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  8. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  9. The Italian National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism: twenty years of surveillance and study of congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Antonella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All the Italian Centres in charge of screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of infants with congenital hypothyroidism participate in the Italian National Registry of affected infants, which performs the nationwide surveillance of the disease. It was established in 1987 as a program of the Health Ministry and is coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The early diagnosis performed by the nationwide newborn screening programme, the prompt treatment and the appropriate clinical management of the patients carried out by the Follow-up Centres, and the surveillance of the disease performed by the National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism are the components of an integrated approach to the disease which has been successfully established in our country. The aim of the Register is to monitor efficiency and effectiveness of neonatal screening, to provide disease surveillance and to allow identification of possible aetiological risk factors for the disease. During the past twenty years the active and continuous collaboration between the Register and the Italian Screening and Follow up Centres for Congenital Hypothyroidism allowed to perform a standardization of screening procedures and considerable improvements in the time at starting treatment and in the dose of therapy. Furthermore, the large amount and the high quality of information collected in the Register provided a unique opportunity for research into the disease. This because data collected in the Register are highly representative as referred to the entire Italian population with congenital hypothyroidism. The results derived from the epidemiological studies performed in these years, by using the Register database, contributed to deepen the knowledge of congenital hypothyroidism, to start identifying the most important risk factors for the disease, and to orient molecular studies aimed at identifying new genes involved in the aetiology of this condition.

  10. Distribution of 10 periodontal bacterial species in children and adolescents over a 7-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, K; Miyamoto, E; Tamura, K; Nemoto, H; Fujita, K; Nomura, R; Ooshima, T

    2008-10-01

    There is scant information available regarding the distribution of periodontal bacterial species in children and adolescents over an extended period. The purpose of this study was to compare bacterial profiles in the same individuals over a period of 7 years. Twenty-six children and adolescents from whom dental plaque and saliva specimens were obtained during both the first (1999-2000) and second (2006-2007) periods, were analyzed. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each specimen and the presence of 10 periodontal bacterial species was determined using a PCR method, with a focus on the red complex species of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Subjects with red complex species in saliva specimens obtained during the second collection possessed a significantly higher number of total bacterial species than those without. The detection rate of the red complex species in the second collection period samples was significantly greater in subjects who had two or more species detected in samples taken during the first collection compared with the other subjects. Subjects possessing red complex species may be at possible risk for infection with a high number of periodontal bacterial species during adolescent and younger adult years.

  11. Twenty year multi-follow-up of different types of hallucinations in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Harrow, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Hallucinations are a salient feature of both psychotic and mood disorders. Currently there is a call for more research on the phenomenology of different forms of hallucinations, in a broader array of disorders, to further both theoretical knowledge and clinical utility. We investigated auditory, visual, and olfactory hallucinations at index hospitalization and auditory and visual hallucinations prospectively for 20years in 150 young patients, namely 51 schizophrenia, 25 schizoaffective, 28 bipolar, and 79 unipolar depression. For the index hospitalization, the data showed schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients had a greater rate of auditory and visual hallucinations than bipolar and depression patients. However, over the longitudinal trajectory of their illness, a greater percentage of schizophrenia patients had auditory and visual hallucinations than schizoaffective patients, as well as bipolar and depression patients. Also, in contrast to the initial period, schizoaffective patients did not differentiate themselves over the follow-up period from bipolar patients. Bipolar and depression patients did not significantly differ at index hospitalization or at follow-up. We found visual hallucinations differentiated the groups to a greater degree over the 20year course than did auditory hallucinations. These findings suggest the longitudinal course is more important for differentiating schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, whereas the initial years may be more useful to differentiate schizoaffective disorder from bipolar disorder. Furthermore, we found that the early presence of auditory hallucinations was associated with a reduced likelihood for a future period of recovery. No olfactory hallucinations were present at the index hospitalization in any patients. Over the course of 20years, a minority of schizophrenia patients presented with olfactory hallucinations, and very few schizoaffective and bipolar patients presented with olfactory hallucinations. This

  12. Twenty Years of Regional Safeguards: the ABACC System and the Synergy with the National Nuclear Material Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Palhares, Lilia C.; De Mello, Luiz A.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Maceiras, Elena; Terigi, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    As result of the nuclear integration between Brazil and Argentina, in July 1991 the Agreement for Peaceful Uses of the Nuclear Energy (Bilateral Agreement) was signed and the Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accountancy and Control of Nuclear Material (ABACC) was created [1]. The main role assigned to ABACC was the implementation and administration of the regional control system and the coordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in all nuclear activities of Argentina and Brazil. In December 1991 the IAEA, ABACC, Argentina and Brazil signed the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435) [2]. The agreement establishes obligations similar to those established by model INFCIRC/153 comprehensive agreements. The Bilateral Agreement establishes that the Parties should make available financial and technical capabilities to support ABACC activities. In order to accomplish this challenge, the National Systems had to improve their structure and capabilities. Through the close interaction with the IAEA and ABACC, the national systems have been enriched by adopting new methodologies, implementing innovative safeguards approaches and providing specialized training to the regional inspectors. All of this also resulted in relevant technical improvements to the regional system as a whole. The approach of both neighborhoods controlling each other increased the confidence between the partners and permitted a better knowledge of their potentialities. The recognized performance of the regional system in the implementation of innovative, efficient and credible safeguards measures increased the confidence of the international community on the implementation of nuclear safeguards in Argentina and Brazil. In this paper, after twenty years of the creation of the ABACC System, the view of the Brazilian and Argentine National Authorities is presented. (authors)

  13. "Europe" as an Alibi: An Overview of Twenty Years of Policy, Curricula and Textbooks in the Republic of Cyprus--and Their Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article compares discourses on "Europe" in Greek-Cypriot policy, curricula and textbooks over approximately the last twenty years, from the early 1990s, when Cyprus applied for European Union (EU) membership, until 2011-12, the school year during which the recently revised curricula were gradually introduced to schools for…

  14. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  15. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  16. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years

  17. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  19. Twenty Years of Anesthetic and Perioperative Management of Patients With Tetralogy of Fallot With Absent Pulmonary Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochman, John D; Atkinson, Douglas B; Quinonez, Luis G; Brown, Morgan L

    2017-06-01

    Review the authors' institutional experience of the induction and perioperative airway management of children with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve. Retrospective chart review. Large academic children's hospital. Patients with the diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve undergoing primary cardiac repair over a 20-year period. None. Forty-four patients were identified with tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve from January 1995 through August 2014. Forty-two patients (95%) required surgery in their first year of life. Sixteen patients (36%) required mechanical ventilation preoperatively, including 11 neonates. Of the 28 patients not intubated preoperatively, only 1 (3.8%) exhibited minor airway obstruction following induction that was managed uneventfully. All intubations in the operating room were performed in the supine position. Five patients who were mechanically ventilated preoperatively in a lateral or prone position were supinated in the operating room without significant cardiopulmonary compromise. There were no patients who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest or required mechanical circulatory support. The median time to extubation was 2 days (range 1-13 days) in those patients who were not mechanically ventilated prior to their surgery. Ultimately, 5 patients required tracheostomy and 1 patient underwent lobectomy. Although, there was no mortality at 30 days, 4 children died within 1 year of their surgery. All the children who died had a genetic syndrome and required mechanical ventilation preoperatively. While there are theoretical concerns specific to the induction and airway management of tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve, there were no episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the authors' series. Neonatal age at the time of surgery, preoperative need for mechanical ventilation, and concomitant genetic syndromes are risk factors for respiratory

  20. Twenty years of the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry: where we stand and what remains to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, Antonio M; Marotta, Serena; Calzone, Rita; Grimaldi, Francesco; Zatterale, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    The natural history of Fanconi anemia remains hard to establish because of its rarity and its heterogeneous clinical presentation; since 1994, the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry has collected clinical, epidemiological and genetic data of Italian Fanconi Anemia patients. This registry includes 180 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fanconi anemia who have either been enrolled prospectively, at diagnosis, or later on. After enrollment, follow-up data were periodically collected to assess the clinical course, possible complications and long-term survival; the median follow up was 15.6 years. The main goal of the study was to describe the natural history of Fanconi anemia, focusing on the following variables: family history, disease presentation, development of hematological manifestations, development of malignancies, occurrence of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and survival. Typical morphological and/or hematological abnormalities and/or growth retardation were the most common manifestations at diagnosis; the majority of patients (77%) exhibited hematological abnormalities at the initial presentation, and almost all (96%) eventually developed hematological manifestations. More than half of the patients (57%) underwent a bone-marrow transplant. The occurrence of cancer was quite rare at diagnosis, whereas the cumulative incidence of malignancies at 10, 20 and 30 years was 5%, 8% and 22%, respectively, for hematological cancers and 1%, 15% and 32%, respectively, for solid tumors. Overall survival at 10, 20 and 30 years were 88%, 56% and 37%, respectively; the main causes of death were cancer, complications of the hematological presentation and complications of transplantation. These data clearly confirm the detrimental outcome of Fanconi anemia, with no major improvement in the past decades. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. Twenty-three years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Meel

    2018-01-01

    Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken. Results Between 1993 and 2015, the number of autopsies performed on people who had died unnatural deaths was 24,693. The records of 12,618 (51%) autopsies on victims of homicide between 1993 and 2015 were available for study. The average rate of murder was 85/100,000 of the population in this region. Of these deaths, on average 34/100,000 were caused by sharp-edged instruments, 30/100,000 by gunshot wounds and 21/100,000 by blunt trauma. The rate of murder of males was significantly higher than that of females, with a ratio of 5.7:1, and over the period of 23 years covered by this study, the incidence was highest (30.5/100,000) in the young age group between 21 and 30 years. Conclusion The rate of homicide is very high in the Transkei region of South Africa. It needs urgent intervention to curb unnecessary deaths.

  2. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  3. Design innovation and service works after twenty years operation period at the 250 kW TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Boeck, H.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 the thermalizing column of the TRIGA Reactor Vienna which was originally composed of graphite blocks was converted to a cold neutron source and the empty experimental tank was covered with heavy concrete shielding blocks. Since during the last decade this cold neutron source was not used and possible disintegration and corrosion of this system was to be expected it was decided to remove this installation and to replace it with a new designed two component collimator to be used for neutron radiography. The replacement of the cold neutron source required close access to the reactor core, therefore due to radiation protection aspects all fuel elements had to be removed from the reactor pool. As a consequence this situation was used to inspect visually two beam tubes and the reactor tank and to replace the two electromechanical control rod drives. Further, a new purification circuit was installed, replacing the old bypass system. Many other reactor components or systems were improved and serviced as described

  4. Investigation of the outcomes and varieties of violent suicides during a period of twenty years in Ilam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Azizpour

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: One of the main objectives of this study was identification of high risk groups who used the invasive methods for suicide commitments, based on their epidemiological characteristics such as gender and age. The results showed that women and elderly individuals were among the high-risk groups who committed completed suicide using the invasive methods and self-immolation attributed the most frequent method among invasive methods for suicide in Ilam province which resulted in death.

  5. Review: Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Devan Pillay, Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Prishani Naidoo and Roger Southall (eds, New South African Review 4: A Fragile Democracy – Twenty Years On, Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2014, ISBN 9781868147632, 380 pp.

  6. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  7. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  8. 22 Year Periodicity in the Solar Differential Rotation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    1995). Recently, we determined periodicities in the solar differential rotation through the power spectrum analysis of the differential rotation parameters derived from the data on sunspot groups compiled from Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) during 1879 1976 and from Mt. Wilson velocity data during 1969 1994 ...

  9. Windsurfing vs kitesurfing: Injuries at the North Sea over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Christiaan J A; Commandeur, Joris P; Weber, Rik I K; Haverkamp, Daniel; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-12-18

    To analyze all windsurfing and kitesurfing (kiteboarding) injuries presented at our coastal hospital over a 2-year period. Twenty-five windsurfers (21 male; aged 31 ± 8 years) and 32 kitesurfers (23 male; aged 29 ± 11 years) presented at our hospital during the 2-year study period. Various injury data were recorded, including transport to hospital and treatment. After a median follow-up of 16 mo (range, 7-33 mo), 18 windsurfers (72%) and 26 kitesurfers (81%) completed questionnaires on the trauma mechanisms, the use of protective gear, time spent on windsurfing or kitesurfing, time to return to sports, additional injuries, and chronic disability. Most patients sustained minor injuries but severe injuries also occurred, including vertebral and tibial plateau fractures. The lower extremities were affected the most, followed by the head and cervical spine, the upper extremities, and the trunk. The injury rates were 5.2 per 1000 h of windsurfing and 7.0 per 1000 h of kitesurfing ( P = 0.005). The injury severity was the same between groups ( P = 1.0). Less than 30% of the study population used protective gear. Kitesurfers had a higher number of injuries, and required transport by ambulance, inpatient hospital stay and operative treatment more often than windsurfers, but these differences were not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). The median time to return to windsurfing and kitesurfing was 5 and 4 wk, respectively ( P = 0.79). Approximately one-third of the patients in each group experienced chronic symptoms. Kitesurfing results in a significantly higher injury rate than windsurfing in the same environmental conditions but the severity of the injuries does not differ.

  10. Quality control processes in allografting: A twenty-year retrospective review of a hospital-based bone bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shau-Huai; Liu, Jyh-You; Huang, Chuan-Ching; Lin, Feng-Ling; Yang, Rong-Sen; Hou, Chun-Han

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal allografts are now commonly used. To decrease the potential risks of transmission of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or viruses to the transplant recipients, certain issues regarding the management of patients who receive contaminated allografts need to be addressed. We aimed to clarify the incidence and extent of disease transmission from allografts by analyzing the allografting procedures performed in the bone bank of our hospital over the past 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed the data from our allograft registry center on 3979 allografts that were implanted in 3193 recipients throughout a period of two decades, from July 1991 to June 2011. The source of the allografts, results of all screening tests, dates of harvesting and implantation, and recipients of all allografts were checked. With the help of the Center for Infection Control of our hospital, a strict prospective, hospital-wide, on-site surveillance was conducted, and every patient with healthcare-associated infection was identified. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the infection rate between recipients with sterile allografts and those with contaminated allografts. The overall discard and infection rates were, respectively, 23% and 1.3% in the first decade (1991-2001); and 18.4% and 1.25% in the second decade (2001-2011). The infection rate of contaminated allograft recipients was significantly higher than that of sterile allograft recipients (10% vs. 1.15%, P bank are comparable with those of international bone banks. Strict allograft processing and adequate prophylactic use of antibiotics are critical to prevent infection and disease transmission in such cases.

  11. Quality control processes in allografting: A twenty-year retrospective review of a hospital-based bone bank in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Huai Fu

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal allografts are now commonly used. To decrease the potential risks of transmission of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or viruses to the transplant recipients, certain issues regarding the management of patients who receive contaminated allografts need to be addressed. We aimed to clarify the incidence and extent of disease transmission from allografts by analyzing the allografting procedures performed in the bone bank of our hospital over the past 20 years. We retrospectively reviewed the data from our allograft registry center on 3979 allografts that were implanted in 3193 recipients throughout a period of two decades, from July 1991 to June 2011. The source of the allografts, results of all screening tests, dates of harvesting and implantation, and recipients of all allografts were checked. With the help of the Center for Infection Control of our hospital, a strict prospective, hospital-wide, on-site surveillance was conducted, and every patient with healthcare-associated infection was identified. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the infection rate between recipients with sterile allografts and those with contaminated allografts. The overall discard and infection rates were, respectively, 23% and 1.3% in the first decade (1991-2001; and 18.4% and 1.25% in the second decade (2001-2011. The infection rate of contaminated allograft recipients was significantly higher than that of sterile allograft recipients (10% vs. 1.15%, P < 0.01 in the second decade. Both infection and discard rates of our bone bank are comparable with those of international bone banks. Strict allograft processing and adequate prophylactic use of antibiotics are critical to prevent infection and disease transmission in such cases.

  12. Twenty years of the Nuclear Research Institute and its contribution to the development of nuclear power and technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the most important results of scientific research efforts of the Nuclear Research Institute (UJV) attained in the 20 years of the Institute's existence. In 1975 the proportion of the individual fields of research was as follows: reactor technology 37%, reactor materials 19%, nuclear fuel processing including waste processing 18%, ionizing radiation applications 16%, others 10%. In the field of reactor technology, orientation is evident to light-water and fast reactors (1975): light-water reactors 40%, fast reactors 44%, heavy-water reactors 16%. The most significant contribution of the Institute to the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant A-1 in the past period included the construction of the TR-0 heavy-water critical assembly, the choice of suitable uranium alloys and their thermal and mechanical treatment for the A-1 fuel elements, corrosion and mechanical stability study of cladding materials and post-irradiation fuel study performed in the UJV hot chambers. Significant for the development of light-water reactors are mainly the study of water regimes of radiation-exposed circuits, the solution of primary circuit chemical problems, participation in the international research programme of the CMEA countries related to the ZR-6 (Budapest) critical assembly, and the study of Zr-based cladding materials. UJV is the main Czechoslovak study centre for the development of a fast reactor and its staff have written a number of programmes for the computation of such a reactor and its fuel cycle. Also available is a suitable experimental facility. The Institute also participates in the research of UO 2 -based ceramic fuel, and in the field of spent fuel and radioactive waste processing in the development of extraction processes and the application of fluoride technology. As for ionizing radiation applications, UJV has since 1960 been manufacturing radioactive preparations including, to a limited extent, radiopharmaceuticals. It is envisaged that

  13. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  14. Locoregional recurrences following radical external beam irradiation and interstitial implantation for operable breast cancer - a twenty three year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.; Otmezguine, Y.; Calitchi, E.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Pierquin, B.

    1986-01-01

    Locoregional recurrences are reported in 493 consecutive with T1 T2 N0 N1 breast cancer patients who were treated with radical external beam irradiation and interstitial 192 Ir implant between 1961 and 1979. Follow-up ranges from 5-23 years (mean 10 years) with 195 patients having 10-23 years follow up (mean 12 years). There were 51 (10%) locoregional recurrences with 34 mammary, 14 combined mammary/axillary and 3 isolated axillary recurrences. The 10 year relapse rate was 20/195 (10%). The results have been compared with other series in the literature and changes in the authors' current protocol are described. (Auth.)

  15. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  16. Twenty years of chemistry associated with the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This publication covers nine review papers on the following topics related to the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences during previous twenty years: radiochemistry, hot atom chemistry, isotope production, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, chemistry of transuranium elements; liquid radioactive waste processing, purification of reactor coolant water by inorganic ion exchangers, research related to deuterium concentration processes, and chemical dosimetry at the RA reactor [sr

  17. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  18. Stuck in a Mismatch? The Persistence of Overeducation during Twenty Years of the Post-Communist Transition in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztyn, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term changes in the persistence of overeducation among individual workers, focusing on the relationship between the rate of those changes and the general economic situation. All analyses are based on data from the Polish Panel Survey (POLPAN) conducted throughout the post-communist transition period, 1988-2008. The results…

  19. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  20. Training medical students in health promotion: twenty years of experience at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases, the work of medical doctors, be they general practitioners or specialists, involves some dimension of health promotion (HP. There is thus ample justification for increasing the awareness of medical students vis-à-vis HP and its relevance for their future practice.Methods: In the context of a major curriculum reform (problem-based learning [PBL] at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva in the mid-1990s, several steps were taken to strengthen HP throughout the curriculum and include HP in its key domains as defined by the Ottawa Charter (OC.Results: First, the political dimension of HP was developed in a series of first- and fifth-year lectures and third-year workshops; second, community action was strengthened through a third year one-month community immersion program; third, the development of personal skills was integrated into second- and third-year PBL cases and into fourth-and fifth-year learning activities in clinical settings as well as second- and third-year HP electives; in terms of reorienting health services, the chosen approach included the development of a HP-specific track in the context of a Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS in Community Health and a Master of Advanced Studies(MAS in Public Health. Furthermore, a supportive intra-university environment was created through a collaborative convention with Health Promotion Switzerland, which is in charge of coordinating HP in Switzerland.Conclusion: In our view, HP teaching for medical students seems all the more relevant given that future medical doctors will have to take care of an increasing number of patients likely to develop chronic non-communicable diseases.

  1. [From assimilation to multiculturalism. Twenty years of policy and social research on immigration in Sweden (1966-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, C

    1991-03-01

    "The essay analyzes the immigration policy pursued by Sweden from 1966, the year in which the first commission was established for this particular area, till 1985, the year in which an important reform was passed regarding the reception of refugees. The focal point of this immigration policy is singled out halfway in the 70's when the assimilation model is repudiated in favor of multiculturalism. One of the main features of this policy is the priority role accorded to research. The author examines the main fields of interest pursued by researchers, in particular the more recent studies on the ethnic-cultural dimension of the immigration phenomenon." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  2. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  3. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  4. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty-year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  5. Twenty years of research on fungal-plant interactions on Lyman Glacier forefront—lessons learned and questions yet unanswered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari Jumpponen; Shawn P. Brown; James M. Trappe; Efrén Cázares; Rauni. Strömmer

    2012-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and the periglacial areas that they vacate produce a harsh environment of extreme radiation, nutrient limitations and temperature oscillations. They provide a model system for studying mechanisms that drive the establishment and early assembly of communities. Here, we synthesize more than 20 years of research at the Lyman Glacier forefront in the...

  6. Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease Among Middle Aged Men in Prague: Twenty-year Follow-up Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudík, F.; Reissigová, Jindra; Hrach, Karel; Tomečková, Marie; Bultas, J.; Anger, Z.; Aschermann, M.; Zvárová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 1 (2006), s. 86-93 ISSN 0021-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B107 Keywords : primary prevention study * atherosclerosis * cardiovascular diseases * coronary artery disease * Framingham risk function * mortality * risk factors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2006

  7. Twenty years' delay of fellow eye involvement in herpes simplex virus type 2-associated bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlingemann, R. O.; Bruinenberg, M.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P.; Feron, E.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis with concurrent encephalitis and determine the causative virus. The patient had a history of presumed acute retinal necrosis in the left eye at the age of 8 years and recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Diagnostic anterior chamber puncture of the

  8. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  9. Twenty Years Wandering (But Not in the Desert: Brazil’s 1967-1989 absence from UN peacekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Uziel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, Brazilian officials have often underlined the country’s role as a traditional contributor of troops to peacekeeping operations, beginning with participation in UNEF I, in 1957. However, for the two decades from 1967 to 1989, Brazil did not take part in peacekeeping – a particularly puzzling absence given that this was a period of increased Brazilian activism at the UN, including in international security issues. This article suggests that one of the main reasons for Brazil’s withdrawal was concern regarding the excessive role of the great powers in controlling these operations. From 1967 to 1977, Brazil participated in the attempt to stop the Security Council from consolidating its control over these operations, seeking thereby to reduce their vulnerability to great power manipulation. In 1977, it desisted from this endeavor, and returned to peacekeeping only in 1989, by which time Brazil, the world, and peacekeeping had all changed significantly.

  10. Twenty Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill Accident in the Sea of Japan, How Has Contamination Changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nakhodka, a Russian tanker loaded with 19,000 kL of C-type heavy oil, was broken up into sections and submerged off Oki Island, Shimane Prefecture, Japan on 2 January 1997. The bow, after drifting for four days, was wrecked off Anto, Sakai City (Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture, threatening the environment throughout the various shores of Ishikawa Prefecture. The accident, caused by a heavy oil spill of 6200 kL, created serious environmental problems along the shores of Hokuriku District. We report the characterization of C-type heavy oil 20 years after the accident at the Atake seashore, Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, in the Sea of Japan, based on observations in the field on 18 January 2017. We studied the microstructure, mineralogy, chemical composition, and radioactivity associated with microorganisms in the soils, and buried fishing nets and ropes that were contaminated with C-type heavy oil from this spill. The analyses used a combination of micro techniques, analytical data based on a CHN analyzer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and two kinds of scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, paraffin wax, cristobalite, graphite, calcite, halite, and biotite from the Nakhodka oil spill were recognized on the surface of ropes and in the soil of the polluted seashores after 20 years. The chemical compositions indicated that high concentrations of C, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Fe, Cl, Sr, and Pb were predominantly indigenous to the Nakhodka oil spill. In the XRD analysis of the oil-contaminated soils on the rope at the Atake seashore indicated paraffin wax, graphite, sulfate, calcite and halite refractions with clay minerals, after 20 years. To date, no report has described the results of electron microscopy observations, such as Micrococcus bacillus and filamentous fungi, found in oil-contaminated soils after 20 years. In this research, such observations are introduced as

  11. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  12. The interaction of land-use legacies and hurricane disturbance in subtropical wet forest: twenty-one years of change

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, James Aaron; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Thompson, Jill; Nytch, Christopher J.; Uriarte, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance shapes plant communities over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. How natural and anthropogenic disturbance interact to shape ecological communities is highly variable and begs a greater understanding. We used five censuses spanning the years 1990–2011 from the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP) in northeast Puerto Rico to investigate the interplay of human land-use legacies dating to the early 20th century and two recent hurricanes (Hugo, 1989 and Georges, 1998...

  13. Twenty-seven years of phase III trials for patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: disappointing results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Oze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have formally assessed whether treatment outcomes have improved substantially over the years for patients with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC enrolled in phase III trials. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the time trends in outcomes for the patients in those trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for trials that were reported between January 1981 and August 2008. Phase III randomized controlled trials were eligible if they compared first-line, systemic chemotherapy for ED-SCLC. Data were evaluated by using a linear regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 52 trials were identified that had been initiated between 1980 and 2006; these studies involved 10,262 patients with 110 chemotherapy arms. The number of randomized patients and the proportion of patients with good performance status (PS increased over time. Cisplatin-based regimens, especially cisplatin and etoposide (PE regimen, have increasingly been studied, whereas cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine-based regimens have been less investigated. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant improvement in survival over the years. Additionally, the use of a PE regimen did not affect survival, whereas the proportion of patients with good PS and the trial design of assigning prophylactic cranial irradiation were significantly associated with favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The survival of patients with ED-SCLC enrolled in phase III trials did not improve significantly over the years, suggesting the need for further development of novel targets, newer agents, and comprehensive patient care.

  14. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvin, J.-C. [CNRS-UPRES-A Elico, Wimereux (France). Station Marine de Wimereux

    1998-09-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The `climax` concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity of approximately 10-11 g m{sup -2} (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  15. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvin, J.-C. [CNRS-UPRES-A Elico, Wimereux (France). Station Marine de Wimereux

    1998-09-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The 'climax' concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity ofapproximately 10-11 g m{sup -2} (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  16. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, J.-C.

    1998-01-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The 'climax' concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity of approximately 10-11 g m -2 (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  17. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10 8 (range 0.7-75×10 8 ), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    ). In such abnormal NAWM regions, biexponential diffusion analysis and quantitative spectroscopy indicated extracellular edema and axonal loss, respectively. Repeated analysis 6 months later identified the same alterations. Such patchy alterations were not detectable in the NAWM of the 3 cases with short-term NMO......BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  19. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...

  20. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. [Twenty-year surveillance of insects relevant to public health during the construction of hydroelectric facilities in Antioquia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Walter Alonso; López, Yolanda Lucía; Osorio, Lisardo; Salazar, Luis Fernando; González, Marta Claudia; Ríos, Claudia María; Wolff, Marta Isabel; Escobar, José Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Entomological studies conducted in large hydroelectric infrastructure projects are a tool for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. These diseases emerge as a consequence of changes made to the terrain that often increase the natural and artificial mosquito larval habitats. Many of these insects are of public health importance and population increases result in an increased risk of disease transmission. The culicine (mosquito) and phlebotomine (sand fly) populations were characterized in the area of the Porce II and Porce III hydroelectric projects of Antioquia between 1990 to 2009. Periodical entomological samplings were made in the area of impact, in the workers camps, and construction sites. Adult specimens were captured with nets, Shannon light traps, CDC light traps, and protected human bait. Mosquito larvae of the following species were identified: Culex coronator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex quinquefasciatus and Limatus durhami. The most frequently identifiers of larval habitats were low tanks, waste cans, tires, and aquatic plants. Aedes aegypti specimens were captured in only two rural locations from two municipalities within the area of influence. Specimens from the following mosquito genera were captured in forest areas: Aedes, Mansonia, Culex, Psorophora, Wyeomyia, Phonyomyia, Uranotaenia, Haemagogus and Sabethes. The most important mosquito found was Haemogogus janthinomis, an efficient yellow fever vector in Colombia. The area has been endemic for leishmaniasis and in the current study, 20 species of Lutzomyia sand flies, potential vectors, were identified. Among malaria vectors, the most important species found in the area were Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis. A wide variety of vectors were discovered in the area of the Porce II and Porce III hydroelectric projects, and many of these were relevant for public health. Further monitoring will be necessary to minimize disease transmission risks among the

  2. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Retrospective Clinical Data Analysis of 30 Patients in a 10-year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF is an uncommon disease that is characterized by development of fibrosclerotic tissues involving retroperitoneal structures. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of 30 patients with RPF in a single center in Beijing in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, radiological findings, modalities of treatments, outcomes and prognosis of 30 patients with RPF. Patients were treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between January 2003 and December 2013. Results: The mean age of patients with RPF was 56.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-three patients were men and seven patients were women. Acute phase reactants were elevated in most patients. Rheumatic factor was positive in 4/25 (16.0% patients, and antinuclear antibody was positive in 6/22 (27.3% patients. Elevation of IgG4 was observed in 9/22 (40.9% patients. The most common type was I + III (n = 13, followed by I + II + III (n = 12. Five patients undertook an 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography examination and increased uptake was detected in four patients. Eight patients received combination therapy with glucocorticoids and tamoxifen. Surgical intervention treatments included intraureteral double-J stent implantation (n = 26, percutaneous nephrostomy (n = 2, open ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5 and laparoscopic ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5. Three patients underwent hemodialysis because of renal failure. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics of RPF patients in our study are similar to those previously reported. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy combined with ureterolysis could be a viable choice of treatment for RPF. More prospective, multi-center studies with a longer follow-up are warranted.

  3. Topical topic: value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: twenty-six years of experience in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohar-Marinsek, Ziva; Anzic, Jozica; Jereb, Berta

    2002-06-01

    Chemotherapy (Cht) for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) given before local treatment can prevent mutilating surgery and high-dose irradiation (RT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can confirm the diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment can start without delay. The purpose of our study was to assess the role of FNAB in the management of childhood RMS in Slovenia. A total of 78 children and young adults were included. FNAB provided the pre-treatment diagnosis in 37 and surgical biopsy in 41 patients. In 61 cases recurrent/metastatic disease was aspirated. Cytological diagnoses were compared to the original histological diagnoses. All case histories, cytological and histological material were reviewed and immunocytochemical staining performed when necessary. FNAB provided a correct diagnosis of malignancy in all 37 primary tumours, a specific diagnosis of RMS was given in 29 (78%). With the use of immunocytochemistry during the last 15 years, the accuracy has risen to 87%. FNAB provided the diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis in 57/61 cases. No complications of FNAB were noted. Review of histology reclassified five original diagnoses of RMS into one malignant rhabdoid tumour and four sarcomas NOS. In review of cytology we were able to sub classify 80% of RMS. FNAB is a safe method, which enables us to establish the pre-treatment diagnosis of RMS, and to some extent even its type, without delay. In our study, FNAB successfully replaced surgical biopsy in 87% of RMS patients during the last 15 years. Neoadjuvant Cht was started immediately, surgery was delayed and more conservative. Consequently, the risk for treatment sequelae was considerably reduced. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  5. Twenty years of Internet-based research at SCiP: A discussion of surviving concepts and new methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2017-10-01

    This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.

  6. Future scenarios for the development of nuclear power. How will nuclear power develop over the next twenty to forty years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power technology has developed significantly over the past 60 years to the point that today it supplies the world with 15% of its electricity; and there are plans for continued development. However, the continued growth of nuclear power is not without challenges. The nuclear industry must remain competitive in the face of challenges ranging from environmental considerations and proliferation concerns to ensuring safe and often transparent operations. Understanding these and other issues, as well as their underlying causes, can help the industry leaders create more robust strategies and effectively implement nuclear fuel cycle decisions. Robust strategies are ones that can be effective even when circumstances change, due to events such as opposition, new scientific information, changes in resource availability, or introduction of competing technologies. Scenario planning is tool which can help planners and decision makers create a strategic conversation about the future and how to manage and plan in a time of accelerated change and complexity. In this paper, scenario planning is introduced and the development of nuclear power is examined against the back drop of four future scenarios, specifically looking at how variations in environmental quality, resource availability, security and proliferation, and safety may affect the development of nuclear power. The scenarios discussed provide a starting point to improve the understanding of issues and opportunities facing the global nuclear power industry and ultimately, to improve strategies for technology development. Such scenarios may be employed as a basis for collaboration and communication amongst the stakeholders involved in the development of nuclear technology. (author)

  7. Enteric Duplication Cysts in Children: A Single-Institution Series with Forty Patients in Twenty-Six Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Soysal, Feryal Gun; Ozbey, Huseyin; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaattin; Karadag, Aslıhan; Salman, Tansu

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate our experience with enteric duplication cysts in 40 children during the past 26 years, while assessing the variability of their presentations and to propose an algorithm for surgical management. We retrospectively analysed sex, age, clinical presentations, duplication site, surgical treatment, presence of ectopic tissue, complications, associated anomalies, and prognosis of 40 patients with gastrointestinal tract duplications who were surgically treated in our clinic. Overall, there was a predominance of boys (28 males, 70 %; 12 females, 30 %). The presenting symptom was vomiting in 23 patients, rectal bleeding in 11 patients, abdominal mass in 10 patients, abdominal pain in 9 patients, constipation in 6 patients, cough in 2 patients, and respiratory distress in 2 patients. In 30 patients, a complete excision of the cyst with additional segmental intestinal resection and anastomosis was performed. Cystectomy was performed in seven patients, while complete excision of the cyst with additional wedge resection was performed in two. A Wrenn procedure (mucosectomy) was performed in one patient. Due to the variability in the site of enteric duplications, a wide range of presenting symptoms can exist, which is challenging for diagnosis. In children with a diagnosis of acute abdomen, enteric duplication cysts should be considered, and these children should be further investigated for additional skeletal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal system pathologies. Surgical treatment depends on the site and type of the cyst.

  8. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  9. Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour, Peter; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse associations of religiosity and mortality in a secular region. The sample consisted of 734 Danish, community dwelling elderly persons, living in a secular culture, and all aged 70 when primary data were collected. Secondary data consisted of a 20 year follow-up on vital status or exact age of death. The study was designed to be highly comparable to studies conducted in more religious environments in order to compare results. Three variables of religion were investigated in relation to survival: importance of affiliation, church attendance and listening to religious media. Relative hazards (RH) of dying were controlled in models including gender, education, medical and mental health, social relations, help given and received, and health behaviour. The results showed significant and positive associations between claiming religious affiliation important and survival (relative hazard of dying=RH .70; 95% CI .58-.85) and church attendance and survival (RH .73; 95% CI .64-.87). Results decreased and only stayed significant regarding church attendance when controlled for covariates. Nearly all significant effects were seen in women, but not in men. The effect size of the full sample is less than in more religious environments in United States samples. Although the positive overall RHs are comparable to those of other studies, the mediating variables and pathways of effects seem dissimilar in this sample from a secular environment. Receiving and especially giving help to others are suggested as variables of explanatory value.

  10. Missing for the last twenty years: the case of the southernmost populations of the Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Zanon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus (Vieillot, 1808 is a widespread species in the Neotropics, but its southernmost populations in Brazil are ecologically (and possibly taxonomically distinct, occurring only along the coast in restinga vegetation. Once considered the most common bird in restinga, it is becoming increasingly rare, likely due to habitat loss and illegal capture of nestlings. We conducted field surveys to provide an up-to-date distribution of the Tropical Mockingbird in the southernmost portion of the species' range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, supplying an estimate of its current regional population size and conservation status. We surveyed 21 restinga remnants in Rio de Janeiro, covering all major restinga areas in the state. For sites where the species' presence was confirmed through transect line surveys, we estimated the local population size. The species was found at only four sites. The mean local population density was 52 individuals per km-2. The estimated current and historical Extent of Occurrence (EOO were 256 km2 and 653 km2, respectively. Combining the population size and EOO results, we estimated that the population of the state of Rio de Janeiro currently ranges from 2,662 to 13,312 individuals, corresponding to an estimated reduction of 61% to 92% in population size in the last 20 years. The species, therefore, can be considered "Endangered" in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We recommend that a taxonomic study of the southernmost populations is carried out in order to clarify whether they represent a different, likely threatened species. We also recommend that the environmental regulations that protect restingas are used towards the protection of these populations.

  11. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  12. Twenty-five years of Brown Boveri experience in development, design and fabrication of circulators for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelzl, D.

    1988-01-01

    The two circulators for the AVR experimental reactor in Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany, were supplied. The circulators, which are equipped with oil bearings, have been operating troublefree since the start of commissioning in 1966. As a consequence of a water ingress into the reactor resulting from a steam generator damage one bearing was replaced in 1977 after 72,000 operating hours. Up to the present date, each of the circulators has scored 115,000 hours of operation, one of them without any disassembly. In the THTR 300 in Schmehausen, Federal Republic of Germany, 6 BBC circulators are in operation. The insertable circulator units equipped with oil bearings have successfully proven their operating capability without any problems during the commissioning phase and the 100% power operation which was started recently. Currently active magnetic bearings are being developed for advanced gas-cooled reactors such as the HTR 100, the HTR 500 and the heating reactor after excellent results have been furnished by a small prototype in a test loop. This ADI circulator has since scored more than 15,000 operating hours without any trouble. A retainer bearing test stand also equipped with active magnetic bearings has been in operation for nearly 2 years. This test stand serves for developing the conditions for safe rundown of the rotors of even the largest circulators after the magnetic bearings have been deenergized unintentionally. Development work is conducted on the prototype of a safety-relevant circulator held in magnetic bearings, to be used for decay heat removal in the HTR 500. The original aim to have circulators without auxiliary medium for bearing lubrication will thus be reached. The advantages to be obtained in process and systems design are a supplementary support to the inherent safety characteristics of high-temperature reactors. Another advantage of these bearings is cost reduction. 5 refs, 7 figs

  13. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density

  14. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  15. Changing trend of viral hepatitis -- 'A twenty one year report from Pakistan medical research council research centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Qureshi, H.; Arif, A.; Alam, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of Hepatitis B and C over the past twenty one years, in a liver research unit of Karachi. Retrospective analysis of the records of PMRC, Research Centre, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1987 to 2007 were reviewed. A special flow sheet was made where information of all patients with viral liver disease was entered. Patients having complete information of viral markers were included in the analysis. Cases with HBsAg, Anti HBc IgM positive and raised ALT were considered as acute Hepatitis B. HBs Ag/ Anti HBc IgG positive were considered as chronic Hepatitis B. Delta antibody positive with or without HBsAg were considered as Delta Hepatitis. Anti HCV positive and raised ALT more than ten times for less than 6 months were considered as acute Hepatitis C, whereas Anti HCV and HCV-RNA positive with or without raised ALT for more than six months were considered as chronic Hepatitis C. Anti HEV IgM and Anti HAV IgM positive were considered as acute Hepatitis E and A respectively. A total of 5193 cases fulfilling all criteria of viral hepatitis were seen in the past 21 years. Of the total 3247 (62.5 %) were males and 1946 (37.5 %) females giving a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 Hepatitis C was the most common infection seen in 2896 cases (55.8 %), followed by Hepatitis B in 1691 cases (32.6 %). Seventy five percent cases of Hepatitis B were males and 25 % females while 55% Hepatitis C cases were males and 45 % females. Hepatitis B was seen a decade earlier in different age groups than hepatitis C. Overall, out of the total 5193 cases, 2294 (44.2%) were of chronic hepatitis, 1430 (27.5%) cirrhosis, 1083 (20.8%) carriers and 346 (6.7%) had acute hepatitis (hepatitis B; 214 (61.8%), hepatitis C; 21 (6.0%). While hepatitis B and hepatitis C both were present in 3 (1.3%). Hepatitis E was 70 (20.2%) hepatitis A 12 (3.5%) and all markers were negative in 26 (7.5%) cases). Forty cases (0.8%) were of Hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Twenty years of operation of the Radioisotope Department of the 3rd Medical Clinic, Faculty of General Medicine, Charles University in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years ago a radioisotope department was established in the old building of the 3rd Medical Clinic in Prague 2. The department is suitably placed and meets present requirements. It was set up as part of the 3rd Medical Clinic and of the Laboratory for endocrinology and Metabolism which gave it its main orientation and scope. Its present scope is much broader. In the twenty years since it was established 115,800 examinations were carried out, some 40 examination methods were introduced, 103 publications published, members of the department were co-authors of another 113 publications, they completed 11 research projects. The production of the department represents a substantial part of laboratory material especially in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy and metabolic disorders at the Clinic and is a significant part of the material of a number of research projects. The department has significantly contributed to the development of nuclear medicine in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in thyroid diagnosis, by the first introduction of radioimmunoassay methods, by the introduction of certain other special examination and laboratory methods and is currently taking part in the fulfilment of tasks given by the zoning of nuclear medicine in health care in Czechoslovakia in general and in Prague in particular. (author)

  17. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kakishima

    Full Text Available Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  18. Twenty Years of Cultural Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Kathryn J.

    1986-01-01

    Traces history and contributions of cultural journalism since the inception of the first Foxfire Book in 1966. Reviews successful student projects across the country. Discusses significance of cultural journalism as source of cultural identity with potential to increase understanding among different groups of people. (NEC)

  19. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning. Twenty-five years of progress; the last five years - 2006 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement constituting the CPD has been continuously extended, although modified in 2003, with the current programme period lasting until the end of 2013. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme and the projects involved. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The number of projects in the programme has grown from 42 to 59 over the past five years. The Programme now covers 35 reactor related projects and 24 fuel related projects representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all phases of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 25 years of experience of the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, and in particular through the information exchange and review within the TAG, it has become evident that: - decommissioning can and has been done in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner; - the evolution of technologies have demonstrated their effectiveness in performance improvements in all aspects of conducting decommissioning projects; - the upkeep and maintenance of design, construction and operational records can significantly enhance performance through all stages of a decommissioning project; - in the absence of waste disposal facilities, interim waste storage facilities with integrated waste processing facilities can effectively be used to keep all levels of waste streams moving and avoid delays to project schedules; - cleanup of material for recycle and reuse or disposal as conventional waste is cost

  20. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to

  1. Significant achievements in '10th five-year plan' period and primary guidance in '11th five-year plan' period on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Li Youliang; Jian Xiaofei; Peng Xinjian; Jiang Deying

    2007-01-01

    During the '10th five-year-plane' period, uranium resource had attracted high attention and concentration from related organization of the CCPC and the central government because of the state's manifestation on the development goal for nuclear power, efforts on uranium research and exploration were intensified accordingly. In that five years, both uranium exploration, regional assessment and prognostication for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in North China and research on uranium metallogeny theory and prospecting method had made fairly great progress and reached important fruits. Due to the improvement of prospecting theory and technology for ISL amenable sandstone hosted U-deposits, uranium exploration efficiency was great enhanced and had prompted the sustainable development for China's uranium exploration. This paper have briefly expounded the general deploy for the uranium geology research and exploration in the '11th five-year plan' period. (authors)

  2. The Structure and Evolution of the Strategic Management Field: A Content Analysis of Twenty-six Years of Strategic Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer,Olivier; Thomas, Howard; Goussevskaia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses 26 years of strategic management research published in Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly and Strategic Management Journal. Through a content analysis, it studies the relationships between the subfields of strategic management. A multiple correspondence analysis provides a map of keywords and authors, and a framework to track this literature over the 26-year period. A discussion of future pathways in the strategic ...

  3. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  4. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  6. One Hundred Twenty-One Resected Solid Pseudopapillary Tumors of the Pancreas: An 8-Year Single-Institution Experience at Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Zhao, Guochao; Pu, Ning; Nuerxiati, Abulimiti; Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Rong, Yefei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Xu, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenchuan

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce our experience with treating patients with pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) and to investigate the clinical risk factors for recurrence of SPTs because no consensus has been established to date. One hundred twenty-one patients underwent surgical resection from January 2008 to December 2015 in our institution. Clinical data were collected from the standardized reports. Of the 121 patients, 93 (76.9%) were women, 28 (23.1%) were men, and the mean age at diagnosis was 33.7 years (range, 11-68 years). Sixty patients were subjected to short-term complications, and 8 patients experienced long-term complications, some of whom may require surgery. The tumor located in the distal pancreas (P = 0.02), and a Ki-67 index value > 1.5 (P = 0.01) indicated malignancy according to the World Health Organization 2000 classification. One hundred three patients responded to follow-up, and 3 cases (2.9%) were subject to liver metastases. Recurrence was more frequently observed in tumors classified as high-grade malignancies according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification (P = 0.013), synchronous metastases (P < 0.001), peripancreatic fat infiltration (P = 0.018), and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). Evaluating the risk of the recurrence of SPTs still requires systematic and multicenter trials in the future, even some pathological features showed statistical differences.

  7. Analysis of Personal Dosimetry for Nuclear Medicine Staff in Ten-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poropat, M.; Dodig, D.; Ciglar, M.; Tezak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of personal dosimetry for nuclear medicine personnel in our department in a ten-year period. We have analyzed personal doses for 80 employees in nuclear medicine in a ten year period that we divided into two five year periods (from 2000 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2009). The personnel was dived into 8 groups according to their working assignments due to different radiation exposure from various radioisotopes in different wards in nuclear medicine: nuclear medicine specialists, technologists in scintigraphy ward, personnel of physics ward, ward for radiochemistry and radioimmunology, clinical ward and ultrasound ward, cleaning personnel, administrative personnel. We have compared average dose per person in particular ward in two five year periods. All doses for all personnel were in the permissible limits prescribed by the authorities. Higher average dose per person in a first five year period was detected in two wards, scintigraphy ward and ward for radiochemistry and radioimmunology due to the nature of their working assignments (preparation and application of radiopharmaceuticals, contact with patients who have received radiopharmaceutical). The decrease in the average dose per person was noticed in a second five-year period, especially in the wards with personnel that had no prior education in ionizing radiation protection. The decrease of dose was from 7.5 % to 84.2 %. We think that the decrease of average dose per person in a second five-year period was not only the result of the increased personal protection measures but also the result of continuing education of nuclear medicine personnel that is obligatory by the Law for ionizing radiation protection from year 1999, and the results from a ten-year period show its positive effect on radiation protection. (author)

  8. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the possible deleterious effects of phthalate exposure on endogenous sex steroid levels in children. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether urinary phthalate metabolite levels are associated with circulating adrenal androgen levels and age at puberty....... Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2...

  9. The prevalence and incidence of glaucoma in Denmark in a fifteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Horwitz, Anna; Thygesen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. METHODS: All Danish citizens were...... included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence...... of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging...

  10. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  11. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  12. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    , the addi tional departments of oncology and chemotherapy were equipped and started activities, databases of cancer cases in exposed population and separate groups of exposed were introduced, as well as an international database of radiation injuries. The Clinical and Epidemiological registry of the NRCRM is in function and developed. An adapta tion of research directions with a respect to the pathomorphosis of radiation induced diseases in the remote period after irradiation will continue.Performed complex studies of the effects of incorporation of 131I on the fetus and the next gen eration of experimental animals became important for understanding the mechanisms of formation of radiation effects. Introduction of new foodstuffs and supplements with radiation protective proper ties was of positive effect for population protection during the first years.In the area of dosimetry a substantial progress has been achieved in reconstruction of thyroid doses in the Ukrainian population, dosimetric passportisation of settlements, radiochemistry, the creation of new methods for reconstructive dosimetry for cleanup workers - SEAD, RADRUE, and ROCKVILLE. All developments are implemented to practice, tens of thousands of doses have been restored. International recognition has received for the method of in utero doses reconstruction. As editor in chief, I regard it successful to incorporate our bilingual edition «Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology» into the NCBI MedLine, SCOPUS and other data bases, that creates an unique opportunity to widely disseminate results of the Center's research.Strategies for the future. Ukraine belongs to countries with a priority development of nuclear energy. Even with the increase in the production of clean energy, there is no other way than the further deployment of a complete nuclear fuel cycle and energy industrial complex, the expansion of the nuclear technologies to all sectors of the economy.The main potential threats to radiation

  13. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  14. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  15. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  16. Changes in adiposity levels in schoolchildren according to nutritional status: analysis over a 30-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p405 The aim of this study was to analyze changes in adiposity levels over a 30-year period in schoolchildren according to nutritional status. This study is part of Projeto Misto Longitudinal de Crescimento, Desenvolvimento e Aptidão Física de Ilhabela. 1.144 schoolchildren of both sexes, aged between 10 and 11 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a have at least one complete evaluation in one of the analyzed periods; (b be in the prepubertal stage of sexual maturation;and (c be apparently healthy. Analyzed periods were 1978/1980 (Baseline,1988/1990 (10 years, 1998/2000 (20 years, 2008/2010 (30 years. Analyzed variables were: body mass (kg, height (cm and adiposity levels (mm. Children were classified into three categories: eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to nutritional status, using World Health Organization (WHO body mass index (BMI curves for age and sex. For a comparison between periods, Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and Bonferroni’s test were used. In both sexes, the most significant increase in adiposity levels occurred among the eutrophic group, followed by the overweight group and obese group. Results showed an increase in adiposity levels over a 30-year period, even with nutritional status control. It shows that individuals with a similar BMI may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  17. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish preschool children over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  To determine change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children, over a 10-year period and to identify possible predictors of overweight in 5-year-old children. Methods:  Anthropometric data from birth and routine child health examinations at 3 and 5 years of age...... of preschool children, the average BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity did not vary significantly during the 10-year period. No significant changes in mean birth weight were registered and mean BMI in the group of obese children did not increase. Overweight or obesity at 5 years was strongly...... associated with overweight and obesity at 3 years and with birth weight and gender. Conclusion:  The prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be stable over a decade in Danish preschool children without changes in mean BMI in the group of obese children. A strong association between overweight...

  19. Period of sunspot numbers is 11.02653720 years (11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norita, Sadataka

    1976-01-01

    In the statistical analysis of time series there have been applied usually the stationary stochastic process or the Markov stochastic process and recently there are applied remarkably an autoregressive process, a stochastic difference equation, an autoregressive-moving average process, a moving average process, the Whittaker periodogram, the correlogram, Schuster periodogram, chi-squared periodogram, level crossings, harmonic process, difference method, spectral density and first order vector equation, but in special case it is desirable to apply the nonstationary stocastic process. In this paper we introduce an stationarity into the autoregressive process and then it is the first purpose to compute precisely period of sunspot numbers. The result up to the eighth places at the decimal point was obtained that its period is 11.02653720 years, that is, 11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds. This is considered to be more relevant than numerical values by which Schuster (1906) and Yule (1927) had calculated the respective 11.125 years and 10.60 years in the past. We revised the theoretical expression in the thesis of Anderson, Shaman, Lindgren, Brillinger, Newbold, Parzen, Kingman, Van Ness and Kenneth, etc. and executed the numerical analysis of period of sunspot numbers investigated now. (auth.)

  20. Period of sunspot numbers is 11. 02653720 years (11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norita, S [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-09-01

    In the statistical analysis of time series there have been applied usually the stationary stochastic process or the Markov stochastic process and recently there are applied remarkably an autoregressive process, a stochastic difference equation, an autoregressive-moving average process, a moving average process, the Whittaker periodogram, the correlogram, Schuster periodogram, chi-squared periodogram, level crossings, harmonic process, difference method, spectral density and first order vector equation, but in special case it is desirable to apply the nonstationary stocastic process. In this paper we introduce a stationarity into the autoregressive process and then it is the first purpose to compute precisely the period of sunspot numbers. The result up to the eighth places at the decimal point was obtained that its period is 11.02653720 years, that is, 11 years 9 days 16 hours 18 minutes 0 seconds. This is considered to be more relevant than numerical values by which Schuster (1906) and Yule (1927) had calculated the respective 11.125 years and 10.60 years in the past. We revised the theoretical expression in the thesis of Anderson, Shaman, Lindgren, Brillinger, Newbold, Parzen, Kingman, Van Ness and Kenneth, etc. and executed the numerical analysis of period of sunspot numbers investigated now.

  1. Changing trends of chronic myeloid leukemia in greater Mumbai, India over a period of 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rajesh P.; Nagrani, Rajini; Yeole, Balkrishna; Koyande, Shravani; Banawali, Shripad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about burden of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in India. There is a recent interest to observe incidence and mortality because of advent of new diagnostic and treatment policies for CML. Materials and Methods: We extracted data from the oldest population-based cancer registry of Mumbai for 30 years period from 1976−2005 to observe incidence and mortality rates of CML. We classified the data into four age groups 0–14, 15–29, 30–54 and 55–74 to observe incidence rates in the respective age groups. Results: The age specific rates were highest for the age group of 55–74 years. No significant change in trends of CML was observed for 30 years period. However, there was a significant reduction in incidence rate for recent 15-years period (Estimated average annual percentage change=-3.9). No significant reduction in mortality rate was observed till 2005. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that age-specific rates for CML are highest in age group of 55-74 years, although they are lower compared to western populations. Significant reduction in incidence of CML in recent periods might be because of reduced misclassification of leukemias. The data of CML has to be observed for another decade to witness reduction in mortality because of changes in treatment management. PMID:22174498

  2. [TRENDS OF PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A SINGLE CENTER OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Dante; Ilan, Limor Bushar; Freedberg, Nahum A; Feldman, Alexander; Turgeman, Yoav

    2015-05-01

    To review the changes in permanent pacemaker implantation indications, pacing modes and patients' demographics over a 20-year period. We retrospectively retrieved data on patients who underwent first implantation of the pacemaker between 1-1-1991 and 31-12-2010. One thousand and nine (1,009) patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation during that period; 535 were men (53%), their mean age was 74.6±19.5 years; the highest rate of implanted pacemaker was in patients ranging in age from 70-79 years, however there was an increasing number of patients aged over 80 years. The median survival time after initial pacemaker implantation was 8 years. Syncope was the most common symptom (62.5%) and atrioventricular block was the most common electrocardiographic indication (56.4%) leading to pacemaker implantation. There was increased utilization of dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers over the years. There was no difference regarding mode selection between genders. Pacemaker implantation rates have increased over a 20-year period. Dual chamber replaced most of the single ventricular chamber pacemaker and rate responsive pacemakers became the norm. The data of a small volume center are similar to those reported in pacemaker surveys of high volume pacemaker implantation centers. They confirm adherence to the published guidelines for pacing.

  3. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, R; Serrano, R; Pons-Estel, G J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. METHODS: In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS ...

  4. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive Zone, the licensee of the first cellular system authorized on each channel block in each cellular market is afforded a five year period, beginning on the date the initial authorization for the system is granted, during which it may expand the system within that market. (a) Exclusive...

  5. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  6. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Ricchezza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Geology (GLY program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosciences in 2013, the merging departments re-examined their various curricular programs. An online survey of the Geology Alumni Society found that “express quantitative evidence in support of an argument” was more favorably viewed as a workplace skill (4th out of 69 than algebra (51st, trig (55th and calculus 1 and 2 (59th and 60th. In that context, we decided to find out from successful alumni, “What did you get out of Computational Geology?” To that end, the first author carried out a formal, qualitative research study (narrative inquiry protocol, whereby he conducted, recorded, and transcribed semi-structured interviews of ten alumni selected from a list of 20 provided by the second author. In response to “Tell me what you remember from the course,” multiple alumni volunteered nine items: Excel (10 out of 10, Excel modules (8, Polya problem solving (5, “important” (4, unit conversions (4, back-of-the-envelope calculations (4, gender equality (3. In response to “Is there anything from the course that you used professionally or personally since graduating?” multiple alumni volunteered seven items: Excel (9 out of 10, QL/thinking (6, unit conversions (5, statistics (5, Excel modules (3, their notes (2. Outcome analysis from the open-ended comments arising from structured questions led to the identification of alumni takeaways in terms of elements of three values: (1 understanding and knowledge (facts such as conversion factors, and concepts

  7. Changes in plant availability of Pu-238 during a nine year experimental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1985-01-01

    A short description is given of the changes observed in the plant availability of Pu-238 in eight soils during a nine year experimental period. It was found that during the first four-year period with clover as test crop, the plant uptake of Pu-238 was reduced with availability half lives ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 years. The reduction rate seemed proportional to the initial uptake levels, except for lime rich clay soils, where the reduction rate was high regardless of the uptake level. In 1980 when the test crop clover was replaced by spring wheat, the necessary soil management operations caused intenser aeration and drying in one block of the replicates. As a consequence, the Pu-uptake in that block became considerably higher than in the others. This event can be interpreted as an indirect evidence for the reversibility of that process in soil, which has caused the reduced plant availability of Pu-238

  8. Association between reported diet and all-cause mortality. Twenty-one-year follow-up on 27,530 adult Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H A; Phillips, R L; Snowdon, D A; Choi, W

    1984-05-01

    This report examines the association between mortality from all causes during a 21-year period and frequency of consumption of 28 specific foods among 27,530 adult California members of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Food consumption was measured at the beginning of the study (1960) by a self-administered questionnaire. Deaths were identified by computer-assisted matching of study subjects to the file of death certificates for all deaths that occurred in California during 1960-1980. All-cause mortality showed a significant negative association with green salad consumption and a significant positive association with consumption of eggs and meat. For green salad and eggs, the association was stronger for women; for meat, the association was stronger for men. All the observed associations were adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, history of major chronic disease, and age at initial exposure to the Adventist Church.

  9. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  10. Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, E G; Matsui, F; Curran, N M; Robertson, D L; Sears, R W

    1983-08-01

    Hydrazine levels in formulations of hydralazine, isoniazid, and phenelzine have been measured over a 2-year period under ambient conditions and under temperature and humidity stress. Hydralazine tablets are stable under ambient conditions, but the hydrazine level in an injectable formulation increased from 4.5 to 10 micrograms/ml over a 23-month period. Isoniazid tablets are also stable, but hydrazine levels in an elixir and a pyridoxine combination product doubled to 44 micrograms/ml and 19 micrograms/tablet, respectively. Levels in phenelzine tablets appeared to remain constant at approximately 60 micrograms/tablet, with considerable tablet-to-tablet variation.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Spain over a fourteen-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Roser; Pujols, Joan; Ordóñez, German; Porta, Ramon; Majó, Natàlia

    2008-04-25

    An in-depth molecular study of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) with particular interest in evolutionary aspects of IBV in Spain was carried out in the present study based on the S1 gene molecular characterization of twenty-six Spanish strains isolated over a fourteen-year period. Four genotypes were identified based on S1 gene sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies. A drastic virus population shift was demonstrated along time and the novel Italy 02 serotype was shown to have displaced the previous predominant serotype 4/91 in the field. Detailed analyses of synonymous to non-synonymous ratio of the S1 gene sequences of this new serotype Italy 02 suggested positive selection pressures might have contributed to the successful establishment of Italy 02 serotype in our country. In addition, differences on the fitness abilities of new emergent genotypes were indicated. Furthermore, intergenic sequences (IGs)-like motifs within S1 gene sequences of IBV isolates were suggested to enhance the recombination abilities of certain serotypes.

  12. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.

  13. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251

  14. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  15. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiaolong; Xu Xiao; Li Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China's central and local governments.Since the late 2000s,rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends.To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,this paPer reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines.This study also summarizes main rural transformation features,including the aging population,hollow villages,changes in the allocation of land resource,semi-urbanization,and regional differences in rural development.Finally,it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,such as making differentiated rural development strategies,exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use,and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  16. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas

    2013-01-01

    .5 times, the total macrolide consumption remains one of the lowest in Europe. We have not observed any significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics during the recent 10-year period. The low resistance rate to clarithromycin might be related to the policy......The study evaluated the changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains with primary resistance to antibiotics during the last 10 years in Lithuania. H. pylori susceptibilities to antibiotics were tested in 89 patients in 1998, in 81 patients in 2001 and in 90 patients in 2007...

  17. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  18. The operative treatment of pressure sores in the pelvic region: A 10-year period overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jósvay, János; Klauber, András; Both, Béla; Kelemen, Péter B; Varga, Zsombor Z; Pesthy, Pál Cs

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic region pressure sores often develop following spinal cord injury. Surgery is often necessary for long standing, large-sized pressure sores not responding to conservative treatment. Authors analyze their results of a 10-year period, and identify factors contributing to the reduction of the recurrence rate. A total of 119 pressure sores were operated on 98 patients in two institutions during a 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). The encountered perioperative complications are summarized, and the recurrence rate is analyzed with a patient follow-up questionnaire. We experienced 15 perioperative complications (12.6%). All complications were fully resolved by conservative treatment. Fifty-eight returned patient replies were processed. The average follow-up time after surgery was 5.2 years. The recurrence rate was 5.47%. The strict adherence to surgical indications, full patient compliance, specialized pre- and post-operative patient care, our routinely used preferred surgical method, all contribute to a low post-operative complication rate, long-term flap survival, and an extended recurrence free period.

  19. The Twenty-Year Trajectory of Suicidal Activity among Post-Hospital Psychiatric Men and Women with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Clews, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The Chicago Follow-up Study has followed the course of severe mental illness among psychiatric patients for over 20 years after their index hospitalization. Among these patients are 97 schizophrenia patients, 45 patients with schizoaffective disorders, 102 patients with unipolar nonpsychotic depression, and 53 patients with a bipolar disorder. Maximum suicidal activity (suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and suicide completions) generally declines over the three time periods (early, middle, and late follow-ups) following discharge from the acute psychiatric hospitalization for both males and females across diagnostic categories with two exceptions: female schizophrenia patients and female bipolar patients. A weighted mean suicidal activity score tended to decrease across follow-ups for male patients in the schizophrenia, schizoaffective and depressive diagnostic groups with an uneven trend in this direction for the male bipolars. No such pattern emerges for our female patients except for female depressives. Males’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by psychotic symptoms and potential chronic disability while females’ suicidal activity seems more triggered by affective symptoms. PMID:26881891

  20. STUDY OF PAEDIATRIC SOLID TUMOURS FOR A PERIOD OF 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basumitra Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric Solid Neoplasms (PSN are a global problem. There is significant variation of incidence of paediatric solid neoplasms in various regions of the world. Benign tumours are more common than cancer. In an effort to better understand the prevalence of paediatric solid tumours in our region, a retrospective review of the tumours diagnosed histopathologically was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary care hospital for a period of five years. All the benign and malignant paediatric solid tumours of children below 14 years from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrieved and analysed according to age, sex and histopathological diagnosis. Leukaemias were excluded from our study. All tumours were diagnosed on conventional haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. RESULTS A total of 109 cases of solid paediatric tumours were received during this period. Of these, maximum of 30 tumours were of soft tissue tumours followed by Central Nervous System (CNS and bone tumours with 24 and 23 cases, respectively. 7 cases of blastomas were also observed. CONCLUSION This study showed benign and malignant tumours to be of near-equal prevalence. Soft tissue tumours were the most common. Ratio of benign tumours to malignant were almost equal below 4 years. Malignant tumours were higher in 5-9 years group.

  1. IMPACT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES ON SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS IN THREE DIFFERENT PERIODS OVER 17 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Roberto Lerias de; Leão, Gabriel Stefani; Gonçalves, Charlles David Gonçalves; Picon, Rafael Veiga; Tovo, Cristiane Valle

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil. Three periods were ramdomly evaluated: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2014-2015. The most frequent infecting organisms and the sensitivity in vitro to antibiotics were registered. In the first period (1997-1998) there were 33 cases, the most common were: E. coli in 13 (36.11%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative in 6 (16.66%), K. pneumoniae in 5 (13.88%), S. aureus in 4 (11.11%) and S. faecalis in 3 (8.33%). In the second period (2002-2003), there were 43 cases, the most frequent were: Staphylococus coagulase-negative in 16 (35.55%), S. aureus in 8 (17.77%), E. coli in 7 (15.55%) and K. pneumoniae in 3 (6.66%). In the third period (2014-2015) there were 58 cases (seven with two bacteria), the most frequent were: E. coli in 15 (23.1%), S. viridans in 12 (18.5%), K. pneumoniae in 10 (15.4%) and E. faecium 5 (7.7%). No one was using antibiotic prophylaxis. Considering all staphylococci, the prevalence increased to rates of the order of 50% in the second period, with a reduction in the third period evaluated. Likewise, the prevalence of resistant E. coli increased, reaching 14%. There was a modification of the bacterial population causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with high frequency of gram-positive organisms, as well as an increase in the resistance to the traditionally recommended antibiotics. This study suggests a probable imminent inclusion of a drug against gram

  2. Annual dose distribution of Nuclear Malaysia radiation workers for monitoring period from year 2003 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad; Norain Ab Rahman

    2008-08-01

    Estimation of radiation dose (external exposure) received by Nuklear Malaysia's radiation workers are measured by using personal dosimetry device which are provided by SSDL-Nuklear Malaysia. Dose assessment report for monitoring period from year 2003 - 2007 shows that almost all radiation workers received annual doses less than 20 mSv, only in very small percentage of radiation workers received annual doses between 20.1 to 50 mSv and none of the workers received doses higher than 50 mSv/year. Exposure dose below 20 mSv/year (the new annual dose limit to be used in Malaysia soon) could be fully achieved by improving the compliance with the safety regulations and enhancing the awareness about radiation safety among the workers. (Author)

  3. EVIDENCE FOR PERIODICITY IN 43 YEAR-LONG MONITORING OF NGC 5548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, E.; Bon, N.; Jovanović, P.; Popović, L. Č.; Stalevski, M. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Zucker, S. [Department of Geosciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Netzer, H. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Marziani, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy); Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Komossa, S.; Britzen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Gaskell, C. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdés, J. R. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofsica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51, CP 72000, Puebla, Pue, Mexico (Mexico); Sergeev, S. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Republic of Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Mura, G. La [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122—Padova (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of 43 years (1972 to 2015) of spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. This includes 12 years of new unpublished observations (2003 to 2015). We compiled about 1600 H β spectra and analyzed the long-term spectral variations of the 5100 Å continuum and the H β line. Our analysis is based on standard procedures, including the Lomb–Scargle method, which is known to be rather limited to such heterogeneous data sets, and a new method developed specifically for this project that is more robust and reveals a ∼5700 day periodicity in the continuum light curve, the H β light curve, and the radial velocity curve of the red wing of the H β line. The data are consistent with orbital motion inside the broad emission line region of the source. We discuss several possible mechanisms that can explain this periodicity, including orbiting dusty and dust-free clouds, a binary black hole system, tidal disruption events, and the effect of an orbiting star periodically passing through an accretion disk.

  4. Twenty years of home-based palliative care in Malappuram, Kerala, India: a descriptive study of patients and their care-givers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Rekha Rachel; Philip, Sairu; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Manima, Abdulla; Venables, Emilie

    2018-02-14

    The well lauded community-based palliative care programme of Kerala, India provides medical and social support, through home-based care, for patients with terminal illness and diseases requiring long-term support. There is, however, limited information on patient characteristics, caregivers and programme performance. This study was carried out to describe: i) the patients enrolled in the programme from 1996 to 2016 and their diagnosis, and ii) the care-giver characteristics and palliative care support from nurses and doctors in a cohort of patients registered during 2013-2015. A descriptive study was conducted in the oldest community-based palliative clinic in Kerala. Data were collected from annual patient registers from 1996 to 2016 and patient case records during the period 2013-2015. While 91% of the patients registered in the clinic in 1996 had cancer, its relative proportion came down to 32% in 2016 with the inclusion of dementia-related illness (19%) cardiovascular accidents (17%) and severe mental illness (5%).Among patients registered during 2013-15, the median number of home visits from nurses and doctors in 12 months were five and one respectively. In the same cohort, twelve months' post-enrolment, 56% of patients died, 30% were in continuing in active care and 7% opted out. Those who opted out of care were likely to be aged care-giver at home, 85% of these care-givers being female. The changing dynamics over a 20-year period of this palliative care programme in Kerala, India, highlights the need for similar programmes to remain flexible and adapt their services in response to a growing global burden of Non Communicable Diseases. While a high death rate is expected in this population, the high proportion of patients choosing to stay in the programme suggests that home-based care is valued within this particular group. A diverse range of clinical and psycho-social support skills are required to assist families and their caregivers when caring for a

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  6. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  7. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela Piuvezam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country.Objective:To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010.Methods:This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA.Results:There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males.Conclusion:The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions.

  8. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  9. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the depletion of base cations in shallow flow paths in WB. Progressive depletion of Ca and Mg at greater soil depth occurred, causing stream concentrations to decline to pre-manipulation values. Mean monthly Si concentrations did not change in EB or WB, suggesting that the manipulation had no effect on mineral weathering rates. DOC concentrations in both streams did not exhibit inter- or intra-annual trends.

  10. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  11. [Congenital heart disease mortality in Spain during a 10 year period (2003-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, Javier; Mosquera González, Margarita; Latasa Zamalloa, Pello; Crespo Marcos, David

    2018-05-01

    Congenital heart disease is a major cause of infant mortality in developed countries. In Spain, there are no publications at national level on mortality due to congenital heart disease. The aim of this study is to analyse mortality in infants with congenital heart disease, lethality of different types of congenital heart disease, and their variation over a ten-year period. A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate mortality rate of children under one year old with congenital heart disease, using the minimum basic data set, from 2003 to 2012. Mortality rate and relative risk of mortality were estimated by Poisson regression. There were 2,970 (4.58%) infant deaths in a population of 64,831 patients with congenital heart disease, with 73.8% of deaths occurring during first week of life. Infant mortality rate in patients with congenital heart disease was 6.23 per 10,000 live births, and remained constant during the ten-year period of the study, representing 18% of total infant mortality rate in Spain. The congenital heart diseases with highest mortality rates were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (41.4%), interruption of aortic arch (20%), and total anomalous pulmonary drainage (16.8%). Atrial septal defect (1%) and pulmonary stenosis (1.1%) showed the lowest mortality rate. Congenital heart disease was a major cause of infant mortality with no variations during the study period. The proportion of infants who died in our study was similar to other similar countries. In spite of current medical advances, some forms of congenital heart disease show very high mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Vision of Energy Development, Relationships and Influences in the Period Until Year 2050 in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Pesut, D.; Juric, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discussed the vision of energy development opportunities, relationships and influences in Croatia for the period until the year 2050. The analysis has been made on a qualitative level which includes energy markets, energy efficiency, conventional and renewable energy sources. In the end, recommendations for further energy system development are presented. Authors support the new concept of development platform, which is based on energy efficiency, new technologies and renewable energy sources. Croatia has all resources for its realization. The new development platform is also a possibility for developing science and economy. (author)

  13. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10‐Year Period, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Alwaal, MD, MSc, FRCSC

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The number of PP procedures performed in the inpatient setting declined between 2000 and 2010, likely reflecting a shift toward increasing outpatient procedures. Our data also suggest a better outcome for patients having the procedure done at a high‐volume center in terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, McCulloch CE, Shindel AW, and Breyer BN. The decline of inpatient penile prosthesis over the 10‐year period, 2000–2010. Sex Med 2015;3:280–286.

  14. [Smoking among psychology students over a ten-year period (1996-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, María del Carmen; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking among Psychology students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) over a ten-year period (1986-2006). We also assessed the extent of knowledge of the Spanish health legislation on tobacco (Ley 28/2005) and its effect on smoking. We administered a questionnaire to representative samples of students from the 1st year of their Psychology course to the 5th year, on four occasions. In the academic year 1996-1997 (N = 835), 34% of the sample claimed to be daily smokers; in 1999-2000 (N = 842), the figure was 35.2%; in 2003-2004 (N = 835) it was 31.9%; and in 2006-2007 (N = 688), it was 22.8%. Moreover, in the last assessment, 97.1% of the sample reported being aware of the legislation (Ley 28/2005) and 41.9% of the smokers claimed that it had some degree of influence on their smoking. It can be stated that, although overall current prevalence of smoking is similar to that of 10 years ago, a significant change is observed in the profile of smokers. This change is expressed in lower levels of nicotine dependence and a decrease in the percentage of daily smokers, together with an increase in occasional smokers.

  15. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana, E-mail: elia@astro.tau.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  16. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems

  17. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a three-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a three-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4 and again from the same cattle after ≥ 60 d on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7% entry samples and 1,038 (20.6% ≥ 60 d samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5%, 2.9%, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas 5 isolates (0.4% were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥ 89% similarity according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42, erm(A, erm(B, erm(F, erm(X and msr(E-mph(E, were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a three-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  18. Cognitive changes in people with temporal lobe epilepsy over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameniškienė, Rūta; Rimšienė, Justė; Puronaitė, Roma

    2016-10-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate cognitive decline in people with temporal lobe epilepsy over a period of 13years and to determine what clinical and treatment characteristics may have been associated with these. Thirty-three individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy underwent the same neuropsychological assessment of verbal and nonverbal memory, attention, and executive functions using the same cognitive test battery as one used 13years ago. Long-term verbal and nonverbal memory was tested four weeks later. Results were compared with those carried out 13years earlier. There was no significant change in verbal and verbal-logical memory tests; however, nonverbal memory worsened significantly. Long-term verbal memory declined for 21.9% of participants, long-term verbal-logical memory for 34.4%, and long-term nonverbal memory for 56.3%. Worsening of working verbal and verbal-logical memory was associated with longer epilepsy duration and lower levels of patients' education; worsening of verbal delayed recall and long-term verbal-logical memory was associated with higher seizure frequency. Decline in long-term nonverbal memory had significant association with a longer duration of epilepsy. The worsening of reaction and attention inversely correlated with the symptoms of depression. Over a 13-year period, cognitive functions did not change significantly. Good seizure control and reduced symptoms of depression in this sample of people with temporal lobe epilepsy were associated with better cognitive functioning. The predictors of change of cognitive functions could be complex and require further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mexico and the food self-sufficiency (six-year period 2006 -2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Rosa Rivera de la Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Mexico challenges a globalization trend where richer countries export basic products to developing countries, generating a food crisis that negatively affect the medium-small producers. For this reason, it is important to study the behavior of the food market (exports and imports, since the current Mexican development model does not achieve that food security be a national policy guaranteeing the provision of food for the entire population. Specifically, this article analyses the performance of the food situation during the six–year period 2006-2012, studying three basic foods for Mexican population (maize, bean, wheat and others strategic food like sugar, sorghum and soy. In addition, it analyzes the performance of harvesting and sowing surface, exports and imports. Results indicated that the three main foods showed had high import growth rates decreasing national harvest and sowing surface, with a trade balance deficit during the six-year period studied. The conclusion is that the local producers need a change in the production dynamics and play a strategic role in the food production with new sustainable alternatives.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis of Transposition of the Great Arteries over a 20-Year Period: Improved but Imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Diaz, Maria C; Freud, Lindsay R; Bueno, Alejandra; Brown, David W; Friedman, Kevin; Schidlow, David; Emani, Sitaram; del Nido, Pedro; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate temporal trends in prenatal diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA/IVS) and its impact on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Methods Newborns with TGA/IVS referred for surgical management to our center over a 20-year period (1992 – 2011) were included. The study time was divided into 5 four-year periods, and the primary outcome was rate of prenatal diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal pre-operative status and perioperative survival. Results Of the 340 patients, 81 (24%) had a prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis increased over the study period from 6% to 41% (p<0.001). Prenatally diagnosed patients underwent a balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) earlier than postnatally diagnosed patients (0 vs. 1 day, p<0.001) and fewer required mechanical ventilation (56% vs. 69%, p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in pre-operative acidosis (16% vs. 26%, p=0.1) and need for preoperative ECMO (2% vs. 3%, p=1.0). There was also no significant mortality difference (1 pre-operative and no post-operative deaths among prenatally diagnosed patients, as compared to 4 pre-operative and 6 post-operative deaths among postnatally diagnosed patients). Conclusion The prenatal detection rate of TGA/IVS has improved but still remains below 50%, suggesting the need for strategies to increase detection rates. The mortality rate was not statistically different between pre- and postnatally diagnosed patients; however, there were significant pre-operative differences with regard to earlier BAS and less mechanical ventilation. Ongoing study is required to elucidate whether prenatal diagnosis confers long-term benefit. PMID:25484180

  1. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  2. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Delia Nicoară

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013. We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1.

  3. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider the approved reports... as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three most affected countries, regarding the environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system.' This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is being published by the WHO

  4. Comparative heart failure profile over a 3-year period in a Romanian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop,1 Oana Maria Penciu,1 Adela Viviana Sitar-Taut,2 Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea11Department of Cardiology, Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2"Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Heart failure (HF has become an increasingly significant public health problem, associated with repeated hospitalizations, high costs, low quality of life, and decreased survival rate. The progress of the disease may be slowed if treatment is administered in accordance with current guidelines.Objectives: To compare the clinical profile of HF patients in a Romanian general hospital over a 3-year period.Methods and results: We studied two cohorts of patients admitted in the cardiology department of a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of chronic HF New York Heart Association class II–IV. The first, in 2006, included 415 patients, 67.08 ± 10.59 years; the second, in 2009, included 500 patients, 67.31 ± 11.27 years. Considering all patients, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was not statistically different in the two cohorts. Compared to the 2006 cohort, the 2009 female cohort had higher LVEF (60.49% ± 13.41% vs 64.42% ± 13.79%, P < 0.05, while males over 65 years of age had lower LVEF (52.75% ± 15.02% vs 54.37% ± 15.23%, P = NS. For females, the probability of having LVEF ,45% was higher in 2006 (odds ratio = 1.573. HF with preserved LVEF was more common in females, both in 2006 (78.2% vs 54.2% and 2009 (87.2% vs 57.3%. In the 2009 cohort, LVEF was higher both in young patients (59.08% ± 14.22% vs 55.35% ± 14.92% and patients ≥ than 75 years of age (62.28% ± 13.81% vs 56.79% ± 14.81% compared to the 2006 cohort. Ischemic heart disease was the main underlying cause for HF in both cohorts.Conclusion: HF appeared to have the same clinical profile over a 3-year period. Females diagnosed with HF showed higher rates of preserved LVEF.Keywords: heart

  5. Endovascular Therapy Research in Lower Limb Peripheral Arterial Disease Published Over a 5-Year Period: Who is Publishing and Where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, H.; Lee, R. J.; Sheehan, M.; Thanaratam, P.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, A. M.; Lee, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is being increasingly managed by endovascular therapies. In this study, we identified the clinical services publishing research as well as the journals of publication over a 5-year period.MethodsTwenty keywords and phrases related to endovascular intervention were identified, and a literature search was performed through the PubMed database from January 2009 to January 2014. Inclusion criteria were English language, study population more than five patients, and matching the keyword search. Eligible studies were collated into a database and classified by journal of publication, PubMed number, article title, publishing clinical service, type of publication, country of origin, and authors.Results825 studies from 114 different journals were identified. 297 papers were excluded. Of the 528 included papers, 204 (39%) were published by Vascular Surgery (VS), 157 (30%) by Interventional Radiology (IR), 101 (19%) by Cardiology, 43 (8%) by Angiology, 6 (1%) by Vascular Medicine, and 17 (3%) from miscellaneous services. 283 (54%) studies originated from Europe, 157 (30%) from North America, 76 (14%) from Asia, 6 from Australia, 3 each from South America and Africa. IR published the most papers on PAD endovascular intervention in Europe with VS second while this trend was reversed in the USA. The 528 papers were published in 98 different journals with retrospective case series (72%), the majority.ConclusionIR continues to play a significant research role in endovascular intervention in PAD, particularly in Europe, and specifically in below the knee intervention, pedal intervention, and drug-eluting technologies.

  6. Endovascular Therapy Research in Lower Limb Peripheral Arterial Disease Published Over a 5-Year Period: Who is Publishing and Where?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, H.; Lee, R. J.; Sheehan, M.; Thanaratam, P.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, A. M.; Lee, M. J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical School (Ireland)

    2017-03-15

    IntroductionPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is being increasingly managed by endovascular therapies. In this study, we identified the clinical services publishing research as well as the journals of publication over a 5-year period.MethodsTwenty keywords and phrases related to endovascular intervention were identified, and a literature search was performed through the PubMed database from January 2009 to January 2014. Inclusion criteria were English language, study population more than five patients, and matching the keyword search. Eligible studies were collated into a database and classified by journal of publication, PubMed number, article title, publishing clinical service, type of publication, country of origin, and authors.Results825 studies from 114 different journals were identified. 297 papers were excluded. Of the 528 included papers, 204 (39%) were published by Vascular Surgery (VS), 157 (30%) by Interventional Radiology (IR), 101 (19%) by Cardiology, 43 (8%) by Angiology, 6 (1%) by Vascular Medicine, and 17 (3%) from miscellaneous services. 283 (54%) studies originated from Europe, 157 (30%) from North America, 76 (14%) from Asia, 6 from Australia, 3 each from South America and Africa. IR published the most papers on PAD endovascular intervention in Europe with VS second while this trend was reversed in the USA. The 528 papers were published in 98 different journals with retrospective case series (72%), the majority.ConclusionIR continues to play a significant research role in endovascular intervention in PAD, particularly in Europe, and specifically in below the knee intervention, pedal intervention, and drug-eluting technologies.

  7. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  8. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  9. [Trends in stroke mortality rates in Russia and the USA over a 15-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorodskaya, I V; Zayratyants, O V; Perkhov, V I; Andreev, E M; Vaisman, D Sh

    2018-01-01

    to comparatively analyze standardized mortality ratios (SMR) from stroke in the populations aged over 30 years in the Russian Federation and in the USA over a 15-year period. The analysis included nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (NTSH) (a group of ICD-10 codes I60), nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (NTIH) (I61), cerebral infarction (CI) (I63), and stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction (SNSHI) (I64). The new European standard (European Standard Population.2013) was used for standardization. The data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, those of the World Health Organization Mortality Database (WHO MD) and Human Mortality Database (HMD) for the USA were applied. During the considered period, 30-49-year-old Russian men showed a reduction in SMRs from NTSH (I61) by 9.0% (from 18.9 to 17.2 per 100,000 population), from SNSHI (I64) by 10 times (from 12.5 to 1.3); SMRs from CI (I63) increased by 4.3% (from 6.9 to 7.2). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH and SNSHI decreased by 32.3% (from 143.2 to 97.0) and by 10 times (from 580.8 to 60.6), respectively; those from CI increased by 13.8% (from 229.8 to 261.4). In the USA, 30-49-year-old men displayed 26.1% and 2-fold decreases in SMRs from NTIH (from 2.5 per 100,000 population in 1999 to 1.7 in 2013) and CI (from 1.8 to 0.9), respectively; those from SNSHI remained unchanged (1.3). In men aged 50 years and older, SMRs from NTIH, CI, and SNSHI reduced by 39.7% (from 29.0 to 17.5), by 2 times (from 1.8 to 0.9), and by 2 times (143.0 to 72.5), respectively. 30-49-year-old Russian women exhibited a 22.2% reduction in SMRs from NTIH (from 9.0 to 7.0), a 4.3% increase in those from CI (from 2.7 to 2.8), and an 11-fold decrease in those from SNSHI (from 5.5 to 0.5). Women aged 50 years and older showed changes in SMRs from the codes in the same sequence from 105.6 to 60.5, from 172.8 to 189.6, and from 466.5 to 43.7, respectively. In the USA, 30-49-year-old women

  10. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: what might Europe and the United States look like in twenty-five years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In times of globalization, modern societies' labor markets have been marked by an increasing segmentation and growing social inequality. Youths in particular have experienced a worsening of their employment chances in the past three decades. However, what will the future bring? Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Occipitocervical fusion – An epidemiological drift experienced in an Irish tertiary spinal referral center: Twenty-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Tarazi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We noticed a clear epidemiological drift in the cervical spine pathologies requiring OCF during the first and second decade of study period with an increase in prevalence of pathological fractures secondary to metastatic disease. In addition, a drop in rheumatoid cervical disease requiring OCF has been noted.

  12. Risk of low Apgar scores and socioeconomic status over a 30-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odd, D; Lewis, G; Gunnell, D; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of associations between social factors, as assessed by maternal occupation and education, and poor birth condition (an Apgar score of below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes) over a 30-year period in Sweden. The dataset was based on infants born in Sweden between 1973 and 2002. Poor birth condition was defined as an Apgar score below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of between socioeconomic status and poor birth condition. In the adjusted model, mothers in non-manual occupations (OR 0.91 (0.88, 0.95)) or with higher educational status (OR 0.88 (0.84, 0.93)) were less likely to have an infant born in poor condition than the reference group. Limiting the analysis to the last decade showed less evidence for an association (OR 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) and OR 0.94 (0.82, 1.09), respectively). While maternity, delivery and child healthcare are free of charge in Sweden, poor birth condition was more common among infants of mothers in manual occupations or low levels of education. However, this association appeared to attenuate over the calendar period studied.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity; An unselected material from a 5-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Head and Neck Oncology Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.).

  14. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ∼30 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.

    2007-01-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of ± 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations

  15. Results of periodic radiohygienic survey of some agricultural products originated in Slovakia in the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Among other periodic monitoring and surveillance programs of the State Veterinary and Food Administration of Slovak Republic there is also the program Radiohygienic surveillance of agricultural raw, semi-, and final products made in Slovakia. In the year 2005 six commodities were sampled giving a total of 160 samples analysed by HPGe spectrometry for the abundance of man-made radionuclides. Besides 137 Cs no other anthropogenic radionuclide was found in the samples of raw cow milk, raw sheep milk, beef, pork, wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wheat. Highest level of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of wild boar (32.71 ± 1.88) Bq · kg -1 from the surroundings of Maly Sulin in the district Stara Lubovna. (authors)

  16. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  17. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by

  18. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    2018-02-01

    Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born preschoolers, an age period characterized by rapid behavioral change. Two- to 5-year-old children born with a gestational age behavioral problems. Following screening, 59 children with a t-score ≥60 on either the internal, external or total problem scale of the Child Behavior Checklist were included in the study. Linear mixed modeling was used to investigate predictors of change in behavior over a 1-year period. Higher levels of parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability, and parental hostility towards the child and lower educational levels of the mother significantly predicted increases in externalizing behavior. The higher the age of the child, the more internalizing problems decreased. Parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability and parental hostility towards the child were the only modifiable predictors of increases in externalizing behavior, whilst no modifiable predictors of internalizing behavior were found. There may be a reciprocal interaction between stress in parents and child externalizing problems. Furthermore, stress and worries may directly influence parents' reports on behavioral measures, because it could cause them to be concerned by behavior otherwise perceived as normal. Therefore, future interventions for parents of preterm-born children should primarily address parental stress and concerns regarding their child. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Kneck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods: A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings: Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion: The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness.

  20. Development of hospital nurses' work ability over a 2 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Nieuwenhuijsen, K; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to the study of work ability is an individually oriented approach. This approach increases our understanding of how work ability develops over time among individuals with a different level of work ability. To increase knowledge about individuals' work ability trajectories by studying hospital nurses' development of work ability over a 2 year period and factors associated with these trajectories. We used a data set of a prospective cohort study of hospital nurses, which was surveyed for 2 years by means of three questionnaires on work characteristics, health and work ability. The outcome variable was the general work ability trajectory over the course of 2 years (favourable/unfavourable). The predictors were the individual, physical and mental work ability and health characteristics at baseline. A multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression analysis was used. Of 572 nurses in the cohort, nearly one-third (31%, 179/572) showed an unfavourable general work ability trajectory. Low physical work ability (odds ratio (OR) 1.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-2.95) and high level of fatigue (OR 1.52; 95% CI 0.97-2.40) at baseline were predictors for the unfavourable course of self-reported general work ability. A substantial proportion of this cohort of hospital nurses experienced a reduction in work ability over the course of 2 years. Baseline physical work ability and level of fatigue were related to this. The next step is to address these factors when counselling nurses and evaluate the effect of interventions aimed at improving physical work ability and reducing fatigue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS AND BIRTH STATISTICS FOR A HERD OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) IN NORTH AMERICA OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiso, Wendy K; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Aria, Janice; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) over a 20-yr (1994-2014) period at a private facility in the southeastern United States. Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers. Mean duration of labor in this group was 36 hr although the median duration was 13 hr. Although oxytocin was administered to several cows, parturition did not always immediately ensue. Female fecundity ranged from 1-6 calves while female age at parturition ranged from 9-46 yr. Females delivered their first calves between 9 and 26 yr of age whereas bulls sired their first calves in their 20s, on average. The number of live births and the 93% calf survival rate are among the highest reported in any western hemisphere elephant-holding facility. This may reflect the intensive management of cows before, during, and after each pregnancy, the number of experienced multiparous cows, and the skill level of staff, most of whom had worked with each other and with this herd for many years. The data presented here may assist facilities planning to breed Asian elephants.

  2. A study of mandibular fractures over a 5-year period of time: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate and compare with the existing literature on the etiology, pattern, gender, and anatomical distribution of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: The data of 225 cases were analyzed over a period of 5 years between March 2009 and November 2013. Of this 110 were unilateral, 23 bilateral, 18 symphysis and 74 multiple fractures. Results: Males are more affected than females.The peak incidence rate is occurring in 30-35 years of age group. The most common fracture site is parasymphysis and least common site is ramus of mandible. The most common etiological factor is road traffic accident (RTA (45.3% followed by falls (42.6%, assaults (8.9%, sport injuries (2.2%, and gunshot wounds (0.89%. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that RTA is the leading cause of mandibular fractures and males are more affected. The most common site is parasymphysis fracture in association with angle fracture. We observed that gender was significantly associated with body and angle fracture (P = 0.04 and significant relationship between etiology with multiple site fracture such as (parasymphysis-angle, (body-condyle, (body-angle, and (symphysis-condyle was observed (P ≤ 0.05.

  3. Low risk of pulmonary valve implantation after a policy of transatrial repair of tetralogy of Fallot delayed beyond the neonatal period: the Melbourne experience over 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Udekem, Yves; Galati, John C; Rolley, Glenda J; Konstantinov, Igor E; Weintraub, Robert G; Grigg, Leeanne; Ramsay, James M; Wheaton, Gavin R; Hope, Sarah; Cheung, Michael H; Brizard, Christian P

    2014-02-18

    The study sought to evaluate the late outcomes of a policy of transatrial repair delayed beyond the neonatal period. Long-term outcomes of transatrial repair of tetralogy of Fallot are unknown. The records of 675 consecutive patients undergoing a transatrial repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1980 and 2005 were reviewed, their follow-up updated and survival confirmed from national death registries. One-third (220 of 675) had undergone previous palliation. Median age at repair was 2 years in the first 8 years, and 1 year from 1988 onward. A transannular incision was performed in 75% of cases and autologous pericardium was the material used to patch this incision in 92% of cases. There were 7 hospital deaths (1%). Eight patients died during follow-up (2 sudden unexpected and 6 noncardiac deaths). Mean follow-up was 11.7 ± 6.3 years. Twenty-five years' survival was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 95% to 98%). Twenty-five years' freedom from implantation of a valved conduit was 84.6% (95% CI: 77.8% to 89.5%). By multivariable analysis, prior palliation and younger age at repair were predictive of implantation of a valved conduit (hazard ratio: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6, p = 0.008; hazard ratio: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.96, p = 0.03, respectively). During long-term follow-up, transatrial repair of tetralogy of Fallot was associated with a minimal risk of sudden death and low rate of reintervention for right ventricular dilation and residual outflow tract obstruction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... past practice of indefinitely retaining the papers, which has been rendered unnecessary and not cost...] Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image... period of one year for patent-related papers that have been scanned into the Image File Wrapper system...

  5. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  6. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. If wages are paid to an employee for a payroll period of more than one year...

  7. Twenty years of activity of the radiation protection service of the El Cabril storage center; Veinte anos de actividad del servicio de proteccion radiologica del centro de almacenamiento de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, L.; Pinilla, J. L.; Ortiz, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    All controls of internal contamination by body radioactivity counter have been lower than the level of logging for internal doses (1 mSv/year). External personal pollution incidents have not occurred. With respect to the dose to the public these remain very low and lower than the limits specified in the authorization. Also the results of the PVRA indicate no influence of the installation in your environment. During the twenty years of operation of the El Cabril Storage Center has not occurred any incidents radiological and doses both to workers and the public in general, are kept very low and lower than the established dose limits. (Author)

  8. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  9. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in emergency general surgery: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenia, Sarah J; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Merchant, Aziz M

    2017-05-15

    Socioeconomic factors such as race, insurance, and income quartiles have been identified as independent risk factors in emergency general surgery (EGS), but this impact has not been studied over time. We sought to identify trends in disparities in EGS-related operative mortality over a 20-y period. The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patient encounters coded for EGS in 1993, 2003, and 2013. Logistic regression models were used to examine the adjusted relationship between race, primary payer status, and median income quartiles and in-hospital mortality after adjusting for patients' age, gender, Elixhauser comorbidity score, and hospital region, size, and location-cum-teaching status. We identified 391,040 patient encounters. In 1993, Black race was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.20-1.53]) than White race, although this difference dissipated in subsequent years. Medicare, Medicaid, and underinsured patients had a higher odds of mortality than those with private insurance for the entire 20-y period; only the disparity in the underinsured decreased over time (1993, 1.63 [1.35-1.98]; 2013, 1.41 [1.20-1.67]). In 2003 (1.23 [1.10-1.38]) and 2013 (1.23 [1.11-1.37]), patients from the lowest income quartile were more likely to die after EGS than patients from the highest income quartile. Socioeconomic disparities in EGS-related operative morality followed inconsistent trends. Over time, while gaps in in-hospital mortality among Blacks and Whites have narrowed, disparities among patients belonging to lowest income quartile have worsened. Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries continued to experience higher odds of in-hospital mortality relative to those with private insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cerebrovascular accidents in paediatric care. Our experience gained over an 18-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz del Olmo-Izuzquiza, Ignacio; de Arriba-Muñoz, Antonio; López-Pisón, Javier; García-Iñiguez, Juan Pablo; Romero-Gil, Ruth; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Pérez-Delgado, Raquel; Peña-Segura, José Luis

    This study reviews our experience over the last 18 years with paediatric patients diagnosed with non-haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) after the perinatal period. Data were collected for the period between May 1990 and May 2008 (n = 10 270 children) and special attention was given to cases with no previous pathology. We found 41 cases that were diagnosed with post-natal non-haemorrhagic CVA, of which 13 did not present any known pathology at the onset of the symptoms. Nine patients were diagnosed as having ischaemic CVA (ICVA), three cases had thrombosis of the venous sinuses and there was one case of haemorrhagic infarction (HI). No causation was found in five cases, three of which were heterozygotic for the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. ICVA was caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, aneurysm of the auricular septum and patent foramen ovale, homocystinuria and chickenpox. A recent ear infection and diminished levels of protein C were noted in two cases of venous thrombosis. Five patients with ICVA and the case of HI were treated with oral antiaggregants, anticoagulants were administered in two of the thromboses, and the remaining cases did not receive any treatment. Seven patients (four ICVA, two thromboses and the HI) did not present any kind of sequelae, four ICVA presented different degrees of hemiparesis and two died (one ICVA and one thrombosis). The scarcity of studies and therapeutic clinical trials in the paediatric age makes it difficult to lay down clear guidelines of conduct, especially from the therapeutic point of view. The different specialists involved must collaborate with each other.

  11. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in aten years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delicio Adriane M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives to evaluate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT rates and related factors in HIV-infected pregnant women from a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. Subjects and method cohort of 452 HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Data was collected from recorded files and undiagnosed children were enrolled for investigation. Statistical analysis: qui-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney test, ANOVA, risk ratio and confidence intervals. Results MTCT occurred in 3.74%. The study population displayed a mean age of 27 years; 86.5% were found to have acquired HIV through sexual contact; 55% were aware of the diagnosis prior to the pregnancy; 62% were not using HAART. Mean CD4 cell-count was 474 cells/ml and 70.3% had undetectable viral loads in the third trimester. HAART included nevirapine in 35% of cases and protease inhibitors in 55%; Zidovudine monotherapy was used in 7.3%. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.2 weeks and in 92% by caesarian section; 97.2% received intravenous zidovudine. Use of AZT to newborn occurred in 100% of them. Factors identified as associated to MTCT were: low CD4 cell counts, elevated viral loads, maternal AIDS, shorter periods receiving HAART, other conditions (anemia, IUGR (intra uterine growth restriction, oligohydramnium, coinfecctions (CMV and toxoplasmosis and the occurrence of labor. Use of HAART for longer periods, caesarian and oral zidovudine for the newborns were associated with a decreased risk. Poor adhesion to treatment was present in 13 of the 15 cases of transmission; in 7, coinfecctions were diagnosed (CMV and toxoplasmosis. Conclusion Use of HAART and caesarian delivery are protective factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Maternal coinfecctions and other conditions were risk factors for MTCT.

  12. Antimony susceptibility of Leishmania isolates collected over a 30-year period in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Kherrachi, Ihcen; Oury, Bruno; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Benikhlef, Razika; Harrat, Zoubir; Sereno, Denis

    2018-03-01

    In Algeria, the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmanioses (VL and CL) has been and continues to be based on antimony-containing drugs. It is suspected that high drug selective pressure might favor the emergence of chemoresistant parasites. Although treatment failure is frequently reported during antimonial therapy of both CL and VL, antimonial resistance has never been thoroughly investigated in Algeria. Determining the level of antimonial susceptibility, amongst Leishmania transmitted in Algeria, is of great importance for the development of public health policies. Within the framework of the knowledge about the epidemiology of VL and CL amassed during the last 30 years, we sampled Leishmania isolates to determine their susceptibility to antimony. We analyzed a total of 106 isolates including 88 isolates collected between 1976 and 2013 in Algeria from humans, dogs, rodents, and phlebotomines and 18 collected from dogs in France. All the Algerian isolates were collected in 14 localities where leishmaniasis is endemic. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of potassium antimony tartrate (the trivalent form of antimony, Sb(III)) and sodium stibogluconate (the pentavalent form of antimony, Sb(V)) were determined in promastigotes and intramacrophage amastigotes, respectively. The epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) that allowed us to differentiate between Leishmania species causing cutaneous or visceral leishmaniases that were susceptible (S+) or insusceptible (S-) to the trivalent form of antimony was determined. The computed IC50 cutoff values were 23.83 μg/mL and 15.91 μg/mL for VL and CL, respectively. We report a trend of increasing antimony susceptibility in VL isolates during the 30-year period. In contrast, an increase in the frequency of S- phenotypes in isolates causing CL was observed during the same period. In our study, the emergence of S- phenotypes correlates with the inclusion of L. killicki (syn: L. tropica) isolates that cause cutaneous

  13. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  14. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  15. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Norton, S. A.; Fernandez, I. J.; Nelson, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1/4 (2010), s. 23-45 ISSN 0167-6369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bear Brook Watershed in Maine * precipitation chemistry * stream chemistry * seasonality * long-term trends Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2010

  16. "Changes in Levels of Social Isolation and Loneliness among Older People in a Rural Area: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, G. Clare; Burholt, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    The Bangor Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), conducted in rural Wales from 1979 to 1999, followed a cohort of survivors from more than 500 people over 20 years. Using both quantitative and qualitative data from the study, the factors associated with increases and decreases in loneliness and social isolation were identified. The study was based…

  17. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  18. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  19. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  20. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  1. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  2. Statistical analysis of twenty years (1993 to 2012) of data from mainland China's first intervention center for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Sun, Zhong-Kai; Tian, Hope Huiping; Pu, Tad Zhengzhang; Wu, Yu-Yu; Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Ming-Zhen; Lu, Shu-Juan; Yang, Chang-Hong; Wei, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. This study aimed to analyze trends in ASD diagnosis and intervention in 20 years of data from the Beijing Stars and Rain Education Institute for Autism (SR), the first autism intervention center in mainland China, and from a recent survey of members of the Heart Alliance, an industry association of autism intervention centers in China. We analyzed the registration data at the SR from 1993 to 2012 for a total of 2,222 children who had a parent-reported diagnosis of ASD and 612 of 'autistic tendencies'. Most of the children who were the primary focus of our analyses were age six and under. We also analyzed results of a survey we conducted in 2013 of 100 member centers of the Heart Alliance. Generalized Estimating Equations, multiple linear regression and the Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. Statistically significant findings are reported here. The number of hospitals where SR children received their diagnosis increased from several in the early 1990s to 276 at present. The proportion of 'autistic tendencies' diagnosis increased 2.04-fold from 1998 to 2012 and was higher for children diagnosed at a younger age. The mean age at first diagnosis of ASD or 'autistic tendencies' decreased by 0.27 years every decade. A higher level of parental education was statistically significantly associated with an earlier diagnosis of the child. The mean parental age at childbirth increased by about 1.48 years per decade, and the mean maternal age was 1.40 and 2.10 years higher than that in the national population censuses of 2000 and 2010, respectively. At the time of the survey 3,957 children with ASD were being trained at the 100 autism intervention centers. Ninety-seven of these centers opened after the year 2000. Economically underdeveloped regions are still underserved. This

  3. Odontogenic cysts: demographic profile in a Brazilian population over a 38-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lélia-Batista; Gordón-Núñez, Manuel-Antonio; Nonaka, Cassiano-Francisco-Weege; de Medeiros, Marcell-Costa; Torres, Tabita-Fernandes; Emiliano, Gustavo-Barbalho-Guedes

    2010-07-01

    To determine the distribution of odontogenic cysts diagnosed histologically over a period of 38 years in a Brazilian population according to age, gender and site affected and to compare these data with previously reported studies from other countries. A total of 1019 cases of odontogenic cysts diagnosed between 1970 and 2007 were studied. Clinical features obtained from the patient records and microscope slides were reviewed according to the 1992 World Health Organization classification. The mean age was 31.0 years, and there was a predominance of females. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (61.4%), followed by dentigerous cysts (20.1%) and odontogenic keratocysts (6.4%). Radicular cysts were more frequent in females (62.0%), and the maxillary teeth were the site most commonly involved (63.05%). The peak incidence of dentigerous cysts occurred in the second decade of life, with the posterior region of the mandible being the site most affected (46.3%), followed by the anterior region of the maxilla (27.8%). Odontogenic keratocysts showed a peak incidence between the third and fourth decades of life and predominance among females. The posterior region of the mandible was the site most frequently affected (65.6%). The present results showed a similar frequency of odontogenic cysts in this Brazilian population and other populations around the world, with inflammatory cysts being identified as the most frequent odontogenic cyst. Radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and odontogenic keratocysts are the most common cystic lesions, accounting for 87.9% of all odontogenic cysts.

  4. The Bert and Peggy DuPont lecture. "Love, death, and commitment: twenty three years of HIV and genocide prevention in Africa" or "Passionate not equal unhinged".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, HIV emerged as the #1 cause of death in African adults, and the Rwanda genocide became the most concentrated mass murder in recorded history. Though one catastrophe surfaced slowly and inexorably while the other smoldered for years before exploding in 1994, the lessons learned are similar. In both situations, the international community has combined moral bankruptcy with a spectacular display of incompetence. Genocide masterminds continue living in Michigan, Minneapolis and Boston, brazenly planning the final extermination of the Tutsi. Students of law, diplomacy and international development are astoundingly sanguine about this, as though our current abdication of responsibility today is mitigated by the centuries of unprincipled idiots who preceded us. If medicine operated this way we'd still be treating syphilis with arsenic. Unfortunately, medicine has lost the moral high ground in Africa through missed opportunities and misappropriation of resources. In the last five years we have spent 20% of the US bilateral foreign assistance budget putting 2.5 million Africans on anti-retroviral treatment (ART), while twice that number of new HIV infections occurred. We tested 50 million Africans for HIV without acting on the evidence and common sense: rather than-transmission happens between two people. Had we tested Africans as couples, a prevention strategy proven to be effective in multiple publications since the early '90s, we could have averted more HIV infections than we are now treating, and at a fraction of the cost.

  5. Analysis of a yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights auction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziogos, N.P.; Bakirtzis, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights (TR) auction issuing both point-to-point Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) and Flow-Gate Rights (FGRs) is studied in this paper. In each round the TR market participants (buyers or sellers) submit their bid or offer prices based on past energy market performance. A Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) based energy market is assumed. The TR market participants' bid or offer prices reflect their expectation of the average annual LMP differences between withdrawal and injections points for FTRs and of the transmission link capacity prices for FGRs. The TR auction is performed in four rounds; in each round 25% of the entire system capability is awarded. TRs that are awarded in one round are modeled as fixed injections in subsequent rounds. Market participants that have acquired TRs in one round can sell them in subsequent rounds. A market participant can submit bids or offers for on-peak, off-peak or 24-h TRs. A three-area, nine-bus test system with six TR market participants is used for the analysis of the TR auction. (author)

  6. Advertising Intellection in Ottoman Empire Period end Sample of Tanin Newspaper between 1908 and 1909 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Hanife KOCAKAYA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertising that has become an indispensable element of today’s conditions has also become a frequently used tool of goods and services the companies utilized. With the advances in technology, the number of companies that commercialises their goods has been steadily increasing day by day. That fact that advertising has become such a significant sector of the industry; has provided this sector with the opportunity to contact a lot of people all at the same time. That is why; advertising is special among the marketing and the media tools. The Tanin newspaper discussed in this article began to be broadcast towards the end of the Ottoman Empire. The newspaper that began to be published in the late Ottoman and the early Turkish Republic eras came to the fore as a political organ rather than the advertisements of the publication. The number of Tanin newspaper published during the years 1908-1909 were examined in this article. The newspaper had published many advertisements and covered many brands in the issues that were published during this period,The newspaper that encountered various obstacles during its life of publication bears importance by being, established by the Committee of Union and Progress members as well

  7. Report on equipment availability for the ten-year period, 1966--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is an annual report of availability and outage statistics for electric power generating facilities operating in the United States. A list of utility organizations voluntarily participating in the EEI Equipment Availability Program in 1975 is located in Appendix F. All summary reports in this publication are for the 10-year period 1966-1975. Each reporting utility company has received reports on individual units for which data were submitted. Also, selected major equipment manufacturers receive copies of computer reports showing an analysis of the data for their equipment. Revised reporting instructions to incorporate Safety and Environmental Requirement Cause Codes were issued effective January 1, 1976. In addition, provisions were made for identifying major equipment manufactured outisde of the United States or under foreign license. Recognizing that an Annual Report contains only a limited amount of general outage data in selected categories, the Task Force has agreed to perform special analyses of the data bank if the cost of computer services is met by the requestor and if the required analysis conforms to some designated policy guidelines.

  8. [Variations in a 24-year period of colorectal and gastric cancer in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Trujillo, José Luis; Vargas, Florencia; Torres Villalobos, Gonzalo; Milke, Pilar; Villalobos Pérez, José de Jesús

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer (CG) and colorectal cancer (CCR) are the two most common neoplasms of the digestive system in the world. We performed a study to determine incidence and relation between CG and CCR in five hospitals in Mexico City. Patients with admitted diagnosis of CG and CCR at Hospital General de Mexico, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Hospital Español de México, Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre" from the Instituto de Salud y Seguridad Social para Trabajadores del Estado, and Hospital Central Militar from January 1978 to December 2001 were studied. A total of 7,136 patients were studied. (CG 3,830, CCR 3,306). At Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" CG was the most common digestive neoplasm; from 1999, ratio was inverted to 2, and later had an average of 1.31. For Hospital Español, ratio always was Nacional "20 de Noviembre", initially CCR was more frequent, then CG, and finally CCR. At Hospital Central Militar ratio was constant, > CG. At the beginning, was global behavior > CG, ratio seemed to invert, but since 1998 CG/CCR ratio was < 1 and continued that way. In this study, we found that changes of CG/CCR ratio in a period of 24 years showed elevation of CCR incidence at five Mexican hospitals.

  9. Caustic Injury In Adults – A Study For 3 Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with acute corrosive ingestions have been observed. Eleven were male (25.6% and 32 female (74.4%. All ingestions were intentional. Alkaline agents were used by all of the patients. The severity of poisonings varied from moderate to extremely severe. Different complications were seen in 82% of the cases - severe bleeding, perforation, fistula or/and stricture formation. Two of the patients have undergone surgical intervention - coloesophagoplastic - and have recovered completely. The motivation in different age groups was also studied. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in patients as depressive and schizoaffective disorder, as well as existential crises. Acute corrosive ingestions by alkaline agents cause severe pathology. The severity and complex character of the injuries require good coordination between different medical specialists.

  10. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Awake craniotomy to maximize glioma resection: methods and technical nuances over a 27-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Li, Jing; Lau, Darryl; Molinaro, Annette M; Perry, David W; Meng, Lingzhong; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-08-01

    procedure. Stimulation-induced seizures occurred in 3% of patients and were rapidly terminated with ice-cold Ringer's solution. Preoperative seizure history and tumor location were associated with an increased incidence of stimulation-induced seizures. Mapping was aborted in 3 cases (0.5%) due to intraoperative seizures (2 cases) and patient emotional intolerance (1 case). The overall perioperative complication rate was 10%. Based on the current best practice described here and developed from multiple regimens used over a 27-year period, it is concluded that awake brain tumor surgery can be safely performed with extremely low complication and failure rates regardless of ASA classification; body mass index; smoking status; psychiatric or emotional history; seizure frequency and duration; and tumor site, size, and pathology.

  12. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  13. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  14. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  15. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of uterine cervix: twenty-year experience with cobalt after-loading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalaei, A; Mohammadianpanah, M; Omidvari, S; Ahmadloo, N

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective analysis aims to report results of patients with cancer of uterine cervix treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using manual treatment planning. From 1975 to 1995, 237 patients with FIGO stages IIB-IVA and mean age of 54.31 years were treated. EBR dose to the whole pelvis was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Brachytherapy with HDR after-loading cobalt source (Cathetron) was performed following EBR completion with a dose of 30 Gy in three weekly fractions of 10 Gy to point A. Survival, local control, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. In a median follow-up of 60.2 months, the 10-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 62.4%. Local recurrence was seen in 12.2% of patients. Distant metastases to the lymph nodes, peritoneum, lung, liver, and bone occurred in 25.3% of patients. Less than 6% of patients experienced severe genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity that were relieved by surgical intervention. No treatment-related mortality was seen. This series suggests that 50 Gy to the whole pelvis together with three fractions of 10 Gy to point A with HDR brachytherapy is an effective fractionation schedule in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of cervix. To decrease the complications, newer devices and treatment planning may be beneficial.

  16. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Burgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1–4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989–1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼6 × 1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 × 1018 and 2 × 1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  17. Twenty years of struggle against global warming in France: assessment and perspectives for public policies. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virlouvet, Gael

    2015-04-01

    This huge report proposes a rather detailed overview of the evolution of the French policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to struggle against climate change and global warming. The introduction proposes a large synthesis by addressing the challenges of this struggle, the French attenuation trajectory within the European framework, the relationship between energy and climate policies, the progressive development of a method, the increasing number of involved actors, the commitment of the various economic sectors and local communities. Some recommendations are made within the perspective of the next Conference on Climate (COP21) and beyond. Then, the report first part addresses the 1992-2014 period, describes the international context (evolutions of greenhouse gas emissions in the world and per sector), presents the different international agreements (Kyoto protocol, Doha amendment, European commitments, the role of France in the world and European dynamics), gives an overview of the progressive emergence of a climate policy in France and of its results (global decrease of emissions, but with variations among sectors), proposes a comparison of climate policies debated and implemented in different countries (China, USA, Swede, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany). An analysis discusses the obtained results, the difficult implementation of Climate plans in France, the coherence of public policies, the territorialisation of the climate challenge, and the influence of the economic context on the evolution of emissions. The next part outlines and comments how the French population becomes always more aware of the climate challenge, how intermediate bodies tend to take charge of this issue, how economic activities progressively integrate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and how local policies can also tackle the problem. Perspectives are then discussed: on the long term (factor 4 objective for the various sectors), on the medium term (by 2020-2030), and

  18. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  19. The Periodization of Fighting on Donbass in 2014–2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Mityukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article based on the analysis of the data gives the attempt of the periodical press of combat actions on the territory of Donbas in 2014-2015: there are presented clearly two periods. The first is the period of the maneuvers from 7 April 2014 to 5 September 2014, characterized by the presence of fortified centres which both sides tried to get around to entering the operating room. In this period there is no clear front line, fighting was an interaction maneuverable shock groups. The second period is the period position of action from September 5 to the present time, characterized by clearly formed the front line, as a rule, deeply echeloned. Active hostilities reached a peak during the battle for Lugansk and the Donetsk airport and Debaltsevo during the operation.

  20. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  2. Twenty-Two Years of Warming, Fertilisation and Shading of Subarctic Heath Shrubs Promote Secondary Growth and Plasticity but Not Primary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  3. “History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine”: The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: “History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine” (German: “Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin”, abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed. PMID:28584871

  4. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  5. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Incidence of hepatitis C infection among prisoners by routine laboratory values during a 20-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Marco

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV and the predictive factors through repeated routine laboratory analyses.An observational cohort study was carried out in Quatre Camins Prison, Barcelona. The study included subjects with an initial negative HCV result and routine laboratory analyses containing HCV serology from 1992 to 2011. The incidence of infection was calculated for the study population and for sub-groups by 100 person-years of follow-up (100 py. The predictive factors were determined through Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated.A total of 2,377 prisoners were included with a median follow-up time of 1,540.9 days per patient. Among the total population, 117 HCV seroconversions were detected (incidence of 1.17/100 py. The incidence was higher between 1992 and 1995 (2.57/100 py, among cases with HIV co-infection (8.34/100 py and among intravenous drug users (IDU without methadone treatment (MT during follow-up (6.66/100 py. The incidence rate of HCV seroconversion among cases with a history of IDU and current MT was 1.35/100 py, which is close to that of the total study population. The following variables had a positive predictive value for HCV infection: IDU (p<0.001; HR = 7,30; CI: 4.83-11.04, Spanish ethnicity (p = 0.009; HR = 2,03; CI: 1.93-3.44 and HIV infection (p = 0.015; HR = 1.97; CI: 1.14-3.39.The incidence of HCV infection among prisoners was higher during the first part of the study and among IDU during the entire study period. Preventative programs should be directed toward this sub-group of the prison population.

  7. Demographic distribution of odontogenic cysts in Isfahan (Iran) over a 23-year period (1988-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Negin; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Kowkabi, Mahsa; Navabi, Amir Arsalan

    2013-03-01

    Odontogenic cysts are relatively common lesions which can cause different complications. As demographic information is lacking in Iran and specially in Isfahan, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts according to age, gender and affected area among patients referring to the Oral Pathology Department of the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran) over a 23-year period. A total of 7412 diagnosed lesions recorded in the Oral Pathology Department archives of Isfahan Dental School between 1988 and 2010 were reevaluated, then odontogenic cysts were separated through reviewing microscopic slides according to the 2005 World Health Organization classification and variables such as age, gender, the infected jaw, and its specific region were obtained by SPSS Version 16.0 from the recorded database. 21.62% of the lesions were odontogenic cysts, of which 48.72% were inflammatory and 51.28% were developmental cysts. These cysts were more common in the mandible. The mean age of patients was 29.53 ± 16.1. Male to female ratio was 1.31:1. The four most frequent odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (35.12%), dentigerous cysts (25.77%), odontogenic keratocysts (22.58%) and residual cysts (12.98%). Odontogenic cysts are fairly frequent jaw lesions (21.62%), of which radicular cyst was the most common cyst. The four most common lesions constituted a sum of 96.45% of the total. In general, the prevalence rates in our study are similar to the studies from other geographic parts of the world but with a lower incidence of inflammatory cysts, higher prevalence of dentigerous cysts and residual cysts and also mandibular predominance for residual cysts.

  8. Prescription patterns of enzyme-containing products in South Africa over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Truter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are traded in five categories, namely medical (intervention, diagnostic (detection and quantification, molecular biology, biofuel and industrial. Therapeutic enzymes have been investigated for different uses, for example, for the treatment of genetic disorders, blood clotting disorders, cancer and infectious diseases and for burn debridement. No studies on the prescription of enzyme-containing products in South Africa could be found. Enzymes are classified in the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities under digestants, enzymes and fibrinolytics. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns and cost of enzyme-containing products in South Africa. A private health-care medicines claims database for 2010 and 2011 of approximately 4.5 million records was analysed retrospectively. Enzyme-containing products constituted a small percentage of medical insurance claims (only 0.02% of approximately 4.5 million claims for products and procedures, yet they were relatively expensive. A total of 906 products was prescribed at a cost of almost ZAR2 million over the 2 years. Hyaluronidase was the most frequently prescribed (60.04%, followed by pancreatin-containing products (34.66%. Pancreatin (lipase/ protease/amylase is primarily used in the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The average cost per hyaluronidase prescription paid by the medical insurance schemes was ZAR280. Other enzyme-containing products prescribed were imiglucerase, alteplase and tenecteplase. Imiglucerase was overall the most expensive. Alteplase, tenecteplase and streptokinase are antithrombotic enzymes that are used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. Streptokinase, regarded as the most affordable antithrombotic enzyme, was not prescribed during the period under study. With the growing opportunities for enzymes for therapeutics, the use of enzyme-containing products which are comparatively expensive require

  9. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Email in a dedicated headache clinic: experience gained over a five-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-06-16

    The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.

  11. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  12. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  13. Twenty years after accident in Chernobyl atomic power plant. Present and future states of studies on pediatric thyroid cancer induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    The accident in the title occurred in April, 1986 and 20 years after, the international conference of Chernobyl Forum was held in Kiev of Ukraine on details of health problems, of which report is given in World Health Organization (WHO) hp (www.who.int./ionizing r adiation/Chernobyl/ern). The purpose of making the report was the scientific, objective evaluation of health problem to provide residents the correct information and to make recommendation to governments of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. This paper describes the outline of the WHO report and characteristics of pediatric thyroid cancer increased after the accident. The report has the description about the effect of the accident on human beings including thyroid diseases, tumors, death numbers, mental and genetic influences, and cataract. The increased pediatric thyroid cancer is found mostly the papillocaricinoma, of which pathogenesis is considered to be due to DNA break of the region encoding MAP kinase pathways. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA mutations, by micro-array, of chromosome, and of SNPs have been also performed and have given many suggestive findings. Further continuation of the CTB (Chernobyl Tissue Bank, where nucleic acids of the cancer are stored by international cooperation) activity is concluded to be important for release of residents' anxiety and for understanding of radiation carcinogenesis. (R.T.)

  14. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  15. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokozov, N. A.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Gulin, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation summarizes studies of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 1 37Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 1 37Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 1 37Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 1 37Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 1 37Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 1 37Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 9 0Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 9 0Sr level nearly 20 Bq m - 3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 9 0Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input

  16. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  17. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  18. The NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS and REDS-II): Twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A.

    2012-01-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989–2001, and the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), conducted from 2004–2012, were National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The three major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as XMRV. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of HIV, HTLV I/II, HCV, HBV, WNV, CMV, HHV-8, B19V, malaria, CJD, influenza, and T. cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized: blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors’ perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, two large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these two REDS programs. In 2011, a new seven year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III), was launched. REDS-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting, and adds a third country, South Africa, to the international program. PMID:22633182

  19. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... to the USPTO's past practice of indefinitely retaining papers that have been scanned into TICRS stems... One-Year Retention Period for Trademark- Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark... retention period that began on September 26, 2011, for papers scanned into the Trademark Initial Capture...

  20. Java project on periodontal diseases : serotype distribution of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and serotype dynamics over an 8-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Wil A.; Bosch-Tijhof, Carolien J.; van der Velden, Ubele; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    Objective: To investigate the serotype distribution and stability of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans over an 8-year period in untreated Indonesian subjects. Material and Methods: Clinical periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans were established in 1994 and 2002 in 107

  1. Hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the Central African Republic, twenty-five years after a fulminant hepatitis outbreak, indicate continuing spread in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisse Patrice Komas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis delta virus (HDV increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH in the Central African Republic (CAR killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH outbreak to determine (i the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains. We performed a cross sectional study with historical comparison on FH-stored samples (n = 179 from 159 patients and dried blood-spots from volunteer students and pregnant women groups (n = 2172. We analyzed risk factors potentially associated with HBV and HDV. Previous HBV infection (presence of anti-HBc occurred in 345/1290 students (26.7% and 186/870 pregnant women (21.4%(p = 0.005, including 110 students (8.8% and 71 pregnant women (8.2%, who were also HBsAg-positive (p = 0.824. HDV infection occurred more frequently in pregnant women (n = 13; 18.8% than students (n = 6; 5.4% (p = 0.010. Infection in childhood was probably the main HBV risk factor. The risk factors for HDV infection were age (p = 0.040, transfusion (p = 0.039, and a tendency for tattooing (p = 0.055 and absence of condom use (p = 0.049. HBV-E and HDV-1 were highly prevalent during both the FH outbreak and the 2010 screening project. For historical samples, due to storage conditions and despite several attempts, we could only obtain partial HDV amplification representing 25% of the full-length genome. The HDV-1 mid-eighties FH-strains did not form a specific clade and were affiliated to two different HDV-1 African subgenotypes, one of which also includes the 2010 HDV-1 strains. In the Central African Republic, these findings indicate a high prevalence of previous and

  2. Twenty-year perspective of randomized controlled trials for surgery of chronic nonspecific low back pain: citation bias and tangential knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas S; Flynn, John P; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    nonsurgical therapy. The research agenda of RCTs for surgery of CNLBP has not changed substantially in the last 20 years. Technical trials evaluating nuances of surgical techniques significantly predominate. Despite the publication of four RCTs reporting equivocal benefits of surgery for CNLBP between 2001 and 2006, there was no change in the research agenda of subsequent RCTs, and technical trials continued to outnumber indication trials. Rather than clarifying what, if any, indications for surgery exist, investigators in the field continue to analyze variations in surgical technique, which will probably have relatively little impact on patient outcomes. As a result, clinicians unfortunately have little evidence to advise patients regarding surgical intervention for CNLBP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. Strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. Still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems even in EU countries. In order to determine the spatial and temporal variation of pollutant and nutrient loads in different environmental media a unique ecological response cadastre (Okologisches Wirkungskataster, OKWI) was set up in the Land of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) in the mid 1980s. As a part of the program a state-wide bioindicator network was established in 64 forest and 18 permanent grassland ecosystems, in which selected chemical elements were measured over time. Here, we report on the results of these analyses and discuss the general spatio-temporal trends in pollution loads. Sixty-four forest and 18 permanent grassland plots were established in state-owned forest and nature conservation areas of SW Germany representing different landscapes and geologies of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Apart from performing vegetation relevées in marked plots of either the grassland or forest sites, plant samples were collected in intervals of 2 to 3 years following a standardised protocol. To be able to compare the different monitoring sites, four common species were chosen as indicator species in the grasslands. Later on, also bulk grassland samples were taken regardless of the species. In the forests, foliage of the dominant tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Abiea alba or Fraxinus excelsior) was sampled in the crown of marked trees and from the same species in the herb layer. The elements analysed in the plant material were the essential plant

  4. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  5. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  6. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  7. Oral health status and change in handgrip strength over a 5-year period in 80-year-old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Piia; Rantanen, Taina; Keskinen, Marja; Meurman, Jukka H

    2004-09-01

    The number of remaining teeth may indicate the extent of life-long exposure to inflammation, a known risk factor for muscle loss and consequent disability. The aim was to study dental health status as a risk factor for muscle strength loss in very old people. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study over a 5-year follow-up. Research laboratory. One hundred and ninety-three 80-year-old people participated in the baseline examinations. Five years later, 79 survivors were retested. Number of remaining teeth, presence of periodontitis and handgrip strength. At baseline, grip strength of men correlated positively with number of teeth but not with the presence of periodontitis. In women, the cross-sectional associations were not statistically significant. In the prospective analyses, the presence of periodontitis at baseline showed a clear association with a steeper decline in handgrip over the 5-year follow-up in both sexes. The values adjusted for gender, height, weight, number of chronic conditions and physical activity were -28.3% (SE 5.7) among those with periodontitis vs. -11.9% (SE 3.1, p = 0.015) among those with healthy gingiva. No association between the number of teeth at baseline and change in grip strength over 5 years was observed. The presence of oral inflammation may lead to loss in muscle strength increasing the risk of disability. Therefore, good dental care throughout the life span may decrease risk of disability in old age.

  8. Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Objective: Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. Method: During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. Results: All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2% upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004, 196 (66% out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34% was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%. Conclusion: War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  9. [Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska). All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB) were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2%) upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004), 196 (66%) out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34%) was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%). War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  10. The Next Twenty Years in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoff, H. Igor

    1973-01-01

    The concern in this article is with the manner in which education serves the managerial needs of organizations. It is the managerial needs of organizations that provide the demand function to educational institutions. Presently, the state of management education lags behind managerial needs, and prospects of closing the gap are doubtful. (41…

  11. Neutrino masses twenty-five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, J.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass marks a turning point in elementary particle physics, with important implications for nuclear and astroparticle physics. Here I give a brief update, where I summarize the current status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters from current solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data, discuss the case for sterile neutrinos and LSND, and also the importance of tritium and double beta decay experiments probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass. In this opinionated look at the present of neutrino physics, I keep an eye in the future, and a perspective of the past, taking the opportunity to highlight Joe Schechter's pioneering contribution, which I have had the fortune to share, as his PhD student back in the early eighties

  12. Twenty years of Korea radioisotope association history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This contents has two parts. The first part describes the present and post of Korea radioisotope association which are about the foundation of the association, organization, main projects and vision of the association. The second part is about the use and the prospect of radiation and radioisotope in Korea, which shows the plan of expansion of use of radiation and radioisotope, the prospect and present condition in fields such as medical, industry and farming, product and distribution, research and development of human resources, system and management of safety of radiation.

  13. Ecotourism revisited: Last twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandel Abhinav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecotourism evolves differently in developing and developed nations due to which the basic principles of ecotourism are in question. The existing literature on ecotourism suggests ambiguity in conceptual understanding of ecotourism. Due to this qualm, ecotourism is evolving into various forms. Different stakeholders with varying objectives related to ecotourism make it further difficult to form the consensus on what constitutes ecotourism. Without the clear understanding of ecotourism, it is difficult to evolve ethics on which the ecotourism principles are based. The focus of this research is to find out the principle components or themes of ecotourism using a content analysis for the development of ecotourism policy and applications. This study identified six key components of ecotourism which are widely accepted by researchers and could be used to shape the fundamental understanding of ecotourism. These themes are: (1 Nature oriented travel; (2 Support of conservation; (3 Learning and appreciation; (4 Socio-economic development of local area; (5 Support and respect for local culture and (6 Local people (area participation.

  14. Twenty Years of Diagnosis and the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1999-01-01

    The process of diagnosing mental disorders and the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been increasingly important for counselors. This article provides information on the hallmarks of this shift. Reviews and discusses the changes form the third and fourth editions of the DSM. Offers predictions as to future…

  15. UNESCO's twenty years of work for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    When UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, celebrated its twentieth anniversary in November, the Agency was happy to join in the congratulations sent from all parts of the world. In this case there were special reasons, since UNESCO was interested in the peaceful development of atomic energy before IAEA was set up, and there have been a number of areas of common interest

  16. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  17. Twenty years of an international nuclear laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1982-01-01

    The laboratories of the International Atomic Energy Agency were started in 1959 with a physics laboratory, a chemistry laboratory and an electronics workshop. Early work centred on absolute radionuclide calibrations and on assessments of the consequences of radioactive fallout from atomic weapons testing on the health of the people in Member States. Subsequently, work was started on the use of radioactive and stable isotopes in agriculture, in hydrology, in medical applications, in pest and insect control and with the entry into force of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty a Safeguard Analytical Laboratory was established to provide support for the Agency's safeguards inspection responsibilities. Together with WHO a network of 43 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories were set up in Member States to improve dosimetric accuracy in medicine and radiation protection worldwide. Throughout their history, the laboratories of the IAEA have lent great importance on their training programmes that have enabled many workers in nuclear or nuclear related research to gain experience. This emphasis on training has been stressed particularly to benefit research workers from developing countries

  18. Twenty years of improvements in LWR safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, S. III; Mulkey, J.P.; Moonka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the safety of light-water reactors in the US during the past two decades, making currently operating reactors safer than ever before. Safety improvements have resulted both from regulatory and operational changes and from new knowledge and technology. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Department of Energy, and the American nuclear power industry have worked together and with the international community to enhance the safety of existing plants and to incorporate lessons learned from prior operation into designs for a new generation of advanced, inherently safer reactors

  19. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  20. The Analysis of Poisoning Cases Presented to the Emergency Department within a One-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SARI DOGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: Intoxication is the emergence of unwanted signs and symptoms in an organism after exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical or organic materials. In our study, we evaluated demographic and etiological factors of adult patients admitted to the emergency department with suicidal or accidental poisoning. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively by using data from the forensics books, protocol notebooks and patient files. Patients over the age of 14 years that were admitted to the Goztepe Training and Research Hospital during a 1-year period (September 2011-September 2012 with poisoning were included in the study. Results: A total of 430 patients were included in the study and 278 of those patients were females (64.7%. The male/female (F/M ratio was 1.82/1 and the mean age of the patients was 27.4±11.75 years. The analyses showed that in 348 patients (80.93% the cause of poisoning was medicine, in 39 patients (9.06% alcohol and drugs, in 37 patients (8.6% rat poison, in 4 patients (0.93% a caustic substance and organophosphates in 2 patients (0.46%. The highest rate of admittance due to poisoning was seen in July, followed by August and September. When the frequency of admittance was evaluated in terms of seasons: summer had the highest frequency with 35.6%, then autumn with 29.1%, spring with 19.8% and winter with 15.6%. Conclusions: The results of our studies are similar to previously reported studies in Turkey. Poisoning cases are more common in women and the most common way of poisoning is by medication. Unlike previous reports from the literature, we found that poisoning was most frequent in the summer. ÖZET: Amaç: Zehirlenme potansiyel olarak zarar verebilen herhangi bir kimyasal, fiziksel veya organik maddeye maruziyet sonrası organizmada bazı istenmeyen belirti ve bulguların ortaya çıkmasıdır. Biz bu çalışmamızda intihar amaçlı veya kazara zehirlenme nedeniyle acil servisimize ba