WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty year periods

  1. Vegetation Transformations of Kujawy-Pomerania Region in the Last Twenty Years Period

    OpenAIRE

    Załuski Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper contents dynamic tendencies analysis results of Kujawy-Pomerania region (N Poland) for a 20-year time period. Acreage changes as well as structure and species composition transformations of forest and shrub vegetation (associations) and non-forest vegetation (alliances) were evaluated. Main factors influencing on regressive and progressive changes were set out. Analysis was relied on results of geobotanical research and observations of selected objects. Regressive changes were note...

  2. Analysis of the Thyroid Carcinoma Incidence in Tianjin Over a Recent Twenty-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biyun Qian; Kexin Chen; Min He; Shufen Dong; Haixin Li; Fengju Song

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the incidence rate and trend of thyroid cancer in Tianjin over a recent 20-year period.METHODS A method of descriptive epidemiology was used to study the occurrence of thyroid cancer.RESULTS During 1981~2001, the average incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 1.770 per 100,000 with a male to female incidence ratio of 1:2.74, the occurrence being higher in females than in males. Thyroid cancer incidence increased gradually with time over the 20 years in both males and females, especially the incidence peaked in females of 35~50 years of age.CONCLUSION The rapid increase in the incidence rate of thyroid cancer, especially in females, suggests that further research on the risk factors and preventive efforts related to high-risk women should be conducted.

  3. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  4. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Meire Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. METHODS: In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9% followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%. Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  5. Twenty-Year Reunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A massive earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter Scale struck the city of Tangshan at 3:42 a.m. on July 28, 1976. The city, which had history of well over 100 years and a population of over one million people, was left in ruins. The violent earthquake killed 242,469 people, with 164,851 people sustaining injuries, 2,652 children under 16 years of age left as orphans and 885 elderly people as widowers. Some 96 percent of the city’s buildings and houses collapsed, with a direct economic loss of 10 billion yuan. Earthquake tremors spread over a two million square kilometer area, with hundreds of millions people placed in peril by the natural disaster.The Tangshan earthquake set a record as the world’s strongest earthquake of the century. The people of Tangshan have set a new record for the rate of reconstruction accomplished over the past 20 years. The support of the People’s Liberation Army and people across the nation combined with the unyielding efforts of survivors led to the establishment of a new Ta

  6. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  7. Twenty years of dendrotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A L

    2001-01-01

    Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1-6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin. The dendrotoxins contain 57-60 amino acid residues cross-linked by three disulphide bridges. The dendrotoxins have little or no anti-protease activity, but they were demonstrated to block particular subtypes of voltage-dependent potassium channels in neurons. Studies with cloned K(+) channels indicate that alpha-dendrotoxin from green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, whereas toxin K from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis preferentially blocks Kv1.1 channels. Structural analogues of dendrotoxins have helped to define the molecular recognition properties of different types of K(+) channels, and radiolabelled dendrotoxins have also been useful in helping to discover toxins from other sources that bind to K(+) channels. Because dendrotoxins are useful markers of subtypes of K(+) channels in vivo, dendrotoxins have become widely used as probes for studying the function of K(+) channels in physiology and pathophysiology.

  8. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  9. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  10. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  11. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  12. Peripheral neuropathies in systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical features, disease associations, and immunologic characteristics evaluated over a twenty-five-year study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomatia, A; Fang, H; Petri, M; Birnbaum, J

    2014-04-01

    To characterize peripheral neuropathy subtypes, ancillary studies, and immunologic profiles associated with peripheral neuropathies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this 25-year study of 2,097 SLE patients, we characterized peripheral neuropathies due to SLE and compared clinical and SLE-related features in patients with versus those without neuropathy. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathies was 5.9% (123 of 2,097 patients), and 66.7% of these patients (82 of 123) had peripheral neuropathies attributable to SLE. We noted that 17.1% of the patients with peripheral neuropathies due to SLE (14 of 82 patients) had small-fiber neuropathy, which is a painful neuropathy not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) case definitions. SLE patients with small-fiber neuropathies could present with unorthodox neuropathic pain patterns not consistent with a stocking-glove distribution and had associated skin biopsy results suggestive of dorsal root ganglion neuronal cell loss. Compared to SLE patients without peripheral neuropathies, those with peripheral neuropathies had lower mean disease activity (P = 0.01) and higher disease damage (P neuropathies, is warranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  14. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  15. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  16. Colorectal cancer prognosis twenty years later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Cristina; Sarasqueta; Elisabeth; Hijona; Lander; Hijona; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Jose; Luis; Elorza; Jose; I; Asensio; Santiago; Larburu; José; M; Enríquez-Navascués; Rodrigo; Jover; Francesc; Balaguer; Xavier; Llor; Xavier; Bessa; Montserrat; Andreu; Artemio; Paya; Antoni; Castells; Gastrointestinal; Oncology; Group; of; the; Spanish; Gastroenterological; Association

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate changes in colorectal cancer(CRC) survival over the last 20 years.METHODS:We compared two groups of consecutive CRC patients that were prospectively recruited:Group Ⅰincluded 1990 patients diagnosed between 1980 and 1994.GroupⅡincluded 871 patients diagnosed in 2001.RESULTS:The average follow up time was 21 mo(1-229)for GroupⅠand 50 mo(1-73.4)for GroupⅡ.Overall median survival was significantly longer in Group Ⅱthan in GroupⅠ(73 mo vs 25 mo,P<0.001)and the difference was significant for all ...

  17. Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konner, Melvin; Eaton, S Boyd

    2010-12-01

    A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol. Physical activity levels were also much higher than current levels, resulting in higher energy throughput. We said at the outset that such evidence could only suggest testable hypotheses and that recommendations must ultimately rest on more conventional epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Such studies have multiplied and have supported many aspects of our model, to the extent that in some respects, official recommendations today have targets closer to those prevalent among hunter-gatherers than did comparable recommendations 25 years ago. Furthermore, doubts have been raised about the necessity for very low levels of protein, fat, and cholesterol intake common in official recommendations. Most impressively, randomized controlled trials have begun to confirm the value of hunter-gatherer diets in some high-risk groups, even as compared with routinely recommended diets. Much more research needs to be done, but the past quarter century has proven the interest and heuristic value, if not yet the ultimate validity, of the model.

  18. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  19. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  20. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  1. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  2. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  3. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  4. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  5. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  6. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  7. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  8. Weight Loss Emphasis in Popular Magazines: A Twenty Year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, Lucinda; And Others

    Cultural pressure for thinness has been cited as a contributing factor in the apparent increase in the eating disorders of anorexia and bulimia. Previous research has examined popular periodicals as an indicator of cultural pressure for thinness. This study assessed changes over the past 20 years in numbers of popular magazine articles focusing on…

  9. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  10. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  11. Meal-feeding scheme: twenty years of research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bazotte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Shinomiya Hell was the first researcher to investigate the physiological adaptations to a meal-feeding scheme (MFS in Brazil. Over a period of 20 years, from 1979 to 1999, Naomi's group determined the physiological and metabolic adaptations induced by this feeding scheme in rats. The group showed the persistence of such adaptations even when MFS is associated with moderate exercise training and the performance to a session of intense physical effort. The metabolic changes induced by the feeding training were discriminated from those caused by the effective fasting period. Naomi made an important contribution to the understanding of the MFS but a lot still has to be done. One crucial question still remains to be satisfactorily answered: what is the ideal control for the MFS?

  12. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  13. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  14. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    While the information systems (IS) community is increasingly international, it is reasonable to expect that different regions might display different research approaches, interests and publication orientations. This paper contributes to the growing number of historical accounts in the IS field...... by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  15. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-two years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Tompkins, R K; Urrea, P T; Longmire, W P

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-four patients underwent operation for chronic pancreatitis during a 22 year period at UCLA Hospital. Follow-up data obtained for 60% of these patients an average of 3.2 years postoperation were analyzed by computer for statistically significant benefit between paired operation combinations and the variables of pain relief, stool habits, alcohol use, readmission for pancreatitis, and narcotic use. The combined group of total and cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy proved more effective with respect to pain relief and readmission (p less than 0.05) than the group that had pseudocyst drainage. The comparison of groups that underwent resection or ductal drainage showed no statistical differences for the above variables. Regardless of type of operation, if the patient had evidence of pancreatic calcifications and had abstained from alcohol postoperatively, the likelihood of a return to normal activity was more favorable (p less than 0.05). PMID:485605

  16. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  17. The Twenty-Five Year Lick Planet Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Spronck, Julien F P

    2013-01-01

    The Lick planet search program began in 1987 when the first spectrum of $\\tau$ Ceti was taken with an iodine cell and the Hamilton Spectrograph. Upgrades to the instrument improved the Doppler precision from about 10 m/s in 1992 to about 3 m/s in 1995. The project detected dozens of exoplanets with orbital periods ranging from a few days to several years. The Lick survey identified the first planet in an eccentric orbit (70 Virginis) and the first multi-planet system around a normal main sequence star (Upsilon Andromedae). These discoveries advanced our understanding of planet formation and orbital migration. Data from this project helped to quantify a correlation between host star metallicity and the occurrence rate of gas giant planets. The program also served as a test bed for innovation with testing of a tip-tilt system at the coud{\\'e} focus and fiber scrambler designs to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer optics. The Lick planet search with the Hamilton spectrograph effectively ended when a heat...

  18. Twenty Years of Commercial Lasers--A Capsule History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauminzer, Gary K.

    1986-01-01

    Since the commercial laser industry was born, laser sales and services have grown to billion dollar proportions. This period of growth is reviewed. Discusses types of lasers, expansion of applications and growth in laboratory usage, technical improvements, and current laser development trends. (CT)

  19. Twenty Years on: Reflections on the CEDISYS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudol, Gerard; Castellani, Ilaria; Hennessy, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We recall some memories of the Esprit Basic Research Action CEDISYS, a small, well-focussed and fruitful project which brought together researchers at the meeting point of true concurrency and process algebra, in the period 1988-1991. The project was initiated and effectively animated by Ugo...

  20. Twenty Years' Development of the Postdoc Program at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Until recently, the concept of a postdoctoral scholar (postdoc) was new in China although it first appeared about 125 years ago, when Johns Hopkins University adopted an ap prenticeship model of high-level training.

  1. Classification in Information Retrieval: The Twenty Years Following Dorking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and practical progress made in the classification of information for retrieval in the last 20 years and suggests alternatives to the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification systems. (JVP)

  2. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  3. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  4. Twenty-five years after the first TIPS in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao Jaureguízar, J I

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation, 25 years ago, of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, better known by the acronym TIPS, represents an indisputable improvement in the treatment and management of patients with symptoms due to portal hypertension. This article discusses the origins of the technique and the technical innovations that have been progressively added through the years. The implantation of coated stents, which protect the stent from processes in the parenchymal track that can lead to stenosis, have helped ensure long-term patency, thus reducing the need for reintervention. Solid evidence from valuable publications has situated TIPS at the forefront of the treatment options in a wide variety of clinical situations associated with portal hypertension.

  5. Selective sweeps across twenty millions years of primate evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Kasper; Nam, Kiwoong; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2016-01-01

    The contribution from selective sweeps to variation in genetic diversity has proven notoriously difficult to assess, in part because polymorphism data only allows detection of sweeps in the most recent few hundred thousand years. Here we show how linked selection in ancestral species can be quant...

  6. Career patterns : A twenty-year panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemann, Torsten; Zacher, Hannes; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Using 20 years of employment and job mobility data from a representative German sample (N=1259), we employ optimal matching analysis (OMA) to identify six career patterns which deviate from the traditional career path of long-term, full-time employment in one organization. Then, in further analyses,

  7. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years.

  8. Twenty five years of organic chemistry with diiodosamarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Henri B. [Laboratoire de Synthese Asymetrique (UMR 8075), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: kagan@icmo.u-psud.fr

    2006-02-09

    An historical account of the introduction of samarium diiodide in organic chemistry is presented in the first section, with the main initial results obtained. The basic organic transformations published in the author laboratory and by other groups during the initial period (1977-1987) are detailed. Some of the progresses subsequently obtained will be selected such as various transformations in synthesis, including asymmetric synthesis and total synthesis of natural products. The possible use of SmI{sub 2} in catalytic amount together with a terminal reducing agent is discussed. In the conclusion is summarized the wide scope of the chemistry induced by SmI{sub 2} with some comments on the future of this chemistry.

  9. Twenty years of protein interaction studies for biological function deciphering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, Pierre; Rain, Jean-Christophe

    2014-07-31

    Intensive methodological developments and technology innovation have been devoted to protein-protein interaction studies over 20years. Genetic indirect assays and sophisticated large scale biochemical analyses have jointly contributed to the elucidation of protein-protein interactions, still with a lot of drawbacks despite heavy investment in human resources and technologies. With the most recent developments in mass spectrometry and computational tools for studying protein content of complex samples, the initial goal of deciphering molecular bases of biological functions is now within reach. Here, we described the various steps of this process and gave examples of key milestones in this scientific story line. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez.

  10. More than Twenty Years of Svensén's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    2010-01-01

    The number of real handbooks dealing with lexicography and metalexicography is not, and has never been, impressive. When one looks at comprehensive handbooks and in addition those brought up to date, the number becomes even smaller. Because of this, but also because it has existed for more than 20...... years (i.e. in different editions/versions) and because it is - especially in Scandinavia - a quite well-known work, Svensén's handbook is an important publication. In this review article, I will consider what the critics have written over the years (i.e. on the different editions/versions of Svensén......'s handbook), and I will attempt to determine whether the book is about to become a classic....

  11. Technology Education: Twenty-five years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    De Miranda, Michael A.; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi

    2005-01-01

    The past 25 years has brought significant changes in the field of technology education. Contributing to these changes has been the evolution of a curriculum from the early days of industrial arts that addressed human productive practice to an emerging contemporary technological curriculum shaped by the exponential growth of technology and its impact on the extension of human capabilities, society, and the environment. The recent literature that focuses on the exponential growth of technology ...

  12. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE) was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972) within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations). The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statu...

  13. About Chernobyl - Twenty Years Later; Propos sur Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    2006-07-01

    The author discusses the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the information on its consequences so contradictory in the former USSR countries, the status of the effects observed, the forecasting concerning the onset of cancers in the coming years among the populations that were exposed to radiations, the public opinion facing the pessimists. He concludes on the lessons which can be drawn from Chernobyl. (A.L.B.)

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  15. Twenty-five years of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gomez I Gavara, Inmaculada; Ibañez Cirión, Jose L; López Andújar, Rafael; García Granero, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    It is accepted by the surgical community that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the technique of choice in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, more controversial is the standardization of system implementation in Ambulatory Surgery because of its different different connotations. This article aims to update the factors that influence the performance of LC in day surgery, analyzing the 25 years since its implementation, focusing on the quality and acceptance by the patient. Individualization is essential: patient selection criteria and the implementation by experienced teams in LC, are factors that ensure high guarantee of success.

  16. Midwifery and obstetrics: twenty years of collaborative academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Diane J; O'Brien, Barbara; Singer, Janet; Coustan, Donald R

    2012-09-01

    This review describes a collaborative educational practice model partnering midwifery and obstetrics within a department of obstetrics and gynecology. For more than 20 years, the authors' model has demonstrated sustainability and influence on medical education. The focus is on resident education in obstetrics, using midwifery faculty as teachers in the obstetric and obstetric triage settings. This noncompetitive and integrated educational practice model has achieved sustainability and success using midwives in a collaborative approach to medical education. The continuing collaboration and innovation within medical and resident education are important elements for the future of collaborative practice.

  17. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  19. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972 within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations. The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statutory objectives of PTIE are realized through experts activity and paper publication. In terms of content PTIE activity focuses on popularizing rational use and conservation of natural environment and earth’s natural resources. With the current rapid advances in science, technique, dynamic economic development and overexploitation of natural resources, environmental engineering and its activities in line with the state of environmental policy it contributes to the so-called sustainable development, protection, adapts and creates the conditions necessary for human life, plants and animals. The Society currently has a well-established position in the world of science by issuing two scientific magazines in Polish and English. It cooperates with various research and educational centers, industries and as well as with local government, administration and state in solving local environmental economic problems. This paper presents the rise and activity of PTIE and major Society achievements in the years 1990–2015.

  20. [Twenty five years of residency training in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, W

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 25 years in the Netherlands the residency training programme for psychiatry has been concerned primarily with teaching students to use practice guidelines, providing science education, promoting internationalisation and satisfying society's requirement for transparency. This has led to the transformation of the classical training programme with its paternalistic 'master-apprentice' relationship to a programme in which the required professional competencies are taught and assessed by supervisors who in the future will need to be explicitly qualified in particular areas. The dramatic increase in the number of women wanting to become psychiatrists has made it clear that the classical training programme puts a heavy burden on students who are struggling to combine private life with a heavy work-load and enthusiasm for their chosen subject. The compulsory personal therapy in the curriculum may be helpful in solving this problem.

  1. Organising services for IMD in Thailand: twenty years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan

    2008-12-01

    The study of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in Thailand is in its infancy when compare with developed countries. Prior to 1987, majority of these disorders were clinically diagnosed since there were only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inborn errors of metabolism, lack of well-equipped laboratory facilities and government support. In developing countries, inherited metabolic disorders are not considered a priority due to the prevalence of infectious diseases such as HIV infection and congenital infections. A multicentre survey conducted in 1994 and 2001 revealed the existence of numerous cases of IMD from all over the country. Case reports and publications on IMD in Thai (and international) medical journals in past 20 years had undoubtedly raised its awareness among Thai paediatricians and scientists. In 2001, the Genetic Metabolic Centre was first established in Siriraj Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thailand. Numerous new cases of IMD had been identified since then.

  2. Twenty five years National Astronomical Observatory: Publications and dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Ilian

    The idea to estimate the merits and to measure the impact of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria by creating the list with all publications and dissertations based fully or in part on the data collected during last 25 years with its telescopes is presented. The process of compiling the list is described. Its last version contains complete bibliographical data about more than 1000 publications with total volume of about 5500 journal pages. All of them are printed out in 1980--2005. The accumulated impact-factor exceeds 1000, the number of citations is expected to be between 3000 and 5000. The number of successful dissertations is close to 40, while the bachelor and master theses are near 100.

  3. Internet Addiction: A Review of the First Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlov, Martin; Vejmelka, Lucija

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to communication and information technologies has increased our dependence on technology for various aspects of our lives. Nevertheless, this remarkable growth of Internet Usage has been inextricably paired with a rise of excessive and dysfunctional Internet use. Conceptualized around 1996, a few years after the inception of the World Wide Web, Internet addiction has developed into a global issue influencing varying segments of the population at different levels. Despite heated debates on its addictive nature, consensus is emerging regarding the existence of this problematic behavior. In this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on Internet addiction in last 20 years. Purpose of this paper is to present crucial findings on Internet addiction to health profession. Besides numerous benefits of Internet use, the virtual environment brings various risks in every age group. The Internet is very significant in the everyday activities of children and youth and professional interventions with this age group should be specific considering their developmental characteristics. Exposure to online risks can have long-lasting and intense negative effects. Effective programs in prevention and treatment should include a multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach. Detail review of the symptomatology, diagnosis model an possibilities of treatment can be multiple beneficial to the health professionals and other helping professions due to actual needs for interventions in the field of the internet addiction treatment. Internet addiction is slowly becoming a societal concern as it particularly affects adolescents and children, who are more exposed and consequently more vulnerable. Findings presented in the paper can benefit in practice of treatment internet addiction and also as framework for further researches in the field.

  4. Twenty years' experience of a telehealth service in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996 a small call centre has been operated to provide instant self-help, non-medical advice to members. Non-clinical advisers work under a medical director. The scheme grew to 1,200 member-families from a regional catchment area, peaking at 2,500 across the country. About 30-50 telephone calls are received each day and up to 1,000 Web visits per day; about 20-50 postal items are sent out daily to members. In a telephone poll during 2001, half of our current members said that they used the National Health Service about 70% less than before they joined, but a third said that they used complementary and alternative medicines 80% more. Half had gained in confidence by about 50% in managing their own health. Members most often join for alternative medical help with a specific problem, but stay if they begin to appreciate the help we can give them in regaining and keeping health in the round. Our retention of new members for a second year is only 10-20%. The 'barefoot' profession of telehealth adviser appears to meet a community need.

  5. Active control of combustors after twenty years' efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.; Palm, S.

    2009-09-01

    Active control of combustion was proposed by Bollay [1]. Following that idea, Tsien [2] worked out an analysis of controlling low-frequency oscillations in a liquid rocket but no successful experimental results followed. More than thirty years passed before the first laboratory demonstrations were performed at Cambridge University. Interest grew rapidly in the 1990s due to potentially wonderful applications to practical combustion systems including liquid and solid rockets, gas turbines, and thrust augmentors. Dreams have not materialized: There are presently no operational control systems, despite considerable efforts, and examples of partially controlled phenomena. Only one practical installation for control of oscillations has been documented, for a large Siemens machine [3]. Its use has been rendered unnecessary by further experimental work leading to development of successful passive control with modifications of hardware [4]. The purpose of this paper is to examine briefly some of the reasons that active control of combustion has failed to become the panacea widely anticipated two decades ago. The authors' view is that the subject is far from exhausted, but rather requires carefully planned research to understand the basis of successful applications.

  6. TWENTY-ONE-YEAR EXTENSION PROJECT PERFORMANCE "LET'S BREASTFEEDING, MOMMY?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Argolo Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research aiming to describe the actions that were developed by the Extension Project "Let's breastfeed, Mom?" During the 21 years of its performance in Jequié / Bahia and identify the difficulties, facilities and progress of the project. This is a descriptive, quantitative-qualitative study. The data were collected in the archived project documents, analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results showed that 8,923 registered postpartum women with educational activities and 1,313 domiciliary visits were carried out, as the main actions carried out by the project. The difficulties were: lack of consumer / permanent materials and human resources; As facilities: responsibility and commitment of the members of the project, as well as the support of the transportation service of the institution. The advances were the elaboration of the research project, with insertion of research fellows, creation of the webpage and the logo. It is necessary to reflect on the difficulties and propose measures to remedy them and thus continue to contribute to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding in the Municipality, contributing to the reduction of infant morbidity and mortality

  7. Hemodynamic characterization of recombinant inbred strains: twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunes, Jaroslav; Dobesová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlícek, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Kren, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) strains (Prague HXB/BXH set) represent a unique model that allows for permanent summation of genetic and physiological information as well as the study of age-dependent changes in phenotypes and/or gene regulation. This study compared blood pressure (BP) measured in adult animals of RI strains by radiotelemetry with BP values obtained in conscious rats of comparable age subjected to short-term carotid catheterization or with those obtained by direct carotid puncture under ether anesthesia (almost 20 years ago). After radiotelemetry recording, the contribution of major vasoactive systems to BP maintenance was studied by consecutive inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and nitric oxide synthase. We found highly significant interrelationships among baseline BP values obtained by radiotelemetry, carotid catheterization, or carotid puncture. This indicates considerable stability of RI strains over the course of their long existence, and confirms the reliability of BP values used for genetic studies performed in the past. Subsequent analysis of vasoactive system participation revealed the importance of SNS for the maintenance of BP, as determined by either radiotelemetry or catheterization. The BP of catheterized rats also correlated closely with acute captopril-induced BP changes, but this was not the case for rats measured by radiotelemetry. NO-dependent vasodilatation matched the BP effects of SNS and RAS in both measuring conditions. Residual BP (recorded at sodium nitroprusside-induced dilatation of resistance vessels) was also responsible for a significant portion of the BP variation in RI strains. Our study confirms the validity of RI strains for the further genetic and physiological research of hypertension.

  8. Twenty-Year Optical Variability of The Blazar PKS 1749+096: Exponential Outbursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Lam, M. T.; Patrick, P. A.; Scott, E. L.; Kaercher, A. J.; Rupert, J.; Taber, T.; Hegel, P.; Tam, Y. H. N.; Morin, A.; Levandowski, K.; Graber, E. L.; Quirk, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the twenty-year R-band optical variability light curve for the BL Lac type quasar PKS 1749+096. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensity of outbursts and flares by fitting exponential profiles to the variations. PKS 1749+096 underwent strong optical outbursts during the summers of 2007 and 2008, reaching its brightest optical level in two decades, and exhibited an inactive period during summer 2009. We compare these two outbursts with lower amplitude well-sampled variations in 2000 through 2003. Observations were obtained as part of the intensive blazar variability monitoring program at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, the NASA / New York Space Grant, and the Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research Fund at Colgate University.

  9. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Twenty-one years of child advocacy: an editorial retrospective of the Teuscher years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D W

    1990-01-01

    On the eleventh anniversary of his Editorship of JDC, Dr. George Teuscher took stock of the state of the Journal, noting progress made and challenges ahead, writing that, "A good journal cannot ride on its reputation... Constant effort to improve, resourcefulness, and prolific reading and study are required of the editor of a prestigious journal." He has written extensively on the importance of writing and effective communication in the face of an information explosion, stating that, "The journal is still the best means of presenting new information to the professions." Writing a note of encouragement to the editor of a new dental journal, he observed, "Of course the dental and medical literature can boast of some great editors, who earned their reputations because they were able to apply intelligence, writing ability, knowledge of the scientific method, and imagination to a new undertaking." After twenty-one years, it is safe to say that Dr. Teuscher is such an Editor; he has filled our minds with knowledge and our hearts with wisdom; he has reminded us of the best that is in us; he has helped us to feel the anguish of the afflicted and oppressed; he has brought knowledge and skill to help the infirm: and he has taught us to stand in awe before the mystery of being.

  11. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  12. [The first Obesity Unit in Czechoslovakia was established twenty years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    The first Obesity Unit in former Czechoslovakia was established at the Fourth Department of Internal Medicine of the Faculty of General Medicine and Faculty Hospital I twenty years ago. Both personal resources (physicians specialized in metabolism and obesity, psychologist, dietician, physiatrist and medical nurses trained in the care of obese patients) and diagnostic tools (body composition assessment by hydrodensitometry, determination of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, evaluation of energy and nutrient intake by PC assessment of dietary records, hormonal and biochemical examinations etc.) enabled comprehensive examinations of obese patients. Obesity unit included a specialized in-patient department where the patients with severe and complicated obesity underwent a comprehensive treatment programme which consisted of very low energy diet developed in collaboration with the Obesity Unit. The article summarizes not only clinical experiences of the unit but also its engagement in education on obesity, in research projects and international collaboration over the past 20-years period. Obesity unit succeeded to keep its continuity in spite of repeated moving between 1997-2002. Since 2002 Obesity Unit has been a part of the Institute of Endocrinology which provided additional modern facilities for hormonal and molecular genetic examinations.

  13. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  14. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  15. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  16. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  17. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  18. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  19. Thirty-Year Periodicity of Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez-Peraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmogenic isotopes have frequently been employed as proxies of ancient cosmic ray fluxes. On the basis of periodicities of the 10Be time series (using data from both the South and North Poles and the 14C time series (with data from Intercal-98, we offer evidence of the existence of cosmic ray fluctuations with a periodicity of around 30 years. Results were obtained by using the wavelet transformation spectral technique, signal reconstruction by autoregressive spectral analysis (ARMA, and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. This 30-year periodicity seems to be significant in nature because several solar and climatic indexes exhibit the same modulation, which may indicate that the 30-year frequency of cosmic rays is probably a modulator agent for terrestrial phenomena, reflecting the control source, namely, solar activity.

  20. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  1. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  2. Twenty Years of Data Management in the British Atmospheric Data Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Pepler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC has existed in its present form for 20 years, having been formally created in 1994. It evolved from the GDF (Geophysical Data Facility, a SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council facility, as a result of research council reform where NERC (Natural Environment Research Council extended its remit to cover atmospheric data below 10km altitude. With that change the BADC took on data from many other atmospheric sources and started interacting with NERC research programmes. The BADC has now hit early adulthood. Prompted by this milestone, we examine in this paper whether the data centre is creaking at the seams or is looking forward to the prime of its life, gliding effortlessly into the future. Which parts of it are bullet proof and which parts are held together with double-sided sticky tape? Can we expect to see it in its present form in another twenty years’ time? To answer these questions, we examine the interfaces, technology, processes and organisation used in the provision of data centre services by looking at three snapshots in time, 1994, 2004 and 2014, using metrics and reports from the time to compare and contrasts the services using BADC. The repository landscape has changed massively over this period and has moved the focus for technology and development as the broader community followed emerging trends, standards and ways of working. The incorporation of these new ideas has been both a blessing and a curse, providing the data centre staff with plenty of challenges and opportunities. We also discuss key data centre functions including: data discovery, data access, ingestion, data management planning, preservation plans, agreements/licences and data policy, storage and server technology, organisation and funding, and user management. We conclude that the data centre will probably still exist in some form in 2024 and that it will most likely still be reliant on a file system. However, the

  3. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  4. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  5. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  6. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  7. Twenty-seven-year nonunion of a Hoffa fracture in a 46-year-old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yirui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hoffa fracture is an uncommon clinical entity typically seen in adults after high-energy trauma. Nonunion of a Hoffa fracture appears to be even more uncommon. To our knowledge, only three cases of nonunion of a Hoffa fracture have been documented in the literature to date, including two children and one adult. This article presents a case of an adult who had nonunion of a Hoffa fracture for 27 years and was treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and the varus deformity corrected with xenogenous bone graft. An excellent result has been achieved to date. This unusual case reminds us that we cannot neglect the possibility of nonunion of a cancellous bone fracture, especially the Hoffa fractures of the medial femoral condyle if they are treated nonoperatively. It also demonstrates that internal fixation with bone graft is effective, even for the 27-year Hoffa fracture.

  8. Progress report for the first twenty-one months of the contract period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    During the period of July 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980 in-depth research of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in all of the nineteen northeastern states was performed. Research into economic issues associated with the development of small scale hydroelectric power was undertaken by the project economist. Special research activities have been undertaken with respect to the federal dam safety programs, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act and the implications of those requirements to small scale hydroelectric power, riparian law on lake and reservoir fluctuation in the State of Maine, and the implications of Title II and IV of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to the development of small scale hydroelectric power. The results of these studies are reported. (LCL)

  9. Progress report for the first twenty-one months of the contract period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    During the period of July 1, 1978, through March 31, 1980 in-depth research of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in all of the nineteen northeastern states was performed. Research into economic issues associated with the development of small scale hydroelectric power was undertaken by the project economist. Special research activities have been undertaken with respect to the federal dam safety programs, the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act and the implications of those requirements to small scale hydroelectric power, riparian law on lake and reservoir fluctuation in the State of Maine, and the implications of Title II and IV of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 to the development of small scale hydroelectric power. The results of these studies are reported. (LCL)

  10. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  11. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Miana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective: This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to 21 years with a mean of 8.8±5.7 years and a median of 5.2 years. The underlying diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61.5%, congenital heart disease in 26.6% and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 11.9%. All patients above 17 years old had congenital heart disease. Results: Survival rate at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 90.4%, 81.3%, 70.9%, 60.5%, 44.4% and 26.7%, respectively. Mean cold ischemic time was 187.9 minutes and it did not correlate with mortality (P>0.05. Infectious complications and rejection episodes were the most common complications (P<0.0001, occurring, respectively, in 66% and 57.4% of the survivors after 10 years. There was no incidence of graft vascular disease and lymphoproliferative disease at year one, but they affected, respectively, 7.4% and 11% of patients within 10 years. Conclusion: Twenty-year pediatric heart transplant results at our institution were quite satisfactory and complication rates were acceptable.

  12. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  13. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  14. [Development of health promotion in Brazil in the last twenty years (1988-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Carvalho, Antonio Ivo de

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the institutionalization of health promotion (HP) in Brazil in the twenty years following the proclamation of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The legal and institutional foundations of HP are delineated, as well as its recent reassertion as a national policy. Moreover, the praxis of HP within the health system and other instances are analyzed, and the institutional capacity building - by means of research and training of human resources - is examined. Around 100 papers were revised, including institutional policy documents, decrees, laws, and annals of congresses and other events. The authors' personal experience in the ideational conception of the area and in the institutionalization of health promotion as a public policy in the country was also drawn upon. Finally, major restrictions to the theoretical and practical development of health promotion are criticized and a few ideas that might benefit such development are presented.

  15. Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons: twenty-five years of doing MATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mel

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago this past autumn, we published a short article entitled 'Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: a simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity' in Volume 9 of FEMS Microbiology Letters. Together with my Ph.D. supervisors, Eugene Rosenberg and David Gutnick, we proposed a method of measuring bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity based on bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon ('BATH', later known as 'MATH', for microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon). The method became popular soon after it was published, and the paper was, for at least the following decade, the Journal's most cited article. It became an ISI 'citation classic' in 1991. This minireview is a rather personal look at the development of the method and its various modifications and other scientific offspring, with the perspective of a quarter-century.

  16. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  17. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  18. Twenty-five Years of PTHrP Progress from Cancer Hormone to Multifunctional Cytokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Laurie K.; Martin, T. John

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a ‘new’ protein was identified from cancers that caused hypercalcemia. It was credited for its ability to mimic parathyroid hormone, and hence was termed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Today it is recognized for its widespread distribution, its endocrine, paracrine, and intracrine modes of action driving numerous physiologic and pathologic conditions with a central role in organogenesis. The multiple biological activities within a complex molecule with paracrine modulation of adjacent target cells present boundless possibilities. The protein structure of PTHrP has been traced, dissected and deleted comprehensively and conditionally, yet numerous questions lurk in its past that will carry into the future. Issues of the variable segments of the protein including the enigmatic nuclear localization sequence are only recently being clarified. Aspects of PTHrP production and action in the menacing condition of cancer are emerging as dichotomies that may represent intended temporal actions of PTHrP. Relative to PTH, the hormone regulating calcium homeostasis, PTHrP ‘controls the show’ locally at the PTH/PTHrP receptor throughout the body. Great strides have been made in our understanding of PTHrP actions, yet years of exciting investigation and discovery are imminent. PMID:22549910

  19. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  20. Twenty years of psychoneuroimmunology and viral infections in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Robert H; Padgett, David A; Sheridan, John F

    2007-03-01

    For 20 years, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity has provided an important venue for the publication of studies in psychoneuroimmunology. During this time period, psychoneuroimmunology has matured into an important multidisciplinary science that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of mind, brain, and body interactions. This review will not only focus on the primary research papers dealing with psychoneuroimmunology, viral infections, and anti-viral vaccine responses in humans and animal models that have appeared on the pages of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity during the past 20 years, but will also outline a variety of strategies that could be used for expanding our understanding of the neuroimmune-viral pathogen relationship.

  1. Twenty Years of Precise Radial Velocities at Keck and Lick Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    The precise radial velocity survey at Keck Observatory began over 20 years ago. Its survey of thousands of stars now has the time baseline to be sensitive to planets with decade-long orbits, including Jupiter analogs. I present several newly-finished orbital solutions for long-period giant planets. Although hot Jupiters are generally "lonely" (i.e. they are not part of multiplanet systems), those that are not appear to often have giant companions at 5 AU or beyond. I present two of the highest period- ratios among planets in a two-planet system, and some of the longest orbital periods ever measured for exoplanets. In many cases, combining Keck radial velocities from those from other long-term surveys at Lick Observatory, McDonald Observatory, HARPS, and, of course, OHP spectrographs, produces superior orbital fits, constraining both period and eccentricity better than could be possible with any single set alone. Stellar magnetic activity cycles can masquerade as long-period planets. In most cases this effect ...

  2. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  4. Twenty years of experience with the rabbit model, a versatile model for tracheal transplantation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margot Den Hondt; Bart M Vanaudenaerde; Pierre Delaere; Jan J Vranckx

    2016-01-01

    Pathologies comprising more than half the length of the trachea are a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Innovative tracheal transplantation techniques aim to offer the patient a curative solution with a sustained improvement in quality of life. This review summarizes the authors’ experience with the rabbit as a versatile model for research regarding tracheal transplantation. Because of the segmental blood supply of the trachea, it is not feasible to transplant the organ together with a well-defined vascular pedicle. As such, the key element of successful tracheal transplantation is the creation of a new blood supply. This vascularized construct is created by prelaminating the rabbit trachea heterotopically, within the lateral thoracic fascia. After prelamination, the construct and its vascular pedicle are transferred to the orthotopic position in the neck. This model has become gold standard because of the advantages of working with rabbits, the anatomy of the rabbit trachea, and the reliability of the lateral thoracic artery flap. In this paper, the key elements of surgery in the rabbit are discussed, as well as the tracheal anastomosis and the harvest of the lateral thoracic artery flap. Practical tips and tricks are presented. The data described in this review represent the fundaments of ongoing translational research in the center over the past twenty years.

  5. Twenty Years of Ablative Photodecomposition (Industrial Applications of Physics Prize Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rangaswamy

    2004-03-01

    It was a little over twenty years ago that two groups, one in the U.S. and another in Hull, U.K. working independently, reported that ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration were capable of etching organic polymer films without any need for further development.In 1982, our group at the IBM Research Center which studied this phenomenon at 193nm named the process "Ablative Photodecomposition". Dyer and his group in Hull reported similar results at 248nm and 308nm in 1983. We also showed that the process worked well in the etching of tissue and had the potential to be of use in surgery since there was no detectable heat damage around the exposed area. These reports led to a burst of activity from numerous groups all over the world which has not slowed down significantly to the present day. The driving force behind the activity was and continues to be the potential for applications in several areas of computer hardware technology as well as in corneal refractive surgery. Today these applications can be said to be firmly in place and well-accepted. Strangely, the science behind the process is still a subject for serious discussion. The reason for this is the mix of physicists, chemists, medical doctors and engineers who have stepped into the debate. The result is a true 'Babel' which will be pointed out.

  6. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  7. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  8. Veintidós años de evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad en la ciudad de Barcelona Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality over a twenty-two-year period in the city of Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dalmau-Bueno

    2010-01-01

    from 1983 to 2004. Methods: We performed an ecological study of trends over 4 cross-sections (1983-1988, 1989-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, with the basic health area (BHA as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of men and women aged 20 years or more living in Barcelona. The information sources were the mortality registry, the municipal census and the census of inhabitants and dwellings. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate (ASMR for all causes was used as the dependent variable. As the independent variable, a composite index of socioeconomic deprivation of the BHA was calculated; BHAs were grouped in quartiles according to the values on the index. Poisson models were adjusted to estimate the relative risk of mortality from all causes in the 4 groups of BHA, stratified by age groups and sex. Results: In all the study periods, inequalities in mortality were found, depending on the BHA of residence, both for men and for women: the ASMR of the most deprived BHAs were greater than those of less deprived BHA, and were greater among men than among women. Likewise, relative risks in the youngest age groups were higher than in the oldest age groups. However, from the second to fourth study periods, inequalities decreased in absolute and relative terms, especially among men. Conclusions: Inequalities in mortality persist in BHA in Barcelona but have decreased over the last 2 decades. Public policies should take this information into account when tackling inequalities among BHA.

  9. Twenty five years of antismoking movement started by medical students: some further goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizic-Borjanovic, S; Jerinic, M; Igic, R

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, medical students of the former Yugoslavia accepted an idea that emerged from the Medical School in Tuzla to carry out a national preventive campaign "January 31st, a Day without Cigarette". This campaign was soon recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of "the most successful preventive achievement of medical students in Europe". The only contribution that the government made was printing and releasing a postal stamp on January 31st, 1990. During the war in Bosnia, the UN sanctions imposed to Serbia, and the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) weakened this antismoking campaign. At the time of the civil war in several Yugoslav republics, more citizens, including children and youth, started to smoke than in previous years. In 2002, January 31st was proclaimed as the National Antismoking Day in Serbia and the "Republic of Srpska" in Bosnia & Herzegovina; the Republic of Slovenia, and to a smaller extent the rest of the "Bosnian Federation", continued to observe this antismoking campaign. In the future, the medical professionals have to look for new ways to help smokers quit smoking and to maintain abstinence. In addition to education and professional advice, they may use smoking cessation interventions, especially to smokers that require elective surgery. Medical students should continue to participate in the national antismoking campaigns, and they could be included in the comprehensive smoking intervention programs to improve their smoking cessation counseling skills. However, the governments should plan and rigorously realize needed measures to control smoking at public places, offices, and other closed working places. Such measures are especially needed in poor and developing countries where many people die unnecessarily.

  10. [Incidence of major lower limb amputation in Geneva: twenty-one years of observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, G A; Lacraz, A; Hoffmeyer, P; Assal, M

    2014-10-22

    Between 1990 and 2010 the incidence of major lowerlimb amputations (by definition any level of amputation above the foot) in the canton of Geneva was 10.02 per 100,000 inhabitants/ year. The analysis of various population groups revealed that the presence of diabetes increased the relative risk of amputation by a factor of 20, and age 65 years or older by a factor of 9. During this 21 years period we observed a gradual decline in the incidence of amputation and an increased age at the time of amputation, despite the increasing prevalence of diabetes and an aging population. This was a reflection on the efforts of primary and secon- dary prevention, initiated in the 1980s in which Geneva was a pioneer.

  11. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1280.109 Fiscal period and marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  12. TWENTY-THREE-YEAR LONG-TERM HEALTH OUTCOME AFTER THE WAR IN VUKOVAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko; Dujaković, Tatjana; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Jurković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Results of the first research of this kind on the 23-year long-term outcome in children born during the war in Vukovar are presented. This retrospective clinical study surveyed the potential 23-year long-term consequences and morbidity of children born between May 1, 1991 and November 19, 1991, during the siege and occupation of Vukovar. Data were obtained from women having delivered their babies in that period and from delivery protocols of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vukovar County Hospital. According to the survey and the data collected, there were 9 (3.98%) preterm deliveries, 60 (81%) of the total of 77 subjects were breastfed, 14 (19%) were not breastfed, while three babies died in the postpartum period. However, the breastfeeding period was evidently shorter, as only 10 women breastfed for a period longer than 6 months, while the mean length of the breastfeeding period was 9.9 weeks, i.e. 2.5 months. Allergy-related illnesses and proneness to infections in childhood and preschool age were found in 27.3% and 16.9% of children, respectively, while two children developed diabetes type 1. One child had atopic diathesis, two started speaking after the age of two, one child started walking late (after 20 months) and started speaking after the age of two, one child had loud sound phobia, and one used to overreact and express anger in inconvenient situations, all of them being of female gender and born prematurely. Cognitive and attention disorders and stress reactions were found in 6.5% of the children. Regular elementary school education was completed by 74 (96%) children, while three (3.8%) children experienced failure at school due bad behavior, i.e. delinquency. At the age of 23, 34 (46%) children had developed bad habits, i.e. 33 of them smoked, 2 were addicted to alcohol, whereas one was addicted to both smoking and alcohol. Forty (54%) subjects did not use any harmful substances. Psychiatric disorders related to anxiety, depression or other

  13. A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C., Ed.

    This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

  14. Personal networks and mortality risk in older adults: a twenty-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ellwardt

    Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have

  15. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  16. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Twenty-Third Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled, ``Energy and Environmental Policy in a Period of Transition`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on November 20--21, 1995. The conference program explored how federal policy in energy and environment is changing and how these shifts will impact the economy of the Midwest. The conference was divided in four plenary sessions. Session 1 focused on the national policy scene where speakers discussed proposed legislation to change federal energy and environmental policy. Session 2 looked at the future structure of the energy industry, projecting the roles of natural gas, the electric utility industry, and independent power producers in the overall energy system of the 21st century. Session 3 examined current federal policy in research and development as a baseline for discussing the future role of government and industry in supporting research and development. In particular, it looked at the relationship between energy research and development and global competitiveness. Finally, Session 4 attempted to tie these issues together and consider the impact of national policy change on Illinois and the Midwest.

  17. Twenty Years of Litter and Root Manipulations: Insights into Multi-Decadal SOM Dynamics and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, J.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reforestation, reducing deforestation, and sustainable forest management are often recommended by policy makers to mitigate the greenhouse gas contributions of the forestry sector. However, underlying many of these policy recommendations is the assumption that increasing above-ground carbon stocks corresponds to long-term increases in ecosystem carbon stocks, the majority of which is stored in soils. We analyzed soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forest soils that had undergone twenty years of continuous manipulations of above- and below-ground organic inputs as part of the Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) network. Although we expected that increased C inputs would correspond to significantly elevated C in surface mineral soils, our data suggest that increasing above-ground litter inputs has had a positive priming effect in this soil. Positive priming occurs when increased rates of litter addition to soil lead to disproportionate increases in microbial respiration rates of native soil C, resulting in a net decrease of soil C. Soil respiration rates in a year-long laboratory incubation support this theory: increased above-ground litter inputs led to decreased respiration rates, suggesting a relative deficit of labile organic matter. Removal of below ground inputs, either with or without above-ground litter inputs, also led to decreased respiration in laboratory incubations, demonstrating the importance of fresh root inputs to labile C. Trends in non-hydrolyzable C fractions, a proxy for the more stable C pool, agree with our respiration measurements. Data from sequential density fractionation are consistent with the hypotheses that priming has occurred in response to increased above-ground litter inputs and that root inputs are an important control of the labile C pool. The importance of roots inputs for C stabilization is well documented in the literature, and our hypothesis that increased above-ground litter inputs leads to priming is supported by

  18. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post

  19. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  20. Twenty-Year Outcome Following Central Duct Resection for Bloody Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R Scott; Hoehn, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients found with pathologic nipple discharge present a diagnostic dilemma to surgeons. No one diagnostic test, including cytology or radiologic imaging, has proved superior to any other in the differentiation of benign versus malignant sources of pathologic nipple discharge. Ductoscopy has been introduced as a way to assist with identification of potential sources of pathologic nipple discharge. Ductoscopy is also useful in the resection of deep or peripheral masses that may be missed with standard blind resection. This report evaluates the risk of missed malignancy following central duct resection (CDR). Methods: Records of 56 patients who underwent CDR for pathologic nipple discharge greater than 15 years previous were reviewed. Data including type of nipple discharge, future biopsy, and pathology reports were all examined. Results: Of the 56 patients, 36 had bloody, 18 serous, and 2 green initial discharges. Fifty-seven percent were found to have intraductal papilloma as the source of discharge, with fibrocystic disease and ductal ectasia providing the next most common causes. One woman was found to have ductal cancer and one lobular carcinoma in situ at time of CDR. Patients were followed for a mean period of 22 years. Fourteen women required future biopsy. Of these, 10 had benign disease and 4 had cancer, 3 on the ipsilateral side. The 3 women with breast cancer were 9, 13, and 17 years from initial resection. Conclusions: CDR for pathologic nipple discharge is an effective way to diagnose and treat pathologic nipple discharge without missing underlying cancers. PMID:16552204

  1. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year mean the 12-month period from July 1 through June 30 of the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1207.310 Section 1207.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year mean the 12 month period from January 1 to December 31 or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1210.310 Section 1210.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  3. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  4. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prättälä Ritva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002 that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the

  5. IgA Nephropathy: A Twenty Year Retrospective Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a common glomerular disease whose etiology is unknown. Previous studies have described the clinical and laboratory features but none have specifically compared patients during different time periods. This 20 year retrospective study was performed to assess trends in the severity of IgAN from 1989–2008. We reviewed 57 patient charts that contained a confirmed biopsy diagnosis of IgAN and recorded data at the time of diagnosis and the final follow-up appointment. Clinical data included physical examination, urine, and blood tests. Patients were separated into two cohorts, Cohort 1 1989–1998 and Cohort 2 1999–2008. An increase in severity was noted in Cohort 2 based on a significantly higher Up/c and lower serum albumin level. Other prognostic indicators including GFRe, hematocrit, and glomerular injury score also demonstrated a trend towards more severe disease over the past 20 years. The patients in both Cohorts received similar treatments and had comparable renal function at the last follow-up visit. Based on our findings, we suggest that although a kidney biopsy is required to diagnose IgAN, the procedure may not be necessary in patients clinically suspected of having the disease but who have normal kidney function and minimal urine abnormalities.

  6. The evolution of perforator flap breast reconstruction: twenty years after the first DIEP flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Claragh; Allen, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    It is over 20 years since the inaugural deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. We review the type of flap utilized and indications in 2,850 microvascular breast reconstruction over the subsequent 20 years in the senior author's practice (Robert J. Allen). Data were extracted from a personal logbook of all microsurgical free flap breast reconstructions performed between August 1992 and August 2012. Indication for surgery; mastectomy pattern in primary reconstruction; flap type, whether unilateral or bilateral; recipient vessels; and adjunctive procedures were recorded. The DIEP was the most commonly performed flap (66%), followed by the superior gluteal artery perforator flap (12%), superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (9%), inferior gluteal artery perforator flap (6%), profunda artery perforator flap (3%), and transverse upper gracilis flap (3%). Primary reconstruction accounted for 1,430 flaps (50%), secondary 992 (35%), and tertiary 425 (15%). As simultaneous bilateral reconstructions, 59% flaps were performed. With each flap, there typically ensues a period of enthusiasm which translated into surge in flap numbers. However, each flap has its own nuances and characteristics that influence patient and physician choice. Of note, each newly introduced flap, either buttock or thigh, results in a sharp decline in its predecessor. In this practice, the DIEP flap has remained the first choice in autologous breast reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  8. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  9. "The First Twenty Years," by Bernard J. Siegel. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22 (1993, pp. 1-34, Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Delle

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available After twenty years as editor of the Annual Review ofAnthropology (ARA, Professor Siegel took on a daunting task with this article. In his words, he set out to "ponder the developments in the several subfields of anthropol­ogy over this period of time, as reflected in the topics selected for review in this enterprise" (p. 8. To this end Siegel, a cultural anthropologist, mined the collective knowledge contained within twenty years of the ARA. In his presentation, he considers the intellectual developments within each of the five subdisciplines separately (he includes applied anthropology, concluding with some brief remarks on the importance of maintaining a four or five field approach to anthropology. For our purposes here, I will limit my comments to his section on archaeology.

  10. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  11. Disturbance frequency and community structure in a twenty-five year intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.

    2005-01-01

    Models of community regulation commonly incorporate gradients of disturbance inversely related to the role of biotic interactions in regulating intermediate trophic levels. Higher trophic-level organisms are predicted to be more strongly limited by intermediate levels of disturbance than are the organisms they consume. We used a manipulation of the frequency of hydrological disturbance in an intervention analysis to examine its effects on small-fish communities in the Everglades, USA. From 1978 to 2002, we monitored fishes at one long-hydroperiod (average 350 days) and at one short-hydroperiod (average 259 days; monitoring started here in 1985) site. At a third site, managers intervened in 1985 to diminish the frequency and duration of marsh drying. By the late 1990s, the successional dynamics of density and relative abundance at the intervention site converged on those of the long-hydroperiod site. Community change was manifested over 3 to 5 years following a dry-down if a site remained inundated; the number of days since the most recent drying event and length of the preceding dry period were useful for predicting population dynamics. Community dissimilarity was positively correlated with the time since last dry. Community dynamics resulted from change in the relative abundance of three groups of species linked by life-history responses to drought. Drought frequency and intensity covaried in response to hydrological manipulation at the landscape scale; community-level successional dynamics converged on a relatively small range of species compositions when drought return-time extended beyond 4 years. The density of small fishes increased with diminution of drought frequency, consistent with disturbance-limited community structure; less-frequent drying than experienced in this study (i.e., longer return times) yields predator-dominated regulation of small-fish communities in some parts of the Everglades. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  12. Eye health in the future: what are the challenges for the next twenty years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R Taylor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking ahead, it is really important to know where we have come from. This allows us to project identified trends and to reflect on the tremendous amount of change that can happen over a relatively short period.Reflect for a moment on the intensity of the debate regarding the use of intraocular lenses (IOLs in low-income settings in the 1990s. As they were still very expensive, some insisted that aphakic correction after surgery was the best approach for these countries. The subsequent availability of low-cost IOLs made the debate irrelevant. It dramatically changed our ability to provide modern IOL cataract surgery and control cataract blindness worldwide, and it laid the basis for VISION 2020. Other dramatic changes occurred with the introduction of ivermectin for onchocerciasis and azithromycin for trachoma, which gave us the ability to eliminate these two devastating and previously intractable causes of blindness. Our medical management of glaucoma or of age-related macular degeneration today is totally different from what it was 20 years ago, although there is still a long way to go. Our approach to refractive error has also altered dramatically, thanks to the recognition of its importance and the availability of high-quality, low-cost spectacles.So, given what we know about the past, what are the challenges we face in the future?

  13. Pediatric urolithiasis in the central coast of Tunisia: Epidemiologic changes over the past twenty-five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najjar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Pediatric urolithiasis has been constantly decreasing during the past twenty-four years (1982-2007 in Tunisia as well as in other Mediterranean countries. This study was undertaken to observe the incidence of stone disease and its composition in children. Our study shows a downward trend of incidence of urolithiasis in pediatric patients over the last 25 years. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has constantly increased with decrease in the stones related to infections Whewellite (calcium oxalate was more frequent in children of school age. In conclusion, the decrease in struvite frequency in children patients during the past twenty-five years and the stabilization of calcium phosphate stones are the result of a significant im-provement of diagnostics and the treatment of urinary tract infections in the young children in our country.

  14. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  15. Lessons Learned from the Last Twenty Years of Sexual Violence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article attempts to answer important questions about the most important thing learned from the past 20 years of research on sexual violence, the most important thing to be learned about sexual violence over the next 10 years, and the most promising methodological innovation in the study of sexual violence from the last 20 years. It is…

  16. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  17. Twenty years of the grey partridge population in the LAJTA Project (Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragó, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lajta Project covers 3,065 ha. Within this area crop cultivation is dominant. Fields are separated from each other by forest belts and tree rows, extending altogether over roughly 120 ha. This habitat structure characterized by cultivation of 12–15 field crops sustained partridge population with densities of 1.75 birds/km2 (1991. The Project started in 1991/1992 and aimed to increase the carrying capacity for grey partridge and other small game species living in the area. A full–time gamekeeper was employed and habitat improvements were initiated. Four years later, the breeding population increased to 10.1 birds/km2. Besides increased numbers of nesting pairs, the number of reared chicks also increased, from 5.1–11.2 individuals/km2 in 1990 to 27.3–38.4 individuals/km2 in 1994. However, field sizes did not change significantly. Although the lengths of field margins increased by approximately 25% (from 82 m/ha to 115 m/ha under the influence of habitat management, they still reached only half those found in the countries of Central Europe where private ownership of land properties is dominant. After the privatisation of fields in 1995 as part of the political change in Hungary —affecting approximately 50% of the project area— the possibilities of habitat improvement decreased, and the technological pressure on large–scale farming area increased. Following these processes the grey partridge population again decreased to 1.43 birds/km2 in 1997. As a result of the new management strategy applied in the project since 1996 we observed a slow increase in the breeding population, which stabilized at around 5 birds/km2, between 2007 and 2009. The August density increased in the same period from 4.5 birds/km2 to 13–17 birds/km2. During the two decades in which this research was conducted, chick mortality and winter mortality were extremely high. The key factors influencing grey partridge population dynamics in our study area seem to be

  18. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  19. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  20. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

  1. Twenty-five years of psychology in the Journal of Sports Sciences: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Mark; Hardy, Lew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-02-15

    We provide an overview of some of the outstanding papers published in the Journal over the last 25 years within the discipline of psychology. Altogether, almost 300 papers had been published in the Journal under the psychology banner at the start of its silver anniversary year. The greatest contribution of papers has come from the motor control and learning and sport psychology sub-areas, with papers focusing on exercise psychology being a more recent addition. Prominent research themes that have emerged from each of the different sub-areas are reviewed and some notable omissions highlighted. Finally, some issues for sport and exercise psychologists to consider in coming years are briefly highlighted.

  2. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  3. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at 8 sites along a transect over an altitude range of 390–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower 3 sites within 10 km of the margin experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  4. Twenty-five years of bicycle helmet promotion for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Diana Stark; Ekman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe some of the results of a long-term bicycle helmet campaign for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden. The hospital discharge data for bicycle-related injuries occurring in children under the age of 15 were reviewed, to assess changes in patterns for head and other body injuries. The study shows that head injuries to children as a result of bicycle injuries were reduced between 94 and 99% in the study areas. The tremendous gains in safety for children who ride bicycles in Skaraborg District were the result of not only national policy changes that occurred in the latter half of this study period but also the result of local collaborations based on the Safe Communities model, which were organised during the first part of the study period.

  5. Twenty years since ‘antibody mimics’ by molecular imprinting were first proposed: A critical perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenna L. Bowen; Panagiotis Manesiotis; Chris J. Allender

    2013-01-01

    ... ‘a useful, general alternative to antibodies’. This perspective article examines how far we have come in the 20 years since this publication in terms of realising this hypothesis and poses the question of whether we actually need molecularly...

  6. Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adult dysplastic hips: ten to twenty three year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Vávra, Jaroslav; Chochola, Antonín

    2012-12-01

    Hip shelf arthroplasty is currently considered to be a salvage procedure. The aim of the study is to present outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty in adolescent dysplastic hips with a minimum ten-year follow-up. The basic group comprised 25 hips in 18 patients with the mean age of 31 years (range, 16-52) at the time of operation. Subgroup A included 20 hips that were evaluated prior to operation as spherical, centric hips without osteoarthritic changes (acetabular dysplasia). The heterogeneous subgroup B comprised five hips. Of these, three hips were evaluated as aspheric, without osteoarthritic changes, and two hips as aspheric, with osteoarthritic changes of grade 2 according to Tönnis. In addition, two hips in subgroup B were evaluated as decentred (subluxated), one hip without and one hip with osteoarthritic changes. The mean follow-up was 15 years (range, ten-23). In subgroup A, the positive effect of operation had lasted at the time of the final follow-up for ten to 22 years postoperatively (average follow-up 14 years) in 19 hips. Only one female patient, 46 years old at the time of operation, developed hip osteoarthritis within ten years, that was treated by THA. In subgroup B, a lasting positive effect of operation was recorded in two cases at the time of the final follow-up (12 and 15 years). The third female patient with an aspheric and decentred hip developed severe hip osteoarthritis 21 years after shelf procedure that was treated by THA. In two patients who had hip osteoarthritis already before the operation, the positive effect of the shelf procedure survived over 13 and 20 years. Although hip osteoarthritis progressed, THA was performed as late as 15 and 23 years after the shelf procedure. The mean Harris hip score in 21 hips with a still functional hip shelf was 68 (range, 56-82) before and 90 (range, 76-100) after the surgery. The best outcomes of Bosworth hip shelf arthroplasty may be expected in a dysplastic spherical centred hip

  7. Aortico-left ventricular tunnel in adulthood: twenty-two year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rose; Kafka, Henryk

    2009-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that is usually managed by surgical or catheter intervention. This case documents the 22 year follow up of a 44 year old man who has been managed medically through a programme of close clinical and echocardiographic monitoring. This report illustrates that conservative management of Type I ALVT can be undertaken without adverse clinical consequences.

  8. DYNASTY-Leading Wine Brand for Twenty-Eight Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sino-French Joint Venture Dynasty Winery Co.,Ltd.,since the establishment in 1980,has had a history of steady development of 28 years.In the past 28 years,Dynasty Winery continues the market expansion,and increasing the market share,and strengthening the influence of the brand and the company.Till now,"Dynasty Wine",has become popular among the consumors.

  9. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  10. Twenty-two years screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: Liege-Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, T; Jacques, S; Rene, L

    1992-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1987, in Liége--Belgium, 20,901 pregnant women were screened for toxoplasmosis. In this period an increase in seronegative women from 30% to 53% and a decrease in the seroconversion rate from 6.4% to 1.2% was observed. This decrease could be the result of advice and prophylactic measures. Due to the low rate of seroconversion (actually less than 1%), the cost/effectiveness of a systematic screening and fetal diagnosis should be investigated.

  11. Intraoperative EBRT and resection for renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-year outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, F.A. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Sole, C.V. [Hospital Gneral Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology; Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine; Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Spain). Service of Radiation Oncology; Martinez-Monge, R.; Aristu, J. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Azinovic, I. [Hospital de San Jaime, Torrevieja (Spain). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zudaire, J.; Berian, J.M. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Urology; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General Surgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: We report the outcomes of a multimodality treatment approach combining maximal surgical resection and intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with locoregionally (LR) recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radical nephrectomy or LR advanced primary RCC. Patients and methods: From 1983 to 2008, 25 patients with LR recurrent (n = 10) or LR advanced primary (n = 15) RCC were treated with this approach. Median patient age was 60 years (range, 16-79 years). Fifteen patients (60%) received perioperative EBRT (median dose, 44 Gy). Surgical resection was R0 (negative margins) in 6 patients (24%) and R1 (residual microscopic disease) in 19 patients (76%). The median dose of IOERT was 14 Gy (range, 9-15). Overall survival (OS) and relapse patterns were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 22.2 years (range, 3.6-26 years). OS and DFS at 5 and 10 years were 38% and 18% and 19% and 14%, respectively. LR control (tumor bed or regional lymph nodes) and distant metastases-free survival rates at 5 years were 80% and 22%, respectively. The death rate within 30 days of surgery and IOERT was 4% (n = 1). Six patients (24%) experienced acute or late toxicities of grade 3 or higher according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTCAE) v4. Conclusion: In patients with LR recurrent or LR advanced primary RCC, a multimodality approach consisting of maximal surgical resection and IOERT with or without adjuvant EBRT yielded encouraging local control results, justifying further evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum serv

  13. From Unity to Diversity: Twenty-Five Years of Language-Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This article was written for the 25th anniversary of "English Teaching Forum" and published in 1987. In this article, the author describes methodological developments in the field of English language teaching over the past 25 years. The author has found it helpful to think of methodology being depicted as a triangle, with each angle of the…

  14. Contemporary Curriculum Discourses: Twenty Years of JCT. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    This collection of essays is taken from a 20-year span of "The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing." The volume contains 31 articles: "Living Metaphors: The Real Curriculum in Environmental Education," F. Krall; "Dialectics and the Development of Curriculum Theory," H. Giroux; "Autobiography and Reconceptualization," M. Grumet; "Women," J. Miller;…

  15. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  16. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  17. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectivene

  18. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  19. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms o

  20. After twenty years of research on soil carbon and climate change, what's left to learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much effort over the past 230 years has been directed at investigating the roles that soils and specifically soil carbon play in the global carbon cycle and in climate change. As we begin another new decade, we ask whether there is anything left to learn on this topic? Do we kn...

  1. Neonatal Listeriosis in Colombia… Is it the Same Since Twenty Years Ago?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Vélez Leal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case: The case is presented including maternal history, clinical and laboratory findings leading to diagnosis, paraclinical monitoring of the infection, the established treatment and outcome of neonatal death. A review of national and international literature on infectious and epidemiology characteristics of L. monocytogenes infection, and its clinical presentation and implications during the gestational and the neonatal period is made. Discussion: neonatal listeriosis is a disease with high fatality whose epidemiology is not clearly described in the national and regional level which hinders the development of prevention strategies in high-risk groups. We suggest this infection becomes a notifiable event to allow the identification of risk factors, lethality, usual presentation and outcome of this infectious disease in Colombia.

  2. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations.

  3. Twenty-five years of breast-feeding research in Midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Fiona

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores some of the significant changes that have taken place with regard to the protection, promotion and support of breast feeding during the past three decades. The period covered since the first issue of Midwifery in 1985, has been marked by some dramatic reversals of harmful discourses and detrimental practices with regard to infant and young child feeding and more specifically breast feeding. Midwifery has spanned this period with the publication of 80 papers on breast feeding. This collection of papers has both influenced and reflected upon changes in international and national breast-feeding strategies and practices. Six papers have been selected for a special virtual edition of Midwifery to reflect the diversity of breast-feeding research in terms of issues explored, methodology and country of origin (www.midwiferyjournal.com). Considerable progress is reflected in these papers. However, there are still enormous challenges ahead in working towards the optimisation of infant and young child feeding. In addition to continuing to conduct and collate robust scientific and epidemiological research we need further studies that explore the political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors influencing women's infant feeding practices. Our professional practice needs to continue to improve in order to provide women and families with appropriate support, encouragement and resources to enable them to breastfeed effectively. Finally, we need to continue to challenge the systems and approaches at organisational and community levels that impede women in their endeavours to feed their infants in optimum ways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Twenty years' review and prospect of modernization research on traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-li; Zhang, Jun-hua

    2015-09-01

    The modernization strategy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been implemented for 20 years, which has provided a strong impetus to the development of TCM and gained remarkable achievements in scientific research platform, research result, industry scale, clinical evaluation, internationalization and professionals training as well. The achievements of TCM modernization greatly improved the clinical service ability and level of TCM, broadened the scope of service, become the important foundation of the big health industry. TCM has played an irreplaceable role in the health care reform, benefiting people's livelihood, promoting industrial structure adjustment and cultivating strategic emerging industries. This article summarized the main achievements of the modernization of TCM and prospected the direction and tasks in the next 20 years in order to further promote the modernization process of TCM.

  5. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  6. [Twenty-five years of the amyloid hypothesis of alzheimer disease: advances, failures and new perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, O S; Vasenina, E E

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been long the primary one. During the 25-year history the concept has been dramatically changed. Accumulation of β-amyloid is associated not only with the disruption of its synthesis (as it seemed after the discovery of genetic mechanisms of some familial cases of AD) but rather with the disruption of its clearance and elimination from the brain tissue via the microcirculatory system. It has been recognized that soluble oligomers of β-amyloid, but not senile plaques that consisted of insoluble conjugates described by A. Alzheimer 100 years ago, play a key pathogenic role in the brain. Interrelation of vascular and degenerative processes is confirmed by common risk factors, clinical, neuroimaging, pathomorphological and experimental data. Insulin-resistance is also one of the links between AD degenerative and vascular processes. Based on the current state of the amyloid hypothesis, perspectives of new multimodal treatment strategies are discussed.

  7. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  8. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Augusto Miana; Estela Azeka; Luiz Fernando Canêo; Aída Luisa Turquetto; Carla Tanamati; Juliano Gomes Penha; Alexandre Cauduro; Marcelo Biscegli Jatene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective: This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to...

  9. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus associated with eventration of diaphragm in a twenty-six-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man.

  10. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    OpenAIRE

    Frencken, Jo E.; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Navarro,Maria Fidela

    2012-01-01

    Background The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. Results Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high effectiveness of ART sealants using high-viscosity glass ionomers in carious lesion development prevention is not different from that of resin fissure sealants. ART using high-viscosity glass ionomer can safely...

  11. Twenty-year single-center experience with the medtronic open pivot mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nooten, Guido J; Bové, Thierry; Van Belleghem, Yves; François, Katrien; Caes, Frank; Vandenplas, Guy; De Pauw, Michel; Taeymans, Yves

    2014-04-01

    Since May 1992 the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical heart valve has been implanted routinely at the authors' institution. The study aim was to analyze, retrospectively, the 20-year clinical results of the valve. Between May 1992 and December 2011 a total of 1,520 valves was inserted into 1,382 consecutive patients (1,012 aortic, 473 mitral, 26 tricuspid, 9 pulmonary). The mean age of the patients was 61±13.2 years. Preoperatively, 65% of the patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or greater. Frequent comorbidities included atrial fibrillation (n=419), coronary disease (n=357), and diabetes (n=255). The 99% complete follow-up totaled 10,527 patient-years (range 12 to 244 months). Ninety-day mortality was 5.2% (n=73, 8 valve related). Of the 550 total deaths, 240 were cardiac and 56 valve related. Multivariate analysis selected age, NYHA III or greater, concomitant coronary revascularization, and respiratory insufficiency as risk factors for death. Renal failure was considered a risk factor in the aortic and atrial fibrillation in the mitral subgroup. Erratic international normalized ratio (INR), NYHA class III or greater, and non-sinus rhythm were risk factors for thromboembolism; likewise redo operations in the aortic subgroup. Erratic INR and age were risk factors for bleeding as were over-coagulation and coronary revascularization in the aortic subgroup and redo operations and renal failure in mitral patients. This 20-year experience demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes with no structural valve failure. Odds ratio defined aortic patients as the lowest risk for adverse events. By contrast atrial fibrillation and elderly age, in combination with instable anticoagulation, yielded the worst long-term results. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Alves, Lafaiete; Ferreira, Cesar Augusto; Menardi, Antônio Carlos; Bassetto, Solange; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Scorzoni, Adilson; Vicente, Walter Vilella de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies. PMID:25859872

  13. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  14. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  15. Twenty-Five-Year Experience With Radical Chemoradiation for Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan.tomaszewski@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Link, Emma [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Leong, Trevor [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heriot, Alexander [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Vazquez, Melisa [Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Foo, Marcus; Lee, Mark T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lynch, Craig A. [Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mackay, John [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Division of Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Michael, Michael [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, patterns of failure, and late toxicity in patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated by CRT with curative intent between February 1983 and March 2008 were identified through the institutional database. Chart review and telephone follow-up were undertaken to collect demographic data and outcome. Results: Two hundred eighty-four patients (34% male; median age 62 years) were identified. The stages at diagnosis were 23% Stage I, 48% Stage II, 10% Stage IIIA, and 18% Stage IIIB. The median radiotherapy dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. A complete clinical response to CRT was achieved in 89% of patients. With a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, the 5-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78-88), 92% (95% CI, 89-96), 73% (95% CI, 68-79), and 82% (95% CI, 77-87), respectively. Higher T stage and male sex predicted for locoregional failure, and higher N stage predicted for distant metastases. Locoregional failure occurred most commonly at the primary site. Omission of elective inguinal irradiation resulted in inguinal failure rates of 1.9% and 12.5% in T1N0 and T2N0 patients, respectively. Pelvic nodal failures were very uncommon. Late vaginal and bone toxicity was observed in addition to gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: CRT is a highly effective approach in anal cancer. However, subgroups of patients fare relatively poorly, and novel approaches are needed. Elective inguinal irradiation can be safely omitted only in patients with Stage I disease. Vaginal toxicity and insufficiency fractures of the hip and pelvis are important late effects that require prospective evaluation.

  16. Supervoltage orbital radiotherapy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy; Results of a twenty-year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriss, J.P.; McDougall, I.R. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA)); Petersen, I.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Since 1968 we have employed supervoltage orbital radiation as treatment for severe progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. A numerical ophthalmic index was used to asess pre- and post-treatment serverity. In the past 20 years we have treated 311 patients of whom 275 have been followed for {le} 1 year or until any eye surgery was performed. An orbital radiation dosage of 2000 rads in 2 weeks was used for the majority of patients (Series I and III). Series II patients received an orbital dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks. Demographic differences were observed between these series, thus mandating presentation of the results of each separately. Analyses excluded any result achieved by any post-radiation surgical procedure on the eyes. Post-theraphy worsening of ophtalmopathy occurred in only 29 of 1025 observations. Improvement or complete resolution was observed within each category of eye involvement, but lack of favorable response was also recorded in significant numbers. Improvement in proptosis occurred with the lowest frequency and magnitude. About 30% of the patients required eye muscle surgery to correct residual diplopia. Analysis of the data by step-wise linear regression analysis enabled us a. to derive formulae predicting the problable response to radiation therapy according to sign and severity, and b. identify parameters which diminished the likelihood or the extent of a favorable response. The latter included male sex, never thyrotoxic, age greater than 60 years, and requirement for concomitant treatment for hyperthyroidism. No long-term adverse reactions attributable to the radiotherapy have been observed. We conclude that supervoltage orbital radiotherapy, combined with later eye muscle surgery if necessary, is an effective treatment strategy for progressive Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author).

  17. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  18. Twenty-Year Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczuk, Elżbieta; Stępińska, Janina; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the etiology, clinical course, selected diagnostic methods and efficacy of the treatment used in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the nineteen eighties and nineties. The study group comprised 300 patients with infective endocarditis hospitalized in the Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw in the following years: from 1982 to 1987 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve), as well as from 1990 to 2003 (150 patients: 75 successive patients with IE on the prosthetic valve and 75 successive patients with IE on the native valve). In the nineties, immunological symptoms, embolism formation and progressive heart failure were diagnosed decidedly more frequently. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) (up to 60 days after operation) occurred significantly more frequently in the eighties. The quantity of negative blood cultures in PVE has not decreased, it is still observed in over 20% of cases. For 20 years the etiology of PVE has remained the same, the dominant pathogen remains Staphylococcus. The frequency of PVE caused by Streptococci has markedly reduced. In both the decades analyzed the etiology of native valve endocarditis (NVE) was similar. In the eighties Streptococcus was predominant. In successive years the number of infections caused by Staphylococci was the same as that caused by Streptococci. The incidence of early PVE decreased in the nineties. More patients were treated surgically with lesser peri-operative mortality. A lower incidence of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves caused by streptococci may signify better prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis with sterile blood cultures continues to occur frequently.

  19. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. Method: The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55–65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Results: Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Conclusions: Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers. PMID:26098030

  20. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  1. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF SCHOLARSHIP ON SECOND LANGUAGE COMPOSING PROCESSES: 1976-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Reichelt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two sections: (1 an annotated bibliography of full-length, published, (mostly basic research on second language writing and overviews thereof, and (2 an unannotated bibliography of both basic and applied research (mostly unpublished and commentary on second language composing. Both sections have been arranged in chronological order to allow readers to follow the development of scholarship in this area. Entries are listed alphabetically within a given year. While this bibliography is extensive, it is not meant to be exhaustive, and while the focus here is on research, many of the studies included address pedagogical matters in a substantive manner.

  2. Twenty-five years of aerodynamic research with IR imaging: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared imaging used in aerodynamic research evolved during the last 25 years into a rewarding experimental technique for investigation of body-flow viscous interactions, such as heat flux determination and boundary layer transition. The technique of infrared imaging matched well its capability to produce useful results, with the expansion of testing conditions in the entire spectrum of wind tunnels, from hypersonic high-enthalpy facilities to cryogenic transonic wind tunnels. With unique achievements credited to its past, the current trend suggests a change in attitude towards this technique: from the perception as an exotic, project-oriented tool, to the status of a routine experimental procedure.

  3. Twenty years of space radiation physics at the BNL AGS and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Zeitlin, C

    2016-06-01

    Highly ionizing atomic nuclei HZE in the GCR will be a significant source of radiation exposure for humans on extended missions outside low Earth orbit. Accelerators such as the LBNL Bevalac and the BNL AGS, designed decades ago for fundamental nuclear and particle physics research, subsequently found use as sources of GCR-like particles for ground-based physics and biology research relevant to space flight. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL was constructed specifically for space radiation research. Here we review some of the space-related physics results obtained over the first 20 years of NASA-sponsored research at Brookhaven.

  4. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  5. Pseudodementia in a twenty-one-year-old with bipolar disorder and vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S D

    2000-12-01

    A twenty-one-year-old female known to suffer from bipolar type I disorder developed features of a pseudodementia. Following prompt initial response to treatment with antidepressants, there was an early recurrence of cognitive impairment. Blood investigations confirmed a macrocytic anaemia and vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. There was dramatic resolution of cognitive impairment after vitamin replacement. This suggested the occurrence of a reversible nutritional dementia and reinforced the need to rule out secondary organic causes of psychiatric symptoms even in patients previously diagnosed with a primary psychiatric disorder.

  6. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-09-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  7. TWENTY EIGHT YEARS OF ICP VEGETATION: AN OVERVIEW OF ITS ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Harmens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we look back at the activities and achievements in the 28 years of the International Cooperative Programme on the Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation. The ICP Vegetation is a subsidiary body of the Working Group on Effects of the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP, established in 1979. An important role of the ICP Vegetation is to provide evidence for air pollution impacts on vegetation in support of policy development and review of the LRTAP Convention and its Protocols. The activities and participation in the ICP Vegetation have grown over the years. The main activities include:Collate evidence of ozone impacts on vegetation, assess spatial patterns and temporal trends across Europe;Develop dose-response relationships, establish critical levels for vegetation and provide European risk maps of ozone impacts;Reviewing the literature on ozone impacts on vegetation and produce thematic scientific reports and policy-relevant brochures;Determine spatial patterns and temporal trends of heavy metals, nitrogen and persistent organic pollutants concentrations in mosses as a biomonitoring tool of atmospheric deposition of these compounds.

  8. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A; Eronen, Jussi T; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-09-27

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  9. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  10. Twenty years of electroconvulsive therapy in a psychiatric unit at a university general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton dos Santos Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients who underwent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT at a university general hospital. Method: In this retrospective study, records from all patients undergoing ECT between January 1988 and January 2008 at the psychiatric unit of the general hospital of Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP were reviewed. Telephone contact was made with patients/relatives to collect follow-up data. Results: A total of 200 charts were reviewed. The majority of patients were women, with a mean age of 39 years, and history of psychiatric hospitalization. The main indications for ECT were depression and catatonia. Complications were observed in less than half of the cases, and most were temporary and not severe. There was a good psychiatric outcome for 89.7% of the patients, especially for catatonic patients (100%, p = 0.02. Thirty-four percent of the cases were later contacted by telephone calls, at a mean of 8.5 years between the procedure and the contact. Among these, three (1.5% reported persistent memory disorders and 73% considered ECT a good treatment. Conclusion: ECT has been performed according to international guidelines. In the vast majority of cases, undesirable effects were temporary and not severe. Response to ECT was positive in most cases, particularly in catatonic patients.

  11. Twenty years of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in Italy: achievements and challanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Romano'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. Vaccination has proved to be safe and highly effective in reducing the incidence, the carrier rate and HBV-related mortality on a global scale. In Italy, universal vaccination against hepatitis B started in 1991 in infants as well as in adolescents, providing an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Within a few years, over 95% coverage was consistently reported. Today, some 17 million people are immune against hepatitis B and their immunity has been shown to be long-lasting. At present, no booster is required in healthy vaccinated people to sustain protection. Surveillance data from Italy have shown a clear overall decline in hepatitis B among successfully vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, a generation of children and young people (at present cohorts ranging from 0 to 32 years is emerging with practically no markers of HBV infection. Italy’s vaccination programme has resulted in substantial progress being made towards the prevention and control of hepatitis B. The vaccination programme must continue. Maintaining mandatory vaccination of infants and increasing HBV vaccination coverage in high-risk groups, including households of HBsAg carriers as well as immigrants, remain a priority for the future.

  12. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Jääskeläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966, which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4% had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.

  13. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  14. [Infective endocarditis. Systematic review of twenty years of performances in the Sociedad Argentina de Medicina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Yorio; Milian Andrés, Escudero; Luis, Camera

    2008-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is still a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. There have been very few studies published about IE in Argentina. We reviewed all the studies about IE published in the Argentine Medicine Society from 1980 to 2003 and we analyzed demographic, clinical and bacteriological data. 27 studies with 628 patients were included. Mean age of patients was 50.7 years old. The most frequent clinical data were fever, murmur and elevated sedimentation rate. Stafilococcus spp was the most common causative organism, followed by streptococcus spp. The echocardiographic demonstration allowed the definitive diagnosis in 2/3 of the patients. The IE data of Argentina are not different from other data published in different countries and this study shows some clinical features of IE in Argentina.

  15. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  16. Presentation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder after more than twenty years of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Zulma M; Cohen, Bruce A; Derwenskus, Joy

    2012-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disorder characterized by optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and aquaporin-4 autoantibodies. The term "neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder" refers neuromyelitis optica features occurring in association with other systemic rheumatologic conditions. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with long-standing systemic sclerosis who developed transverse myelitis in association with the presence aquaporin-4 autoantibodies. This is the first report case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with systemic sclerosis. Given that patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with aquaporin-4 autoantibodies have a high risk for clinical relapse, this report underscores the need for recognition of this disorder in patients with systemic sclerosis and neurological dysfunction.

  17. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 2-Towards to Practical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    After discovering high temperature super- conducting materials 20 years ago, the preparation of applicable HTS materials has been pursued along with HTS mechanism and characteristic study. At present, the focus on the applied HTS technology has been moving to the industrial preparations from the laboratory research stage, and the technology has been well verified for practical applications from small to large scales. The fabrication techniques of engineering HTS materials are being industrialized; and various HTS devices are also on the way towards practical applications. This paper provides a comprehensive summary on the applied high temperature superconductivity with regard to various applicable HTS materials, their preparation techniques and charac- terization, and applications in a wide range.

  18. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  19. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E

    2013-12-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.

  20. Twenty years of monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Greenland biota. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, F; Vorkamp, K; Bossi, R; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Dietz, R

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a working group under the Arctic Council with the aim to monitor and assess temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic ecosystems. The Greenland AMAP Core programme was established to contribute to this effort. The Core programme includes three main components; routine monitoring, retrospective studies and new POP screening studies. The programme is based on an adaptive approach, which has led to changes throughout the years. An overview of the temporal trends during the last two to three decades is presently given together with selected examples of different characteristic trends of POPs. The results show how tissue banked samples and retrospective studies has helped in establishing time-series of compounds of emerging concern. Lastly, the statistical power of the Greenlandic time-series is discussed. The lesson learned is that trend monitoring improves with samples over time, and only pays off after decades of data are generated.

  1. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marhuenda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength and source of employment. The authors have been working on several research projects investigating these issues since the late 1990s and we are currently working on two of them.

  2. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments.

  3. A Twenty-Four-Year-Old Woman with Left Flank Lipoma-Like Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Shackelford

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a left flank mass that was painful on palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 cm mass consistent with lipoma. A fatty lobulated mass was excised and subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses. The specimen consisted of mature univacuolated adipocytic cells, with intermixed multivacuolated eosinophilic granular cells. No atypia or hyperchromasia was identified. Most of the cells were S100 positive and Ki-67 immunonegative. A diagnosis of a lipoma-like hibernoma was rendered. Hibernomas are rare benign lipomatous tumors that show differentiation toward brown fat. The lipoma-like hibernoma subtype is rare and can be misdiagnosed as atypical lipoma or well-differentiated liposarcoma. Here we describe an example of this rare tumor.

  4. [Military physician Colonel Robert Yout. Twenty years as a paratrooper medical officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yout, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Robert Yout was born on June 15th, 1930. A rugby player and a member of the French Volleyball team, he was already an outstanding sportsman when he began his studies at the Health Services School in Lyons. His career as an army medical officer among the paratroopers was atypical. He spent many years among the most prestigious elite paratroopers of the French army: the 2nd REP, the 1st CHOC and the CINC (The Army Training School for Combat Swimmers) . When he retired, he was Head Doctor of the Paratroopers parent company: The Airborne School of Pau. For the army medical historian, Robert Yout is the perfect example of a man with an outstanding and remarkable career: A crack soldier, a brave army medical officer, a parachuting and diving pioneer and a sportsman of international class.

  5. Twenty years of multidisciplinary research and practice: the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Findley, Patricia A; Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Early research of work disability in the 1980s showed a complexity of factors influencing pain and health-related functional limitation at work; hence, multidisciplinary perspectives were necessary to understand the complex interplay between biomechanical, organizational, social, and psychological factors impacting work disability. To address this need, the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation was founded in 1991 with the goal of providing a scientific, yet practical forum for presenting multidisciplinary research and practice in work disability. Now, the 20-year collection of articles in the Journal reflects important trends and directions in the field of occupational rehabilitation. We conducted a retrospective summary of the past 20 years of the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, including its inaugural goals and intent, rates of submission and acceptance, trends in the types of articles published, study topics, global distribution of authors, and future directions. The original goal of providing a multidisciplinary scientific and practical forum has been met, but current trends reflect a maturing scientific evidence base, with less representation of employer-based case studies and practical innovations. There has been a dramatic increase in the international representation of studies, authors, and peer reviewers outside of the US. Also, published studies now address work disability for a larger number of health concerns. Contributions to the Journal continue to reflect a multidisciplinary perspective, but the Journal has seen significant changes with respect to international representation, the expanding study of non-musculoskeletal sources of work disability, and the maturing scientific evidence base in the field of occupational rehabilitation. Future volumes of the Journal will likely reflect continuing changes in the global economy, workforce fitness, and job demands.

  6. Twenty years of long-term Atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in Western Germany (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vonberg, D.; Putz, T.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine, one of the most frequent applied pesticides worldwide, was banned in Germany in 1991 due to exceeded threshold values in ground- and drinking waters. Monitoring of atrazine was hence introduced in the Zwischenscholle aquifer, exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells were monitored since 1991, of which 11 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the 'regression on order statistics' (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the concentrations in groundwater are on a constant level without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with observation wells exhibiting constantly concentrations above the threshold on the one hand and observation wells where concentrations are frequently below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the monitoring dataset and relationships of triazine compounds became obvious. Accordingly the metabolite desisopropylatrazine was exclusively associated with the occurrence of the parent compound simazine and not atrazine, whereas deethylatrazine was clearly related to atrazine.

  7. A twenty-one year surveillance of adenoviral conjunctivitis in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koki; Tagawa, Yoshitugu

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the clinicoetiological, serological, and molecular epidemiological features of adenoviral conjunctivitis under the auspices of the nationwide surveillance project in Sapporo, located in northern Japan. We were able to analyze the results of 1,454 cases of adenoviral, herpetic, and chlamydial conjunctivitis. We found that adenonovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37 caused severe conjunctivitis without systemic symptoms, whereas serotypes Ad3, Ad7, and Ad11 caused mild conjunctivitis with systemic involvement. Ad4 showed a broad range of symptoms, from PCF to EKC. Adenoviral conjunctivitis had seasonal outbreaks in the summer in association with adequate temperature and humidity in Sapporo. Neutralization antibodies against Ad8, Ad19, and Ad37 were detected in fewer than 20% of cases, and so the incidence of epidemics with these serotypes may rise in the coming years. The main genome types of adenovirus in Sapporo were Ad4a, Ad8e, Ad19a, Ad19b, and Ad37p, a, and b.

  8. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  9. Twenty-five years of quantitative PCR for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGuilder, Heather D; Vrana, Kent E; Freeman, Willard M

    2008-04-01

    Following its invention 25 years ago, PCR has been adapted for numerous molecular biology applications. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been a key enabling technology of the post-genome era. Since the founding of BioTechniques, this journal has been a resource for the improvements in qPCR technology, experimental design, and data analysis. qPCR and, more specifically, real-time qPCR has become a routine and robust approach for measuring the expression of genes of interest, validating microarray experiments, and monitoring biomarkers. The use of real-time qPCR has nearly supplanted other approaches (e.g., Northern blotting, RNase protection assays). This review examines the current state of qPCR for gene expression analysis now that the method has reached a mature stage of development and implementation. Specifically, the different fluorescent reporter technologies of real-time qPCR are discussed as well as the selection of endogenous controls. The conceptual framework for data analysis methods is also presented to demystify these analysis techniques. The future of qPCR remains bright as the technology becomes more rapid, cost-effective, easier to use, and capable of higher throughput.

  10. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  11. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  12. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  13. Twenty years of barrel-stave flextensional transducer technology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dennis F.

    2005-04-01

    The barrel-stave flextensional transducer, a compact underwater sound source, was conceived at DRDC Atlantic in 1986 [G. W. McMahon and D. F. Jones, U.S. Patent No. 4,922,470 (1 May 1990); Canadian Patent No. 1,285,646 (2 July 1991)]. Over the years, five barrel-stave designs belonging to three flextensional classes were built and tested at DRDC Atlantic. Three Class I transducers with operating frequencies ranging from 800 to 1600 Hz were integrated into submarine communications buoys, low frequency active horizontal projector arrays, and a broadband sonar towbody. A high-power Class II and broadband (1-7 kHz) Class III transducer were deployed under the ice in the Lincoln Sea for research related to rapidly deployable surveillance systems. These barrel-stave flextensional transducers have also supported a variety of marine mammal studies including vocal mimicry in long-finned pilot whales, coda dialects in sperm whales, and the R&D of acoustic detection and tracking systems for endangered northern right whales. In August 2004 a barrel-stave transducer was used to lure a trapped juvenile humpback whale to the sluice gates of a tidal generating station on the Annapolis River in Nova Scotia by transmitting humpback whale calls underwater. The acoustic performance parameters for all 5 transducers will be presented.

  14. Twenty years' monitoring of Mèze stabilisation ponds: part II--Removal of faecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F; Andrianarison, T; Brouillet, J L; Picot, B

    2005-01-01

    The WSP system serving Mèze and Poussan (French Mediterranean coast) was constructed in 1980 and enlarged and upgraded from 1994 to 1998. Water quality along the waste stabilisation pond to (WSP) system has been monitored over the years, thus allowing us to assess the influence of enlargement and upgrading works. A significant enhancement of the average microbiological quality of the effluent was observed, with respective E. coli and streptococci average abatements of 4.1 and 3.4 log. units. Former seasonal variations of microbiological removal have vanished. The contribution of the different ponds to the disinfection performance of the WSP system was analysed. A microbiological quality model was proposed to evaluate the die-off kinetics related to the different ponds and as a tool for the design and management of WSP systems. Though the relationships between die-off coefficients and environmental factors appeared somewhat frail, this modelling is considered a promising approach for the prediction of WSP microbiological performance.

  15. Part I: twenty-year literature overview of veterinary and allopathic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant H; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Meldrum, J Blair

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, numerous reports, symposia, and workshops have focused on the challenges and changes facing veterinary and allopathic medicine. Many of these have specifically considered the changing economic and demographic profiles of the health professions, the specific roles of health professionals in society, and the importance of professional curricula in meeting changing professional and societal needs. Changing curricula to address future demands is a common thread that runs through all of these reports. Future demands most consistently noted include the fact that modern veterinary curricula must emphasize the acquisition of skills, values, and attitudes in addition to the acquisition of knowledge. Skills relating to business management, strong interpersonal communication, and problem solving have often been noted as lacking in current curricula. Furthermore, future curricula must allow for greater diversification and "specialization" among veterinary students; should promote greater opportunities for an emphasis on public health and population medicine, including food safety, food security, and bio- and agro-terrorism; and should motivate students to be active learners who possess strong lifelong learning skills and attitudes.

  16. Twenty years of load theory-Where are we now, and where should we go next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Groeger, John A; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-10-01

    Selective attention allows us to ignore what is task-irrelevant and focus on what is task-relevant. The cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie this process are key topics of investigation in cognitive psychology. One of the more prominent theories of attention is perceptual load theory, which suggests that the efficiency of selective attention is dependent on both perceptual and cognitive load. It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model. The present article supplements and extends previous reviews (Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 , 2005, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148. doi: 10.1177/0963721410370295 , 2010) by examining more recent research in what appears to be a rapidly expanding area. The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms, and (5) the future of load theory. We argue that the key next step for load theory will be the application of the model to real-world tasks. The potential benefits of applied attention research are numerous, and there is tentative evidence that applied research would provide strong support for the theory itself, as well as real-world benefits related to activities in which attention is crucial, such as driving and education.

  17. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  18. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary

  19. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  20. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  1. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Inge, E-mail: inge.lindblom@niku.no

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  2. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  3. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  4. JFK: Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Herbert

    1984-01-01

    The presidency of John F. Kennedy is assessed. Considered are J.F.K's positions on, and national and world leaders' reactions to, such issues as oil depletion allowances, the Civil Rights Bill, the Vietnam situation, and the Cold War missile gap. (RM)

  5. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  6. Bacteriological conversion in twenty urinary tuberculosis patients treated with ofloxacin, rifampin and isoniazid: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeiras, A Alberte; Pérez-Pascual, P; Zarranz, J Estébanez; Della-Latta, P; Herreras, A

    2002-09-01

    Twenty patients with urinary tuberculosis were treated with ofloxacin (200 mg/day, 6 months), rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months) and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months) between 1989 and 1990. All patients were new cases, diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization) was assessed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients) with urinary tuberculosis who received conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in both groups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment. In the 20 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (>50%); the smear was positive in 45% of the patients (most were 2+). All strains were susceptible to rifampin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Two patients discontinued treatment. Beginning with the first month of treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 100%, 89.5% and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, which received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment with ofloxacin resulted in a bacteriological conversion similar to that following conventional treatment ( p>0.05, Fisher's exact test). After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination with rifampin and isoniazid (both for 3 months only is effective against M. tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.

  7. A 15-year epileptogenic period after perinatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, F; Pavlidis, E; Facini, C; La Morgia, C; Fusco, C; Cantalupo, G

    Seizures are a frequent acute neurological event in the neonatal period. Up to 12 to 18% of all seizures in newborns are due to perinatal stroke and up to 39% of affected children can then develop epilepsy in childhood. We report the case of a young patient who presented stroke-related seizures in the neonatal period and then developed focal symptomatic epilepsy at 15 years of age, and in whom the epileptic focus was found to co-localize with the site of his ischemic brain lesion. Such a prolonged silent period before onset of remote symptomatic epilepsy has not previously been reported. This case suggests that newborns with seizures due to a neonatal stroke are at higher risk of epilepsy and that the epileptogenic process in these subjects can last longer than a decade.

  8. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  9. A twenty-year follow-up survey of medical emergency education in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Morris S; Wall, Benjamin E; Tholström, Tad C; Christensen, Edward H; Payne, Brandon C

    2006-12-01

    This article reports the results of a 2003 survey of medical emergency education taught in U.S. dental schools and compares the results to findings from surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of all U.S. dental schools, requesting completion of the survey by the faculty member responsible for medical emergency education. Forty-three of fifty-four U.S. dental schools responded, and the data were compared to similar surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. Special attention was given to changes in technology (pulse oximetry and automated external defibrillators), teaching methods (audiovisual, role-playing, and simulation), and subject matter (CPR, venipuncture, and endotracheal intubation) that affect medical emergency education. The study found a large disparity in number of hours dedicated to medical emergency training among dental schools. Surprisingly, CPR certification/recertification for both students and faculty was not provided at three of the reporting U.S. dental schools. Most schools included venipuncture and endotracheal intubation in their curriculum. Routine monitoring of vital signs remained fairly consistent over the past twenty years with a slight dip in the 1992 survey. A standardization of medical emergency education needs to take place to ensure an appropriate level of training for all dental students.

  10. B. F. Skinner’s legacy twenty years after (1990-2010: Behavior analysis in Ibero-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M. López López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after his death (August 18th 1990,B. F. Skinner leaves five major living legacies: 1radical behaviorism; 2 the experimental analysis ofbehavior; 3 applied behavior analysis; 4 the Skinnerbox; 5 the Horcones community (Mexico.Behavior analysis is recognized for its internationalactive presence. Its growth provides a set of opportunitiesfor knowledge and technology transferenceand reminds us the importance of working for thedevelopment of educational and research programsand the arrangement of contingencies which enableits advance. In Ibero-America, behavior analysis, asa Skinnerian legacy, has been an important traditionwithin psychology. In this article we will presenta current synthesis of the central Ibero-Americancontributions to Behavior analysis. The panoramaof Behavior analysis in Ibero-America will beanalyzed according to the following dimensions:1 the most relevant figures; 2 the academic communityrelated to the Behavior Analytic tradition;and 3 the most important research lines. Finally,some of the most general characteristics of Ibero-American Behavior analysis are included.

  11. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science: Students’ Acceptance of Astrology and Pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah R.; Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our survey used to collect data during a twenty-year long investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting), contains several questions addressing how students conceptualize astrology, and other pseudoscientific ideas. This poster presents findings from the quantitative analysis of some of these question responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) and half of science majors (52%) consider astrology either "very” or "sort of” scientific. Students performed comparatively better on all other pseudoscientific questions, demonstrating that belief in astrology is pervasive and deeply entrenched. We compare our results to those obtained by the NSF Science Indicators series, and suggest possible reasons for the high susceptibility to belief in astrology. These findings call into question whether our education system is adequately preparing students to be scientifically literate adults. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  12. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  13. 22-Year Periodicity in the Solar Differential Rotation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Javaraiah

    2000-09-01

    Using the data on sunspot groups compiled during 1879-1975, we determined variations in the differential rotation coefficients and during the solar cycle. The variation in the equatorial rotation rate is found to be significant only in the odd numbered cycles, with an amplitude ∼ 0.01 rads-1. There exists a good anticorrelation between the variations of the differential rotation rate derived from the odd and even numbered cycles, suggesting existence of a `22-year' periodicity in . The amplitude of the variation of is ∼ 0.05 rad s-1.

  14. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U;

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs...

  15. Reaching the Critical Mass: The Twenty Year Surge in High School Physics. Findings from the 2005 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. AIP Report. Number R-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…

  16. "Europe" as an Alibi: An Overview of Twenty Years of Policy, Curricula and Textbooks in the Republic of Cyprus--and Their Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article compares discourses on "Europe" in Greek-Cypriot policy, curricula and textbooks over approximately the last twenty years, from the early 1990s, when Cyprus applied for European Union (EU) membership, until 2011-12, the school year during which the recently revised curricula were gradually introduced to schools for…

  17. Twenty-Two Years of Combined GPS Daily Coordinate Time Series and Derived Parameters: Implications for ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Kedar, S.; Moore, A. W.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Owen, S. E.; Squibb, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA-funded "Solid Earth Science ESDR System (SESES)" MEaSUREs project publishes long-term Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs), the result of a combined solution of independent daily JPL (GIPSY-OASIS software) and SIO (GAMIT software) GPS analyses, using a common source of metadata from the SOPAC database. The project has now produced up to twenty-two years of consistent, calibrated and validated ESDR products for over 3200 GPS stations from Western North America, other plate boundaries, and global networks made available through the GPS Explorer data portal and NASA's CDDIS archive. The combined solution of daily coordinate time series uses SOPAC h-files and JPL STACOV files as input to the st_filter software. The combined time series are then fit with the analyze_tseri software for daily positions/displacements, secular velocities, coseismic and postseismic displacements, as well as annual and semi-annual signatures and non-coseismic offsets due primarily to equipment (antenna) changes. Published uncertainties for the estimated parameters take into account temporal noise in the daily coordinate time series. The resulting residual coordinate time series with typical daily RMS values of 1.5-4.0 mm in the horizontal and 4.0-8.0 mm in the vertical can then can be mined for other signals such as transient deformation associated with earthquake tremor and slip (ETS) and hydrological effects. As part of this process we have catalogued and characterized coseismic displacements due to more than 80 earthquakes affecting over hundreds of regional and global stations, as well as significant postseismic deformation for the larger events. The larger events can affect stations 1000's of km from the earthquake epicenters and thus significantly affect the positions of stations used in defining the reference frame. We discuss the implications and contributions of our ongoing analysis to the long-term maintenance of the international terrestrial reference frame.

  18. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  19. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  20. Twenty years' monitoring of Mèze stabilisation ponds: part I--Removal of organic matter and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, B; Andrianarison, T; Gosselin, J P; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    The Mèze stabilisation pond system has been monitored over more than 20 years. Despite the enlargement of the plant, the organic load doubled between the early 1980s and recent years, the removal of organic matter and nutrients has been maintained at the same level for COD and increased for BOD5, N and P. Combining anaerobic, step-fed aerated and maturation ponds and multiplying the number of cells resulted in a significant improvement in the performances of the plant. Respectively 34, 24 and 23% of the applied COD was eliminated in the anaerobic, the step-fed and the first three maturation ponds, while the figures for BOD5 were 47, 26, and 19% respectively. 38% of the applied nitrogen was eliminated in the first three maturation ponds. Nitrification and denitrification seem to be a major process of nitrogen removal in warm periods. Most of the phosphorus removal was observed to take place in the two polishing ponds.

  1. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  2. Cancer incidence in the population exposed to dioxin after the "Seveso accident": twenty years of follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubagotti Maurizia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Seveso, Italy accident in 1976 caused the contamination of a large population by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Possible long-term effects have been examined through mortality and cancer incidence studies. We have updated the cancer incidence study which now covers the period 1977-96. Methods The study population includes subjects resident at the time of the accident in three contaminated zones with decreasing TCDD soil levels (zone A, very high; zone B, high; zone R, low and in a surrounding non-contaminated reference territory. Gender-, age-, and period-adjusted rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using Poisson regression for subjects aged 0-74 years. Results All cancer incidence did not differ from expectations in any of the contaminated zones. An excess of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms was observed in zones A (four cases; RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.52-3.71 and B (29 cases; RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.07-2.27 consistent with the findings of the concurrent mortality study. An increased risk of breast cancer was detected in zone A females after 15 years since the accident (five cases, RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.07-6.20. No cases of soft tissue sarcomas occurred in the most exposed zones (A and B, 1.17 expected. No cancer cases were observed among subjects diagnosed with chloracne early after the accident. Conclusion The extension of the Seveso cancer incidence study confirmed an excess risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue neoplasms in the most exposed zones. No clear pattern by time since the accident and zones was evident partly because of the low number of cases. The elevated risk of breast cancer in zone A females after 15 years since the accident deserves further and thorough investigation. The follow-up is continuing in order to cover the long time period (even decades usually elapsing from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals and disease occurrence.

  3. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae) in Central Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R

    2014-04-23

    We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys) during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened) in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994-2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17). Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites), correlated positively with the previous year's growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry's elfin C. henrici (11 sites), co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist) had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin.

  4. The changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. V. The birth year period 1979-82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, B; Hagberg, G; Olow, I; von Wendt, L

    1989-03-01

    The prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) in Swedish infants born in the four-year period 1979-82 is reported and related to the prevalence in infants born during the twenty-year period 1959-78. In 1979-82 it was 2.17 per 1,000 livebirths, 1.23 for children born at term and 0.94 for preterms, which means that the rising trend since the beginning of the 1970s persisted. The most pronounced rise, from 0.18 per 1,000 livebirths in the period 1967-70 to 0.67 in 1979-82 was found in the subgroup of preterms with spastic/ataxic diplegia. The severity of motor disability and the relative frequency of mental retardation, infantile hydrocephalus and epilepsy among preterm CP children successively increased over the same period of time. The livebirth prevalence of CP in term infants increased slightly but non-significantly during the period 1967-82. The birthweight-specific prevalence of CP per 1,000 newborns surviving the first week of life increased in all birthweight groups during the period 1967-82, significantly for birthweights below 1,500 g and over 2,500 g. The rising prevalence of CP was concomitant with a parallel fall in perinatal mortality, especially in very preterm infants. In the 1980s, severely multi-handicapped, very preterm children, only exceptionally seen among CP children born in the 1960s and 1970s, has become a matter of concern.

  5. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  6. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  7. A twenty-one year temporal trend of persistent organic pollutants in St. Lawrence Estuary beluga, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Michel; Measures, Lena; Noël, Michelle; Raach, Meriem; Trottier, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in blubber from 144 stranded adult belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) found on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) between 1987 and 2007. Temporal trends of POP concentrations (ln transformed) in beluga were described by three models, zero slope (ZS), linear (L) and two-segment piecewise (PW). Often two but sometimes all three models were equivalent in describing temporal trends based on Akaike's Information Criterion for small sample sizes. Over this 21-year time period, concentrations of most legacy POPs, including PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, exhibited relatively weak (≤11% per year) but significant decreasing trends in beluga. For PBDEs, temporal trends were best described by a PW model, characterizing a rapid increase until 1997-1998 followed by a slower increase for males and a steady-state for females. Potential cofactors such as blubber lipid content and carcass state of preservation did not show any significant temporal trends over the time period considered. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in beluga liver, a proxy of trophic level, could not be associated to any effect on temporal trends of POP concentrations in beluga. Several POPs exhibited significant relationships with age of beluga and data were age-adjusted. Temporal trends of POP concentrations adjusted for age of beluga were reassessed but results were essentially identical as those obtained with the original POP data. Overall, POP temporal trends observed in SLE beluga are consistent with changes expected from regulations and restrictions in the use of these compounds in developed countries.

  8. Unreliable Bodies: A Follow-up Twenty Years Later by a Mother and Daughter about the Impact of Illness and Disability on their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    We are a mother and daughter, both health care professionals, who offer a follow-up to an article we published twenty years ago about the impact of each other's ongoing, serious medical problems on our relationship. In this article, we contribute a long-term perspective on the differences between having an illness that is well or poorly understood by medical professionals and the lay community. We also discuss health in the context of identity formation and life stage, as during this interval the daughter left home, graduated college, married, and had two children. Also in this period, the mother survived a third breast cancer and other life-threatening illnesses. We discuss the impact of these experiences on each other and in other important relationships in our lives. Current discourses on daughters of breast cancer survivors do not fit our experience and we speculate about why our story differs. We find that although we continue to contend with serious medical issues that impact our own, each other's, and our families' lives, nonetheless, our lives are rich, rewarding, and "appropriate" for our life stage. That is the news. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  9. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae in Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994–2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17. Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites, correlated positively with the previous year’s growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry’s elfin C. henrici (11 sites, co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin.

  10. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  11. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  12. Twenty Five Years in Cheminformatics - A Career Path Through a Diverse Series of Roles and Responsibilities (INVITED TALK) (ACS Spring meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Williams is a Computational Chemist at the US Environmental Protection Agency in the National Center for Computational Toxicology. He has been involved in cheminformatics and the dissemination of chemical information for over twenty-five years. He has worked for a Fortune ...

  13. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  14. Cemented rotating-platform total knee replacement: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of twenty years, of a previous report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, John J; Wells, Christopher W; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Johnston, Richard C

    2010-07-07

    We previously evaluated 119 consecutive total knee arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in eighty-six patients with use of the cemented LCS (low contact stress) mobile-bearing, rotating-platform system and an all-polyethylene patellar component. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was seventy years. The patients were contacted as part of their routine follow-up and were asked to participate in this study. The purpose of the present study was to report the updated results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. Twenty patients (twenty-six knees) were living, and one was lost to follow-up. Three knees required a reoperation (two for periprosthetic fractures and one for infection). No component was revised as a part of the reoperations. No knee required revision since the fifteen-year follow-up evaluation. Osteolysis was present in six knees compared with only three knees at the time of the fifteen-year follow-up. One knee had radiographic signs of femoral component loosening, which was associated with osteolysis. It occurred after the fifteen-year follow-up study. The average range of motion was from 1 degrees of extension to 105 degrees of flexion. The average clinical and functional Knee Society scores were 43 and 49 points, respectively, at the preoperative evaluation and 89 and 67 points at the time of the final follow-up. We concluded that the cemented LCS rotating-platform knee performed well, with durable clinical and radiographic results at a minimum follow-up of twenty years. However, the prevalence of osteolysis continues to increase with a longer duration of follow-up in these patients.

  15. Twenty-eight-year review of childhood renal diseases from renal biopsy data: A single centre in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjie; Xiao, Zizheng; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Mo, Ying; Sun, Liangzhong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of biopsy-proven childhood renal diseases and to compare the trends and changes during two different time intervals between 1984 and 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China. We retrospectively analyzed kidney biopsy data from children with renal diseases and compared the data during two time intervals, namely 1984-1997 and 1998-2011. A total of 1313 children were enrolled in the present study. There were 921 children with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and 312 children with secondary glomerular disease (SGD), accounting for 70.1% and 23.8% of participants, respectively. The major clinical manifestation of PGD was nephrotic syndrome (NS), which accounted for 31.2% of cases, while the main aetiology of SGD was lupus nephritis (40.7%). The main biopsy patterns of PGD were IgA nephritis (27.6%), minimal change disease (24.0%), and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (16.9%). PGD was the major class of disease in both time intervals, but the ratio of PGD decreased over time, while the ratio of SGD and other glomerular diseases increased. PGD was also the major class of disease in each age group; however, the incidence of PGD decreased with increasing age. The incidence patterns of paediatric renal diseases changed over the 28-year period of this study. Our results show that different renal diseases characterize different age intervals. Furthermore, there are several associations between clinical presentation and biopsy features in childhood renal disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. FETAL AUTOPSY STUDY OVER A TWO YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Perinatal death rate is declining in developed and developing countries and so are perinatal autopsies. In the present days due to wider availability and awareness of prenatal scanning more and more congenital malformations are picked up in e arlier weeks of gestation. This helps in counselling of the couple which usually leads to an informed decision on medical termination of pregnancy. Autopsy performed on such fetuses , yields additional information in many cases. AIMS: The study was carried out to determine how well the prenatal ultrasound findings correlate with autopsy findings and also to determine the cause of death where ultrasound was not performed in patients who had spontaneous intrauterine death and abortion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his was a prospective study carried out over a period of two years in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Research Centre , Hyderabad , from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 23 fetal autopsies were performed of wh ich one was a twin pregnancy. Brief maternal history , prenatal ultrasound scans , relevant biochemical markers and genetic studies wherever done , were noted. RESULTS : There were 14 male (60.86% and 8 female (34.78% fetuses , and in one case (4.34% gender could not be identified. Nineteen cases (82.60 % were less than 28 weeks of gestation. Medical termination of pregnancy was done in 13 cases (56.52 % whereas , 10 patients (43.47 % had spontaneous intrauterine death of the fetus. Ultrasound scanning was done in 15 cases (65.21 %. In 13 cases (86.66 % the ultrasound and autopsy findings were correlating whereas in two cases (13.33 % there were findings on imaging study which could not be identified on autopsy. Ultrasound was not done in 8 cases (34.78 % out of which 5 cases (62.5 % showed findings on autopsy which could have led to the fetal demise. Twelve cases (52.17 % were referral cases which had come from other hospitals

  17. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  18. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Victor J. Ricchezza; H.L. Vacher

    2017-01-01

    Since 1996, the Geology (GLY) program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus) in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL) course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosci...

  19. Genetic analysis of the twenty-one-day pregnancy rate in US Holsteins using an ordinal censored threshold model with unknown voluntary waiting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y M; González-Recio, O; Weigel, K A; Fricke, P M

    2007-04-01

    Genetic variation in the number of 21-d opportunity periods required to achieve pregnancy after the voluntary waiting period (VWP) had passed was examined using 44,901 lactation records of 29,422 lactating Holstein cows on 61 large commercial dairy farms in the United States. Cows were allowed a maximum of 8 opportunity periods, and the cumulative percentages of cows that became pregnant by the end of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth opportunity periods were 19, 29, 37, 43, and 47%, respectively. In addition, 38% of records were censored because of culling or failure to achieve pregnancy after 8 opportunity periods. Mean days open was 128 d for complete records, whereas mean days to last service was 148 d for censored records. An ordinal censored threshold model was developed, in which duration of the VWP was estimated simultaneously with prediction of sire breeding values. The posterior mean of intraherd-year heritability for the number of 21-d opportunity periods required to achieve pregnancy was 0.06, with a posterior standard deviation of 0.01. Posterior means for duration of the VWP ranged from 28 to 74 d postpartum among the 116 herd-parity classes represented in the study, whereas farmer-reported survey values for duration of the VWP ranged from 30 to 78 d postpartum. Sires' predicted transmitting abilities were computed, assuming an unknown VWP (i.e., estimated from the data), a VWP fixed at 60 d postpartum, or a VWP fixed at farmer survey values. Correlations among sire predicted transmitting abilities from different models were > or = 0.98, although some reranking occurred among top sires. In summary, the proposed model for genetic evaluation of female fertility can accommodate heterogeneity in duration of the VWP between herds, as well as heterogeneity that may arise within herds owing to management practices such as intentional delay of first insemination in high-producing cows or cows with poor body condition, and it can also accommodate

  20. Total hip arthroplasty with cement and use of a collared matte-finish femoral component: nineteen to twenty-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S; Firestone, Daniel E; Yehyawi, Tameem M; Goetz, Devon D; Sullivan, Jason; Vittetoe, David A; O'Rourke, Michael R; Johnston, Richard C

    2008-02-01

    In the mid- to late 1970s, on the basis of laboratory and finite element data, many surgeons in the United States began using collared matte-finish femoral components and metal-backed acetabular components in their total hip arthroplasties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of the use of one such construct in arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon in a consecutive nonselected patient cohort. Between January 1984 and December 1985, 273 patients underwent a total of 304 consecutive nonselected total hip arthroplasties with cement and use of the Iowa femoral component (which is collared, has a proximal cobra shape, and has a matte finish) and a metal-backed TiBac acetabular component performed by a single surgeon. At nineteen to twenty years postoperatively, only two patients (two hips) were lost to follow-up. For clinical evaluation, we attempted to interview all living patients and the families of the patients who had died to verify the status of the hip prosthesis or any revisions. Radiographic evaluation consisted of analysis for loosening and osteolysis as well as wear of the acetabular component. At the time of the nineteen to twenty-year follow-up, the rate of revision of the arthroplasty for any reason was 10.5% (thirty-two hips) for all patients and 25% (twenty-three hips) for living patients. The rate of revision due to aseptic femoral loosening was 2.6% (eight hips). There was radiographic evidence of loosening of the femoral component in fifteen hips (4.9%), including those that were revised, and femoral osteolysis was seen distal to the trochanters in twenty-two hips (7.2%). The rate of revision due to aseptic loosening of the acetabular component was 7.9% (twenty-four hips), and there was radiographic evidence of acetabular loosening in forty-two hips (13.8%), including those that were revised. This study demonstrates the durability of a cemented matte-finish collared femoral component at twenty years postoperatively

  1. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  2. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  3. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  4. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  5. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  6. NHS litigation in bariatric surgery over a ten year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi

    2017-04-01

    Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Twenty-Five Years after Early Intervention: A Follow-Up of Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.

    2003-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome and their families who participated in an early intervention program between 1974 and 1977 were interviewed 25 years later. Parents reported challenges such as medical complications, teasing or ostracism, and lack of adequate services and supports as children reached adulthood. Parents also described joys and…

  8. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rousi, Eirini; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-11-18

    We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993-1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. In 1993-1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006-2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval -0.11 (-0.15; -0.06) vs. -0.03 (-0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and -5.2 (-7.8; -2.7) vs. -1.03 (-3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012.

  9. Ecosystem development after mangrove creation: plant-soil change across a twenty-year chronosequence in Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a global scale, the loss of mangroves has been high (~1-2% loss per year in recent decades). Recognizing the important ecosystem services supported by mangroves, restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to replace those services lost after mangr...

  10. New mite invasions in citrus: A look towards the early years of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. About 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing different levels of damage in citrus leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests that require control measures. During the last few years se...

  11. Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aradi, Mihaly; Koszegi, Edit; Orsi, Gergely;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established. METHODS: After 22 years of NMO, a patient's brain was examined by quantitative T1- and T2-weighted mono- and biexponential diffusion and proton spectroscopy. It was compared to 3 cases with short...

  12. Surgery of eye injuries in an eight-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eye injuries constitute a leading problem in eye surgery worldwide, as well as at our department. Their treatment is very complex, and requires a wide surgical knowledge and surgical skills supported by the material and the equipment. Aim. To analyze the results of vitreoretinal surgery on 647 patients with severe penetrating eye injuries in the period from 1991 to 1998. Methods. The study included a retrospective analysis of the treatment of 647 injuries, out of which 500 were penetrating, and 147 were severe contusion injuries. Attention was payed to the penetrating injuries with intraocular foreign body (IOFB, to the number of the performed pars plana vitrectomies (VPP, to the number of the extirpated foreign bodies, as well as to the number of the conventional retinal ablation surgeries. Also significant proved the consequences of contusion injuries, and the method of their complete surgical management - the surgery combined with the implantation of intraocular lens, as well as their functional results. Results. Inside the said period, 558 VPPs were performed, 60 conventional retinal ablation surgeries, and 29 combined anterior/posterior segment surgeries. VPP was applied in 286 (51.3% of the cases with penetrating injuries with IOFB, and in 58 (10.4% of the cases with contusion injuries. VPP in one eye was applied in 464 (83% of the cases, in both eyes in 65 (11.8% of the cases, and in a single eye in 29 (5.2% of the cases. Following VPP, silicone oil tamponade was done in 352 (63% of the cases, air tamponade in 123 (22% of the cases, and Ringer-BSS tamponade in 83 (15% of the cases. Laser photocoagulation (LFC was performed in 484 (87% of the cases, cryocoagulation in 45 (8%, while neither of them was done in 29 (5% of the cases. In all of the cases of the conventional retinal ablation (n = 60, a placement of a serclage was applied and exocryocoagulation was performed, while in the 52 cases a placement of a scleral flap was

  13. Twenty-year results of combined meniscal allograft transplantation, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and advancement of the medial collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Gabriela; Milachowski, Klaus A; Weismeier, Karl; Kohn, Dieter; Wirth, Carl Joachim

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the objective and subjective long-term outcomes of the first free meniscal allograft transplantations in five patients with complete absence or non-repairable lesion of the medial meniscus after 20 years. Between 1984 and 1986 five patients underwent concomitant medial meniscal transplantation with a deep frozen meniscal allograft, ACL reconstruction and femoral advancement or temporary detachment of the MCL. The clinical outcome of the patients was evaluated 20 years postoperatively using clinical assessment, Lysholm-score, KOOS, IKDC-score, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. The Lysholm-score ranged between 21 and 97 points of 100 maximal available points. Corresponding to this the total KOOS ranged between 28.4 and 91.1%. The results of the IKDC-score were evaluated as nearly normal (B) (n = 2), abnormal (C) (n = 2) and severely abnormal (D) (n = 1). The radiological evaluation according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification showed an increase of the degenerative changes between one and four grades. The radiological results revealed clear degenerative changes with long-term follow-up after meniscal allograft transplantation even though some patients did relatively well regarding the subjective and clinical results in the 20-year follow-up examination in comparison with the literature. Despite these relative clear results the question if medial meniscal transplantation can protect against development of arthritis cannot definitely be answered because in this first case series some aspects of meniscus transplantation that have not been considered which turned out to be of importance during the last 20 years. Furthermore, it has to be taken into account that all patients revealed a cartilage damage at the time of surgery and an ACL reconstruction was performed in addition. Nevertheless from biomechanical point of view it might be taken into consideration to combine the medial meniscus transplantation at least

  14. Twenty years of temporal change in perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and carboxylate contaminants in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J; Hebert, Craig E; Chip Weseloh, D V

    2011-12-01

    In this study, temporal trends and patterns of major C(4) to C(15) chain length PFCAs and PFSAs and some sulfonamide, fluorotelomer acid and alcohol precursors were determined in herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg pools. Samples were analyzed from fifteen collection years including 1990 and all years from 1997 to 2010, and from seven colonies located throughout the Great Lakes, ranging from remote to highly urbanized areas. Other than at the Toronto Harbour colony, the slopes of ∑PFSA concentrations (C(6), C(8), and C(10)) versus time were negative indicating general declines between 1990 and 2010. PFOS was the dominant PFSA regardless of colony or year, ranging from 80 to 99% of ∑PFSA. For ∑PFCA (C(8)-C(15)), slopes of concentrations versus time were generally positive with 4 of 7 colonies showing statistically significant (p 3M Company in North America of all of C(8) PFC-related chemistry products. Increasing production volumes of fluorotelomer based compounds, and degradation of these compounds to PFCAs may explain increasing trends of PFCAs in gull eggs. Dietary changes as measured by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, showed minimal relationships to PFC levels in gull eggs, which indicates the complexity of aquatic and terrestrial food of gulls and sources of PFCs.

  15. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Montoliu, Alexandra; Marín, José Luis; Almeda, Jesús; González, Victoria; Muñoz, Rafael; Martínez, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the prevalence of HIV in sentinel populations are one of the key strategies to monitor the HIV epidemic. We describe HIV prevalence trends and identify differences across time in the sociodemographic characteristics of HIV-infected women giving birth in Catalonia. We used dried blood specimens, residual to newborn screening, which have been collected in Catalonia every 2 months since 1994. The total number of samples obtained until 2009 and in 2013 represented half of yearly newborns. From 2010 to 2012, the total number of samples obtained represented a quarter of yearly newborns. We studied the prevalence by year and place of current residence (Barcelona-city, cities>200,000 inhabitants and cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants) and by the mother's birth country. A total of 624,912 infants were tested for HIV antibodies from January 1994 to December 2013. HIV prevalence trends among women giving birth in Catalonia decreased until 2007. Thereafter, there was a change to a steady trend until 2013. However, among foreign women giving birth and living in cities ≤ 200,000 inhabitants, the prevalence of HIV increased from 2007 to 2013. To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Twenty years of artificial directional selection have shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Samorè, A B; Bertolini, F; Russo, V; Gallo, M; Buttazzoni, L; Fontanesi, L

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated at the genome-wide level if 20 years of artificial directional selection based on boar genetic evaluation obtained with a classical BLUP animal model shaped the genome of the Italian Large White pig breed. The most influential boars of this breed (n = 192), born from 1992 (the beginning of the selection program of this breed) to 2012, with an estimated breeding value reliability of >0.85, were genotyped with the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. After grouping the boars in eight classes according to their year of birth, filtered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to evaluate the effects of time on genotype frequency changes using multinomial logistic regression models. Of these markers, 493 had a PBonferroni  genome. The largest proportion of the 493 SNPs was on porcine chromosome (SSC) 7, SSC2, SSC8 and SSC18 for a total of 204 haploblocks. Functional annotations of genomic regions, including the 493 shifted SNPs, reported a few Gene Ontology terms that might underly the biological processes that contributed to increase performances of the pigs over the 20 years of the selection program. The obtained results indicated that the genome of the Italian Large White pigs was shaped by a directional selection program derived by the application of methodologies assuming the infinitesimal model that captured a continuous trend of allele frequency changes in the boar population.

  17. [Platelet transfusion and allergic transfusion reactions: experiences at Lille Hospital over a four year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibaut, B; Vannier, V; Renom, P; Goudemand, J

    2000-04-01

    Among the immediate transfusion reactions caused by the utilization of blood products, those suggesting immuno-allergic mechanisms posed problems for frequency, gravity, laboratory diagnosis and safety. We report here the Lille Hospital's experience over a four-year period concerning these manifestations after platelet concentrate transfusion. Eight hundred and fifty-two immediate transfusion reactions have been declared, of which 230 were allergic, which appeared in 181 patients (27%). Among the most frequent clinical signs, rash was often described (158 cases: 68.7%); less frequent were respiratory problems such as dyspnea (34 cases: 14.8%) and hypotensive reactions (18 cases: 7.8%). Seven patients presented severe reactions (3%). Twenty percent of them presented multiple allergic reactions and in 43.2%, the recurrence was more serious than the initial problem in spite of preventive medication; the use of washed blood components was necessary. The age of platelet concentrates does not appear to play a part in provoking these events (67% of platelet concentrates had been collected within four days). These allergic transfusion reactions posed problems for those who prescribe medication, because they are frequent, sometimes serious, can recur and at present, the proposed medication prevention is not always efficient.

  18. Twenty-five-year outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting individuals with cystic fibrosis: identification of the prairie epidemic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Glezerson, Bryan A; Sibley, Christopher D; Sibley, Kristen A; Duong, Jessica; Purighalla, Swathi; Mody, Christopher H; Workentine, Matthew L; Storey, Douglas G; Surette, Michael G; Rabin, Harvey R

    2014-04-01

    Transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been described for cystic fibrosis (CF) and may be associated with a worse prognosis. Using a comprehensive strain biobank spanning 3 decades, we sought to determine the prevalence and stability of chronic P. aeruginosa infection in an adult population. P. aeruginosa isolates from sputum samples collected at initial enrollment in our adult clinic and at the most recent clinic visit were examined by a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and compared against a collection of established transmissible and local non-CF bronchiectasis (nCFB) isolates. A total of 372 isolates from 107 patients, spanning 674 patient-years, including 66 patients with matched isolates from initial and final encounters, were screened. A novel clone with increased antibacterial resistance, termed the prairie epidemic strain (PES), was found in 29% (31/107 patients) of chronically infected patients referred from multiple prairie-based CF centers. This isolate was not found in those diagnosed with CF as adults or in a control population with nCFB. While 90% (60/66 patients) of patients had stable infection over a mean of 10.8 years, five patients experienced strain displacement of unique isolates, with PES occurring within 2 years of transitioning to adult care. PES has been present in our cohort since at least 1987, is unique to CF, generally establishes chronic infection during childhood, and has been found in patients at the time of transition of patients from multiple prairie-based CF clinics, suggesting broad endemicity. Studies are under way to evaluate the clinical implications of PES infection.

  19. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10(8) (range 0.7-75×10(8)), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T.; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23–230) and 8.6×108 (range 0.7–75×108), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. PMID:28302713

  1. Twenty-year cytogenetic and molecular follow-up of a patient with ring chromosome 15: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ring chromosome 15 is a rare disorder, with only a few over 40 cases reported in the literature. There are only two previous reports of cases where patients with ring chromosome 15 have been followed-up. Case presentation We report here on the 20-year clinical and cytogenetic follow-up of a patient with a ring chromosome 15. Our patient, a Caucasoid Asian woman, presented with short stature, microcephaly, minor dysmorphic features, hyperextensible knees, generalized hirsutism, café-au-lait and small hypochromic spots spread over her face and the front of her chest and abdomen, dorsolumbar scoliosis and mild intellectual disability. She was followed-up from the age of eight to 28 years. When she was 27 years old, she was reported by her mother to present with compulsive overeating and an aggressive mood when challenged. Karyotyping revealed that the majority of her cells harbored one normal chromosome and one ring chromosome. Silver staining revealed the presence of the nucleolar organizer region in the ring chromosome. Ring loss and/or secondary aberrations exhibited a slight increase over time, from 4.67% in 1989 to 7.67% in 2009, with the presence of two monocentric rings, cells with interlocked rings, a dicentric ring, and broken or open rings. A genome-wide array technique detected a 5.5Mb deletion in 15q26.2. Conclusions We observed that some phenotypic alterations in our patient can be associated with gene loss and haploinsufficiency. Other features may be related to different factors, including ring instability and epigenetic factors.

  2. Twenty Years of Experience with the Preoperative Diagnosis of Medullary Cancer in a Moderately Iodine-Deficient Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Solymosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a current debate in the medical literature about plasma calcitonin screening in patients with nodular goiter (NG. We decided on analyzing our 20-year experience with patients in an iodine-deficient region (ID. Patients and Methods. 22,857 consecutive patients with NG underwent ultrasonography and aspiration cytology (FNAC. If FNAC raised suspicion of medullary cancer (MTC, the serum calcitonin was measured. Results. 4,601 patients underwent surgery; there were 23 patients among them who had MTC (0.1% prevalence. Significantly more MTC cases were diagnosed cytologically in the second decade than in the first: 11/12 and 6/11, respectively. The frozen section was of help in 2 cases out of 3. Two patients suffered from a 3-year delay in proper therapy, and reoperation was necessary in 1 case. FNAC raised the suspicion of MTC in 20 cases that were later histologically verified and did not present MTC. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in diagnosing MTC was 99.2%. Two false-positive serum calcitonin tests (one of them in a hemodialyzed patient and one false-negative serum calcitonin test occurred in 40 cases. Conclusion. Regarding the low prevalence of MTC in ID regions, calcitonin screening of all NG patients does not only appear superfluously but may have more disadvantages than advantages.

  3. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide.

  4. Twenty-five years of the WHO vaccines prequalification programme (1987-2012): lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Nora; Wood, David

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) vaccines prequalification programme was established in 1987. It is a service provided to United Nations procurement agencies to ensure that the vaccines supplied through these agencies are consistently safe and effective under conditions of use in national immunization programmes. This review describes the purpose and aims of the programme, its evolution during 25 years of existence, its added value, and its role in the context of the WHO strategy to ensure the global availability of vaccines of assured quality. The rationale for changes introduced during the implementation of the programme is provided. The paper also discusses the resources involved, both human and financial, its performance, strengths and weaknesses and steps taken to maximize its efficiency. This historical perspective is used to inform proposed future changes to the service. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Alatalo, Juha; K. Jägerbrand, Annika; Juhanson, Jaanis

    2017-01-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three...... contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from...... be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects...

  6. Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse associations of religiosity and mortality in a secular region. The sample consisted of 734 Danish, community dwelling elderly persons, living in a secular culture, and all aged 70 when primary data were collected. Secondary data consisted of a 20 year follow......-up on vital status or exact age of death. The study was designed to be highly comparable to studies conducted in more religious environments in order to compare results. Three variables of religion were investigated in relation to survival: importance of affiliation, church attendance and listening...... to religious media. Relative hazards (RH) of dying were controlled in models including gender, education, medical and mental health, social relations, help given and received, and health behaviour. The results showed significant and positive associations between claiming religious affiliation important...

  7. Dynamic knee stability estimated by finite helical axis methods during functional performance approximately twenty years after anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Helena; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte K

    2015-07-16

    Finite helical axis (FHA) measures of the knee joint during weight-bearing tasks may capture dynamic knee stability following Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. The aim was to investigate dynamic knee stability during two-leg squat (TLS) and one-leg side hop (SH) in a long-term follow-up of ACL injury, and to examine correlations with knee laxity (KT-1000), osteoarthritis (OA, Kellgren-Lawrence) and knee function (Lysholm score). Participants were injured 17-28 years ago and then treated with surgery (n=33, ACLR) or physiotherapy only (n=37, ACLPT) and healthy-knee controls (n=33) were tested. Movements were registered with an optical motion capture system. We computed three FHA inclination angles, its' Anterior-Posterior (A-P) position, and an index quantifying directional changes (DI), during stepwise knee flexion intervals of ∼15°. Injured knees were less stable compared to healthy controls' and to contralateral non-injured knees, regardless of treatment: the A-P intersection was more anterior (indicating a more anterior positioning of tibia relative to femur) positively correlating with high laxity/low knee function, and during SH, the FHA was more inclined relative to the flexion-extension axis, possibly due to reduced rotational stability. During the TLS, A-P intersection was more anterior in the non-injured knee than the injured, and DI was higher, probably related to higher load on the non-injured knee. ACLR had less anterior A-P intersection than ACLPT, suggesting that surgery enhanced stability, although rotational stability may remain reduced. More anterior A-P intersection and greater inclination between the FHA and the knee flexion-extension axis best revealed reduced dynamic stability ∼23 years post-injury.

  8. The provision of compulsory school physical activity: Associations with physical activity, fitness and overweight in childhood and twenty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blizzard Leigh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the provision of higher levels of compulsory school physical activity is associated with higher physical activity and fitness levels and less overweight in childhood and 20 years later. Methods As part of the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey, 109 schools reported how much compulsory physical education (PE and school sport they provided and were classified as low (2 cutpoints. 9, 12 and 15 year-olds (n = 2,595 completed a cycle ergometer fitness test (physical working capacity at heart rate 170, PWC170. At follow-up in 2004–5, 2,346 participants kept a pedometer record, completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and/or a PWC170 fitness test; and had height and weight measured (overweight = BMI≥25 m/kg2. Results At baseline and follow-up, median total physical activity, fitness and BMI were similar in participants who attended low, medium and high physical activity schools, and those attending high physical activity schools reported only modestly higher school physical activity. There was no difference in the prevalence of high total physical activity and fitness levels in childhood or adulthood across compulsory school physical activity categories. The prevalence of overweight in childhood and adulthood was similar across low, medium and high compulsory physical activity schools. Conclusion The amount of compulsory physical activity reported by schools was not associated with total physical activity, fitness or overweight in childhood or in adulthood. Policies promoting amounts of compulsory school physical activity in this range may not be sufficient to increase physical activity and fitness or reduce the prevalence of obesity in children.

  9. Dengue: twenty-five years since reemergence in Brazil Dengue: vinte e cinco anos da reemergência no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Glória Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the epidemiology of dengue in Brazil, 25 years after its reemergence in the country, discussing the main determinants and implications for its control. The authors emphasize the clinical and epidemiological peculiarities of this viral disease in Brazil, which leads the world in both the number of cases reported and risk of occurrence of the disease. The article presents the changes occurring in the dengue epidemiological pattern in recent years, like the sudden age shift in the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and discusses possible associated factors. The article focuses specifically on the epidemic in Rio de Janeiro in 2008, this episode's impact on the international community, and the fear that the disease could spread to Europe. The authors conclude that the current situation emphasizes the need for the international scientific community to renew its efforts to generate knowledge allowing improvement and progress in the development of new tools and strategies for dengue prevention.Este artigo revisita a epidemiologia da dengue no Brasil após 25 anos da sua reemergência discutindo os principais determinantes e implicações no seu controle. Destacam-se peculiaridades clínicas e epidemiológicas desta virose neste país, que ocupa uma das primeiras posições no que diz respeito tanto ao número de casos notificados como no risco de ocorrência desta doença no mundo. Apresentam-se as mudanças que vêm ocorrendo no padrão epidemiológico da doença nos últimos anos, a exemplo do súbito deslocamento de faixa etária na incidência da febre hemorrágica da dengue, discutindo-se os possíveis fatores envolvidos. Particulariza-se a epidemia do Rio de Janeiro, em 2008, o reflexo deste episódio na comunidade internacional e o temor de disseminação da doença para a Europa. Os autores consideram que esta conjuntura aponta para a necessidade da comunidade científica mundial renovar esforços para gerar

  10. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  11. Priority substances in a SW European coastal lagoon - Ria Formosa, Portugal. Twenty years of temporal evolution of metals and butyltins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira da Silva, Manuela; Carvalho, Pedro; Paquete, Rita; Nuno Duarte, Duarte; Chícharo, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In the last years the European Union has decided to specifically include nickel, cadmium, plumb and TBT in its list of priority substances in water. Trace metals pose a significant threat to organisms because above threshold availability, act as enzyme inhibitors resulting in adverse ecological effects to sediment-associated biota (e.g. macrophytes, benthos, demersal fish) and to higher-biota (e.g. pelagic fish and aquatic birds). Since 2003 International Maritime Organization called for a ban of the application of tributyltin-based paints. Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and persistence of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their potential biomagnification in the food webs, and their adverse effects to human health and environment, particularly most recent reviews focuses on possible endocrine disrupting effects of OT's (Galloway, 2006; Nakanishi, 2007; Takahashi et al., 1999; Veltman et al., 2006). Saltmarshes are highly heterogeneous environments that have been suffered pressures by the increasing urbanization and industrialization in the adjacent areas. Saltmarsh sediments integrate inputs of contaminants, like metals and organotin compounds and may act as long-term sources of contaminants. At the Ria Formosa saltmarsh several activities were responsible for long-term contaminants, some of them considered priority substances. This work aims to provide information about the present levels and temporal evolution in the last decades of metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Cd and Ag, in addition to Fe and Al) and butyltins (TBT, DBT and MBT) in saltmarsh sediments at south of Portugal. Metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS. Butyltins were determined, after derivatization, by solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results showed that legislation was an effective instrument for the decreasing of contamination levels, to sustainable values to ecosystem

  12. Twenty-year trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Cheng-fu; REN Jing-yi; ZHOU Xiang-hai; LI Su-fang; CHEN Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension,diabetes mellitus,hypercholesterolaemia and current smoking are the strongest modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).We examined their changing trends over the last 20years.Methods The clinical data of 3498 patients hospitalized in Peking University People's Hospital with AMI from 1991 to 2010 were used.Information was collected regarding to patients' demographic data,cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension,diabetes mellitus,hypercholesterolemia and current smoking).To assess trends over time in the prevalence of risk factors,we categorized patients into four groups (1991 to 1995,1996 to 2000,2001 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010).Results Highly significant increases were observed in the prevalence of hypertension from 40.8% to 55.6% for males and from 58.0% to 69.0% for females; and diabetes mellitus from 12.9% to 30.8% for males and from 23.0% to 42.3% for females.Similarly,the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia decreased from 53.1% to 30.7% for males and from 57.0%to 44.0% for females.The prevalence of current smoking decreased in females from 29.0% to 11.1%,but remained unchanged in males.In addition,the proportion of patients with more than three modifiable risk factors increased from 19.0% to 27.1% and the age at onset of AMI extended to younger as well as older individuals.Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus are still increasing in patients with AMI in Beijing and although the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and current smoking decreased,high clustering of risk factors were commonly present.These adverse trends show a compelling need for more effective management of cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. A history of the journal of chiropractic education: twenty-five years of service, 1987-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N; Jacobs, Grace E; Johnson, Claire D; Phillips, Reed B

    2011-01-01

    The Journal of Chiropractic Education celebrates its 25th anniversary in the year 2011. The purpose of this article is to chronicle the history of the journal, which is unreported at this time. The entire collection of the journal was reviewed and information pertaining to important events and changes in the format, personnel, and processes of the journal were extracted. This information was used to create a chronology of the journal. The chronology was complemented with information obtained from people who were involved in the evolution of the journal and the Association of Chiropractic Colleges Educational Conferences. Starting as a humble newsletter in 1987 and produced for a small cadre of readers primarily from the United States, the journal is now a full-sized and bound peer-reviewed international journal. Initially cataloged by the Index to Chiropractic Literature and MANTIS, the indexing expanded to interdisciplinary indexing systems such as CINAHL and ultimately PubMed. The journal has grown to serve the needs of chiropractic educators from around the world with representatives on the editorial board from 39 colleges and universities from 15 different countries. The journal has grown in tandem with the profession's leading education and research conference and has been the primary repository for the scholarship of chiropractic education. The history of the journal represents a significant milestone in the development of the chiropractic profession, particularly the discipline of chiropractic education. The journal has had an interesting history and the future promises to bring more opportunities and challenges to the field of chiropractic education and to the journal.

  14. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy s Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated oncethrough cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  15. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  17. Persistent pulmonary hypertension – The neonatal period and evaluation at 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mota

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN is a condition in which the pulmonary vessels fail to dilate at birth. It can be the consequence of a wide array of diseases, such as pneumonia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration syndrome and hyaline membrane disease. It has an incidence of 1-2 per 1,000 newborns and it can have pulmonary, neurologic and developmental consequences. We conducted a retrospective study with the aim of analyzing the causes, morbidities and comorbidities, management and mortality of PPHN in newborns hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate respiratory, neurologic and developmental morbidity at 2 years of age. A total of 77 children, born between 1996 and 2012, were studied. Twenty-six (33.8% deceased. The mortality, as well as the need for resuscitation, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO, diuretics, and vasopressor support, was higher in patients with the severe form of PPHN. The need for vasopressor support was the only factor associated with a higher mortality. We found a reduction of 17.8% in mortality rates after the introduction of iNO, sildenafil and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was the most common cause of PPHN. Pneumonia was more frequent before 2003. There was no significant difference in the morbidity and mortality between the two time periods (before and after 2003. On the follow-up of 37 of the remaining 51 patients, we did not find differences in the morbidity of patients comparing those with the severe vs. non-severe forms of the condition.An evaluation over the years of admitted newborns with PPHN in our NICU is mandatory to confirm a relationship between the new treatment strategies and the better outcome of the patients.

  18. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  19. A competing-risk-based score for predicting twenty-year risk of incident diabetes: the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Ageing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Chen, Zhenghong; Fine, Jason Peter; Liu, Long; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Sijia; Li, Haibin; Liu, Kuo; Luo, Yanxia; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Few risk tools have been proposed to quantify the long-term risk of diabetes among middle-aged and elderly individuals in China. The present study aimed to develop a risk tool to estimate the 20-year risk of developing diabetes while incorporating competing risks. A three-stage stratification random-clustering sampling procedure was conducted to ensure the representativeness of the Beijing elderly. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents aged 55 years and above who were free of diabetes at baseline examination. Sub-distribution hazards models were used to adjust for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. The cumulative incidence function of twenty-year diabetes event rates was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risks of non-diabetes death. Age, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, health status, and physical activity were selected to form the score. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.76 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72–0.80), and the optimism-corrected AUC was 0.78 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.69–0.87) after internal validation by bootstrapping. The calibration plot showed that the actual diabetes risk was similar to the predicted risk. The cut-off value of the risk score was 19 points, marking mark the difference between low-risk and high-risk patients, which exhibited a sensitivity of 0.74 and specificity of 0.65. PMID:27849048

  20. Twenty years of the national program of surveillance radiation of the atmosphere and terrestrial environment; Veinte anos del programa nacional de vigilancia radiologica de la atmosfera y medio terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey del Castillo, C.; Luque Heredia, S.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Salas Collantes, R.; Serling Carmona, A.; Lorente Lorente, P.; Ramos Salvador, L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a global basis the information provided by the program in twenty years of operation, describing the main changes introduced and analyzing how they have influenced the results. The use of program data to inform and in response to questions from individuals or incidents is reviewed. And finally the prospects and major milestones expected to address in the next twenty years are described. (Author)

  1. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  2. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. MOFCOM Defined Major Tasks of Commercial Development during the 12th Five-Year Program Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to CPC Central Committee's Proposal for Formulating the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development (2011- 2015) and the 12th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China, MQFCOM defined the guiding ideas, objectives, major tasks of China's commercial development during the 12th Five-Year Program period, after summarizing commercial achievements and experience in the 11th Five-Year Program period and analyzed the domestic and foreign environment during the 12th Five-Year Program.

  4. Urinary phthalates from 168 girls and boys measured twice a year during a 5-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: This was a longitudinal study of 168 healthy children (84 girls) examined every 6 months for 5 years. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone, and urinary morning excretion of 14 phthalate metabolites, corresponding to 7 different phthalate...... diesters were determined. A variation in urinary excretion of phthalates was evident in each child, which made a mean of repetitive samples more representative for long-term excretion than a single determination. Results: We found that girls with excretion of monobutyl phthalate isomers (MBP) and di(2.......3 years, P = 0.005). Conclusion: Our data indicate that exposure to dibutyl phthalate isomers (DBP) (in girls) and butylbenzyl phthalate (in boys) are negatively associated with adrenal androgen levels and in boys positively associated with testosterone level at 13 years of age. High exposure to DBP...

  5. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  6. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-12-08

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed.

  8. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  9. CNPC's Remarkable Achievements in Scientific Research during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhengrong

    1996-01-01

    @@ During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,CNPC made marked progress in applied research (RIPED)of new techniques and new theories and in fundamental research.

  10. The prevalence and incidence of glaucoma in Denmark in a fifteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Horwitz, Anna; Thygesen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. METHODS: All Danish citizens were...... included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence...... of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging...

  11. Outlook of PetroChina's Technological Development during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 11th Five-Year Plan period is a critical time for PetroChina transforming to a transnational enterprise group with international competitiveness, also a turning point for the implementation of its scientific and technological strategy.

  12. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  13. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  14. Geodetic Constraints on Mantle Q at Periods from a Fortnight to 18.6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic observations have provided numerous constraints on the earth's spherically-averaged mantle anelasticity at periods of tens of minutes and shorter. Meanwhile, post-glacial rebound and other geodynamic studies provide information at periods of a few thousand years and longer. However, constraints at intermediate periods are scarce. Such constraints could be useful in trying to connect the seismic anelastic models with the longer-period visco-elastic behavior. Here we will describe constraints on anelasticity in this intermediate range of periods as obtained from earth tide and earth rotation observations. We discuss results from: (1) VLBI observations of the monthly and fortnightly tidal variations in rotation rate; (2) satellite laser ranging observations of the 18.6-year tidal variations in the earth's gravitational field; and (3) astrometric and geodetic observations of the 14-month Chandler Wobble period and damping. We find that these observations are consistent with a nearly frequency-independent mantle Q stretching from seismic periods all the way out to the 14-month Chandler Wobble period; but that Q appears to decrease significantly between 14-months and 18.6-years.

  15. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  16. 中韩经济关系20年回顾与展望%China -South Korea Economic Relations for Twenty Years: Retrospect and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永浩

    2012-01-01

    中韩两国自1992年8月建交以来,双边经贸关系发展迅速,两国已互为对方重要经济合作伙伴。本文从贸易、直接投资和人员交流合作角度分析了过去20年来中韩经济合作取得的成果。展望未来,中韩之间经贸合作前景广阔。两国在增强政治互信、推进民间双向交流及国际化人才培养的基础上进一步推进经济合作机制建设,特别是促进中韩FTA早日签署将为双边经贸关系深入发展提供新动力。%Since the establishment of diplomatic relationship between China and South Korea in the August of 1992, the bilateral trade and economic relations are developing fast and they have become important economic co- operation partner of each other. In perspectives of trade, direct investment and personnel exchange and coopera- tion, achievements of the economic cooperation obtained in the past twenty years are analyzed. The two countries also have expansive prospect of trade and economic cooperation in the future. On the basis of strengthening political t:~t.,st, prompting non -government communication and internationalized talent training, they should further advance the construction of economic cooperation mechanism. driving force for the develooment of the bilateral trade Particularly, to sign the free trade agreement will pour new and economic relations.

  17. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  18. Forecasting the declining rate of chronic hepatitis-B carrier status at a Taiwanese university: twenty years after implementation of an universal HBV vaccination program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fu-Hsiung; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Hong-Jer; Jeng, Jin-Ju; Liu, Yi-Hui; Chen, Chih-Dao

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Taiwan in 1984, 15-20% of the general population were chronic HBV carriers. We forecasted and quantified the declining HBV carrier rate 20 years subsequent to the implementation of universal HBV vaccination in Taiwan. At a Taiwanese university, 28,763 freshmen tested for serum HBsAg level were divided into ten age cohorts by date of birth, from July 1976 to June 1986 inclusive. Comparisons of HBsAg carrier rates according to gender were examined with the Z test. Regression methods and a time series model were applied to our sample to forecast trends in changes to the HBsAg carrier rate for the next five years. Regression analysis demonstrated a trend toward declining HBsAg-positive carrier rates. The HBsAg carrier rate for male students decreased from 16.8% (for those born between July 1976 and June 1977) to 2.2% (for those born between July 1985 and June 1986). The carrier rate for their female counterparts over the same period declined from 12.2% to 2.4%. The HBsAg carrier rate for male participants was significantly greater than that of their female counterparts for certain years during the test period. The results of time series analysis suggests the HBsAg carrier status rate will approach zero for students born after July 1987 (expected to enrol in the university in 2006). Our data demonstrate that in order for the HBV carrier rate to approximate zero, universal vaccination programs need to continue for at least 21 years.

  19. Oral malignant melanoma diagnosed in an Iranian population over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Forouzandeh, Aghdas; Sadri, Donya; Mirlashari, Jila

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma along with age range and site of presentation over an 11-year period in Iran. The files of Tehran Cancer Institute served as a source of material for this study. Files were systematically searched for all malignant melanomas and oral malignant melanomas during an 11-year period. Prepared slides and demographic data from the biopsy files were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS. Of the 38,993 cases accessed during the 11-year period, 569 were identified as malignant melanomas, while 41 cases among this group had malignant oral melanomas comprising 0.1% of the total cases and 7.2% of all the malignant melanoma lesions. The palate was the most common location for oral malignant melanoma. Thus, all melanocytic lesions in the palate should be viewed with caution, and biopsy is recommended to rule out melanoma.

  20. Twenty-year outcome in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus: assessment of surgical outcome, work participation, and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, A Henriette; Lundar, Tryggve; Lindegaard, Karl-Fredrik

    2010-12-01

    Shunting of CSF is one of the most commonly performed operations in the pediatric neurosurgeon's repertoire. The 1st decade after initial shunt insertion has been addressed in several previous reports. The goals of the authors' study, therefore, were to determine 20-year outcomes in young adults with childhood hydrocephalus and to assess their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patients younger than 15 years of age, in whom a first-time shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus in the calendar years 1985-1988, were included in a retrospective study on surgical morbidity, mortality rates, academic achievement, and/or work participation. Information concerning perceived health and functional status was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Barthel Index, which were completed by patients still alive by September 1, 2009. Overall, 138 patients participated, no patient being lost to follow-up. For the 20-year period, the overall mortality rate was 21.7%. The mortality rate was not significantly higher in the 1st decade after initial shunt insertion than in the 2nd decade (p = 0.10). Ten percent of the patients surviving still live with their primary shunt in place, whereas 81% required at least one revision, and among these individual the mean number of revisions was 4.2 (median 3, range 0-26). There was a significantly higher revision rate during the 1st decade after initial shunt insertion compared with the 2nd decade (p = 0.027). The majority of patients live lives comparable with those of their peers. At follow-up, 56% were employed in open-market jobs or were still students, 23% had sheltered employment, and 21% were unemployed. The HRQOL was slightly lower in the hydrocephalic cohort than in the normative population. A significant difference was found in 2 of 8 SF-36 domains-Physical Functioning and General Health. During the 20-year follow-up period, 81% of the patients required at least one revision of the CSF shunt. The

  1. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kolko

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period.All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication.A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years, 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001. Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications.Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally.

  2. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, John; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. Methods All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. Results A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0–105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001). Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications. Conclusions Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally. PMID:26182236

  3. China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period%China's Regional Policies: Progress of the 11^th Five Year Plan Period and Prospect of the 12^th Five Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuebin

    2011-01-01

    During the 11^th Five Year Plan period, China improved its policy system for the overall strategy of regional development, and established and completed the policies intended for the promotion of regional cooperation and interaction. Thereupon, regional development in China took on a series of positive changes such as the enhancement of coordination. During the 12^th Five Year Plan period, China will fully implement and continuously improve the policy measures for development in its four major regions, strengthen differentiated guidance to different regions in line with the planning for major function-oriented zones, and accelerate the establishment of basic systems that facilitate coordinated regional development.

  4. Power-Sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error Machtteilung, Konflikt und Wandel in Burundi: Zwanzig Jahre Versuch und Irrtum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Vandeginste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past twenty years, Burundi has experimented with powersharing as an instrument of political liberalisation, democratisation and conflict resolution. This contribution analyses the different meanings the concept of power-sharing has had throughout Burundi’s recent and extremely violent political transition, in particular during the lengthy peace process. It shows how national and international actors have found inspiration in the toolbox of consociationalism to negotiate and design the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi signed in August 2000 and its posttransition Constitution. Power-sharing has been instrumental in achieving the – short-term – objective of war termination. It has also de-ethnicised political competition and reduced the (potentially destabilising effect of elections. Measured against more ambitious state-building objectives (democracy, rule of law, accountable and effective governance, power-sharing has (so far not been able to make a difference. Several factors and developments threaten the “survival” of the power-sharing model in Burundi. In Burundi wird seit zwanzig Jahren mit Power-Sharing als Instrument politischer Liberalisierung, Demokratisierung und Konfliktlösung experimentiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert, welche unterschiedlichen Bedeutungen das Konzept der Machtteilung in der jüngsten und extrem gewalttätigen Entwicklungsphase Burundis angenommen hat, insbesondere während des langwierigen Friedensprozesses. Er zeigt auf, inwieweit nationale und internationale Akteure sich bei der Aushandlung und Planung des Arusha-Abkommens zu Frieden und Versöhnung in Burundi, das im August 2000 unterzeichnet wurde, sowie der anschließenden Verfassung am Instrumentarium der Konkordanzdemokratie bedient haben. Power-Sharing erwies sich als nützlich, das kurzfristige Ziel einer Beendigung des Krieges zu erreichen, und trug zur De-Ethnisierung des politischen Wettbewerbs und zur

  5. A Twenty-Year Look at “Computational Geology,” an Evolving, In-Discipline Course in Quantitative Literacy at the University of South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Ricchezza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Geology (GLY program at the USF has offered “Computational Geology” as part of its commitment to prepare undergraduate majors for the quantitative aspects of their field. The course focuses on geological-mathematical problem solving. Over its twenty years, the course has evolved from a GATC (geometry-algebra-trigonometry-calculus in-discipline capstone to a quantitative literacy (QL course taught within a natural science major. With the formation of the new School of Geosciences in 2013, the merging departments re-examined their various curricular programs. An online survey of the Geology Alumni Society found that “express quantitative evidence in support of an argument” was more favorably viewed as a workplace skill (4th out of 69 than algebra (51st, trig (55th and calculus 1 and 2 (59th and 60th. In that context, we decided to find out from successful alumni, “What did you get out of Computational Geology?” To that end, the first author carried out a formal, qualitative research study (narrative inquiry protocol, whereby he conducted, recorded, and transcribed semi-structured interviews of ten alumni selected from a list of 20 provided by the second author. In response to “Tell me what you remember from the course,” multiple alumni volunteered nine items: Excel (10 out of 10, Excel modules (8, Polya problem solving (5, “important” (4, unit conversions (4, back-of-the-envelope calculations (4, gender equality (3. In response to “Is there anything from the course that you used professionally or personally since graduating?” multiple alumni volunteered seven items: Excel (9 out of 10, QL/thinking (6, unit conversions (5, statistics (5, Excel modules (3, their notes (2. Outcome analysis from the open-ended comments arising from structured questions led to the identification of alumni takeaways in terms of elements of three values: (1 understanding and knowledge (facts such as conversion factors, and concepts

  6. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  7. 二十年来国内任璧莲研究述评%A Review of Related Researches of Gish Jen in the Twenty Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高稳

    2016-01-01

    The introduction and researches of Gish Jen have been made for more than twenty years in China. Thus,a timely review of the research achievements will play a certain role in further carrying out the studies of her works. Overview shows that researches of Gish Jen at home focus on such framework as feminism,post -colonial-ism,post-modern theory and her works are interpreted from such perspectives as cultural attribute,cultural iden-tity,racial discrimination,gender discrimination and mother-daughter relationship. The author thinks that the sys-tematic study of her works should pay attention to the following aspects:strengthening the research of cultural poet-ics,the research of ethics value orientation and the interactive research of any relationship among Gish Jen,other Chinese-American writers and other minority writers.%国内对任璧莲的介绍和研究已有20余年,适时地回头梳理已有的研究成果,对进一步开展任璧莲作品的研究将起到一定的总结和反省作用。总览来国内学界所进行的任璧莲研究,大都是在女性主义、后殖民、后现代等理论的框架下,从文化属性、文化认同、种族歧视、性别歧视、母女关系等视角解读其作品。作者认为,任璧莲作品的系统化研究需要注意以下几个方面:应加强对其作品文化诗学、伦理价值取向、任璧莲与其他华裔作家及其他少数族裔作家(譬如犹太作家、非裔作家等)之间的关联与互动等研究。

  8. [TRENDS OF PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A SINGLE CENTER OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Dante; Ilan, Limor Bushar; Freedberg, Nahum A; Feldman, Alexander; Turgeman, Yoav

    2015-05-01

    To review the changes in permanent pacemaker implantation indications, pacing modes and patients' demographics over a 20-year period. We retrospectively retrieved data on patients who underwent first implantation of the pacemaker between 1-1-1991 and 31-12-2010. One thousand and nine (1,009) patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation during that period; 535 were men (53%), their mean age was 74.6±19.5 years; the highest rate of implanted pacemaker was in patients ranging in age from 70-79 years, however there was an increasing number of patients aged over 80 years. The median survival time after initial pacemaker implantation was 8 years. Syncope was the most common symptom (62.5%) and atrioventricular block was the most common electrocardiographic indication (56.4%) leading to pacemaker implantation. There was increased utilization of dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers over the years. There was no difference regarding mode selection between genders. Pacemaker implantation rates have increased over a 20-year period. Dual chamber replaced most of the single ventricular chamber pacemaker and rate responsive pacemakers became the norm. The data of a small volume center are similar to those reported in pacemaker surveys of high volume pacemaker implantation centers. They confirm adherence to the published guidelines for pacing.

  9. CNPC Achievements in Exploration & Development in the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhengyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the cumulative proved oil in place of onshore industry was 2.8 billion tons,with a cumulative crude oil production of 694 million tons;the cumulative proved gas reserves was 547 billion cubic meters and more, equal to the total of the whole nation proved gas reserves in the past 40 years, and cumulative natural gas production is over 79 billion cubic meters.

  10. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of <1 μeq L(-1) per year from 1988 to 2006. Precipitation chemistry, hydrology, vegetation, and temperature drive seasonal stream chemistry. Low flow periods were typical in June-October, with relatively greater contributions of deeper flow solutions with higher pH; higher concentrations of acid-neutralizing capacity, Si, and non-marine Na; and low concentrations of inorganic Al. High flow periods during November-May were typically dominated by solutions following shallow flow paths, which were characterized by lower pH and higher Al and DOC concentrations. Biological activity strongly controlled NO3- and K(+). They were depressed during the growing season and elevated in the fall. Since 1987, East Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the

  11. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive Zone, the licensee of the first cellular system authorized on each... accept applications for authority to operate a new cellular system in any unserved area in a market on...

  12. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  13. Physical and mental functioning in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis over an 11-year followup period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Van Den Joëlle; Roorda, Leo D.; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Tijhuis, Gerard J.; Bos, Van Den Geertrudis A.; Dekker, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the longterm association of a wide range of comorbidities with physical and mental functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Longitudinal data over a period of 11 years were collected from 882 patients with RA. Somatic comorbidity and comorbid depr

  14. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  15. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  16. Recurrent amebic liver abscesses over a 16-year period: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Creemers-Schild; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. Case presentation: A

  17. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  18. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  19. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  20. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, R; Serrano, R; Pons-Estel, G J

    2015-01-01

    patients from 13 European countries. All had medical histories documented when entered into the study and were followed prospectively during the ensuing 10 years. RESULTS: 53.1% of the patients had primary APS, 36.2% had APS associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and 10.7% APS associated with other...... diseases. Thrombotic events appeared in 166 (16.6%) patients during the first 5-year period and in 115 (14.4%) during the second 5-year period. The most common events were strokes, transient ischaemic attacks, deep vein thromboses and pulmonary embolism. 127 (15.5%) women became pregnant (188 pregnancies......) and 72.9% of pregnancies succeeded in having one or more live births. The most common obstetric complication was early pregnancy loss (16.5% of the pregnancies). Intrauterine growth restriction (26.3% of the total live births) and prematurity (48.2%) were the most frequent fetal morbidities. 93 (9...

  1. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  2. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  3. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  4. China's Exploration Research Resultful in the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Defan; Yuan Lingling; Wang Keyu

    1997-01-01

    @@ The scientific research on oil and gas exploration, conducted by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period (1991~1995),was carried out in the principle of "keeping the production stable in East China while accelerating exploration and development in West China." The research work is focused on the pattern of resources distribution and evaluation on selection of blocks for explorative targets. Meanwhile, the results of scientific research were applied to the exploration work, making greater achievements than in the previous five-yearplan period.

  5. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briskin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Fluegeman, R. (Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  6. A retrospective study of the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases during a ten-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Beena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper knowledge of the patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in different geographical regions is necessary for evolving proper strategies for control of these diseases. Aims: To study the pattern of STDs and to analyze the changes during a ten-year period from 1990 among patients attending Medical College Hospital, Kottayam Methods: Case records of 686 patients with STDs who attended the outpatient wing of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology were studied. Results: There were 504 males and 182 females in the total of 686 patients. Marital contact alone was reported by 123 (67.6% female patients. Genital ulcer diseases (GUDs accounted for the maximum number of STDs, with 504 cases (73.5%, followed by condyloma acuminatum (17.5% and gonorrhea (10.1%. Forty-three patients had multiple infections. The total number of patients during the first year of study was 129, while it was 41 during the last year. Bacterial STDs showed a striking reduction in numbers. The decline was less marked in the case of viral STDs. Conclusion: The majority of patients had genital ulcer diseases. Spouses were the most common source of infection for female patients. There was a marked decline in the number of patients with various STDs during the ten-year period. The decline was more evident in the bacterial STDs resulting in an apparent increase of the viral STDs towards the end of the period of study.

  7. Twenty-year follow-up of a familial case of PTH1R-associated primary failure of tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Cláudia Misue; de Oliveira, José Américo; Garcia, José Fernando; Roth, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2017-03-01

    Nonsyndromic primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of dental eruption with no obvious dental or soft tissue interference. The purposes of this study were to genetically and clinically characterize a family with many members affected by PFE and to describe the natural evolution of the disorder. Three generations of a family with 18 members, 10 of them clinically affected by PFE, were evaluated periodically during 20 years of clinical follow-up. PFE was observed in varying degrees of severity in both sexes. Clinical presentation became more severe in adulthood. One patient had spontaneous reeruption of 2 posterior teeth. Cervical root resorptions were observed in 3 members. Genetic analysis showed a deleterious heterozygous mutation in intron 9 of the PTH1R gene (c.639-2A>G) and diagnosed an additional affected member. The long-term follow-up of PFE cases in this family permitted the following observations: (1) the onset occurred from the preemergence to the postemergence phases, (2) PFE appeared to be closely related to ankylosis, (3) affected teeth maintained the eruptive potential even in adulthood, (4) the earlier the onset the more severe the open bite, and (5) cervical root resorptions occurred in 3 affected members. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal trends in inflammatory bowel disease publications over a 19-years period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Yael; Mimouni, Francis B; Cohen, Shlomi

    2014-11-28

    To determine whether temporal changes occurred in the pediatric vs adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both in terms of number and type of yearly published articles. We aimed to evaluate all PubMed-registered articles related to the field of IBD from January 1, 1993 and until December 31, 2011. We searched for articles using the key words "inflammatory bowel disease" or "Crohn's disease" or "ulcerative colitis" or "undetermined colitis", using the age filters of "child" or "adult". We repeated the search according to the total number per year of articles per type of article, for each year of the specified period. We studied randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, case reports, meta-analyses, letters to the editor, reviews, systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and editorials. We identified 44645 articles over the 19 year-period. There were 8687 pediatric-tagged articles vs 19750 adult-tagged articles. Thus 16208 articles were unaccounted and not assigned a "pediatric" or "adult" tag by PubMed. There was an approximately 3-fold significant increase in all articles recorded both in pediatric and adult articles. This significant increase was true for nearly every category of article but the number of clinical trials, meta-analysis, and randomized controlled trials increased proportionally more than the number of "lower quality" articles such as editorials or letters to the editor. Very few guidelines were published every year. There is a yearly linear increase in publications related to IBD. Relatively, there are more and more clinical trials and higher quality articles.

  9. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  10. HYSTERECTOMY IN THE PERINATAL AND POSTPARTUM PERIOD IN THE 17-YEAR CLINICAL MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrosława L. Sikora-Szczęśniak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intruduction: Hysterectomy is one of major surgeries. Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period make the operation even more difficult as it is forced and complicated by various pathological conditions that develop over that time. Objective: The purpose of study was to analyze the frequency of hysterectomy, indications to undertake it and complications associated with the removal of the uterus in pregnancy and during perinatal and postpartum period. The study analyzed the cases of hysterectomies in perinatal and postpartum period performed over the 17-year clinical material from the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, SZOZ, Lipsko in the years 1985–2001. Material and methods : The material for analysis were medical records of 15 women who developed complications in pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum period, which were absolute indication to perform hysterectomy. The following parameters were analyzed: patient’s age, number of deliveries, the way pregnancies were terminated, the way present pregnancy was terminated, complications, indications to Caesarean section and perinatal and postpartum hysterectomy, type of hysterectomy performed, other associated procedures and complications. Results : In total 15 hysterectomies were performed in the period of study which accounts for 0.10% all deliveries. The material revealed the following causes for hysterectomy: placental pathologies (46.7%, inflammatory conditions of internal sex organs (20.0%, uterine atonia after delivery (13.3%, injuries of sex organs (13.3%. Elective hysterectomy in that period was performed in one patient (6.7%. The risk factors predisposing to complications resulting in hysterectomy were history of Caesarean sections in 10 patients (66.7% and multiple spontaneous deliveries. Complications associated with hysterectomy which enforced additional operations were noted in two cases (13.3%. Total hysterectomy was performed in 8 patients (53.3% including hysterectomy with

  11. Caustic Injury In Adults – A Study For 3 Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with ...

  12. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  13. The results of cervical cerclage in a single center during a five-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Kadanalı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the patients who underwent cervical cerclage placement and the contribution of this intervention to the maintenance of pregnancy.Methods: Data of 29 patients who underwent cervical cerclage placement due to cervical insufficiency in Ataturk University Medical Faculty Obstetrics and Gynecology Department Between January 2002 and April 2007 were retrospectively analyzed.The patient’s age, gestational week, history of abortion, history of previous cervical cerclage, preoperative measurement of cervical length, types of cerclage and delivery weeks were recorded and analysed.Results: The patient’s ages were between 24 and 43 years. Weeks of gestation were between 12 weeks 2 days and 26 weeks and 1 day. Nineteen patient’s cervical lengths were less than 20 mm by transvaginal ultrasonography. Eight of patients had funneling sign by transvaginal ultrasonography. Sixteen patients treated with prophylactic cervical cerclage, thirteen women treated with therapeutical cerclage. The cervical lengths of twenty one patients were over 20 mm after the procedure. Five patients reached term.Conclusion: The patient who has risk for cervical insufficiency should be followed with serial ultrasound examination and cervical cerclage should be performed when needed. The prophylactic cerclaje process is still best choice for patients with the history of two or more painless 2nd trimester or early 3rd trimester abortion that typical for cervical incompetence.

  14. Frequent use of hospital inpatient services during a nine year period: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Adelle M; Condon, John R; Li, Shu Q; Guthridge, Steven L

    2017-05-12

    Frequent use (FU) of hospital services impacts on patients and health service expenditure. Studies examining FU in emergency departments and inpatient settings have found heterogeneity and the need to differentiate between potentially preventable FU and that associated with ongoing management of complex conditions. Psychosocial factors have often been reported as underpinning or exacerbating the phenomena. Most FU studies have been limited by time, to a single study site, or restricted to specific diagnoses or patient groups. This study provides a comprehensive description of adult patient characteristics, conditions and risk factors associated with FU, based on admissions to the five public hospitals in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia over a nine year period. The study population is distinctive comprising both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. Data on all inpatient episodes in NT public hospitals between 2005 and 2013 was analysed to identify patients with any FU (four or more episodes within any 12-month period) and measure FU duration (number of FU years) and intensity (mean number of episodes per FU year). Pregnancy, alcohol-related and mental health condition flags were assigned to patients with any episode with relevant diagnoses during the study period. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with any FU, FU duration and FU intensity, separately for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients. Of people with any inpatient episodes during the study period, 13.6% were frequent users (Aboriginal 22%, non-Aboriginal 10%) accounting for 46.6% of all episodes. 73% of frequent users had only one FU year. Any FU and increased FU duration were more common among individuals who were: Aboriginal; older; female; and those with a pregnancy, alcohol or mental health flag. Having two or more alcohol-related episodes in the nine-year period was strongly associated with any FU for both Aboriginal (odds ratio 8.9, 95% CI. 8.20-9.66) and non

  15. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  16. Os 22 anos da Horticultura Brasileira: a revista chega a maioridade Twenty-two years: Horticultura Brasileira reaches the adult age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar P. Henz

    2004-12-01

    .The genesis and growth of a scientific journal are unique events to be observed and studied. Horticultura Brasileira (HB is the official journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, and in 2004 the journal accomplishes 22 years of uninterrupted publishing since the release of its first issue in 1983. The journal succeeded 'Olericultura' (later 'Revista de Olericultura', the previous annual journal of the Brazilian Society for Vegetable Science, published between 1961 and 1980, which presented abstracts and full papers of the annual meetings. Back to 1983, HB was a semestrally journal, created to publish original research papers of horticultural sciences, with an editorial board of four members and the peer review system, all new for the Society members. HB differed from the previous journal by its new format (28 cm x 20.5 cm, the colorful cover changed at each issue and the modern graphic design. HB was divided in distinct sections to include all segments of the Society, such as vegetable growers, rural extensionists, researchers, professors and students. During the last 22 years, HB published a total of 1,083 papers in 5,207 pages, divided in different sections: 'Letters to the Editor', 24 articles; 'Invited Articles', 37; 'Research', 561; 'Grower's Page', 133; 'Pesticides and Fertilizers in Test', 131; 'Economy and Rural Extension', 31; 'New Cultivar', 43; 'Note', 153 (this last section was abolished in 1996. During the 1983-1995 period, the journal published 34.6 articles/year, 47.3 articles/year during 1996-2001 and 116.3 articles/year from 2002 to 2004. Presently, HB is quarterly issued and has an editorial board of 30 editors of different research areas and institutions. The challenges faced by HB today are the raise of publication costs and the constant improvement of the publishing processes.

  17. Review of Daqing's Technologies in 10th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhenghan

    2006-01-01

    @@ During the 10th Five-Year Plan Period, Daqing Oil Field entered the late high water-cut period with the reserveproduction ratio in imbalance. The oil field development became more and more difficult owing to the inadequate substitute resources. Daqing Oil Field Company has made a series of important and new technological achievements to solve those bottlenecks. The oil field has cumulatively achieved a total of technological results, of which eight items are at the State level, 96 items at the provincial and ministerial level, and 1009 items granted with the patent rights. The oil field has developed a family of exploration and development technologies which are world-leading and self-developed with an independent IPR.

  18. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  19. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  20. Resistance studies of erythromycin and rifampin for Rhodococcus equi over a 10-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study sought to determine whether an increase in resistance of Rhodococcus equi to the antibiotics rifampin and erythromycin occurred over a 10-year period. This was carried out by the use of E test strips for rifampin and erythromycin to determine the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration values of Rhodococcus equi to this combination of antibiotics. The findings of this study indicated that there was an increase in resistance of Rhodococcus equi to rifampin and erythromycin over the 10-year period. The MIC for rifampin increased from 0.081 μg/ml in 1996 to 0.187 μg/ml in 2006 and from 0.258 μg/ml for erythromycin during the years prior to 2000 to 0.583 μg/ml in 2006. This finding suggests that there may be a problem in the treatment of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals in the future, particularly as the number of drugs available for treatment of Rhodococcus equi infection is limited because of the intracellular capabilities of this bacterium. Antibiotics used in its treatment have to be able to penetrate the polysaccharide cell wall of Rhodococcus equi as well as the alveolar macrophages in which the bacterium is capable of surviving.

  1. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions.

  2. Survival and quality of life of cholangiocarcinoma patients: a prospective study over a 4 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Florentina; Tantau, Marcel; Diaconu, Brindusa; Acalovschi, Monica

    2010-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are tumors with a poor prognosis and a lower quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and quality of life in CCA patients. We prospectively enrolled 133 patients diagnosed with CCA in the 3rd Medical Clinic, Cluj Napoca, over a 4-year period (2005-2009). The QoL was evaluated by means of a QoL questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). The mean age of the patients was 65 +/- 10.6 years: 55% were males. 71% of the patients had hilar tumor (Klatskin), 23% distal and 6% intrahepatic CCA (IH). Only 11.3% of the patients were eligible to receive curative treatment. The 1-year overall survival was 22.3 +/- 4.4% and the 2-year survival was 3.4 +/- 2.1%. The patients receiving metallic stents had better survival than those receiving plastic stents (40.4% vs 12.5% at 1 year, 9.1% vs 5.0% at 2 years, respectively). The 1-year survival was significantly improved for patients who underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy. The post-therapy QoL demonstrated a less improvement in Klatskin tumor patients than in patients with other types of tumors. Endoscopic palliative therapy allowed a faster community reintegration, but with variable evolution. The highest 2-year survival rate was 5.5%. Slightly longer survival was recorded when chemotherapy was added and also after endoscopic placement of metallic stents. Endoscopic biliary decompression improved the QoL faster than surgery.

  3. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  4. [Smoking among psychology students over a ten-year period (1996-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, María del Carmen; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking among Psychology students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) over a ten-year period (1986-2006). We also assessed the extent of knowledge of the Spanish health legislation on tobacco (Ley 28/2005) and its effect on smoking. We administered a questionnaire to representative samples of students from the 1st year of their Psychology course to the 5th year, on four occasions. In the academic year 1996-1997 (N = 835), 34% of the sample claimed to be daily smokers; in 1999-2000 (N = 842), the figure was 35.2%; in 2003-2004 (N = 835) it was 31.9%; and in 2006-2007 (N = 688), it was 22.8%. Moreover, in the last assessment, 97.1% of the sample reported being aware of the legislation (Ley 28/2005) and 41.9% of the smokers claimed that it had some degree of influence on their smoking. It can be stated that, although overall current prevalence of smoking is similar to that of 10 years ago, a significant change is observed in the profile of smokers. This change is expressed in lower levels of nicotine dependence and a decrease in the percentage of daily smokers, together with an increase in occasional smokers.

  5. [Recurrent periods of respiratory tract infections in a 22-year-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Frost, Majbritt; Iyer, Victor Vishwanath; Bertelsen, Henrik Christian; Clausen, Paul; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2014-12-01

    A 22-year-old male with recurrent periods of coughing and nasal discharge was unable to work and cooperate. A bronchoscopy revealed high amounts of leucocytes and no eosinofils, acute inflammation and > 105/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptible to penicillin. The symptoms relapsed after penicillin and at the age of 24 the patient was CT-scanned which revealed bilateral sinusitis, mastoiditis and bronchiectasis. Treatment with azithromycin and a weight loss programme (from 156 kg) improved the health of the patient, who was an orangutan. This highlights the benefit of cooperation between medical doctors and veterinarians.

  6. Gestational trophoblastic disease findings of a five year period retrospective audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Sagoo

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: We found a high incidence of GTD in the non-Asian population (1 in 415. Most patients who had been diagnosed with GTD on ultrasound were in the first trimester. Accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis is 40 % over a 5 year audit period. The main ultrasound findings of GTD were cystic changes and mixed echogenic echoes. Patients who were undiagnosed on ultrasound but had histological diagnosis of GTD had missed miscarriage as the predominant ultrasound diagnosis. Most patients were registered with the screening centre within six weeks of the histological diagnosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1887-1890

  7. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10‐Year Period, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Alwaal, MD, MSc, FRCSC

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The number of PP procedures performed in the inpatient setting declined between 2000 and 2010, likely reflecting a shift toward increasing outpatient procedures. Our data also suggest a better outcome for patients having the procedure done at a high‐volume center in terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, McCulloch CE, Shindel AW, and Breyer BN. The decline of inpatient penile prosthesis over the 10‐year period, 2000–2010. Sex Med 2015;3:280–286.

  8. Treatment trends during a thirteen-year period in a student pediatric dentistry clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, E; Eidelman, E

    1997-01-01

    This manuscript reports the treatment trends in a pediatric dentistry clinic from 1980 to 1992 and discusses their implication in clinical teaching. Analysis of the records of the senior year pediatric dentistry students indicated: no significant change with time in the patients/student ratio, the number of preformed crowns, pulpotomies, and pulpectomies by student or by patient; a significant decrease in the number of one-surface and > or = 2-surface restorations by student and by patient; a significant increase in the number of pit-and-fissure sealants and preventive resin restorations by student and by patient. During the thirteen-year period, the students performed an average of 7.3 one-surface; 12.9 > or = 2-surface restorations; 5.5 preformed crowns; 6.4 pit-and-fissure sealants; 2.4 pulpotomies. There was a significant increase with time in the number of students who performed pit-and-fissure sealants.

  9. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  10. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a three-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a three-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4 and again from the same cattle after ≥ 60 d on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7% entry samples and 1,038 (20.6% ≥ 60 d samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5%, 2.9%, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas 5 isolates (0.4% were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥ 89% similarity according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42, erm(A, erm(B, erm(F, erm(X and msr(E-mph(E, were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a three-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  11. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Trevor W; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  12. Periods in a 87 Years Light Curve of the Symbiotic Star MWC 560

    CERN Document Server

    Leibowitz, Elia M

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of 3 basic clocks of the periods P1=19000 d, P2=1943 d and P3=722 d. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to 3 physical mechanisms in the system. They are, respectively, the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the 7th symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  13. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana, E-mail: elia@astro.tau.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  14. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  15. Twenty-Five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Broeren, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood anxiety disorders during the past 25 years, and this increase…

  16. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2 who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n=76. Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n=126. Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior.

  17. Paediatric head injury admissions over a 10-year period in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, I; Mathieson, C; Sexton, I; Forsyth, S; Brown, J; St George, E J

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in childhood. A retrospective study of all paediatric head injuries admitted to the neurosurgical unit for the West of Scotland over a 10-year period was performed to assess the impact of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence head injury guidelines on the admission rate and to determine the associated risk factors, causes, severity and outcomes of these injuries. There were 564 admissions between 1998 and 2007. The median age at presentation was nine years and two months. There was no change in the admission rate, injury mechanism or severity of head injury admitted over the period studied. A relationship was observed between the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Score and the incidence of head injury (P = 0.05). Alcohol was reported as a causative factor in only a small number of cases, and moderate to severe head injuries were more commonly identified as a result of road traffic accidents.

  18. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n = 76). Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n = 126). Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point) was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior. PMID:24891946

  19. Anatomical and subjective success rates of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy over a seven-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshay, N; Ghabrial, R

    2016-11-01

    PurposeEndonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (END-DCR) is a relatively novel approach that has recently been shown in some studies to provide similar success rates to the more traditional external approach for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). However, a range of success rates using this approach are reported within the literature and the majority of oculoplastic surgeons are still favouring the external approach. The purpose of this study was to review the anatomical and subjective success rates of END-DCRs performed over a 7-year period.Patients and methodsWe provide a review of the success rates of 288 END-DCRs for the treatment of acquired NLDO performed over a 7-year period by a single oculoplastic surgeon in Sydney, Australia. We describe the operative technique used and define anatomical success as demonstrated patency of the nasolacrimal drainage system at 10 weeks postoperatively while subjective success is defined as complete resolution or significant improvement of symptoms as reported by patients at the same time point.ResultsIn our study, we were able to demonstrate that out of 288 END-DCRs, an average anatomical success rate of 89.6% and an average subjective success rate of 81.3% were achievable.ConclusionsWe conclude that the success rates using our endonasal approach remain similar to those obtained using the external approach, as reported within the literature, and may be considered as a primary treatment option for acquired NLDO.

  20. Evaluating Period of Accelerated Skeletal Maturation in Gujarati Children between Ages 8+ and 14+ Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the level of skeletal maturation and period of accelerated growth in 70 boys and 70 girls between the ages (8+ and (14+ years using CVMS index. Materials and methods: Lateral cephalogram of 140 individuals were selected, i.e. 70 girls and 70 boys, each of age group from 8+ to 14+ years. It is observed that CVMS index used is highly significant for this purpose. It is observed that this index is highly effective for this purpose. Conclusion: Females′ vertebrae mature earlier than males at each stage. The maturation rate is not constant between the various stages and period of accelerated growth is experienced at different ages and levels in males and females. Need arises to confirm that early maturation in females is not because of their smaller sized vertebra. Further, the time duration recorded between the two subsequent stages is different not because the changes required to be done by nature is different. Longitudinal growth studies of the jaws proper are desired to be conducted for this purpose.

  1. Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Working Group of Power Institutional Reform; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power industry is an important infrastructure for national economic and social development. In the 10th Five-Year Plan period, power institutional reform in China has gained important progress, the basic realization of separation between government and enterprises, as well as between power plants and power grids, the formation of competitive situation in power generation field and power enterprises' vitality have been strengthened;along with power tariff reform incessantly deepening, regional power market initiating and power legal construction further strengthening, the construction of power regulatory system achieving progression. In the course of pushing forward power institutional reform, power safety operation, power personnel's stability and rapid growth of power industry have been ensured,which forcefully supported national economic and social development. However, power institutional reform has achieved but an intermediate result, the mission of reform has not yet completed and some new conditions and problems have arisen. In the 11th Five-Year period, we shall firmly grasp the favorable opportunity of power supply alleviation,insist on proceeding from China's reality, assimilate foreign successful experience, consolidate reform achievement and promote power industry's sustained and healthy development,then people's high quality and inexpensive power service can be ensured.

  2. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  3. Primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis: A case report with a ten-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Tomás Martí Huguet, Noemí Barnils Garcia, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 57-year-old woman consulted our department about a plaque that had been present in her left eye for one year. Ophthalmological examination revealed a solid mass in the left conjunctival semilunar fold. An excitional biopsy was peformed, revealing an amyloid deposition. The patient was referred to the Internal Medicine Department for systemic study. All studies were negative for systemic amyloidosis. Throughout ten years of follow-up study, the patient has shown neither conjunctival recurrence nor any evidence of systemic amylodosis. Despite the fact that several authors have described ocular amyloidosis as an ophthalmologic manifestation of systemic amyloidosis, conjunctival location of amyloidosis is a very rare condition. Amyloid characterization in ocular structures should not be considered a final diagnosis since involvement of systemic underlying diseases must be ruled out. We report a case of localized conjunctival amyloidosis with a ten-year follow-up period that excluded ocular or systemic diseases.Keywords: conjuctival amyloidosis, ocular amyloidosis, hyaline protein

  4. Twenty years of activity of the radiation protection service of the El Cabril storage center; Veinte anos de actividad del servicio de proteccion radiologica del centro de almacenamiento de El Cabril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, L.; Pinilla, J. L.; Ortiz, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    All controls of internal contamination by body radioactivity counter have been lower than the level of logging for internal doses (1 mSv/year). External personal pollution incidents have not occurred. With respect to the dose to the public these remain very low and lower than the limits specified in the authorization. Also the results of the PVRA indicate no influence of the installation in your environment. During the twenty years of operation of the El Cabril Storage Center has not occurred any incidents radiological and doses both to workers and the public in general, are kept very low and lower than the established dose limits. (Author)

  5. Mercury pollution control in industrial area in Rosignano Marittimo (Italy) during last twenty years (1971-1991); Il controllo dell`inquinamento da mercurio nell`area industriale di Rosignano marittimo negli anni 1971-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertani, R. [Unita Sanitaria Locale 14, Cecina, Livorno (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Author takes into account some papers dealing with mercury environmental pollution, appeared in different scientific journals over the last twenty years, in the aim of defining a homogeneous frame for the comprehension of the environmental situation development. Data relating to air, marine water, sediments, animal and vegetal organisms, show a consistent decreasing of mercury emissions with the passing of time. Nevertheless, author fearfully points out the environmental fate of the mercury which has been heavily released from the plant in the past years and to whom he wishes to turn attention for the assessment of an adequate control procedure.

  6. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  7. Comparative heart failure profile over a 3-year period in a Romanian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop,1 Oana Maria Penciu,1 Adela Viviana Sitar-Taut,2 Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea11Department of Cardiology, Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2"Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Heart failure (HF has become an increasingly significant public health problem, associated with repeated hospitalizations, high costs, low quality of life, and decreased survival rate. The progress of the disease may be slowed if treatment is administered in accordance with current guidelines.Objectives: To compare the clinical profile of HF patients in a Romanian general hospital over a 3-year period.Methods and results: We studied two cohorts of patients admitted in the cardiology department of a rehabilitation hospital with a diagnosis of chronic HF New York Heart Association class II–IV. The first, in 2006, included 415 patients, 67.08 ± 10.59 years; the second, in 2009, included 500 patients, 67.31 ± 11.27 years. Considering all patients, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was not statistically different in the two cohorts. Compared to the 2006 cohort, the 2009 female cohort had higher LVEF (60.49% ± 13.41% vs 64.42% ± 13.79%, P < 0.05, while males over 65 years of age had lower LVEF (52.75% ± 15.02% vs 54.37% ± 15.23%, P = NS. For females, the probability of having LVEF ,45% was higher in 2006 (odds ratio = 1.573. HF with preserved LVEF was more common in females, both in 2006 (78.2% vs 54.2% and 2009 (87.2% vs 57.3%. In the 2009 cohort, LVEF was higher both in young patients (59.08% ± 14.22% vs 55.35% ± 14.92% and patients ≥ than 75 years of age (62.28% ± 13.81% vs 56.79% ± 14.81% compared to the 2006 cohort. Ischemic heart disease was the main underlying cause for HF in both cohorts.Conclusion: HF appeared to have the same clinical profile over a 3-year period. Females diagnosed with HF showed higher rates of preserved LVEF.Keywords: heart

  8. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  9. Explaining the 11-year periodicity in Neptune's atmosphere with Voyager 2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles

    2017-04-01

    Long-duration observations of Neptune's brightness at two visible wavelengths, made since the 1970s by Lockwood and co-workers [e.g. 1], give a disk-averaged estimate of variations in the planet's clouds and atmospheric aerosol. Brightness variations have previously been associated with the 11-year solar cycle [1], through two solar-modulated mechanisms, firstly, ultraviolet-related colour changes [2], or galactic cosmic ray (GCR)-related nucleation effects on atmospheric particle formation. Over 40 years of brightness data (1972-2014) are used here to show, with physically realistic modelling, that ultraviolet and GCR are likely to be modulating Neptune's atmosphere in combination rather than as alternatives. Existence of the cosmic ray mechanism is further supported by the response of Neptune's atmosphere to an intermittent 1.5- to 1.9-year periodicity during the mid-1980s. This occurred in GCR and, critically for its use in mechanism discrimination, not the solar ultraviolet. This periodicity was detected both at Earth, and in GCR measured by Voyager 2, which was close to Neptune at that time. The similar coincident variability in Neptune's brightness suggests nucleation onto GCR ions. Both GCR and ultraviolet particle modulation mechanisms are expected to occur more rapidly than the subsequent atmospheric transport processes.[2] [1] Lockwood, G. W. & Thompson, D. T. Photometric variability of Neptune, 1972-2000. Icarus 156, 37-51 (2002). [2] Aplin, K. L. & Harrison, R. G. Determining solar effects in Neptune's atmosphere. Nat. Commun. 7:11976 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11976 (2016)

  10. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  12. Treatment and Prognosis for an Esthesioneuroblastoma over a 20-Year Period: Impact of Treatment Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chang Hoon; Kim, Il Han; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Dong Wan; Rhee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of postoperative radiotherapy in a case of perihilar cholagiocarcinoma by analyzing overall survival rate, patterns of failure, prognostic factors for overall survival, and toxicity. Between January 1998 and March 2008, 38 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent a surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. The median patient age was 59 years (range, 28 to 72 years), which included 23 men and 15 women. The extent of surgery was complete resection in 9 patients, microscopically positive margins in 25 patients, and a subtotal resection in 4 patients. The tumor bed and regional lymphatics initially received 45 Gy or 50 Gy, but was subsequently boosted to a total dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy in incompletely resected patients. The median radiotherapy dose was 59.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 30 patients. The median follow-up period was 14 months (range, 6 to 45 months). The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression free survival rates were 30% and 8%, respectively. The median survival time was 28 months. A multivariate analysis showed that differentiation was the only significant factor for overall survival. The 3-year overall survival was 34% in R0 patients and 20% in R1 patients. No statistically significant differences in survival were found between the 2 groups (p=0.3067). The first site of failure was local in 18 patients (47%). No patient experienced grade 3 or higher acute toxicity and duodenal bleeding developed in 2 patients. Our results suggest that adjuvant RT might be a significant factor in patients with a positive margin following a radical resection. However, there was still a high locoregional recurrence rate following surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Further study is necessary to enhance the effect of the adjuvant radiotherapy.

  13. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  14. A New Approach to Estimating the T-Year Return-Period Wave Height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; SONG Wenpeng; GE Yong

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new approach to estimating the T-year return-period wave height (TRPW),i.e.the wave height expected to occur in T-year,from two sets of observed extreme data and on the basis of the maximum entropy principle.The main points of the approach are as follows.1) A maximum entropy probability density function (PDF) for the extreme wave height H is derived from a Euler equation subject to some necessary and rational constraints.2) The parameters in the function are expressed in terms of the mth moment of H.3) This PDF is convenient to theoretical and practical applications as it is simple and its four parameters are easy to be determined from observed extreme data.An example is given for estimating the TRPW in 50 and 100 years by the present approach and by some currently used methods using observed data at two hydrographic stations.The comparison of the estimated results shows that the present approach is quite similar to the Pearson-Ⅲ and Gumbel methods.

  15. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  16. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... occurs in two award years. (a) If a student enrolls in a payment period that is scheduled to occur in two...

  17. Active longitudes in the period of overlap of 11-year cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mikhalina, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that "active longitudes" for the sunspots of old and new cycles manifest themselves approximately in the same longitudinal intervals and remain for several 11-year cycles. To be more accurate, they vanish in some cycles but then appear again at the same longitudinal intervals in the other cycles. The entire period is characterized by a total of four active longitudes. The old-cycle sunspots observed at low equatorial latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are characterized by a shift by ≈180°, which indicates antipodality of the active longitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In the case of highlatitude sunspots (new-cycle sunspots), the best correlation is observed for the shift of ≈90°. There is supposedly a dependence of the rotation speed of active longitudes on the secular cycle.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity; An unselected material from a 5-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Head and Neck Oncology Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.).

  19. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  20. Forecast of Grain Production of China during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest revised agricultural economic statistical data in China Statistical Yearbook-2010,by selecting and establishing the square root-treated grey model,the empirical analysis and forecast research on the grain output of China from 2011 to 2015 are conducted.The results show that the grain output of China in 2011 will reach 557.739 million tons,and it will break through 600 million tons at 605.617 million tons in 2015.The persistent and stable grain output will ensure that the national economy develops in normal during the twelfth five-year plan period and remit the world grain crisis efficiently;meanwhile,the problem of exorbitant grain prices should be remitted in some level.

  1. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  2. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  3. Twenty-five Years of Research on Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Publication Trends Between 1982 and 2006 and a Selective Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined trends in publications on childhood anxiety disorders over the past 25 years. A PsycINFO search was carried out to find relevant research articles published between 1982 and 2006. Results indicated a gradual and significant rise in the frequency of publications on childhood

  4. Patient-reported health outcomes after total hip and knee surgery in a Dutch University Hospital Setting: results of twenty years clinical registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Wammes, J.J.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Westert, G.P.; Kampen, A. van; Hannink, G.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Schreurs, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measurement is a method for measuring perceptions of patients on their health and quality of life. The aim of this paper is to present the results of PRO measurements in total hip and knee replacement as routinely collected during 20 years of surgery in a

  5. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  6. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  7. Improved outcomes after autologous bone marrow transplantation for children with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: twenty years experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Phillip M; Link, Michael P; Donaldson, Sarah S; Advani, Ranjana H; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Porteus, Matthew; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Agarwal-Hashmi, Rajni

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival of pediatric patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (auBMT) for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) and to identify factors that might contribute to their outcome. We reviewed the records and clinical course of 89 consecutive rrHL patients ≤ 21 years old who underwent auBMT at Stanford Hospitals and Clinics and the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford between 1989 and 2012. We investigated, by multiple analyses, patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with outcome. Endpoints were 5-year overall and event-free survival. Our findings include that cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) as a conditioning regimen for auBMT is effective for most patients ≤ 21 years old with rrHL (5-year overall survival, 71%). Transplantation after the year 2001 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with our earlier experience (80% compared with 65%). Patients with multiply relapsed disease or with disease not responsive to initial therapy fared less well compared with those with response to initial therapy or after first relapse. Administration of post-auBMT consolidative radiotherapy (cRT) also appears to contribute to improved survival. We are able to conclude that high-dose chemotherapy with CBV followed by auBMT is effective for the treatment of rrHL in children and adolescents. Survival for patients who undergo auBMT for rrHL has improved significantly. This improvement may be because of patient selection and improvements in utilization of radiotherapy rather than improvements in chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to describe the role of auBMT across the entire spectrum of patients with rrHL and to identify the most appropriate preparative regimen with or without cRT therapy in the treatment of rrHL in young patients.

  8. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Kneck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods: A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings: Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion: The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness.

  9. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945-1960 and 1980-2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63-.89) in 1945-1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04-3.26) in 2000-2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023-1.026]; P 4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Variation Characteristics of Low Temperature and Rainy Weather in Guangxi during Spring Sowing Period of Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 50 years.[Method] Based on the daily average temperature data from 1961 to 2010 at 88 meteorological stations in Guangxi,yearly days and end date of low temperature and rainy weather during spring sowing period were carried out statistics.The variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 5...

  11. Ewing's sarcoma in children: twenty-five years of experience at the Instituto Portugês de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil (I.P.O.F.G.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, M B; Vilhena, M; Neves, M; Raposo, S; Catita, J; De Sousa, V; Martins, A G

    1991-05-01

    Fifty children with Ewing's sarcoma were consecutively treated from 1962 to 1987 and retrospectively analyzed at the I.P.O.F.G. of Lisbon. At first diagnosis, 10 cases had distant metastases. The remaining 40 patients had clinically localized disease, and different protocols were followed over the years. The best results were obtained with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without surgery; and for these children the two-year survival rate was 42.8% vs. 8.3% for the group of patients submitted to local treatment alone. Besides the treatment modality, other factors influenced the prognosis, such as inflammatory signs, sex, tumor volume, and tumor site as well as evidence of distant metastases.

  12. DESC - Providing Energy to Train, to Fight to Win. Defense Energy Support Center Fact Book, Fiscal Year 2006, Twenty-Ninth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-14

    Pershing Support) in Neu Ulm, Germany, as the Petroleum Officer and later as a Company Commander. From 1987 to 1990 he served as the Petroleum Officer...Sep 04Hardin County Water District #1 Wastewater/ Stormwater Fort Knox Kentucky 41%$164,071$11.9M (For 50 Years) Jun 04Dominion Virginia Power...Kwajalein, Montana, Nevada , Oregon, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Wake Island, and El Paso, TX. PRODUCT TECHNOLOGY & STANDARDIZATION DIVISION Technical

  13. Correlation of quantity of dental students' clinical experiences with faculty evaluation of overall clinical competence: a twenty-two-year retrospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Michael; Holmes, David C; Doering, John V

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the quantity of a student's clinical experiences in the final year of dental school and the student's overall clinical competence at graduation, as evaluated by faculty at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. Further, the authors sought to determine whether this correlation changed over time, as new generations of students come to dental school. Information including year of graduation, age at graduation, final grade in the course Clinical Competencies in Comprehensive Care, and final total Clinical Experience Units (CEUs) earned by each student in the D4 Family Dentistry Clinic was collected for 1987-2008 graduates of the University of Iowa College of Dentistry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) was computed for the association of final clinical course grade and final CEU total for each graduation year. The correlation between final course grade and final CEU total was variable, ranging from moderately strong (r(s)=0.614, Class of 1991) to negligible (r(s)=-0.013, Class of 2008). This correlation generally tended to become weaker over time. The results of this study suggest that the terminal quality of a dental student's work is not solely a function of repetitions of prescribed procedures and that repetition of procedures may have even less influence on the quality of clinical performance for the new generation of dental students.

  14. Twenty-five years of the international Bled course for teachers of family medicine in Europe: Glancing back and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Svab, Igor; Petek-Ster, Marija; Bulc, Mateja; Buchanan, Josephine; Finnegan, Henry; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2016-12-01

    The international Bled course for teacher training has played a central role in faculty development in family medicine for the past 25 years. The course was originally designed to promote faculty development for family medicine teachers in the new academic discipline of family medicine in Slovenia in 1990 and to introduce new topics into the family medicine curriculum. In this background paper, we perform a SCOT analysis (strengths, challenges, opportunities, and threats) of the current course, evaluating participant feedback and reviewing past topics and their impact on local and international teaching programmes. We also review the place of the course in the context of other teacher-training programmes in family medicine in Europe. We found that the structure and learning aims of the Bled course have remained stable over 25 years. It provides a safe, well-structured learning environment for the participants even though the course topic is different every year. The course has had a significant impact on curriculum development and teacher training in Slovenia as well as in many other countries in Europe and beyond. Because of the positive impact of the course and the high degree of satisfaction of the participants and course directors, it seems worthwhile to continue this endeavour. New directions for the course will depend on the learning needs of the participants and the evolving medical curricula in the countries they represent.

  15. Follow-up of a Case of Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Over an 8-year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Feng Wen; Guangwei Luo; Futian Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show the follow-up of a case of vitelliform mac-ular dystrophy with morphological and visual functional tests over an 8-year period. Methods:.Retrospective review of medical records..The mor-phological examination included color photography,.fluores-cein angiography, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT). The visual functional tests included visual acuity, electro-ocu-logram (EOG) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). The patient was observed for 8 years, from 2003 to 2011. Results:.During the follow-up,.the improvement of sensory retinal detachment and reduction of yellow-white deposit were observed with color photography and fluorescein angiography. OCT revealed a decrease in sensory retinal detachment and subretinal hyper-reflective deposits; both of these morphologi-cal changes were correspondent. Visual acuity was maintained throughout the follow-up..The Arden ratio of EOG was de-creased. The amplitudes of mfERG were decreased but slightly increased during the follow-up. Conclusion:.The retinal morphological changes and visual function slightly improved in this case of vitelliform macu-lopathy. The prognosis is good. (Eye Science 2014; 29:165-169)

  16. Pediatric encephaloceles: A series of 20 cases over a period of 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Ravindra Ramdurg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. The exact worldwide frequency is not known. Aims and Objectives: To determine the epidemiological features, patterns of encephalocele, and its postsurgical results. Materials and Methods: The study was carried from year July 2012 to June 2015. Patients with encephalocele were evaluated for epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging characteristics, and surgical results. Results: 20 encephaloceles patients were treated during the study period. Out of these 12 (60% were male and 8 (40% female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. The most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12 (60%, occipito-cervical 4 (20%, parietal 2 (10%, fronto-nasal 1 (5%, and fronto-naso-ethmoidal 1 (5%. One patient had a double encephalocele (one atretic and other was occipital with dermal sinus tract and limited dermal myeloschisis. Other associations: Chiari 3 malformation (2, meningomyeloceles (4, and syrinx (4. Three patients presented with rupture two of whom succumbed to meningitis and shock. Seventeen patients treated surgically did well with no immediate surgical mortality (except a case of Chiari 3 malformation who succumbed 6 months postsurgery to unrelated causes. Shunt was performed in 4 cases. Conclusion: The most common type of encephalocele is occipital in our set up. Early surgical management of encephalocele is not only for cosmetic reasons but also to prevent tethering, rupture, and future neurological deficits.

  17. Evaluation of hemoglobinopathy screening results of a six year period in Turkey '

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Gunher Arıca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hemoglobinopathies are autosomal recessive inherited diseases more commonly seen in Mediterranean countries. Hereditary blood diseases including B-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are important health problems. In our study we aimed to analyze the results of the premarital hemoglobinopathy screening test for a 6 years period in Hatay region. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised the couples attending to the Mother and Child Health Care Center in Hatay for premarital hemoglobinopathy screening from 2004 to 2009. Hemoglobin chain analyses of 87.830 couples were evaluated. RESULTS: 175.660 people were screened at total. The prevalence of beta thalassemia trait, sickle cell anemia trait, sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia major, beta-thalassemia intermedia, alpha-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia trait was found as 13.921 (7,9%, 6.074 (3,4%, 631 (0.35%, 132 (0.07%, 118 (0.06%, 9 (0.005%, 150 (0.08% respectively. 72 newborns with beta-thalassemia were diagnosed as a result of the marriage of the carrier couples in 6 years. Conclusions: Hatay is a high risk region for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait. In countries with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, a premarital screening program and counseling is needed to decrease the prevalence.

  18. International Collaboration and Academic Exchange of the CHAIN Project in this Three Years (Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.

    2014-02-01

    We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.

  19. The Current Status of Ticks in Turkey: A 100-Year Period Review from 1916 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder

    2016-09-01

    Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat". In global struggle strategies, the epidemiological aspects and dynamics of increasing tick populations and their effects on the incidence of the TBDs mainly with zoonotic characteristics have been specifically targeted. In Turkey, during the last century, approximately 47 tick species, including eight soft and 39 hard tick species in three and six genera belonging to Argasidae and Ixodidae, respectively, had already been reported. In this article, the recorded tick species, regional infestations, and medical and veterinary importance in Turkey were chronologically reviewed based on a 100-year period between 1916 and 2016.

  20. A survey of referral patterns to a paediatric dentistry unit over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A J; Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R

    1994-12-01

    Following the changes in October 1990 in the payment system for children's dental treatment within the General Dental Service in the UK there has been widespread concern that repercussions would be felt in other branches of dentistry. The aim of this survey was to investigate the referral of children for specialist care to the Department of Child Dental Health in Newcastle upon Tyne after the changes in 1990, so that consultant clinics and the provision of advice and treatment could be targeted more effectively. Information was obtained from the patients' referral letters and from their hospital records between March 1991 and March 1993. There were 513 referrals (excluding those for orthodontic treatment, extractions under general anaesthesia and acute emergencies), the number more than doubling during the 2-year survey period. 83% of these patients lived within 15 miles of the hospital. 84% of these referrals were from general dental practitioners, and the greater proportion were from those who graduated within the previous 4 years. The most common reason for referral involved behaviour problems. Changes in the payment system that occurred in 1990 may have been a contributory factor in explaining these findings.

  1. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  2. Cytologic diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis: Spectrum of findings in Southern Arizona patients over a 10 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, F Zahra; Millius, Rebecca; Sobonya, Richard; Aboul-Nasr, Khalid; Klein, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The largest series examining the cytological diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was reported more than 20 years ago and only considered fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from pulmonary nodules. Since then, there has been a substantial increase in the incidence of the disease in endemic regions. The aims of this study were to examine the spectrum of Coccidioides in all cytologic specimens and detail their diagnostic and clinical features. The prevalence of infection is also examined against temperature and precipitation data. The Department of Pathology database was retrospectively searched for cases diagnosed as coccidioidomycosis. Climate report was obtained from National Weather Service Forecast Office. Statistical analysis was carried out using JMP version 11.2.0. The presence of Coccidiodes was microscopically diverse with immature spherules, variably sized spherules, endosporulating spherules, empty spherules, and ruptured spherules being observed. Bronchoalveolar lavages demonstrated the greatest number of different forms of Coccidioides and were associated with acute inflammatory response. Granulomas were rare and mostly seen in lymph nodes and extra pulmonary sites. A necrotic background with paucity of inflammation was frequently seen in lung FNA. Immune competent patients outnumbered immunocompromised patients, illustrating the importance of considering the diagnosis in all patients. The reported association between rainfall and peak prevalence was not observed in our study. Coccidioides has diverse cytological appearance and varied host response depending on the site and type of preparation examined. In endemic areas, the disease should be considered in all patients, independent of immune status, and throughout the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Long Period Eclipsing Binary Project - Five Years of Observations at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, P.; Sundman, A.

    1982-06-01

    The star HO 161387 first caught our eyes when we were reading an article on ~ Aurigae stars by K. O. Wright in Vistas in Astronomy No. 12. This was some 8 or 9 years ago. Aurigae stars are eclipsing binaries formed by a cool supergiant K star and a very much smaller and holter mainsequence (more or less normal) B star. Out of eclipse the B star dominates the blue spectral region, but a pure K-type spectrum is found in eclipse. The drastic spectral changes lor HO 161387 can be seen in Fig 1c and 1d. Periods for these binaries are in the range of 2 to 10 years. The general benefit 01 ~ Aurigae star studies is the possibility of direct determination 01 physical parameters of the components such as masses and radii. In practice, what one does observe is the change in radial velocity of the stars as they orbit around their common centre 01 gravity and the change in magnitude as the light from the B star is eclipsed by the K supergiant. There is also the possibility of studying the structure of the atmosphere of a K supergiant manifested by spectral changes occurring as the point light of the B star shines through the outer parts of the K star c1ose to the total eclipse. Besides Aurigae itsell only the stars 31 and 32 Cygni have been studied in greater detail.

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  5. Aerosol particulate matter in the Baltimore metropolitan area: Temporal variation over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben; Wesloh, Daniel; Powers, Richard J; Hoff, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the sources of fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM(2.5)) composition for the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area, covering a 6-year period (2008-2013). Data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) were used for the identification of eight chemical speciation clusters (factors), which, as a percentage of the average concentration, were identified as secondary sulfate (31.9%), secondary nitrate (14.3%), gasoline (17.4%), diesel (10.1%), soil (4.0%), biomass burning (11%), marine aerosol (4.1%), and industrial processing (7.2%). The results show predominant influence from vehicle emissions transiting major highways I-695 and I-95 located in the vicinity of the sampling site. Strong influence on PM2.5 mass from biomass burning was found in the first 2 years (2008-2009) due to particulate matter remnants from forest fire events in North Carolina and a strong contribution in 2013 that was due mainly to wood burning during winter. Sulfate, nitrate, soil, and marine aerosol fractions registered very low variability over the 6-year period analyzed. In addition, this study shows a significant reduction in particulate matter from industrial origins after a major industrial source in Baltimore shut down. The results obtained from Baltimore were compared with those from the Beltsville, Maryland, sampling station located 25 miles south of Baltimore for 2011 and 2012, where good agreement was found for most of the factors. This paper presents the first long-term aerosol speciation analysis in a Mid-Atlantic United States metropolitan area, which is essential for the air quality management agencies in order to revise regulations and reduce human exposure to adverse air quality conditions. The results suggest that although a declining trend in the overall PM2.5 was observed, no significant tendency was observed in the identified sources besides exceptional events such as the impact of

  6. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  7. Chernobylsk: twenty years later, the international system of nuclear civil liability; Tchernobyl: 20 ans apres, le systeme international de responsabilite civile nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahorgue, M.B. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France)

    2006-06-15

    The International system of nuclear civil liability is based on two international treaties: the Paris convention (24.07.1960) and the Brussels convention (31.01.1963), with a time limit for ratification in each concerned country at 30.10.1968. The Paris convention treats compensation and transfrontier problems, the amount of compensation is limited, the Brussels convention specifies the financial system of compensation. The Vienna system under the IAEA auspices gives minimal norms of financial protection against damages and stood in may 1963 thirty three parties signed it. Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Armenia, czech republic, Estonia, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia have joined the Vienna convention, then the Russian Federation that had signed the Convention in 1996 became member in august 2005. New elements appear such measures of remedial action or measures of prevention of reduction of nuclear damages are included, the new protocol increases the geographical area by taking into account the maritime areas because of the evolution of the international sea law. The transport needs specific contracts between parties, the only case of exoneration is the armed conflicts, civil war, insurrection. The time of loss of right comes from ten years to thirty years, for deaths and body damages, the others types of damages stay fixed at ten years. The most important revision is about the limit financial amount for the nuclear operator that is increased and the calculation of methods of funding for each contracting party is tackled. In fact it appears that more important funds will be available to make compensation for a more important number of victims. The revised system guarantees that the liability chain will never be broken. (N.C.)

  8. Spectral variability of the 3C 390.3 nucleus for more than twenty years. I. Variability of the broad and narrow emission-line fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeev, S G; Borman, G A

    2016-01-01

    We summarize results of the analysis of the optical variability of the continuum and emission-line fluxes in the 3C390.3 nucleus during 1992-2014. The [OIII]5007 flux increases monotonically by $\\approx$30 per cent in 2003-2014. The narrow Balmer lines show similar monotonic increase, while the variability patterns of the [OI]6300 narrow line are completely different from that of [OIII]. The reverberation lags are found to be 88.6$\\pm$8.4, 161$\\pm$15, and 113$\\pm$14d for the H$\\beta$, H$\\alpha$, and H$\\gamma$ broad emission-lines, respectively. The reverberation mass of the central black hole equals to (1.87$\\pm$0.26)$\\times10^9\\,M_\\odot$ and (2.81$\\pm$0.38)$\\times10^9\\,M_\\odot$, for the H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines and assuming a scaling factor that converts the virial product to a mass to be f=5.5. A difference between both masses can point to a difference between kinematics of the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission regions. We show that the reverberation mapping can only be applied to the entire period of obs...

  9. 20年合作“北斗”项目历史回顾%Twenty years of cooperation--A brief history of the“Bei Dou”project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    . Spurred by the expanding landings of anchovy, analyses were made on the long-term annual yield of anchovy and discussions raised on the need to introduce some fisheries management regulations in order to avoid over-exploitation and possible collapse of the stock.   This and other management issues dominated the Project during the last 5-year period. Norwegian experts, particularly from the Directorate of Fisheries, have participated in a series of seminar organised by the Bureau of Fisheries covering topics in fisheries management such as management objectives, fisheries law, statistics, inspection and coastal zone management. At the same time, workshops have been held at the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute to prepare assessments of fish resources and provide advice to central government authorities on fisheries management.   Project evaluations have demonstrated that the “Bei Dou” Project in its various phases has made important contributions to the development of fisheries in China. It has also brought together scientists, technicians and administrators from China and Norway in fruitful cooperation, thus expanding their professional and cultural knowledge for mutual benefit.   NORAD has offered to support continued cooperation between fisheries institutions in Norway and China and a Project Document for 2001-2005 has been prepared. The Project will during the nearest years provide information on the Norwegian experience related to establishing and managing fisheries in Exclusive Economic Zones.   This will continue the well-established fisheries cooperation beyond the twenty years marked by the present “Bei Dou” Seminar in Qingdao.

  10. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  11. Combined injuries in the upper cervical spine: clinical and epidemiological data over a 14-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Gleizes, V; Jacquot, F. P.; Signoret, F.; Féron, J.-M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Concomitant traumatic injuries in the upper cervical spine are often encountered and rarely reported. We examined the data concerning 784 patients with cervical spine injuries following trauma, including 116 patients with upper cervical spine injuries. Twenty-six percent of patients with upper cervical spine injuries (31 cases) were found to have combined injuries involving either the upper or the upper and lower cervical spine. The frequent patterns were combined type I bipedicular fracture ...

  12. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Burgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1–4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989–1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼6 × 1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 × 1018 and 2 × 1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  13. The First Twenty Years (1994 2014) of Ozone Soundings from Rapa Nui (27 deg S, 109 deg W, 51 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Laura; Henriquez, Adolfo; Thompson, Anne M.; Rondanelli, Roberto; Carrasco, Jorge; Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Andrea; Velasquez, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) soundings have been performed on Easter Island or Rapa Nui (27 8S, 109 8W, 51 m a.s.l.) since 1994 as part of the Global Atmospheric Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization. In this work, we analyze 260 soundings compiled over the period 19942014, and make the data available for the international community. We characterize O3 profiles over this remote area of the Pacific by means of statistical analyses that consider, on the one hand, a traditional climatology that describes the data in terms of seasonal cycles based on monthly averages and, on the other hand, a process-oriented analysis based on self-organizing maps. Our analyses show the influence of both tropical and subtropical/mid-latitude air masses at Rapa Nui. The former occurs in summer and fall when convective conditions prevail, and the latter in late winter and spring when subsiding conditions are recurrent. The occurrence of stratospheric intrusions in late winter and spring in connection with deep troughs and the presence of the subtropical jet stream is also apparent in the data set. The tropospheric ozone column is in good agreement with the corresponding data derived from satellites but with a systematic overestimate of summer and fall values. There is evidence of an upward trend in ozone near the surface, which suggests the impact of local pollution. We look forward to an enhancement of the Rapa Nui observing site, given its location that offers a privileged position to observe climate change over the sparsely sampled and vast South Pacific Ocean.

  14. The first twenty years (1994–2014 of ozone soundings from Rapa Nui (27°S, 109°W, 51 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gallardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 soundings have been performed on Easter Island or Rapa Nui (27 °S, 109 °W, 51 m a.s.l. since 1994 as part of the Global Atmospheric Watch Programme of the World Meteorological Organization. In this work, we analyse 260 soundings compiled over the period 1994–2014, and make the data available for the international community. We characterise O3 profiles over this remote area of the Pacific by means of statistical analyses that consider, on the one hand, a traditional climatology that describes the data in terms of seasonal cycles based on monthly averages and, on the other hand, a process-oriented analysis based on self-organising maps. Our analyses show the influence of both tropical and subtropical/mid-latitude air masses at Rapa Nui. The former occurs in summer and fall when convective conditions prevail, and the latter in late winter and spring when subsiding conditions are recurrent. The occurrence of stratospheric intrusions in late winter and spring in connection with deep troughs and the presence of the subtropical jet stream is also apparent in the data set. The tropospheric ozone column is in good agreement with the corresponding data derived from satellites but with a systematic overestimate of summer and fall values. There is evidence of an upward trend in ozone near the surface, which suggests the impact of local pollution. We look forward to an enhancement of the Rapa Nui observing site, given its location that offers a privileged position to observe climate change over the sparsely sampled and vast South Pacific Ocean.

  15. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Bürgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1-4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ˜2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ˜ 6 ×1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 ×1018 and 2 ×1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  16. Bovine Pericardial Patch Augmentation of One Insufficient Aortic Valve Cusp with Twenty-three-year Positive Clinical Follow-up Independent of the Patch Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Arcêncio, Lívia; Evora, Patrícia Martinez; Menardi, Antônio Carlos; Chahud, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Scientific progress shall ultimately boost the current acceptance level for conservative aortic valve surgery. The present text aimed to report the 23-year long-term follow-up of one patient operated with bovine pericardium cusp extension. Growing confidence in the efficacy of the operation will allow a more expeditious indication for surgical treatment, as is already the case in mitral valve repair. This change of attitude will certainly make it possible for patients to be sent for operation in mild aortic valve regurgitation. The present report reinforces the concept and highlights the impression that the aortic valvoplasty, independent of the progressive bovine pericardium degeneration, may positively change the natural history of the aortic valve insufficiency.

  17. Educational process in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Service; twenty six years later, University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Rafael Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With this small historical review we want to acknowledge the work of a group of professors who began teaching at a very young age, since the founding of Higher Medical Teaching in the Medical school Raúl Dorticós Torrado in Cienfuegos, and in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Service in the University hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima. The first group of Pre and Post Graduated courses began in September, 1st 1982, with the arrival of the first group of fifth year of Medicine from Santa Clara Medical School and the beginning of the residency by Dr. Eduardo Sarmiento Sánchez after an educational accreditation of the Service by a National Commission headed by Professor René Lorie Pérez.

  18. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  19. “中国创业教育二十年”引论%Introduction of China's entrepreneurship education in the past twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 贾万刚

    2011-01-01

    中国创业教育自1990年启动以来,已经经历了二十年的时间。通过对这二十年的初步梳理,可以发现中国的创业教育还多局限于大学生创业,还没有纳入到整个现代国民教育体系之中;创业教育的土壤还没有丰饶,还需要社会各界的共同培育;高校举办的创业教育还没有跟社会发展紧密关联,还是处在某种救急性的、片面的功利性职业训练中。中国创业教育之路任重而道远。%Since its initiation in 1999,entrepreneurship education in China has been carried out for more than 20 years.Through an initial study of the experience in the 20 or so years,entrepreneurship education has been mostly limited to the undertakings by college students rather than been introduced into the whole system of modern national education.The foundation of the entrepreneurship is still in an immature state which calls for collective efforts and attention of the whole society.Lacking close connections with social development,the entrepreneurship education promoted by higher educations institutions is still too utilitarian and unbalanced.Therefore the task for promoting entrepreneurship education in China is still very challenging.

  20. Twenty-two years of warming, fertilisation and shading of subarctic heath shrubs promote secondary growth and plasticity but not primary growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Campioli

    Full Text Available Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses, fertilisation (nutrients addition and shading (hessian fabric, and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth and cambial growth (secondary growth, and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such

  1. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in aten years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delicio Adriane M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives to evaluate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT rates and related factors in HIV-infected pregnant women from a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. Subjects and method cohort of 452 HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Data was collected from recorded files and undiagnosed children were enrolled for investigation. Statistical analysis: qui-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney test, ANOVA, risk ratio and confidence intervals. Results MTCT occurred in 3.74%. The study population displayed a mean age of 27 years; 86.5% were found to have acquired HIV through sexual contact; 55% were aware of the diagnosis prior to the pregnancy; 62% were not using HAART. Mean CD4 cell-count was 474 cells/ml and 70.3% had undetectable viral loads in the third trimester. HAART included nevirapine in 35% of cases and protease inhibitors in 55%; Zidovudine monotherapy was used in 7.3%. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.2 weeks and in 92% by caesarian section; 97.2% received intravenous zidovudine. Use of AZT to newborn occurred in 100% of them. Factors identified as associated to MTCT were: low CD4 cell counts, elevated viral loads, maternal AIDS, shorter periods receiving HAART, other conditions (anemia, IUGR (intra uterine growth restriction, oligohydramnium, coinfecctions (CMV and toxoplasmosis and the occurrence of labor. Use of HAART for longer periods, caesarian and oral zidovudine for the newborns were associated with a decreased risk. Poor adhesion to treatment was present in 13 of the 15 cases of transmission; in 7, coinfecctions were diagnosed (CMV and toxoplasmosis. Conclusion Use of HAART and caesarian delivery are protective factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Maternal coinfecctions and other conditions were risk factors for MTCT.

  2. Malignant ilnesses in men breast. A twenty-five year study Afecciones malignas de la mama en hombre. Estudio de veinticinco años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Ajá

    Full Text Available Background: Breast tumors prevailed in female population, nevertheless in male population appear although it is very infrequent to be found. Objective: to describe the clinical-pathologic behavior of breast cancer in Cienfuegos province. Method: A descriptive-retrospective study of breast tumors in males who were surgically treated at the University Hospital ";Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos, Cuba from January 1st 1981 to December 31st 2005. The variables used were the following: age, affected breast, topographic localization of the tumor, clinical stage at the time of diagnosis, histological variant, type of biopsy used for this purpose, surgical technique applied, and health area belonging to. Results: male breast cancer represented the 0.8 % out of the total of breast cancers which were surgically treated during this studied period. Detection at very advanced clinical stages was confirmed. Conclusions: It is necessary to establish mechanisms for their early detection due to the increment in the incidence of this disease in males.
    Fundamento: Los tumores mamarios prevalecen en la población femenina, sin embargo, en el sexo masculino, aunque es extremadamente infrecuente, también puede aparecer este tipo de afección. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento clínico patológico del cáncer de mama en hombre, en la provincia Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de todos los casos de tumores mamarios en hombre, operados en el Hospital Universitario ";Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” de Cienfuegos, desde el 1ro de enero de 1981, hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2005. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, mama afectada, localización topográfica del tumor, etapa clínica en el momento del diagnóstico, variante histológica, tipo de biopsia

  3. Nursing Taxonomies in Spain: Research Themes Presented at the AENTDE Conferences Over a 16-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao-Goris, Silamani J Adolf; Lluch-Canut, Maria Teresa; Martín-Iglesias, Susana; Quero-Rufián, Aurora; Roldán Merino, Juan Francisco

    2016-03-16

    To identify the types of studies of nursing taxonomies and priority research themes presented at AENTDE conferences between 1996 and 2012. Four hundred oral communications and posters and 27 lectures presented at the AENTDE meetings were reviewed by means of a descriptive analysis of the types of studies conducted and a content analysis of priority research themes. The most commonly presented studies were descriptions of the implementation of nursing taxonomies, which accounted for 27.4% of the total over the 16-year period. However, their prevalence fell from 31.8% in 1996 to 9.1% in 2012. Basic research studies accounted for 17.4% of studies overall but were the most frequent in 2012, when their proportion had risen to 37.5%. The prevalence of basic research studies increased notably over the 16-year period. Content validity studies rose in number, while face validity studies fell. Studies of the practical implementation of taxonomies also declined. Identificar los tipos de estudios de taxonomías enfermeras y los temas de investigación prioritarios presentados en las convenciones de AENTDE desde 1996 a 2012. MÉTODO: Se revisaron 400 comunicaciones y 27 ponencias presentadas a 9 simposiums de AENTDE realizando un análisis del tipo de estudio y un análisis de contenido de los temas. Los estudios más frecuentes son las experiencias de implantación de las taxonomías enfermeras con un porcentaje medio de un 27.4% que partiendo de un 31.8% en 1996 disminuyó a un 9,1% en 2012. La investigación básica tienen un porcentaje medio del 17.4% obteniéndose el mayor porcentaje en 2012 con un 37,5%. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de los estudios de investigación básica se incrementó notablemente durante el período de 16 años. Los estudios de validez de contenido aumentaron en número, mientras que los estudios de validez aparente cayeron. Los estudios sobre la aplicación práctica de las taxonomías también disminuyeron. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Twenty-Year Predictors of Peripheral Arterial Disease Compared With Coronary Heart Disease in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Peters, Sanne A E; Woodward, Mark; Struthers, Allan D; Belch, Jill J F

    2017-09-18

    Coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affect different vascular territories. Supplementing baseline findings with assays from stored serum, we compared their 20-year predictors. We randomly recruited 15 737 disease-free men and women aged 30 to 75 years across Scotland between 1984 and 1995 and followed them through 2009 for death and hospital diagnoses. Of these, 3098 developed coronary heart disease (19.7%), and 499 PAD (3.2%). Hazard ratios for 45 variables in the Cox model were adjusted for age and sex and for factors in the 2007 ASSIGN cardiovascular risk score. Forty-four of them were entered into parsimonious predictive models, tested by c-statistics and net reclassification improvements. Many hazard ratios diminished with adjustment and parsimonious modeling, leaving significant survivors. The hazard ratios were mostly higher in PAD. New parsimonious models increased the c-statistic and net reclassification improvements over ASSIGN variables alone but varied in their components and ranking. Coronary heart disease and PAD shared 7 of the 9 factors from ASSIGN: age, sex, family history, socioeconomic status, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and systolic blood pressure (but neither total nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); plus 4 new ones: NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cystatin-C. The highest ranked hazard ratios for continuous factors in coronary heart disease were those for age, total cholesterol, high-sensitivity troponin, NT-pro-BNP, cotinine, apolipoprotein A, and waist circumference (plus 10 more); in PAD they were age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, expired carbon monoxide, cotinine, socioeconomic status, and lipoprotein (a) (plus 5 more). The mixture of shared with disparate determinants for arterial disease in the heart and the legs implies nonidentical pathogenesis: cholesterol dominant in the former, and inflammation (high-sensitivity C

  5. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  6. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  7. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate with present emissions and 2047–2053 (future climate with present emissions. Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4–39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate

  8. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  9. Effects of Vitamin A supplementation on child morbidity: a twenty-year time series analysis in the northeastern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante E; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; da Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of supplementation between 1987 and 2007, and to measure the impact of this on morbidity. Five sequential cross-sectional studies in a 20-year time span were analyzed. Each had a sample of 8,000 domiciles representative of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, followed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Increases in coverage, ranging from 9.6 to 65.8 % were verified, and the study found that the impact of supplementation in reducing morbidity may not be significant. The study also found that supplementation may be associated with higher frequency of certain morbidities (OR 1.8, CI 95 % 1.20-2.95). When the supplementation variable was adjusted for socioeconomic factors, the risk was higher for diarrhea (OR 5.56, CI 95 % 2.63-11.75). The study concluded that in Brazil, vitamin A supplementation may have little benefit in reducing morbidity.

  10. One hundred and twenty years from the former 'Pavilion for Clinical Observation' to the National Lunatic Asylum, later Institute of Psychiatry - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Cátia; Verçosa, Neide; Anselmé, Célia; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-08-01

    The Pavilion for Clinical Observation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, also known as the Pavilion for Admissions, was designed by Professor of Psychiatry João Carlos Texeira Brandão (1854-1921). It was based on the influence of French alienism as a forum for the screening and evaluation of possible mental illness and the forwarding to the National Lunatic Asylum of patients so diagnosed. It was officially created by the Federal Brazilian Decree number 1559 of October 1893 in order to assess the appropriate disposal of suspects sent by the police. The Pavilion was the first University Psychiatric Hospital in Brazil, a pioneer in the integration of teaching, research and clinical practice. The Chair of Clinical Psychiatry, established in 1881, did not until then have a specific place for teaching and practical experience. Over the years subjects were examined and treated, based not only on theories arising from French and later German medical literature but also on the psychiatric practice developed in the Pavilion for Clinical Observation. This was the germ of the consolidation of psychiatric knowledge in Brazil, giving it status and generating a genuinely Brazilian Psychiatric Science.

  11. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Juhanson, Jaanis; Michelsen, Anders; Ľuptáčik, Peter

    2017-03-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  12. During twenty years of Cisplatin-based therapy the face of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors is still changing: an evaluation of presentation, management, predictive factors and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Heinzelbecker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the changing presentation and treatment of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSGCT and to investigate predictive factors for the status of metastasis at diagnosis and on relapse and death. Materials and Methods: Retrospective record review of 147 patients that underwent inguinal orchiectomy from 1987-2007. Follow-up data was available for 102 patients (median follow-up: 80 months (0-243; 96 patients alive. Results: Mean patients age increased (p = 0.015 and more patients were diagnosed in clinical stage I (CSI (p = 0.040. The fraction of yolk sac (YS elements inclined (p = 0.030 and pT2 tumors increased (p I showed a declined CSS compared to CSI patients (p = 0.055. The presence of YS elements was associated to an improved RFS (p = 0.038. Conclusions: In our single institution study the face of NSGCT markedly changed over 20 years even after the introduction of Cisplatin-based chemotherapy. These changes were accompanied by an improvement in RFS and CSS. When dealing with NSGCT patients such observations now and in the future should be taken into account.

  13. Esape from death. Twenty years of forest die-back - stock taking of a paradox; Dem Tod entronnen. Zwanzig Jahre Waldsterben - die Bilanz eines Widerspruchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakott, J.

    1993-12-01

    In several popular-scientific abstracts the 12/93 issue of `bild der wissenschaft` describes the stage of forest decline and of research into this phenomenon. It sketches out the development of forest damage and its reception by popular-scientific publications in Germany and Europe over the past ten years. Specifically, it deals with the decline of oak forests since 1300; the percentages of oak, beech, silver birch, pine, spruce, and fir in forest stands; causes of forest decline and their complex interrelations; nutrient circulation (esp. nitrogen); air pollution through livestock farming and road traffic; game as a damage factor; and the tasks of research into climate effects. (orig.) [Deutsch] In mehreren populaerwissenschaftlichen Abstracts beschreibt die bild der wissenschaft-Ausgabe 12/93 den Stand der Waldschaeden und ihrer Erforschung sowie die Entwicklung der Waldschaeden und ihrer populaerwissenschaftlichen Aufarbeitung in Deutschland (und Europa) ueber die vergangenen 10 Jahre. Der Rueckgang der Eichenwaelder seit 1300, der Bestandsanteil an Eichen, Buchen, Birken, Kiefern, Fichten und Tannen, Waldverlust und Wiederaufforstung, die Ursachen des Waldsterbens und ihre komplexen Wirkgefuege, Naehrstoffkreislaeufe (bes. Stickstoff), Luftbelastungen durch Tierhaltung und Strassenverkehr, der Schadfaktor Wild und die Aufgaben der Klimafolgenforschung werden angesprochen. (orig.)

  14. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  15. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  16. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in California was studied using a climate – air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000–2006 (present climate and 2047–2053 (future climate. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate – air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35–40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized.

    Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH, rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. These changes resulted in a ~0.6–1.9 μg m−3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the

  17. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Jørgensen, Marianne; Urbonaviciene, Neringa; Tamosiunas, Vytas; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Kadusevicius, Edmundas; Berg, Douglas; Andersen, Leif P

    2013-05-01

    The study evaluated the changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains with primary resistance to antibiotics during the last 10 years in Lithuania. H. pylori susceptibilities to antibiotics were tested in 89 patients in 1998, in 81 patients in 2001 and in 90 patients in 2007/2008. Susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline was tested using E-test or agar dilution method. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was only tested in 2007/2008. Data about utilization of all authorized and available on market macrolides and clindamycin in Lithuania during 2003-2007 were evaluated using WHO ATC/DDD methodology. A total of 260 H. pylori strains cultured from untreated adult patients were investigated. Primary resistance rates (1998, 2001 and 2007/2008) for metronidazole were 24.7%, 33.3%, and 35.6%, for clarithromycin 1.1%, 3.7%, and 3.3% and for tetracycline 0%, 2.5% and 0% respectively. No cases of amoxicillin resistance have been detected. The resistance rate for ciprofloxacin was 5.6% in 2007/2008. Data of total macrolides and clarithromycin utilization in Lithuania revealed that despite an increase of consumption of these drugs in Lithuania during 2003-2007 in 1.5 times, the total macrolide consumption remains one of the lowest in Europe. We have not observed any significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics during the recent 10-year period. The low resistance rate to clarithromycin might be related to the policy to avoid use of macrolides as first-line treatment for pulmonary and other infections.

  18. An Evaluation of Twenty Years of EU Framework Programme-funded Immune-mediated Inflammatory Translational Research in Non-human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Geraldine Haanstra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which often no effective treatments exist, resulting in increasing health care expenditure. Despite high investments in drug development, the number of promising new drug candidates decreases. We propose that preclinical research in non-human primate can help to bridge the gap between drug discovery and drug prescription.Translational research covers various stages of drug development of which pre-clinical efficacy tests in valid animal models is usually the last stage. Pre-clinical research in non-human primates may be essential in the evaluation of new drugs or therapies when a relevant rodent model is not available. Non-human primate models for life-threatening or severely debilitating diseases in humans are available at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC. These have been instrumental in translational research for several decades.In order to stimulate European health research and innovation from bench to bedside, the European Commission (EC has invested heavily in access to non-human primate research for more than 20 years. BPRC has hosted European users in a series of transnational access programs covering a wide range of research areas with the common theme being immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We present an overview of the results and give an account of the studies performed as part of European Union Framework Programme (EU FP-funded translational non-human primate research performed at the BPRC. The data illustrate value of translational non-human primate research for the development of new therapies and emphasize the importance of EU FP funding

  19. Review of Studies on Chongqing Japanese Concession in the Past Twenties Years%近二十年重庆日租界研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2016-01-01

    重庆日租界是中国近代史上列强在西部地区开辟的唯一租界,自1901年正式建立至1937年彻底废除,共历36年有余。1980年代初开始直到今天,有关重庆日租界的研究方兴未艾,取得了一系列有价值的研究成果,比如对租界内部活动的广泛探索、对租界回收过程的精确界定等等。在未来对重庆日租界的研究中,还应进一步探索重庆日租界设立过程中的两国外交谈判细节、重庆日租界内部企业及其活动等亟待解决的问题。%Chongqing Japanese concession is the only concession in the western areas of China, opened by the imperialist powers in China’s modern history. The concession existed for 36 years, from the formal establishment in 1901 to the complete abolition in 1937. Since early 1980s, studies on Chongqing Japanese concession have been on the rise, yielding a series of results, valuable studies, such as extensive exploration on activities at the concession, well-definition on the process of recovering concession, etc. However, the details of diplomatic negotiations between China and Japan in the process of setting up Japanese concession, internal enterprises and related activities at the concession should be further explored in the future study.

  20. Findings, diagnoses and results of a halitosis clinic over a seven year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Halitosis or bad breath is a taboo subject that is a widespread problem in the general population. Causes of bad breath can be multifactorial and long time sufferers can be marred from deep psychological stress. Because nine out of ten cases have an oral cause, the initial inquiry should be with a dentist. In a retrospective study from February 2003 to February 2010, the halitosis clinic at the University of Basel analyzed data from 465 patient medical histories. Study objectives evaluated the causes of halitosis, gender distribution and treatment success. All patients reported to have suffered from bad breath. However, 82.7% were actually diagnosed as having halitosis. Within this group, 96.2% showed an oral etiology and 3.8% showed an extra-oral cause. Women suffered significantly more from psychogenic halitosis. Success rates of 92.6% subjectively and 94.5% objectively reflect the treatment success of the diagnostic and therapeutic concepts presented at the University of Basel halitosis clinic over a seven year period.

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology of supraclavicular lymph nodes: Our experience over a three-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumit; Ray, Suchandra; Mitra, Pradip K

    2011-07-01

    This study was taken up with the aim to investigate the pattern of supraclavicular lymphadenopathy among patients presenting to our tertiary care institution, evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and analyze the diagnostic pitfalls. A total of 215 patients were subjected to FNAC of supraclavicular lymph nodes over a three-year period (August 2006 to July 2009). Since in 18 patients as either the aspirate was inadequate or the opinion was equivocal, we analyzed the remaining 197 cases. Malignant pathology accounted for 79.7% (157/197) of the cases. These were mostly cases of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (79/197, 40.1%), adenocarcinoma (47/197, 23.9%), small cell carcinoma (12/197, 6.1%) and lymphoma (10/197, 5%). There were 28 (14.2%) cases of tuberculosis. Out of these 197 patients, 92 patients were biopsied. The opinion based on FNAC was erroneous in 6 cases but corroborated with the final histopathology findings in the remaining 86 cases. FNAC is an excellent first line of investigation; and when used with a proper combination of experience and diligence, it can greatly reduce the number of errors.

  2. Advertising Intellection in Ottoman Empire Period end Sample of Tanin Newspaper between 1908 and 1909 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Hanife KOCAKAYA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertising that has become an indispensable element of today’s conditions has also become a frequently used tool of goods and services the companies utilized. With the advances in technology, the number of companies that commercialises their goods has been steadily increasing day by day. That fact that advertising has become such a significant sector of the industry; has provided this sector with the opportunity to contact a lot of people all at the same time. That is why; advertising is special among the marketing and the media tools. The Tanin newspaper discussed in this article began to be broadcast towards the end of the Ottoman Empire. The newspaper that began to be published in the late Ottoman and the early Turkish Republic eras came to the fore as a political organ rather than the advertisements of the publication. The number of Tanin newspaper published during the years 1908-1909 were examined in this article. The newspaper had published many advertisements and covered many brands in the issues that were published during this period,The newspaper that encountered various obstacles during its life of publication bears importance by being, established by the Committee of Union and Progress members as well

  3. Caustic Injury In Adults – A Study For 3 Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with acute corrosive ingestions have been observed. Eleven were male (25.6% and 32 female (74.4%. All ingestions were intentional. Alkaline agents were used by all of the patients. The severity of poisonings varied from moderate to extremely severe. Different complications were seen in 82% of the cases - severe bleeding, perforation, fistula or/and stricture formation. Two of the patients have undergone surgical intervention - coloesophagoplastic - and have recovered completely. The motivation in different age groups was also studied. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in patients as depressive and schizoaffective disorder, as well as existential crises. Acute corrosive ingestions by alkaline agents cause severe pathology. The severity and complex character of the injuries require good coordination between different medical specialists.

  4. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of

  5. Twenty-year perspective of randomized controlled trials for surgery of chronic nonspecific low back pain: citation bias and tangential knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Nicholas S; Flynn, John P; Bartanusz, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    nonsurgical therapy. The research agenda of RCTs for surgery of CNLBP has not changed substantially in the last 20 years. Technical trials evaluating nuances of surgical techniques significantly predominate. Despite the publication of four RCTs reporting equivocal benefits of surgery for CNLBP between 2001 and 2006, there was no change in the research agenda of subsequent RCTs, and technical trials continued to outnumber indication trials. Rather than clarifying what, if any, indications for surgery exist, investigators in the field continue to analyze variations in surgical technique, which will probably have relatively little impact on patient outcomes. As a result, clinicians unfortunately have little evidence to advise patients regarding surgical intervention for CNLBP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. O SUS nos seus 20 anos: reflexões num contexto de mudanças Twenty years of SUS: reflections in a context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Costa de Araújo Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma breve retrospectiva sobre o direito à saúde conquistado pelo cidadão brasileiro, este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ao longo da sua trajetória de 20 anos, destacando em forma de análise crítica os avanços conquistados na saúde e os desafios a serem superados. São discutidas as temáticas do direito à saúde como responsabilidade do Estado a partir da Conferência de Alma-Ata, da Constituição Federal e das Leis Orgânicas da Saúde; as diretrizes do SUS envolvendo as competências da União, do Estado e do Município. Discute ainda a importância da Estratégia Saúde da Família na consolidação da Atenção Básica no Brasil, as dificuldades do processo de regionalização e o papel da gestão e da participação social como bases para a construção do SUS que queremos.From a brief review of the right to healthcare won by the Brazilian citizens, this article aims to discuss Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System throughout its trajectory of 20 years, providing a critical review of the progress achieved in healthcare and the challenges to be overcome. It discusses the issues of: the right to healthcare as the State's responsibility based on the Alma-Ata Conference, the Federal Constitution and the Organic Laws on Health; SUS guidelines involving the competences of the Union, States and Municipalities. It also approaches the importance of the Family Health Strategy for the consolidation of Primary Care in Brazil, the difficulties in the process of regional health planning, and the role of management and social participation as the bases for the construction of the SUS we want.

  7. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. Strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. Still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems even in EU countries. In order to determine the spatial and temporal variation of pollutant and nutrient loads in different environmental media a unique ecological response cadastre (Okologisches Wirkungskataster, OKWI) was set up in the Land of Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany) in the mid 1980s. As a part of the program a state-wide bioindicator network was established in 64 forest and 18 permanent grassland ecosystems, in which selected chemical elements were measured over time. Here, we report on the results of these analyses and discuss the general spatio-temporal trends in pollution loads. Sixty-four forest and 18 permanent grassland plots were established in state-owned forest and nature conservation areas of SW Germany representing different landscapes and geologies of the State of Baden-Württemberg. Apart from performing vegetation relevées in marked plots of either the grassland or forest sites, plant samples were collected in intervals of 2 to 3 years following a standardised protocol. To be able to compare the different monitoring sites, four common species were chosen as indicator species in the grasslands. Later on, also bulk grassland samples were taken regardless of the species. In the forests, foliage of the dominant tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Abiea alba or Fraxinus excelsior) was sampled in the crown of marked trees and from the same species in the herb layer. The elements analysed in the plant material were the essential plant

  8. Twenty years of elemental analysis of marine biota within the German Environmental Specimen Bank--a thorough look at the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdel, Heinz; Fliedner, Annette; Kösters, Jan; Schröter-Kermani, Christa

    2010-06-01

    As one component of the German ecological environment observation, the Environmental Specimen Bank program was initiated in the mid-1980s. Under the program, representative specimens of marine, fresh water, and terrestrial ecosystems are sampled regularly and archived under chemically stable conditions. An initial characterization of the samples provides data regarding the status quo of the respective ecosystems. The aim of the present publication is to give insight into these real-time monitoring data, which have been generated for the last 10 to 20 years. This is done exemplarily for the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) in marine specimens of the Baltic and the North Sea. Bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), and eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled at one location in the Baltic Sea and at two sites in the North Sea (Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea and Lower Saxony Wadden Sea). Annual samples were pooled, homogenized, and analyzed for a set of elements. Cd and Pb were quantified after freeze-drying and microwave digestion using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Total Hg in freeze-dried samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using a direct mercury analyzer. Time series data covering up to two decades revealed comparable cadmium levels at all three locations. Concentrations in bladder wrack ranged between 0.10 and 0.37 microg/g on a wet weight basis (ww). Respective values for blue mussel and eelpout liver were 0.07-0.29 and 0.01-0.10 microg/g ww. Herring gull eggs were not included in cadmium analyses. Declining trends were observed in North Sea bladder wrack and mussels, eelpout from the Lower Saxony site, and mussels from the Baltic Sea. Upward trends were apparent in eelpout from the Schleswig-Holstein location. Mercury concentrations in Baltic Sea specimens ranged from 1.1-2.7 ng/g ww in bladder wrack to 2.6-5.1, 26-52, and 86-226 ng/g ww

  9. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  10. Observed year-to-year sea surface salinity variability in the Bay of Bengal during the 2009–2014 period

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaitanya, A.V.S.; Durand, F.; Mathew, S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Papa, F.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; KranthiKumar, C.; Venkatesan, R.

    The present study describes the observed sea surface salinity (SSS) interannual variability in the Bay of Bengal over the 2009–2014 period. It is based on an original compilation of all available in situ SSS observations in that region, assembled...

  11. Retrospective Integration of Research Conducted on a Multi-Section Educational Psychology Course over a Fifteen-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    This article integrates a series of studies conducted over a 15-year period in a multi-section educational course taught by the same supervising professor and his GTAs . The purpose of each study was to determine whether particular interventions or student characteristics affected performance levels in the course. Over the extended period of…

  12. The Periodization of Fighting on Donbass in 2014–2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Mityukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article based on the analysis of the data gives the attempt of the periodical press of combat actions on the territory of Donbas in 2014-2015: there are presented clearly two periods. The first is the period of the maneuvers from 7 April 2014 to 5 September 2014, characterized by the presence of fortified centres which both sides tried to get around to entering the operating room. In this period there is no clear front line, fighting was an interaction maneuverable shock groups. The second period is the period position of action from September 5 to the present time, characterized by clearly formed the front line, as a rule, deeply echeloned. Active hostilities reached a peak during the battle for Lugansk and the Donetsk airport and Debaltsevo during the operation.

  13. [Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD is exemplified by a reinterpretation of artefacts found in the sacrificial bogs at Thorsbjerg, Nydam, Ejsbøl, Illerup Adal, Vimose and Kragehul, reinterpreted in the light of classic European and Egyptian archaeological finds and ethno-archaeological parallels against the background of the author's years of experience as a practicing specialist in gynaecology and obstetrics. No surgical instruments from the Iron Age have previously been construed or identified as such in Denmark or Schleswig-Holstein. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible finding and identificiation of surgical instruments - or what could be construed as a battlefield surgeons instruments - among artefacts deposited in the above-mentioned sacrificial bogs in the Iron Age. In this paper, the term 'surgical instrument' is defined as an instrument used in teh practice of medicine. Material for the study was collected in a review of illustrations in published works about these bog finds, localising these artefacts and examining them at the museums at which they were located. Also examined was museum storage of artefacts that had been excavated in the above-mentioned bogs. In an effort to reinterpret the function of the artefacts, they were compared with known surgical instruments found in the geographical areas controlled by the Greeks and later the Romans and with pictures of artefacts and a few written sources form the same area. They were also compared with ethnographic parallels. The material upon which the paper is based consists of a total of 67 artefacts, each identified as being from one of the above-mentioned bogs. Of these 67 artefacts, 40 can be indentifed and reinterpreted as being surgical instruments and 27 are toilet sets, i.e. tweezers for personal use or sets consisting of tweezers connected by a metal ring to either an ear pick or a nail cutter. Analysis of the artefacts revealed

  14. Targets and Patented Drugs for Chemotherapy of Chagas Disease in the Last 15 Years-Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschak, Vilma G

    2016-01-01

    The American trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, is a parasitic infection typically spread by triatomine vectors affecting millions of people all over Latin America. Existing chemotherapy is centered on the nitroaromatic compounds benznidazole and nifurtimox that provide unsatisfactory results and substantial side effects. So, the finding and exploration of novel ways to challenge this neglected disease is a main priority. The biologic and biochemical progress in the scientific knowledge of Trypanosoma cruzi in the period comprising last 15-years has increased the identification of multiple targets for Chagas´ disease chemotherapy. In the middle of the best encouraging targets for trypanocidal drugs, ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and cruzipain, a key cysteine protease (CP) of T. cruzi, have been pointed out. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials investigating the administration of pozoconazole and ravuconazole to chronic indeterminate Chagas disease patients revealed their inferiority compared to the standard drug Benznidazole. In view of the information gained in the preceding years, a reasonable approach for the fast development of novel anti-T. cruzi chemotherapy would be focused on K777, the cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) near to enter to clinical trials, and founded on the clinical evaluation of combination of known drugs with existing trypanocidal agents to obtain more efficiency and less secondary effects. Top series of xanthine have been recently identified as clinical candidate for Chagas disease. In addition, trypanothione biosynthesis, thiol-dependant redox and polyamine metabolism, the glycolytic, glyconeogenic, pentose phosphate, lipidic and polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathways, and the enzymes from biosynthetic glycoconjugates pathways have been studied. Several specific enzymes from these particular biosynthetic pathways such as hypoxanthine-guaninephosphoribosyl- transferase and farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase, among others, have also been

  15. [Email in a dedicated headache clinic: experience gained over a five-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-06-16

    The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.

  16. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  17. A study of profile of disability certificate seeking patients with schizophrenia over a 5 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia has been identified as one of the most disabling condition known to mankind. Until recently there was no published literature on disability certification seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The current study aimed at understanding the profile of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia seeking disability certification for a tertiary level multispecialty hospital in India. Materials a nd Methods: The study was carried out at the Psychiatry department for a tertiary care hospital in India. The evaluation of the subjects was carried out in the presence of a primary care giver. First, the diagnosis was established using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Conditions (ICD-10. Subsequently, the disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation Assessment Scale (IDEAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17. Results: A total of 169 subjects seeking disability certification over the study period of 5 years were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Out of 169 subjects 132 (78.1% were male and 37 (21.9% were female. There was a statistically significant difference in the marital status of the male and female study subjects. Family history of psychiatric illness was positive in 9.8% of male subjects and 10.8% of female subjects. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects for the duration of illness and duration of being on treatment. Male and female subjects did not differ significantly on the IDEAS global score, personal care, interpersonal interaction, and understanding and communication domains of IDEAS. The two groups differed significantly on the work domain. Conclusions: Majority of patients with schizophrenia seeking disability certificate continue to be male. However, male and female subjects tend to differ very little on various socio-demographic and illness related variables. The levels

  18. Radiation fog chemical composition and its temporal trend over an eight year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation fog samples have been collected at a rural site in Central Pennsylvania from 2007 through 2015 in order to document chemical composition, assess concentration changes over time, and to provide insight into emission sources that influence the region. The collection of samples over multiple years makes this one of the few long duration radiation fog studies that have been completed. During the course of the campaign, 146 samples were obtained and analyzed for pH, major inorganic ions, low molecular weight organic acids, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Ammonium (median concentration = 209 μN), sulfate (69 μN), calcium (51 μN), and nitrate (31 μN) were the most abundant inorganic ions, although these were present at much lower concentrations than for radiation fog studies conducted in other locations. Organic acids, of which formate (20 μM) and acetate (21 μM) were the most abundant, were closer in magnitude to measurements made during previous studies. Organic acids accounted for 15% of TOC, which had a median concentration of 6.6 mgC l-1. The median concentration of TN was 3.6 mgN l-1, 18% of which was determined to be organic nitrogen. Statistically significant decreasing trends from 2007 to 2015 were noted for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. For the same period, an increase in pH was observed. Seasonal trends were identified for a number of species as well. The partitioning of ammonia between the gas and aqueous phases was also investigated and found to deviate significantly from equilibrium.

  19. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Feinberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group’s origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body’s interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium, midbrain and hindbrain. This brain must also have 1 hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and 2 a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1, followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2. We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are

  20. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS.

  1. Twenty years of acanthamoeba diagnostics in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walochnik, Julia; Scheikl, Ute; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are the causative agents of an often seriously progressing keratitis (AK) occurring predominantly in contact lens wearers and can cause several disseminating infections potentially resulting in granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in the immunocompromised host. Our institution is the Austrian reference laboratory for Acanthamoeba diagnostics and the aim of this study was to give an overview of proven cases of Acanthamoeba infections in Austria during the past 20 yr. All samples of patients with suspected AK or GAE were screened for Acanthamoeba spp. by culture and/or PCR and the detected amoebae were genotyped. Altogether, 154 cases of AK and three cases of GAE were diagnosed. Age of the AK patients ranged from 8 to 82 yr (mean 37.8) and 58% of the patients were female. Approximately 89% of the AK patients were contact lens wearers, almost all cases were unilateral and 19% of the patients required a keratoplasty. Age of the GAE patients ranged from 2 to 25 yr (mean 14.7), all were HIV-negative, but two were severely immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. The predominant genotype in the AK cases was T4, other genotypes found were T3, T5, T6, T10 and T11. The three GAE cases involved genotypes T2, T4 and T5.

  2. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    OpenAIRE

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  3. It was twenty years ago today ...

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsparg, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To mark the 20th anniversary of the (14 Aug 1991) commencement of hep-th@xxx.lanl.gov (now arXiv.org), I've adapted this article from one that first appeared in Physics World (2008), was later reprinted (with permission) in Learned Publishing (2009), but never appeared in arXiv. I trace some historical context and early development of the resource, its later trajectory, and close with some thoughts about the future. This version is closer to my original draft, with some updates for this occasion, plus an astounding $2^5$ added footnotes.

  4. Twenty Years of Diagnosis and the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1999-01-01

    The process of diagnosing mental disorders and the use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been increasingly important for counselors. This article provides information on the hallmarks of this shift. Reviews and discusses the changes form the third and fourth editions of the DSM. Offers predictions as to future…

  5. Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard

    2011-03-01

    One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.

  6. The New Economic History after Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Douglass C.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews contributions of economic history to an understanding of the economic past. A discipline which has developed since 1957, economic history deals with causes of economic growth or decline in a society over time, and the well-being of different groups in the society over time. It makes systematic use of theory and quantitative methods.…

  7. Microdata Simulation Modeling After Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the method and the development of microdata simulation modeling over the past two decades. After tracing a brief history of this evaluation method, its problems and prospects are assessed. The effects of this research method on the development of the social sciences are examined. (JAZ)

  8. Neutrino masses twenty-five years later

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mass marks a turning point in elementary particle physics, with important implications for nuclear and astroparticle physics. Here I give a brief update, where I summarize the current status of three-neutrino oscillation parameters from current solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data, discuss the case for sterile neutrinos and LSND, and also the importance of tritium and double beta decay experiments probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass. In this opininated look at the present of neutrino physics, I keep an eye in the future, and a perspective of the past, taking the oportunity to highlight Joe Schechter's pioneering contribution, which I have had the fortune to share, as his PhD student back in the early eighties.

  9. Management of the highly qualified football team preparation during the transition period of the year cycle of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamardin V.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of modeling of highly qualified football team training in the transitional periods of the year cycle of training are given in this article. It is shown that usage of various exercises aimed at integrated development of motor qualities helps to maintain a gradual increase physical and functional training. Data for the study were pedagogical monitoring in the highly qualified football team of "Dnipro" Dnepropetrovsk year cycle preparation in the seasons of 2002 - 2011. It is established that the implementation of individual plans in the transition period allows players to carry high training loads during the preparatory period without a sharp decline in their performance.

  10. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989-2009 (2,371 case subjects 0-14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1-46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45-2.80; test for linear trend, P 1). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls up to 8 years of age. Compared with the 1989-1994 birth cohort, the relative risk increased from 0.78 (0.61-1.10) in 1974-1979 to 1.62 (1.18-2.23) in 2004-2009. The increase over period was less striking, with a tendency to regress in more recent years. The best-fitting model for boys included age and a linear time trend, and for girls age and nonlinear effects of calendar period and birth cohort. In conclusion, incidence increased over time, and the increase tended to level off in more recent years by calendar period but not by birth cohort, with some evidence of a stronger increase among girls than boys. Should the increase be attributable to the effects of some perinatal environmental factor, this would mean that such a factor has started affecting females before males.

  11. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  12. More than 20 years of registration of type 1 diabetes in Sardinian children: temporal variations of incidence with age, period of diagnosis, and year of birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco; ,

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989–2009 (2,371 case subjects 0–14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1–46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45–2.80; test for linear trend, P < 0.001). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls...

  13. A simple stochastic model with environmental transmission explains multi-year periodicity in outbreaks of avian flu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus reveals persistent and recurrent outbreaks in North American wild waterfowl, and exhibits major outbreaks at 2-8 years intervals in duck populations. The standard susceptible-infected- recovered (SIR framework, which includes seasonal migration and reproduction, but lacks environmental transmission, is unable to reproduce the multi-periodic patterns of avian influenza epidemics. In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 2 to 8 years which essentially depends on the intensity of environmental transmission. A wavelet analysis of the observed data supports this prediction. Furthermore, using master equations and van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how the outbreak period varies with the environmental transmission.

  14. Shaanxi Magnesium Output to Reach 500,000 Tons in The 12th Five-year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Recently, Shaanxi unveiled its "12th Five-year Plan" for the nonferrous metals industry. According to the plan, during the 12th five-year plan period, it will focus on advantageous products such as titanium, molybdenum and magnesium, and highlight new nonferrous materials for aviation, national defense, nuclear

  15. Chronic kidney disease during a 12-year period at tertiary health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric population. Objective. The aim of the study was analysis of aetiology, staging and associated complications of CKD at the time of diagnosis. Methods. Data of 97 patients (56 boys of average age 7.8±5.8 years, referred for the first time to the Institute for Mother and Child Healthcare „Dr Vukan Čupić”, Belgrade in the period 1998- 2009, due to CKD, stage 2-5, were analysed. In each patient illness history was obtained, and physical examination, laboratory, X-ray and other investigations were performed according to the indications. CKD was classified according to the glomerular filtration rate into four grades: 2 - mild (60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2; 3 - moderate (30-60 ml/min/1.73 m2; 4 - advanced (15-30 ml/ min/1.73 m2; and 5 - terminal (<15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results. The most frequent causes of CKD were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (43.3%, followed by glomerular diseases (17.5%, hereditary kidney diseases (16.5%, metabolic diseases (7.2% and other causes (15.5%. Mild CKD was found in 29.8%, moderate in 28.9%, advanced in 22.7%, and terminal in 18.6% children. Among patients with CKD stage 4 and 5, 75% of patients presented with acute renal failure, while 25% had earlier detected CKD (stage 1, but were not under regular follow-up. Associated complications included metabolic acidosis (63%, anaemia (60%, hypertension (42.3%, short stature (25.8%, renal osteodystrophy (13.4% and cardiovascular diseases (7.2%. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the leading cause of CKD in paediatric population. A significant proportion (41.3% of patients had advanced and terminal CKD. In most patients CKD was diagnosed late and with associated complications.

  16. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  17. A 20-year-old Chinese man with recurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and delayed diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Muniba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Pant, Shradha; Shrestha, Rajesh; Tadros, Michael; Murukutla, Srujitha; Rothman, Jeffrey

    2012-02-21

    Periodic paralysis in the setting of hypokalemia can be the result of several underlying conditions, requiring systematic evaluation. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Because the signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can be subtle and clouded by the clinical distress of the patient, the diagnosis of the underlying metabolic disorder can be overlooked. The authors report a case of TPP in a young Chinese man in whom the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis was initially missed. This case illustrates the lack of awareness of TPP among many physicians, delay in the diagnosis of TPP and the importance of performing thyroid function testing in all cases of periodic paralysis.

  18. Exploring the publications in three major orthodontic journals: a comparative analysis of two 5-year periods.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the types of articles and authorship characteristics of three orthodontic journals--American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), The Angle Orthodontist (AO), and European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO)--published between 2008 and 2012 and to assess the differences in content within this period and an earlier period of 1998 to 2002. MATERIALS AND METHODS Each journal's content was accessed through the web edition. From each article, the ...

  19. HYSTERECTOMY IN THE PERINATAL AND POSTPARTUM PERIOD IN THE 17-YEAR CLINICAL MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Intruduction: Hysterectomy is one of major surgeries. Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period make the operation even more difficult as it is forced and complicated by various pathological conditions that develop over that time. Objective: The purpose of study was to analyze the frequency of hysterectomy, indications to undertake it and complications associated with the removal of the uterus in pregnancy and during perinatal and postpartum period. The study analyzed the cases of hyst...

  20. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.