WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty unique scfv

  1. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  2. Effective single chain antibody (scFv) concentrations in vivo via adenoviral vector mediated expression of secretory scFv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, WO; Gomez-Navarro, J; Buchsbaum, DJ; Xiang, J; Casado, E; Barker, SD; Mahasreshti, PJ; Haisma, HJ; Barnes, MN; Siegal, GP; Alvarez, RD; Hemminki, A; Nettelbeck, DM; Curiel, DT

    2002-01-01

    Single chain antibodies (scFv) represent powerful interventional agents for the achievement of targeted therapeutics. The practical utility of these agents have been limited, however, by difficulties related to production of recombinant scFv and the achievement of effective and sustained levels of s

  3. Construction of multiform scFv antibodies using linker peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihua Wang; Cengjie Zheng; Ying Liu; Huirong Zheng; Zonghua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Multiform single chain variable fragments (acFvs) including different length linker scFvs and bispecific seFv were constructed. The linker lengths of 0, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 15 amino acids between VH and VL of antideoxynivalenol (anti-DON) scFv were used to analyze the affinities of scFvs. The affinity constants of these scFvs increased when the linker was lower than 12 amino acids. The affinity constant would not change when the linker was longer than 12 amino acids. Fusion gene of anti-DON seFv and antizearalenone (anti-ZEN) scFv was also constructed through eormection by a short peptide tinker DNA to express a bispecific scFv. The affinity constants assay showed that the two scFvs of fusion bispecific scFv remained their own affinity compared to their parental scFvs. Competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect DON and ZEN in contaminated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples, and the results indicated that this bispecifie acFv was applicable in DON and ZEN detection. This work confirmed that bispecific scFv could be successfully obtained, and might also have an application in diagnosing fungal infection, and breeding transgertic plants.

  4. Validation of glypican-3-specific scFv isolated from paired display/secretory yeast display library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yonghai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glypican-3 (GPC3 is a heparan-sulfate proteoglycan frequently expressed on the cell membrane of malignant hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma. The capacity for screening potential antibodies in vitro using human hepatocellular lines is critical to ensure binding to this highly post-translationally modified glycophosphatidylinositiol-linked protein. We hypothesized that we could utilize a recently described paired display/secretory yeast library to isolate human-derived scFv against glypican-3 for potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic application. Results Using two different biotinylated antigen targets, a synthesized 29mer fragment GPC3550-558 and a truncated GPC3368-548 fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST we enriched the yeast display library to greater than 30% target-specific yeast with both positive selection and depletion of streptavidin- and GST-specific clones. After cloning of scFv cDNA from the enriched sub-library, scFv specificity was validated by ELISA for binding to recombinant protein from prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources and ultimately naturally presented human protein on the cell membrane of human hepatocellular cell lines. Specificity was confirmed using non-expressing cell lines and shRNA knockdown. Ultimately, five unique scFv with affinity EC50 ranging from 5.0-110.9nM were identified. Conclusions Using a paired display/secretory yeast library, five novel and unique scFvs for potential humoral or chimeric therapeutic development in human hepatocellular carcinoma were isolated and characterized.

  5. A Novel Human scFv Library with Non-Combinatorial Synthetic CDR Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuelian; Kim, Jihye; Kang, Seungmin; Kim, Wankyu; Shim, Hyunbo

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes the construction and validation of a human scFv library with a novel design approach to synthetic complementarity determining region (CDR) diversification. The advantage of synthetic antibody libraries includes the possibility of exerting fine control over factors like framework sequences, amino acid and codon usage, and CDR diversity. However, random combinatorial synthesis of oligonucleotides for CDR sequence diversity also produces many clones with unnatural sequences and/or undesirable modification motifs. To alleviate these issues, we designed and constructed a novel semi-synthetic human scFv library with non-combinatorial, pre-designed CDR diversity and a single native human framework each for heavy, kappa, and lambda chain variable domains. Next-generation sequencing analysis indicated that the library consists of antibody clones with highly nature-like CDR sequences and the occurrence of the post-translational modification motifs is minimized. Multiple unique clones with nanomolar affinity could be isolated from the library against a number of target antigens, validating the library design strategy. The results demonstrate that it is possible to construct a functional antibody library using low, non-combinatorial synthetic CDR diversity, and provides a new strategy for the design of antibody libraries suitable for demanding applications.

  6. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF THE MURINE SCFV GENE IN E. COLI AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Chen Wei; Li Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To obtain the gene of murine Single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) against human cervical cancer and to express it in E. coli. Methods The variable region gene fragments of the heavy and light chains, which were amplified respectively using recombinant DNA techniques from CsA125 hybridoma cells, were spliced together through a flexible linker to ScFv against human cervical cancer. The ScFv genes were then cloned into expression vector pCANTAB 5E and expressed in E. coli HB2151 and TG1 respectively. The soluble ScFv were characterized by SDS PAGE and Western blot. The antigen-binding activities of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv were assayed by ELISA and cell immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expressed ScFv antibodies were soluble and phage displayed. The soluble ScFv secreted and expressed in E. coli HB2151 induced by IPTG were confirmed with SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. The specific binding capacity of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv to the surface associated antigen of human cervical cancer cell line was further confirmed with immunohistochemical studies. Conclusion The soluble and phage displayed ScFv expressed in E. coli against human cervical cancer showed high, specific affinity for the cervical cancer cell line surface associated antigen.

  7. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung' u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  8. Expression and bioactivity identification of soluble MG7 scFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Cai Yu; Jie Ding; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Ming Fan; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To examine the molecular mass and identify thebioactivity of MG7 scFv for its application as a targetingmediator in gene therapy of gastric cancer.METHODS: Two strongly positive recombinant phage clonesscreened from MG7 recombinant phage antibody library wereseparately transfected into E. coli TG1. Plasmid wasisolated from the transfected E. coli TG1 and digested byEcoR Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ to examine the length of exogenousscFv gene. Then, the positive recombinant phage cloneswere individually transfected into E. coli HB2151. Thetransfectant was cultured and induced by IPTG. Perplasmicextracts was prepared from the induced transfectant byosmotic shock. ELISA was used to examine the antigen-binding affinity of the soluble MG7 scFv. Immunodottingassay was adopted to evaluate the yield of soluble MG7 scFvproduced by transfected E. coli HB2151. Western blot wasused to examine the molecular mass of MG7 scFv. Finally,the nucleotide sequence of MG7 scFv was examined by DNAsequencing.RESULTS: Two positive recombinant phage clones werefound to contain the exogenous scFv gene. ELISA showedthat MG7 scFv had strong antigen-binding affinity.Immuodotting assay showed that transfected E. coli HB2151could successfully produce the soluble MG7 scFv with highyield via induction by IPTG. The molecular mass of MG7scFv was 30 kDa by western blot. DNA sequencingdemonstrated that the VH and VL genes of MG7 scFv were363bp and 321 bp, respectively.CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed the solubleMG7 scFv which possessed strong antigen-binding affinity.

  9. Production of monoclonal anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲa scFv antibodies from scFv phage libraries%从scFv噬菌体抗体库中筛选抗GPⅡ b/Ⅲa单链抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏红利; 谭最; 陈德杰; 乔建国; 邱仁峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 从scFv噬菌体库中获取人源化特异性Anti-GPⅡb/Ⅲa单克隆scFv抗体.方法 对Tomlinson I+J scFv文库进行3次淘洗,富集特异性的抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa抗体.通过酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)和双脱氧终止法基因测序及同源性对比,检测出人源化的抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa单克隆抗体.结果 在3次淘洗后,得到了抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa单克隆噬菌体抗体,阳性克隆的获取率在95.6%以上;ELISA和基因测序筛选出25种不同的全长抗GPⅡb/Ⅲa噬菌体抗体,这些基因序列与人免疫球蛋白可变区基因同源性达到89%以上;分泌性抗体ELISA检测提示这些抗体顺利表达了蛋白并特异性结合GPⅡb/Ⅲa,其中15种scFv对GPⅡb/Ⅲa有更强的阳性反应.结论 人源化的特异性抗-GPⅡb/Ⅲa scFv能通过噬菌体展示技术快速有效地获得.%Objective To screen monoclonal anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a antibodies from scFv phage libraries and obtain specific monoclonal anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a scFv. Methods Specific anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a scFv antibodies were enriched by three rounds of selection from Tomlinson Ⅰ + J libraries. By using polyclonal and monoclonal phage enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) and gene sequencing by bideoxy chain termination, full-length specific monoclonal anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a antibodies were picked out and their gene sequences were obtained. Results Twenty-five different full-length monoclonal scFv phage fragments were obtained after three rounds of panning and their gene sequences were identified, and positive rate of monoclones was above 95.6%; homology comparison with variable regions of human immunoglobulin gene showed the similarity was above 89%; the result of soluble scFv ELISA showed that these specific scFv could be expressed smoothly, and 15 full-length monoclonal scFv antibodies were stronger positive than the other in these scFv. Conclusion Antibody phage display was a rapid and effective method to obtain Anti-GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a scFv fragements.

  10. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  11. Construction of Human ScFv Phage Display Library against Ovarian Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jinsong; BI Hao; YAO Qin; QU Shen; ZONG Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to construct a single chain fragment variable (ScFv) phage display library against ovarian tumor, by using RT-PCR, the human heavy chain variable region genes (VH) and light chain variable region genes (VL) were amplified from lymphocytes of ovarian tumor patients and subsequently assembled into ScFv genes by SOE. The resulting ScFv genes were electrotransformed into E.coli TG1 and amplified with the co-infection of helper phage M13KO7 to obtain phage display library. The capacity and titer of the resulting library were detected. The phage antibody library with a capacity of approximately 3 × 109 cfu/μg was obtained. After amplification with helper phage, the titer of antibody library reached 5 × 1012 cfu/mL. Human ScFv library against ovarian tumor was constructed successfully, which laid a foundation for the screening of ovarian tumor specific ScFv for the radioimmunoimaging diagnosis of ovarian tumor.

  12. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D

    1997-11-01

    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  13. High efficiency recovery and epitope specific sorting of an scFv yeast display library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Robert W.; Coleman, James R.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-03-01

    In order to more productively utilize the rich source of antigen specific reagents present in the previously described non-immune scFv yeast display library (Feldhaus et al., 2003) one must be able to efficiently isolate and characterize clones within the library. To this end, we have developed and validated a magnetic bead sorting technique utilizing the Miltenyi MacsTm system to recover greater than 90% of the antigen specific clones present in the library. In combination with flow cytometry, we rapidly reduced diversity and enriched for antigen specific clones in three rounds of selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of pre-existing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for antigen labeling and subsequent flow cytometric sorting and characterization of epitope specific scFv. Combining these two improvements in library screening allowed isolation and characterization of 3 epitope specific scFv (including a previously uncharacterized epitope) to a 6 kd protein, epidermal growth factor EGF.

  14. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  15. Generation of a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) targeting 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Motohiro; Tadakuma, Tomomi; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2010-01-01

    We generated a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m(5)dCyd) using phage display technology. The heavy and light chain variable region genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from hybridoma cell line FMC9 and assembled as an scFv fragment with a flexible linker (Gly(4)-Ser)(3). The scFv DNA fragment was then cloned into pCANTAB-5E, and a phage displaying the scFv was produced. Antigen-positive phage clones were successfully selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The scFv was modified with FLAG and His tags for detection and purification. The scFv reacted strongly with m(5)dCyd and weakly with 5-methylcytidine (m(5)Cyd) but not with cytidine (Cyd) and 1-methyladenosine in a manner similar to the monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Although the specificities of scFv and MoAb were almost identical, the sensitivity of the scFv (IC(50) 0.054 microg/ml) was approximately 80 times higher than that of the parent MoAb (IC(50) 4.27 microg/ml), determined by inhibition ELISA. As a biochemical application of this scFv, we quantified the m(5)dCyd content of genomic DNA by enzymatic hydrolysis using inhibition ELISA. The cancer cell lines HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 contained approximately 1% of the methylated DNA in total genomic DNA, as did peripheral blood cell genomic DNA from healthy volunteers, but HT29 and T-47D showed hypomethylation compared with the HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines. The scFv generated here may be applicable to the assessment of cellular DNA methylation levels and is more sensitive than the MoAb.

  16. Integrating scFv into xMAP Assays for the Detection of Marine Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Shriver-Lake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv. Recombinantly produced binding elements such as scFv provide an alternative to traditional antibodies and serve to “preserve” monoclonal antibodies as they can be easily recreated from their sequence data. In this paper, we combined the anti-saxitoxin scFv developed here with a previously developed anti-domoic acid scFv and demonstrated their utility in a microsphere-based competitive immunoassay format. In addition to detection in buffer, we demonstrated equivalent sensitivity in oyster and scallop matrices. The potential for multiplexed detection using scFvs in this immunoassay format is demonstrated.

  17. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  18. Delineation of BmSXP antibody V-gene usage from a lymphatic filariasis based immune scFv antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahumatullah, Anizah; Ahmad, Azimah; Noordin, Rahmah; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-10-01

    Phage display technology is an important tool for antibody generation or selection. This study describes the development of a scFv library and the subsequent analysis of identified monoclonal antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for lymphatic filariasis. The immune library was generated from blood of lymphatic filariasis infected individuals. A TA based intermediary cloning approach was used to increase cloning efficiency for the library construction process. A diverse immune scFv library of 10(8) was generated. Six unique monoclonal antibodies were identified from the 50 isolated clones against BmSXP. Analysis of the clones showed a bias for the IgHV3 and Vκ1 (45.5%) and IgHV2 and Vκ3 (27.3%) gene family. The most favored J segment for light chain is IgKJ1 (45.5%). The most favored D and J segment for heavy chain are IgHD6-13 (75%) and IgHJ3 (47.7%). The information may suggest a predisposition of certain V genes in antibody responses against lymphatic filariasis.

  19. Screening and identification of human ZnT8-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) from type 1 diabetes phage display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Xiaodong; Gu, Yong; Zhang, Xiao; Qin, Yao; Chen, Heng; Xu, Xinyu; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Mei

    2016-07-01

    Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is a major autoantigen and a predictive marker in type 1 diabetes (T1D). To investigate ZnT8-specific antibodies, a phage display library from T1D was constructed and single-chain antibodies against ZnT8 were screened and identified. Human T1D single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display library consists of approximately 1×10(8) clones. After four rounds of bio-panning, seven unique clones were positive by phage ELISA. Among them, C27 and C22, which demonstrated the highest affinity to ZnT8, were expressed in Escherichia coli Top10F' and then purified by affinity chromatography. C27 and C22 specifically bound ZnT8 N/C fusion protein and ZnT8 C terminal dimer with one Arg325Trp mutation. The specificity to human islet cells of these scFvs were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, we have successfully constructed a T1D phage display antibody library and identified two ZnT8-specific scFv clones, C27 and C22. These ZnT8-specific scFvs are potential agents in immunodiagnostic and immunotherapy of T1D.

  20. Construction, Expression and In Vitro Biological Behaviors of Ig scFv Fragment in Patients with Chronic B Cell Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lijuan; LIAO Wenjun; ZHU Huifen; LEI Ping; WANG Zhihua; SHAO Jingfang; ZHANG Yue; SHEN Guanxin

    2006-01-01

    The expression vector of SmIg scFv fragment was constructed in patient with B cell chronic lymphocyte leukemia (B-CLL) and expressed in E. coli to obtain scFv fragment, and the effect of the protein on the proliferation of stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated in vitro. Two pairs of primers were designed, and variable region genes of light chain and heavy chain were amplified by PCR respectively from the pGEM-T vectors previously constructed in our laboratory which containing light chain gene or Fd fragment of heavy chain gene. The PCR product was digested, purified and inserted into pHEN2 vector to construct the soluble expression vector pHEN2-scFv. After the induction by IPTG, the scFv protein was identified by SDSPAGE electrophoresis and purified by Ni-NTA-Chromatography. MTT was used to determine the effect of purified protein on the proliferation of stimulated PBMC in vitro. Plasmid PCR and restriction enzyme digestion of pHEN2-scFv revealed the pHEN2-scFv vector was constructed successfully. Id-scFv protein was expressed in positive clone after induced by IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular weight of fusion protein was about 30 kD (1 kD=0.9921 ku),which was consistent with the theoretically predicted value. Proliferation of PBMC could be induced by purified Id-scFv. It was suggested that the expression vector of SmIg scFv fragment was constructed successfully, and scFv protein was expressed and secreted from E. coli, which could induce proliferation of PBMC. This may lay an experimental foundation for further research of IdHSP complex vaccine for B-CLL.

  1. The inhibition of lung cancer cell growth by intracellular immunization with LC-1 ScFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, LC-l, recognizing lung cancer associated common antigens was obtained in authors' laboratory. Its single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) named LC-1 ScFv was constructed based on recombinant phage displayed techniques. For expression on cell membrane, LC-1 ScFv was cloned into pDisplay vector, which directed the cloned gene to express as cell membrane bound protein. The resulting plasmid was sequenced and then introduced by the lipofectin method into a lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1. G418 resistant cells were obtained by G418 selection. After transfection, LC-1 ScFv expression was observed by Western blot analysis and the expression of cognate antigens was down-regulated as shown in ELISA assay. SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells grew in vitro at lower speed than the control intact cells and the cells transfected with vacant vector. Flow cytometry analysis detected a substantial increase in G1 phase and decrease in S phase in population of SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells compared to SPC-A-1 and SPC-A1-pDisplay cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c-myc expression was down-regulated in SPC-A-1-pDisplay-ScFv cells. It seems that the antigens recognized by LC-1 may be in some way involved in a growth stimulating pathway and the antibody blocking of the function of the antigens shut down the pathway and thus down-regulate the expression of c-myc and growth of the cells.

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of LC-1 ScFv with GFP tag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; GONG Xing-guo; YU Hong; LI Jian-yong

    2005-01-01

    Total RNA was isolated from the hybridoma cell line (LC-1), which secretes anti-lung adenocarcinoma monoclonal antibody, and was transferred into cDNA. Based on the FR1 (framework region 1) and FR4 conserved regions of LC-I gene, the variable regions of heavy chain (Vh) and light chain (Vl) were amplified, and the Vh and modified Vl were connected to single chain Fv (ScFv) by SOE-PCR (splice overlap extension PCR). The modified ScFv was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP)and introduced into E. coli JMi09. The fusion protein induced by IPTG (Isopropylthiogalactoside) was about 57000 on a 10%SDS-PAGE gel (10% Sds Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis), and primarily manifested as inclusion bodies. The renatured protein purified by Ni-NTA Superflow resins showed ability to bind to antigen on SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, the induced host cells fluoresced bright green under 395 nm wavelength, which indicated that the expected protein with dual activity was expressed in the prokaryotic system. The ScFv with GFP tag used in this research can be applied as a new reagent to detect immunological dye, and provide a feasible way to detect adenocarcinoma in a clinical setting.

  3. Selection of affinity-improved neutralizing human scFv against HBV PreS1 from CDR3 VH/VL mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YanMin; Bai, Yin; Guo, XiaoChen; Wang, WenFei; Zheng, Qi; Wang, FuXiang; Sun, Dejun; Li, DeShan; Ren, GuiPing; Yin, JieChao

    2016-07-01

    A CDR3 mutant library was constructed from a previously isolated anti-HBV neutralizing Homo sapiens scFv-31 template by random mutant primers PCR. Then the library was displayed on the inner membrane surface in Escherichia coli periplasmic space. Seven scFv clones were isolated from the mutant library through three rounds of screening by flow cytometry. Competition ELISA assay indicates that isolated scFv fragments show more efficient binding ability to HBV PreS1 compared with parental scFv-31. HBV neutralization assay indicated that two clones (scFv-3 and 59) show higher neutralizing activity by blocking the HBV infection to Chang liver cells. Our method provides a new strategy for rapid screening of mutant antibody library for affinity-enhanced scFv clones and the neutralizing scFvs obtained from this study provide a potential alternative of Hepatitis B immune globulin.

  4. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2 that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7 isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a

  5. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Aresu, Luca; Comazzi, Stefano; Shi, Jianguo; Worrall, Erin; Clayton, John; Humphries, William; Hemmington, Sandra; Davis, Paul; Murray, Euan; Limeneh, Asmare A; Ball, Kathryn; Ruckova, Eva; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Fahraeus, Robin; Argyle, David; Hupp, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2) that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv) into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7) isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a recombinant anti-CD20

  6. Construction and sequencing analysis of scFv antibody fragment derived from monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155 were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZαA, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1 was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

  7. Baculovirus display of single chain antibody (scFv using a novel signal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Gaëlle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells permissive to virus can become refractory to viral replication upon intracellular expression of single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies directed towards viral structural or regulatory proteins, or virus-coded enzymes. For example, an intrabody derived from MH-SVM33, a monoclonal antibody against a conserved C-terminal epitope of the HIV-1 matrix protein (MAp17, was found to exert an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Results Two versions of MH-SVM33-derived scFv were constructed in recombinant baculoviruses (BVs and expressed in BV-infected Sf9 cells, N-myristoylation-competent scFvG2/p17 and N-myristoylation-incompetent scFvE2/p17 protein, both carrying a C-terminal HA tag. ScFvG2/p17 expression resulted in an insoluble, membrane-associated protein, whereas scFvE2/p17 was recovered in both soluble and membrane-incorporated forms. When coexpressed with the HIV-1 Pr55Gag precursor, scFvG2/p17 and scFvE2/p17 did not show any detectable negative effect on virus-like particle (VLP assembly and egress, and both failed to be encapsidated in VLP. However, soluble scFvE2/p17 isolated from Sf9 cell lysates was capable of binding to its specific antigen, in the form of a synthetic p17 peptide or as Gag polyprotein-embedded epitope. Significant amounts of scFvE2/p17 were released in the extracellular medium of BV-infected cells in high-molecular weight, pelletable form. This particulate form corresponded to BV particles displaying scFvE2/p17 molecules, inserted into the BV envelope via the scFv N-terminal region. The BV-displayed scFvE2/p17 molecules were found to be immunologically functional, as they reacted with the C-terminal epitope of MAp17. Fusion of the N-terminal 18 amino acid residues from the scFvE2/p17 sequence (N18E2 to another scFv recognizing CD147 (scFv-M6-1B9 conferred the property of BV-display to the resulting chimeric scFv-N18E2/M6. Conclusion Expression of scFvE2/p17 in insect cells using a BV

  8. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  9. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against surface proteins of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Minenkova, Olga; Hartung, John

    2016-03-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is the causal agent of citrus huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. We have developed and applied immunization and affinity screening methods to develop a primary library of recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in an M13 vector, pKM19. The antibody population is enriched for antibodies that bind antigens of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. The primary library has more than 10(7) unique antibodies and the genes that encode them. We have screened this library for antibodies that bind to specifically-chosen proteins that are present on the surface of 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. These proteins were used as targets for affinity-based selection of scFvs that bind to the major outer membrane protein, OmpA; the polysaccharide capsule protein KpsF; a protein component of the type IV pilus (CapF); and, two flagellar proteins FlhA and FlgI. These scFvs have been used in ELISA and dot blot assays against purified protein antigens and 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' infected plant extracts. We have also recloned many of these scFvs into a plasmid expression vector designed for the production of scFvs. Screening of these scFvs was more efficient when phage-bound, rather than soluble scFvs, were used. We have demonstrated a technology to produce antibodies at will and against any protein target encoded by 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus'. Applications could include advanced diagnostic methods for huanglongbing and the development of immune labeling reagents for in planta applications.

  10. Production, purification, and characterization of scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Andrea; Wyzgol, Agnes; Wajant, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) specific for tumor-associated cell surface antigens are the most broadly used reagents to direct therapeutic or diagnostic effector molecules, such as toxins, radioisotopes, and CD3-stimulating scFvs, to tumors. One novel class of effector molecules that can be targeted to tumors by scFvs are ligands of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. Typically, these molecules have apoptosis inducing and/or immune stimulating properties and are therefore highly attractive for cancer treatment. N-terminal fusion of scFvs does not interfere with the receptor binding capabilities of TNF ligands and thus allows the straightforward generation of scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins. We report here a protocol for the purification of eukaryotically produced scFv TNF ligand fusion proteins based on affinity chromatography on anti-Flag agarose and further describe assays for the determination of the targeting index of this type of scFv-targeted proteins.

  11. Quantum Dot- Conjugated Anti-GRP78 scFv Inhibits Cancer Growth in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hornby

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots have recently been shown to offer significant advantages over conventional fluorescent probes to image and study biological processes. The stability and low toxicity of QDs are well suited for biological applications. Despite this, the potential of Qdots remains limited owing to the inefficiency of existing delivery methods. By conjugating Qdots with small antibody fragments targeting membrane-bound proteins, such as GRP78, we demonstrate here that the Quantum dot- Anti-GRP78 scFv (Qdot-GRP78 retains its immunospecificity and its distribution can be monitored by visualization of multi-color fluorescence imaging both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover we demonstrate here for the first time that Qdot-GRP78 scFv bioconjugates can be efficiently internalized by cancer cells, thus upregulate phophosphate-AKT-ser473 and possess biological anti-tumour activity as shown by inhibition of breast cancer growth in a xenograft model. This suggests that nanocarrier-conjugated scFvs can be used as a therapeutic antibody for cancer treatment.

  12. Expression, production, and renaturation of a functional single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv against human ICAM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 is an important factor in the progression of inflammatory responses in vivo. To develop a new anti-inflammatory drug to block the biological activity of ICAM-1, we produced a monoclonal antibody (Ka=4.19×10−8 M against human ICAM-1. The anti-ICAM-1 single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv was expressed at a high level as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. We refolded the scFv (Ka=2.35×10−7 M by ion-exchange chromatography, dialysis, and dilution. The results showed that column chromatography refolding by high-performance Q Sepharose had remarkable advantages over conventional dilution and dialysis methods. Furthermore, the anti-ICAM-1 scFv yield of about 60 mg/L was higher with this method. The purity of the final product was greater than 90%, as shown by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cell culture, and animal experiments were used to assess the immunological properties and biological activities of the renatured scFv.

  13. EXPRESSION OF RECOMBINANT ANTIBODY FRAGMENT, ANTI BNP-SCFV ON THE PERIPLASM OF Escherichia coli FOR THE DETECTION OF HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabarni Gaffar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic natriuretic peptide (BNP is a polypeptide hormone consist of 32 amino acids that secreted by the heart ventricle to respond the excessive stretching of heart muscle cells. BNP can be used as prognostic marker for patients with heart failure. The presence of BNP in blood can be detected by BNP antibody, which is anti BNP-single chain variable fragment (Anti BNP-SCFV. The antibody is a combination of polypeptides between varying region on the heavy chain (VH and the light chain (VL of immunoglobulin. Anti BNP-SCFV will bind to BNP through the antigen-antibody interaction. Concentration of BNP in a patient’s blood can be detected through the interaction of BNP with Anti BNP-SCFV using immunosensor method. Production of recombinant Anti BNP-SCFV in Escherichia coli as host is reported in the present study. Anti BNP-SCFV was expressed in fusion form with OmpC signal peptide that direct the protein to a periplasmic space. Expression was performed under RhaBad promoter as control using L-rhamnose as inducer. SDS-PAGE characterization showed consistent band at 28 kDa, which was assumed as Anti BNP-SCFV. The optimum expression was found at four hours after induction with 4 mM inducer. Anti BNP-SCFV was secreted from the cell as characterized by the presence of the protein on periplasmic membrane and extracellular fraction.

  14. An efficient method for variable region assembly in the construction of scFv phage display libraries using independent strand amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Pablo; Collazo, Noberto; Zuñiga, Roberto; Gutiérrez-González, Matías; Catalán, Diego; Ribeiro, Carolina Hager; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Molina, María Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Phage display library technology is a common method to produce human antibodies. In this technique, the immunoglobulin variable regions are displayed in a bacteriophage in a way that each filamentous virus displays the product of a single antibody gene on its surface. From the collection of different phages, it is possible to isolate the virus that recognizes specific targets. The most common form in which to display antibody variable regions in the phage is the single chain variable fragment format (scFv), which requires assembly of the heavy and light immunoglobulin variable regions in a single gene. In this work, we describe a simple and efficient method for the assembly of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable regions in a scFv format. This procedure involves a two-step reaction: (1) DNA amplification to produce the single strand form of the heavy or light chain gene required for the fusion; and (2) mixture of both single strand products followed by an assembly reaction to construct a complete scFv gene. Using this method, we produced 6-fold more scFv encoding DNA than the commonly used splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR) approach. The scFv gene produced by this method also proved to be efficient in generating a diverse scFv phage display library. From this scFv library, we obtained phages that bound several non-related antigens, including recombinant proteins and rotavirus particles.

  15. Generation and Characterization of C305, a Murine Neutralizing scFv Antibody That Can Inhibit BLyS Binding to Its Receptor BCMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Yun LIU; Wei HAN; Yan-Li DING; Tian-Hong ZHOU; Rui-Yang TIAN; Sheng-Li YANG; Hui LIU; Yi GONG

    2005-01-01

    B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and a key regulator of B cell response. Neutralizing single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody against BLyS binding to its receptor BCMA has the potential to play a prominent role in autoimmune disease therapy. A phage display scFv library constructed on pIII protein of M13 filamentous phage was screened using BLyS.After five rounds of panning, their binding activity was characterized by phage-ELISA. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that at least two different scFv gene fragments (C305 and D416) were obtained. The two different scFv gene fragments were expressed to obtain the soluble scFv antibodies, then the soluble scFv antibodies were characterized by means of competitive ELISA and in vitro neutralization assay. The results indicated that C305 is the neutralizing scFv antibody that can inhibit BLyS binding to its receptor BCMA.

  16. Generation and Characterization of an scFv Directed against Site II of Rabies Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukra M. Aavula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibody phage display technology is a vital tool that facilitates identification of specific binding molecules to a target enabling the rapid generation and selection of high affinity, fully human, or mouse antibody product candidates essentially directed towards disease target appropriate for antibody therapy. In this study, a recombinant single-chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv A11 was isolated from immune spleen cells obtained from mice immunized with inactivated rabies virus (Pasteur strain using standard methodology and was characterized for its specificity towards the rabies virus glycoprotein. Epitope mapping using peptide libraries and truncated glycoprotein polypeptides suggested that A11 bound to the antigenic site II of rabies glycoprotein against which a majority of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies are directed. The use of the above technology could, therefore, allow development of scFvs with different specificities against the rabies glycoprotein as an alternative to the more cumbersome protocols used for the development of monoclonal antibodies.

  17. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  18. DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO MS2 SCFV ANTIBODIES PRODUCED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION: CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO MS2 SCFV ANTIBODIES PRODUCED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Patricia E. Buckley Alena M. Calm...Characterization of Two MS2 scFv Antibodies Produced by the University of Texas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Research Project Agency-funded investigator, the University of Texas (Austin, TX), for affinity and stability enhancements. The results of this study

  19. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  20. Construction of a human functional single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody recognizing the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajanarogana, Sumet; Prasomrothanakul, Teerawat; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2006-04-01

    Falciparum malaria is one of the most deadly and profound human health problems around the tropical world. Antimalarial drugs are now considered to be a powerful treatment; however, there are drugs currently being used that are resistant to Plasmodium falciparum parasites spreading in different parts of the world. Although the protective immune response against intraerythrocytic stages of the falciparum malaria parasite is still not fully understood, immune antibodies have been shown to be associated with reduced parasite prevalence. Therefore antibodies of the right specificity present in adequate concentrations and affinity are reasonably effective in providing protection. In the present study, VH (variable domain of heavy chain) and VL (variable domain of light chain) were isolated from human blood lymphocytes of P. falciparum in one person who had high serum titre to RESA (ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen). Equal amounts of VH and VL were assembled together with universal linker (G4S)3 to generate scFvs (single-chain variable fragments). The scFv antibodies were expressed with a phage system for the selection process. Exclusively, an expressed scFv against asynchronous culture of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes was selected and characterized. Sequence analysis of selected scFv revealed that this clone could be classified into a VH family-derived germline gene (VH1) and Vkappa family segment (Vkappa1). Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we could show that soluble expressed scFv reacted with falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The results encourage the further study of scFvs for development as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.

  1. Development of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against influenza virus targeting hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-Wei; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tseng, Yen-Tzu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Cyuan; Chou, Mei-Ju; Lin, Yu-Jen; Wang, Yueh; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chang, Ding-Kwo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread in birds and domestic poultry, occasionally causing severe epidemics in humans and posing health threats. Hence, the need to develop a strategy for prophylaxis or therapy, such as a broadly neutralizing antibody against IAV, is urgent. In this study, single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display technology was used to select scFv fragments recognizing influenza envelope proteins. The Tomlinson I and J scFv phage display libraries were screened against the recombinant HA2 protein (rHA2) for three rounds. Only the third-round elution sample of the Tomlinson J library showed high binding affinity to rHA2, from which three clones (3JA18, 3JA62, and 3JA78) were chosen for preparative-scale production as soluble antibody by E. coli. The clone 3JA18 was selected for further tests due to its broad affinity for influenza H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. Simulations of the scFv 3JA18-HA trimer complex revealed that the complementarity-determining region of the variable heavy chain (VH-CDR2) bound the stem region of HA. Neutralization assays using a peptide derived from VH-CDR2 also supported the simulation model. Both the selected antibody and its derived peptide were shown to suppress infection with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses, but not H3N2 viruses. The results also suggested that the scFvs selected from rHA2 could have neutralizing activity by interfering with the function of the HA stem region during virus entry into target cells.

  2. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine.

  3. Primary structure and functional scFv antibody expression of an antibody against the human protooncogen c-myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, P; Breitling, F; Little, M; Dübel, S

    1997-06-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain variable region (Vh and Vl) genes were isolated from Myc1-9E10 hybridoma cells, which secreted monoclonal antibody against human oncogen c-myc. The expression vector pOPE52-c-myc was constructed for the recombinant production in E. coli. A 30 kDa single chain fragment (scFv) expression product was found in the periplasmic space by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A significant fraction was processed correctly as demonstrated with an antiserum recognizing the processed aminoterminus only. The specific binding of the scFv fragment to the peptide epitope of the maternal monoclonal antibody was demonstrated and the primary sequence of the variable regions was determined. Sequence comparison with previously published partial Vh and Vl sequences from this hybridoma cell line revealed a genetic heterogeneity for the light chain variable region. The potential use of this scFv as a new tool for detection and purification of tagged proteins, for adding costimulatory signals to the surface of cancer cells as well as for analyzing c-myc function in the living cell by cytoplasmic expression is discussed.

  4. Recombinant scFv Antibodies against E Protein and N Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LIU; Yan-Li DING; Wei HAN; Mei-Yun LIU; Rui-Yang TIAN; Sheng-Li YANG; Yi GONG

    2004-01-01

    Three single chain antibodies(scFv)against the proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-CoV)were isolated by phage display from an scFv antibody library.Bio-panning was carried out against immobilized purified envelope(E)and nucleocapsid(N)proteins of SARS-CoV.Their binding activity and specificity to E or N protein of SARS-CoV were characterized by phage-ELISA.Two of them,B 10 and C20,could recognize non-overlapping epitopes of the E protein according to the two-site binding test result.Clone A 17 could recognize N protein.The sequence of the epitope or overlapping epitope of scFv antibody A17 was PTDSTDNNQNGGRNGARPKQRRPQ.The affinity(equilibrium dissociation constant,Kd)of SARS-CoV E protein was 5.7×10-8 M for B10 and 8.9×10-8 M for C20.The affinity of A17for N protein was 2.1 x 10-6 M.All three scFv antibodies were purified with affinity chromatography and determined by Western blot.

  5. Engineering an Anti-Transferrin Receptor ScFv for pH-Sensitive Binding Leads to Increased Intracellular Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Tillotson

    Full Text Available The equilibrium binding affinity of receptor-ligand or antibody-antigen pairs may be modulated by protonation of histidine side-chains, and such pH-dependent mechanisms play important roles in biological systems, affecting molecular uptake and trafficking. Here, we aimed to manipulate cellular transport of single-chain antibodies (scFvs against the transferrin receptor (TfR by engineering pH-dependent antigen binding. An anti-TfR scFv was subjected to histidine saturation mutagenesis of a single CDR. By employing yeast surface display with a pH-dependent screening pressure, scFvs having markedly increased dissociation from TfR at pH 5.5 were identified. The pH-sensitivity generally resulted from a central cluster of histidine residues in CDRH1. When soluble, pH-sensitive, scFv clone M16 was dosed onto live cells, the internalized fraction was 2.6-fold greater than scFvs that lacked pH-sensitive binding and the increase was dependent on endosomal acidification. Differences in the intracellular distribution of M16 were also observed consistent with an intracellular decoupling of the scFv M16-TfR complex. Engineered pH-sensitive TfR binding could prove important for increasing the effectiveness of TfR-targeted antibodies seeking to exploit endocytosis or transcytosis for drug delivery purposes.

  6. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  7. Antiepidermal growth factor variant III scFv fragment: effect of radioiodination method on tumor targeting and normal tissue clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Sriram [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Kuan, C.-T. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States) and Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)]. E-mail: zalut001@duke.edu

    2006-01-15

    Introduction: MR1-1 is a single-chain Fv (scFv) fragment that binds with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor variant III, which is overexpressed on gliomas and other tumors but is not present on normal tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate four different methods for labeling MR1-1 scFv that had been previously investigated for the radioiodinating of an intact anti-epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (anti-EGFRvIII) monoclonal antibody (mAb) L8A4. Methods: The MR1-1 scFv was labeled with {sup 125}I/{sup 131}I using the Iodogen method, and was also radiohalogenated with acylation agents bearing substituents that were positively charged-N-succinimidyl-3-[*I]iodo-5-pyridine carboxylate and N-succinimidyl-4-guanidinomethyl-3-[*I]iodobenzoate ([*I]SGMIB)-and negatively charged-N-succinimidyl-3-[*I]iodo-4-phosphonomethylbenzoate ([*I]SIPMB). In vitro internalization assays were performed with the U87MG{delta}EGFR cell line, and the tissue distribution of the radioiodinated scFv fragments was evaluated in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG{delta}EGFR xenografts. Results and Conclusion: As seen previously with the anti-EGFRvIII IgG mAb, retention of radioiodine activity in U87MG{delta}EGFR cells in the internalization assay was labeling method dependent, with SGMIB and SIPMB yielding the most prolonged retention. However, unlike the case with the intact mAb, the results of the internalization assays were not predictive of in vivo tumor localization capacity of the labeled scFv. Renal activity was dependent on the nature of the labeling method. With MR1-1 labeled using SIPMB, kidney uptake was highest and most prolonged; catabolism studies indicated that this uptake primarily was in the form of {epsilon}-N-3-[*I]iodo-4-phosphonomethylbenzoyl lysine.

  8. Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Waldir P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC. Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrhea in children and adults in many developing and industrialized countries. Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int388-667. In immunoblotting assays, this monoclonal antibody showed excellent specificity. Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. Consequently, motivated by its use for diagnosis purposes, in this study we aimed to the cloning and expression of the single-chain variable fragment from this monoclonal antibody (scFv. Findings Anti-intimin hybridoma mRNA was extracted and reversely transcripted to cDNA, and the light and heavy chains of the variable fragment of the antibody were amplified using commercial primers. The amplified chains were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Specific primers were designed and used in an amplification and chain linkage strategy, obtaining the scFv, which in turn was cloned into pAE vector. E. coli BL21(DE3pLys strain was transformed with pAE scFv-intimin plasmid and subjected to induction of protein expression. Anti-intimin scFv, expressed as inclusion bodies (insoluble fraction, was denatured, purified and submitted to refolding. The protein yield was 1 mg protein per 100 mL of bacterial culture. To test the functionality of the scFv, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays were performed, showing that 275 ng of scFv reacted with 2 mg of purified intimin, resulting in an absorbance of 0.75 at 492 nm. The immunofluorescence assay showed a strong reactivity with

  9. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries.

  10. Cloning single-chain antibody fragments (ScFv) from hyrbidoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toleikis, Lars; Frenzel, André

    2012-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of the generation of antibodies by phage display and other technologies, hybridoma technology still provides a valuable tool for the generation of high-affinity binders against different targets. But there exist several limitations of using hybridoma-derived antibodies. The source of the hybridoma clones are mostly rat or mouse B-lymphocytes. Therefore a human-anti-mouse or human-anti-rat antibody response may result in immunogenicity of these antibodies. This leads to the necessity of humanization of these antibodies where the knowledge of the amino acid sequence of the proteins is inalienable. Furthermore, additional in vitro modifications, e.g., affinity maturation or fusion to other proteins, are dependent on cloning of the antigen-binding domains.Here we describe the isolation of RNA from hybridoma cells and the primers that can be used for the amplification of VL and VH as well as the cloning of the antibody in scFv format and its expression in Escherichia coli.

  11. Cloning of scFv from hybridomas using a rational strategy: Application as a receptor to sensitive detection microcystin-LR in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; He, Kuo; Zhao, Ruiping; Wang, Lixia; Jin, Yandan

    2016-10-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv), containing of heavy and light chains (VH and VL) joined by a short peptide linker, has been used widely for immunodetection. Nevertheless, cloning functional variable genes is still a bottle neck for the scFv generation technology. Here, a rational strategy for cloning and selecting variable region genes from an anti-microcystin-LR hybridoma was devised, then the functional VH and VL genes were recloned and assembled to scFv using splicing overlap extension PCR. The resulting scFv gene was recombinantly expressed as a soluble scFv-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein (scFv-AP) by vector PLIP6/GN. Then an indirect competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (ic-CLEIA) for detection of microcystin-LR was developed. The half-maximum inhibition concentrations (IC50) and limits of detection (LODs, IC15) were 0.81 ± 0.04 μgL(-1) and 0.13 ± 0.03 μgL(-1), respectively. With the mean coefficient of variation lowing 8%, the mean recovery in intra-assay and inter-assay were 100.06% and 96.46%, The proposed strategy should be useful for generation scFv in a rapid and simple way.

  12. Synthesis and application of a N-1' fluorescent biotinyl derivative inducing the specific carboxy-terminal dual labeling of a novel RhoB-selective scFv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisemartin, L; Chinestra, P; Favre, G; Blonski, C; Faye, J C

    2009-05-20

    The fluorescent site-specific labeling of protein would provide a new, easy-to-use alternative to biochemical and immunochemical methods. We used an intein-mediated strategy for covalent labeling of the carboxy-terminal amino acid of a RhoB-selective scFv previously isolated from a phage display library (a human synthetic V(H) + V(L) scFv phage library). The scFv fused to the Mxe intein was produced in E. coli and purified and was then labeled with a newly synthesized fluorescent biotinyl cysteine derivative capable of inducing scFv-Mxe intein splicing. In this study, we investigated the splicing and labeling properties of various amino acids in the hinge domain between scFv and Mxe under thiol activation. In this dual labeling system, the fluorescein is used for antibody detection and biotin is used for purification, resulting in a high specific activity for fluorescence. We then checked that the purified biotinylated fluorescent scFv retained its selectivity for RhoB without modification of its affinity.

  13. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-11

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  14. A novel human scFv fragment against TNF-alpha from de novo design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong; Qin, Weisong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jiyan; Lin, Zhou; Lv, Ming; Sun, Yingxun; Feng, Jiannan; Shen, Beifen

    2007-07-01

    Anti-TNF antibody has been an effective therapeutic strategy for the diseases related to aberrant production of TNF-alpha, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. The limitations of large molecule inhibitors in the therapy of these diseases prompted the search for other potent novel TNF-alpha antagonists. Antagonistic peptides, derived directly or designed rationally from complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of neutralizing antibodies against TNF-alpha, have been demonstrated for their ability of inhibiting TNF-alpha. However, their activity is very low. In this study, to increase the affinity and bioactivity, human antibody variable region was used as scaffold to display antagonistic peptides, which were designed on the interaction between TNF-alpha and its neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb Z12). Based on the previously designed domain antibody (framework V(H)5), framework V(kappa)1 was used as light chain scaffold. On the basis of computer-guided molecular design method, a novel human scFv fragment (named as TSA1) was designed. Theoretical analysis showed that TSA1 could bind to TNF-alpha with more hydrogen bonds and lower binding free energy than the designed domain antibody. The biological experiments demonstrated that TSA1 could directly bind with TNF-alpha, competitively inhibit the binding of mAb Z12 to TNF-alpha and block the binding of TNF-alpha to TNFR I and TNFR II. TSA1 could also inhibit TNF-induced cytotoxicity on L929 cells and TNF-mediated NF-kappaB activation on HEK-293T cells. The bioactivity of TSA1 was significantly increased over the domain antibody. This study indicated that the framework of antibody variable region could serve as an ideal scaffold for displaying the peptides and provides a novel strategy to design TNF-alpha inhibitors with the ability to block the deleterious biological effects of TNF-alpha.

  15. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective. PMID:27626445

  16. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  17. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  18. Generation of functional scFv intrabody to abate the expression of CD147 surface molecule of 293A cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of intracellular antibodies (intrabodies has become a broadly applicable technology for generation of phenotypic knockouts in vivo. The method uses surface depletion of cellular membrane proteins to examine their biological function. In this study, we used this strategy to block the transport of cell surface molecule CD147 to the cell membrane. Phage display technology was introduced to generate the functional antibody fragment to CD147, and we subsequently constructed a CD147-specific scFv that was expressed intracellularly and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by adenoviral gene transfer. Results The recombinant antibody fragments, Fab and scFv, of the murine monoclonal antibody (clone M6-1B9 reacted specifically to CD147 by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA using a recombinant CD147-BCCP as a target. This indicated that the Fab- and scFv-M6-1B9 displaying on phage surfaces were correctly folded and functionally active. We subsequently constructed a CD147-specific scFv, scFv-M6-1B9-intrabody, in 293A cells. The expression of CD147 on 293A cell surface was monitored at 36 h after transduction by flow cytometry and demonstrated remarkable reduction. Colocalization of scFv-M6-1B9 intrabody with CD147 in the ER network was depicted using a 3D deconvolution microscopy system. Conclusion The results suggest that our approach can generate antibody fragments suitable for decreasing the expression of CD147 on 293A cells. This study represents a step toward understanding the role of the cell surface protein, CD147.

  19. Re-engineering of the PAM1 phage display monoclonal antibody to produce a soluble, versatile anti-homogalacturonan scFv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfield, I. W.; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Møller, I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibody phage display is an increasingly important alternative method for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and involves the expression of antibody fragments (scFvs) at the surface of bacteriophage particles. We have previously used this technique to generate a phage mAb (PAM1phage...... of the PAM1 mAb, we describe here the production of a phage-free, soluble scFv version of the PAM1 mAb (PAM1scFv). Using the new PAM1scFv probe, the occurrence of the HG epitope recognized can now be localized with high resolution within micro-domains of plant cell walls....

  20. Optimisation of production of a domoic acid-binding scFv antibody fragment in Escherichia coli using molecular chaperones and functional immobilisation on a mesoporous silicate support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuejun; O'Hara, Liam; White, Simon; Magner, Edmond; Kane, Marian; Wall, J Gerard

    2007-03-01

    Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin that can lead to amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated shellfish. We have produced and purified an anti-domoic acid single-chain Fragment variable (scFv) antibody fragment from the Escherichia coli periplasm. Yields of functional protein were increased by up to 100-fold upon co-production of E. coli DnaKJE molecular chaperones but co-overproduction of GroESL led to a reduction in solubility of the scFv. Co-production of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase trigger factor resulted in accumulation of unprocessed scFv in the E. coli cytoplasm. This was due to an apparent bottleneck in translocation of the cytoplasmic membrane by the recombinant polypeptide. Co-expression of the E. coli disulfide bond isomerase dsbC increased scFv yields by delaying lysis of the host bacterial cells though this effect was not synergistic with molecular chaperone co-production. Meanwhile, use of a cold-shock promoter for protein production led to accumulation of greater amounts of scFv polypeptide which was predominantly in insoluble form and could not be rescued by chaperones. Purification of the scFv was achieved using an optimised metal affinity chromatography procedure and the purified protein bound domoic acid when immobilised on a mesoporous silicate support. The work outlines the potential benefit of applying a molecular chaperone/folding catalyst screening approach to improve antibody fragment production for applications such as sensor development.

  1. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  2. scFv from Antibody That Mimics gp43 Modulates the Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Tavares, Aldo Henrique F P; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; Ferreira, Karen Spadari

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides species is a prevalent systemic and progressive mycosis that occurs in Latin America. It is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Immunization with dendritic cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the scFv (pMAC/PS-scFv) that mimics the main antigen of P. brasiliensis (gp43) confers protection in experimental PCM. DCs link innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing invading pathogens and selecting the type of effector T cell to mediate the immune response. Here, we showed that DC-pMAC/PS-scFv induces the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with P. brasiliensis and treated with DC-pMAC/PS-scFv showed the induction of specific IgG production against gp43 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines. Analysis of regional lymph nodes revealed increases in the expression of clec7a, myd88, tlr2, gata3 and tbx21, which are involved in the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that the scFv modulates the humoral and cellular immune responses and presents epitopes to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  3. scFv from Antibody That Mimics gp43 Modulates the Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by Paracoccidioides species is a prevalent systemic and progressive mycosis that occurs in Latin America. It is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Immunization with dendritic cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the scFv (pMAC/PS-scFv that mimics the main antigen of P. brasiliensis (gp43 confers protection in experimental PCM. DCs link innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing invading pathogens and selecting the type of effector T cell to mediate the immune response. Here, we showed that DC-pMAC/PS-scFv induces the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with P. brasiliensis and treated with DC-pMAC/PS-scFv showed the induction of specific IgG production against gp43 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines. Analysis of regional lymph nodes revealed increases in the expression of clec7a, myd88, tlr2, gata3 and tbx21, which are involved in the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that the scFv modulates the humoral and cellular immune responses and presents epitopes to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  4. The effects of N-terminal insertion into VSV-G of an scFv peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechaczyk Marc

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recombinant retroviruses, including lentiviruses, are the most widely used vectors for both in vitro and in vivo stable gene transfer. However, the inability to selectively deliver transgenes into cells of interest limits the use of this technology. Due to its wide tropism, stability and ability to pseudotype a range of viral vectors, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G is the most commonly used pseudotyping protein. Here, we attempted to engineer this protein for targeting purposes. Chimaeric VSV-G proteins were constructed by linking a cell-directing single-chain antibody (scFv to its N-terminal. We show that the chimaeric VSV-G molecules can integrate into retroviral and lentiviral particles. HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with VSV-G linked to an scFv against human Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I bind strongly and specifically to human cells. Also, this novel molecule preferentially drives lentiviral transduction of human cells, although the titre is considerably lower that viruses pseudotyped with VSV-G. This is likely due to the inefficient fusion activity of the modified protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report where VSV-G was successfully engineered to include a large (253 amino acids exogenous peptide and where attempts were made to change the infection profile of VSV-G pseudotyped vectors.

  5. Generation of anti-idiotype scFv for pharmacokinetic measurement in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical and clinical studies of therapeutic antibodies require highly specific reagents to examine their immune responses, bio-distributions, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics in patients. Selective antigen-mimicking anti-idiotype antibody facilitates the assessment of therapeutic antibody in the detection, quantitation and characterization of antibody immune responses. Using mouse specific degenerate primer pairs and splenocytic RNA, we generated an idiotype antibody-immunized phage-displayed scFv library in which an anti-idiotype antibody against the therapeutic chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03 was isolated. The anti-idiotype scFv recognized the idiotype of anti-CD22 antibody and inhibited binding of SM03 to CD22 on Raji cell surface. The anti-idiotype scFv was subsequently classified as Ab2γ type. Moreover, our results also demonstrated firstly that the anti-idiotype scFv could be used for pharmacokinetic measurement of circulating residual antibody in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03. Of important, the present approach could be easily adopted to generate anti-idiotype antibodies for therapeutic antibodies targeting membrane proteins, saving the cost and time for producing a soluble antigen.

  6. Ligation-based assembly for constructing mouse synthetic scFv libraries by chain shuffling with in vivo-amplified VH and VL fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Michiru; Jian, Nan; Yamamoto, Keiko; Seto, Haruyo; Nishida, Yuichi; Tonoyama, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Nishi, Yoshisuke

    2014-10-01

    In vitro assembly of two or three PCR fragments using primers is a common method of constructing scFv fragments for display on the surface of phage. However, mismatch annealing often occurs during in this step, leading to cloning and display of incomplete Fab or scFv fragments. To overcome this limitation, we developed a ligation-based two-fragment assembly (LTFA) protocol that involved separately cloning VH and Vκ fragments into the high-copy-number plasmid pUC18. The VH and Vκ fragments had randomized complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) and were joined with a peptidyl linker composed of (G4S)3. Using this approach, complete sequences of scFv fragments were successfully constructed, and the sequencing of 83 scFv clones revealed that none of the sequences, including the linker region, contained deletions or mutations. In contrast, linker sequences generated using a conventional two-fragment PCR assembly (TFPA) protocol often contained sequence anomalies, including large truncations. Using the LTFA protocol, a final library size of 1.0×10(8)cfu was achieved. Examination of the amino acid profiles of the generated scFv fragments within the randomized regions introduced using degenerate codons did not detect any bias from that expected based on stochastic distribution. After several cycles of panning with this library, antigen-specific scFvs against two reference antigens, hen egg lysozyme and streptavidin were detected. In addition, scFvs with specificity against peptidyl antigens in the loop region of the Medaka ortholog of human C6orf89, which encodes a histone deacetylase enhancer that interacts with the bombesin receptor, were also obtained. The LTFA protocol developed here is robust and allows for the easy construction of integral scFv fragments compared with conventional TFPA. Utilizing LTFA, other CDRs can be readily combined. This approach also allows for the in vitro maturation of scFv fragments by separately introducing randomization in CDRs or

  7. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tombesi Marina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function.

  8. Dendritic cells transfected with scFv from Mab 7.B12 mimicking original antigen gp43 induces protection against experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Ferreira

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, endemic in Latin America, is a progressive systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis, which primarily attacks lung tissue. Dendritic cells (DCs are able to initiate a response in naïve T cells, and they also participate in Th-cell education. Furthermore, these cells have been used for therapy in several disease models. Here we transfected DCs with a plasmid (pMAC/PS-scFv encoding a single chain variable fragment (scFv of an anti-Id antibody that is capable of mimicking gp43, the main antigenic component of P. brasiliensis. First, Balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with pMAC/PS-scFv and, after seven days, scFv protein was presented to the regional lymph nodes cells. Moreover, we showed that the DCs transfected with scFv were capable of efficiently activating proliferation of total lymph node cells and inducing a decrease in lung infection. Therefore, our results suggested that the use of scFv-transfected DCs may be a promising therapy in the paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM model.

  9. Dendritic cells transfected with scFv from Mab 7.B12 mimicking original antigen gp43 induces protection against experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Karen S; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Garcia, Maria C C; Brígido, Marcelo M; Santos, Suelen S; Lopes, José D; Almeida, Sandro R

    2011-01-07

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), endemic in Latin America, is a progressive systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis), which primarily attacks lung tissue. Dendritic cells (DCs) are able to initiate a response in naïve T cells, and they also participate in Th-cell education. Furthermore, these cells have been used for therapy in several disease models. Here we transfected DCs with a plasmid (pMAC/PS-scFv) encoding a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-Id antibody that is capable of mimicking gp43, the main antigenic component of P. brasiliensis. First, Balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with pMAC/PS-scFv and, after seven days, scFv protein was presented to the regional lymph nodes cells. Moreover, we showed that the DCs transfected with scFv were capable of efficiently activating proliferation of total lymph node cells and inducing a decrease in lung infection. Therefore, our results suggested that the use of scFv-transfected DCs may be a promising therapy in the paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) model.

  10. The change of the scFv into the Fab format improves the stability and in vivo toxin neutralization capacity of recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Hernández, Veronica; Juárez-González, Victor R; Ortíz-León, Mauricio; Sánchez, Rosalba; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2007-02-01

    The antigen-binding fragment (Fab) has been considered a more functionally stable version of recombinant antibodies than single chain antibody fragments (scFvs), however this intuitive consideration has not been sufficiently proven in vivo. This communication shows that three out of four specific scFvs against a scorpion toxin, with different affinities and stabilities, become neutralizing in vivo when expressed as Fabs, despite the fact that they are not neutralizing in the scFv format. A scFv fragment previously obtained from a neutralizing mouse antibody (BCF2) was used to produce three derived scFvs by directed evolution. Only one of them was neutralizing, however when expressed as Fab, all of them became neutralizing fragments in vivo. The initial scFvBCF2 (earlier used for directed evolution) was not neutralizing in the scFv format. After expressing it as Fab did not become a neutralizing fragment, but did reduce the intoxication symptoms of experimental mice. The stability of the four Fabs derived from their respective scFvs was improved when tested in the presence of guanidinium chloride. The in vitro stability of the Fab format has been shown earlier, but the physiological consequences of this stability are shown in this communication. The present results indicate that improved functional stability conferred by the Fab format can replace additional maturation steps, when the affinity and stability are close to the minimum necessary to be neutralizing.

  11. Affinity Purification of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Expressed in Raji Cells by Produced scFv Antibody Coupled CNBr-Activated Sepharose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Farajnia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been utilized as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of patients with melanoma and sarcoma. It targets tumor cell antigens by impressing tumor-associated vessels. Protein purification with affinity chromatography has been widely used in the downstream processing of pharmaceutical-grade proteins. Methods: In this study, we examined the potential of our produced anti-TNF-scFv fragments for purification of TNF-α produced by Raji cells. he Raji cells were induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS to express TNF-α. Western blotting and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS flow cytometry analyses were used to evaluate the TNF-α expression. The anti-TNF-α scFv selected from antibody phage display library was coupled to CNBr-activated sepharose 4B beads used for affinity purification of expressed TNF-α and the purity of the protein was assessed by SDS-PAGE. Results: Western blot and FACS flow cytometry analyses showed the successful expression of TNF-α with Raji cells. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the performance of scFv for purification of TNF-α protein with purity over 95%. Conclusion: These findings confirm not only the potential of the produced scFv antibody fragments but also this highly pure recombinant TNF-α protein can be applied for various in vitro and in vivo applications.

  12. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation.

  13. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a human gelatinase B-inhibitory single-chain immunoglobulin variable fragment (scFv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N; Paemen, L; Opdenakker, G; Froyen, G

    1997-09-15

    The murine monoclonal antibody REGA-3G12 selectively and specifically inhibits the activity of human gelatinase B. The cDNA fragments which encode the variable regions of the light and heavy chains were isolated by PCR-mediated cloning and sequenced. Single-chain Fv expression constructs for Escherichia coli were generated in which c-myc tag sequences were encoded. Inducible expression of the scFv and secretion to the periplasm were obtained with higher yields when the c-myc tag sequence was positioned at the amino-terminal side. The inhibitory activity of purified scFv on neutrophil gelatinase B was tested in a gelatin degradation assay and it was found to possess a similar specific activity as that of the intact monoclonal antibody and of the pepsin-clipped F(ab')2 derivative. This shows for the first time that inhibition of soluble enzymes with scFv is possible and opens new perspectives for the treatment of diseases with excessive and detrimental enzyme production in the host.

  14. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  15. Preventive DNA vaccination against CEA-expressing tumors with anti-idiotypic scFv6.C4 DNA in CEA-expressing transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denapoli, Priscila M A; Zanetti, Bianca F; Dos Santos, Adara A; de Moraes, Jane Z; Han, Sang W

    2017-03-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed during embryonic life and in low level during adult life. Consequently, the CEA is recognized by the immune system as a self-antigen and thus CEA-expressing tumors are tolerated. Previously, we constructed a single chain variable fragment using the 6.C4 (scFv6.C4) hybridoma cell line, which gave rise to antibodies able to recognize CEA when C57/Bl6 mice were immunized. Here, the scFv6.C4 ability to prevent the CEA-expressing tumor growth was assessed in CEA-expressing transgenic mice CEA2682. CEA2682 mice immunized with the scFv6.C4 expressing plasmid vector (uP/PS-scFv6.C4) by electroporation gave rise to the CEA-specific AB3 antibody after the third immunization. Sera from immunized mice reacted with CEA-expressing human colorectal cell lines CO112, HCT-8, and LISP-1, as well as with murine melanoma B16F10 cells expressing CEA (B16F10-CEA). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from uP/PS-scFv6.C4 immunized mice lysed B16F10-CEA (56.7%) and B16F10 expressing scFv6.C4 (B16F10-scFv6.C4) (46.7%) cells, against CTL from uP-immunized mice (10%). After the last immunization, 5 × 10(5) B16F10-CEA cells were injected into the left flank. All mice immunized with the uP empty vector died within 40 days, but uP/PS-scFv6.C4 vaccinated mice (40%) remained free of tumor for more than 100 days. Splenocytes obtained from uP/PS-scFv6.C4 vaccinated mice showed higher T-cell proliferative activity than those from uP vaccinated mice. Collectively, DNA vaccination with the uP-PS/scFv6.C4 plasmid vector was able to give rise to specific humoral and cellular responses, which were sufficient to retard growth and/or eliminate the injected B16F10-CEA cells.

  16. NOVEL AMYLOID-BETA SPECIFIC scFv and VH ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS FROM HUMAN AND MOUSE PHAGE DISPLAY ANTIBODY LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medecigo, M.; Manoutcharian, K.; Vasilevko, V.; Govezensky, T.; Munguia, M. E.; Becerril, B.; Luz-Madrigal, A.; Vaca, L.; Cribbs, D. H.; Gevorkian, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-amyloid immunotherapy has been proposed as an appropriate therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Significant efforts have been made towards the generation and assessment of antibody-based reagents capable of preventing and clearing amyloid aggregates as well as preventing their synaptotoxic effects. In this study, we selected a novel set of human anti-amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) recombinant monoclonal antibodies in a single chain fragment variable (scFv) and a single domain (VH) formats. We demonstrated that these antibody fragments recognize in a specific manner amyloid beta deposits in APP/Tg mouse brains, inhibit toxicity of oligomeric Aβ1-42 in neuroblastoma cell cultures in a concentration-dependently manner and reduced amyloid deposits in APP/Tg2576 mice after intracranial administration. These antibody fragments recognize epitopes in the middle/C-terminus region of Aβ, which makes them strong therapeutic candidates due to the fact that most of the Aβ species found in the brains of AD patients display extensive N-terminus truncations/modifications. PMID:20451261

  17. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  18. Construction of an anti-IL-1β scfv and TNFRI fusion protein and its therapeutic effect on RA mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Fangming; Ren, Guiping; Guo, Mo; Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Yu; Han, Yang; Zhang, Yakun; Li, Deshan

    2014-01-01

    IL-1β and TNF-α play key roles in the inflammatory response. Their abnormal expression may cause the occurrence of various diseases, such as RA. Recently, medicines of target TNF-α and IL-1β have become popular in the clinical practice. Although these biological agents can get mostly good results, they are not effective in all patients. The reason for this result may be that these biological agents could not fully inhibit a variety of inflammatory cytokines in the inflammatory response. In the present study, a fusion protein gene which encoded human interleukin-1β scfv and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI) was cloned. A number of in vitro assays demonstrated that anti-IL-1β scfv/TNFRI simultaneously bound to both targets. The bioactivity assay showed that the fusion protein could inhibit both the cytotoxicity of hTNF-α on L929 cells and hIL-1β-induced proliferation of L929 cells, indicating that the fusion protein has the ability to neutralize both hTNF-α and hIL-1β. In this study, we established the chicken type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in Kunming mice, and evaluated the pharmacological effect of the fusion protein in vivo. Model mice were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=8): CIA model control group, DEX treatment group (1 mg/kg), intraperitoneal treatment group (highdose: 5 mg/kg; medium-dose: 2 mg/kg; low-dose: 0.8 mg/kg), subcutaneous treatment group (high-dose: 5 mg/kg; medium- dose: 2 mg/kg; low-dose: 0.8 mg/kg), and healthy mice as control. The control group received the same volume of saline. The mice were administrated once every 2 days. Arthritis index, anti-CII antibody titers, cytokine levels, histopathological changes were examined. The results showed that anti-IL-1β scfv/TNFRI fusion protein could reduce the degree of joint swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial cell proliferation and the level of CII antibody in the sera. The Real-time PCR analysis showed that anti-IL-1β scfv/TNFRI had the ability to

  19. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  20. Compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and unique concerns in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Matthew R; Taylor, Samuel A; Gausden, Elizabeth; Lyden, John P

    2014-07-01

    Compartment syndrome is an elevation of intracompartmental pressure to a level that impairs circulation. While the most common etiology is trauma, other less common etiologies such as burns, emboli, and iatrogenic injuries can be equally troublesome and challenging to diagnose. The sequelae of a delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome may be devastating. All care providers must understand the etiologies, high-risk situation, and the urgency of intervention. This study was conducted to perform a comprehensive review of compartment syndrome discussing etiologies, risk stratification, clinical progression, noninvasive and invasive monitoring, documentation, medical-legal implication, and our step-by-step approach to compartment syndrome prevention, detection, and early intervention. A literature search was performed using the PubMed Database and the following search terms: "Compartment syndrome AND Extremity," "Compartment syndrome AND Gluteal," and Compartment syndrome AND Paraspinal." A total of 2,068 articles were identified. Filters allowed for the exclusion of studies not printed in English (359) and those focusing on exertional compartment syndrome (84), leaving a total of 1,625 articles available for review. The literature provides details regarding the etiologies, risk stratification, clinical progression, noninvasive and invasive monitoring, documentation, medical-legal implication, and our step-by-step approach to compartment syndrome prevention, detection, and early intervention. The development and progression of compartment syndrome is multifactorial, and as complexity of care increases, the opportunity for the syndrome to be missed is increased. Recent changes in the structure of in-hospital medical care including resident work hour restrictions and the incorporation of midlevel providers have increased the frequency of "signouts" or "patient handoffs" which present opportunities for the syndrome to be mismanaged. The changing dynamics of the health care team have prompted the need for a more explicit algorithm for managing patients at risk for compartment syndrome to ensure appropriate conveyance of information among team members.

  1. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    air bubbles from the samples. Mineral oil (Sigma-Aldrich) was applied to the top of each sample to prevent sample evaporation. The plate was placed...quantitative melting temperature (Tm) for each of the Illumina MS2 scFv proteins. The Tm should predict the results of subsequent ELISA and surface plasmon...in 1× PBS and divided into five tubes. One aliquot was kept on ice for the duration of the experiment and was marked time 0. The remaining four

  2. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  3. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  4. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  5. Aptamers, antibody scFv, and antibody Fab' fragments: An overview and comparison of three of the most versatile biosensor biorecognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Thompson, Michael

    2016-11-15

    The choice of biosensing elements is crucial for the development of the optimal biosensor. Three of the most versatile biosensing elements are antibody single-chain Fv fragments (scFv), antibody fragment-antigen binding (Fab') units, and aptamers. This article provides an overview of these three biorecognition elements with respects to their synthesis/engineering, various immobilization techniques, and examples of their use in biosensors. Furthermore, the final section of the review compares and contrasts their characteristics (time/cost of development, ease and variability of immobilization, affinity, stability) illustrating their advantages and disadvantages. Overall, scFv fragments are found to display the highest customizability (i.e. addition of functional groups, immobilizing peptides, etc.) due to recombinant synthesis techniques. If time and cost are an issue in the development of the biosensor, Fab' fragments should be chosen as they are relatively cheap and can be developed quickly from whole antibodies (several days). However, if there are sufficient funds and time is not a factor, aptamers should be utilized as they display the greatest affinity towards their target analytes and are extremely stable (excellent biosensor regenerability).

  6. Co-expression of Dsb proteins enables soluble expression of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against human type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Yao, Yan-Bing

    2014-12-01

    Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against human IGF-1R forms inclusion body when expressed in periplasmic space of E. coli routinely. Here, we described that co-expression of appropriate disulfide bonds (Dsb) proteins known to catalyze the formation and isomerization of Dsb can markedly recover the soluble expression of target scFv in E. coli. A 50 % recovery in solubility of the scFv was observed upon co-expression of DsbC alone, and a maximum solubility (80 %) was obtained when DsbA and DsbC were co-expressed in combination. Furthermore, the soluble scFv present full antigen-binding activity with IGF-1R, suggesting its correct folding. This study also suggested that the selection of Dsb proteins should be tested case-by-case if the approach of co-expression of Dsb system is adopted to address the problem of insoluble expression of proteins carrying Dsb.

  7. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  8. Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Mrinalini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP. The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. Results Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP

  9. Stability engineering of anti-EGFR scFv antibodies by rational design of a lambda-to-kappa swap of the VL framework using a structure-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Wixted, Josephine H F; Shapovalov, Maxim V; Roder, Heinrich; Dunbrack, Roland L; Robinson, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Phage-display technology facilitates rapid selection of antigen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from large recombinant libraries. ScFv antibodies, composed of a VH and VL domain, are readily engineered into multimeric formats for the development of diagnostics and targeted therapies. However, the recombinant nature of the selection strategy can result in VH and VL domains with sub-optimal biophysical properties, such as reduced thermodynamic stability and enhanced aggregation propensity, which lead to poor production and limited application. We found that the C10 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) scFv, and its affinity mutant, P2224, exhibit weak production from E. coli. Interestingly, these scFv contain a fusion of lambda3 and lambda1 V-region (LV3 and LV1) genes, most likely the result of a PCR aberration during library construction. To enhance the biophysical properties of these scFvs, we utilized a structure-based approach to replace and redesign the pre-existing framework of the VL domain to one that best pairs with the existing VH. We describe a method to exchange lambda sequences with a more stable kappa3 framework (KV3) within the VL domain that incorporates the original lambda DE-loop. The resulting scFvs, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE, are more thermodynamically stable and easier to produce from bacterial culture. Additionally, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE retain binding affinity to EGFR, suggesting that such a dramatic framework swap does not significantly affect scFv binding. We provide here a novel strategy for redesigning the light chain of problematic scFvs to enhance their stability and therapeutic applicability.

  10. Recognition of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis neurotoxin vipoxin and its components using phage-displayed scFv and polyclonal antivenom sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Vishnya; Aleksandrov, Radoslav; Lukarska, Maria; Duhalov, Deyan; Atanasov, Vasil; Petrova, Svetla

    2012-10-01

    Vipoxin is a potent postsynaptic heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian snake Vipera ammodytes meridionalis, whose snakebites cause different and strongly manifested pathophysiological effects (neurotoxic, hemolytic, anticoagulant, convulsant, hypotensive, hyperglycemic etc.). The neutralization of snake toxins calls for extensive research through the application of different approaches: antibodies, non-immunologic inhibitors, natural products derived from plants and animals, as well as synthetic drugs. In this study, we applied naive Tomlinson I + J (Cambridge, UK) libraries to obtain recombinant human scFv antibodies against the vipoxin's two subunits--basic and toxic phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) and acidic, non-toxic component. We found that 33 of more than hundred tested clones were positive and recognized vipoxin and its subunits. Enriched scFv-phage samples (1.2 × 10⁹ pfu/ml) were analyzed for their binding (ELISA) and enzyme-inhibiting abilities. Single chain Fv-phage clones--D₁₂, E₃, F₆, D₁₀ and G₅ exhihest binding affinity for the toxic component. Clones A₁, D₁₂ and C₁₂ recognized preferentially vipoxin's acidic component. Clones E₃, G₅ and H₄ inhibited the enzymatic activity of both vipoxin and its purified and separated toxic subunit to the highest extent. Six of the selected clones (E₃, G₅, H₄, C₁₂, D₁₀ and A₁₁) inhibited direct hemolytic activity of vipoxin and its pure PLA₂ subunit. The obtained specific scFv antibodies will be used for epitope mapping studies required to shed light on the role of the phospholipase A₂ activity for the vipoxin toxicity and its effective neutralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sequence Analysis of ScFv Gene for Anti-alpha-toxin%两种抗α毒素单链抗体基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝华; 许崇波

    2001-01-01

    应用RT-PCR技术,从两株分泌具有中和活性的抗A型产气荚膜梭菌α毒素单克隆抗体(McAb)的杂交瘤细胞株2E3和1A8中,分别扩增出抗体VH和VL基因,用Linker(Gly4Ser)3基因,将VH和VL基因连接成ScFv基因2E3-ScFv和1A8-ScFv,并将其克隆至pGEM-T载体中.经核苷酸序列分析证实,VH和VL基因以及Linker基因拼接正确,2E3-ScFv基因全长为729bp,经计算机分析,VH和VL基因均为新发现的基因序列,符合功能性重排的鼠抗体可变区基因特征.2E3-ScFv的VH和VL基因分别属于鼠免疫球蛋白重链Ⅱ(B)和轻链kⅢ家簇;而1A8-ScFv的VH和VL基因分别属于鼠免疫球蛋白重链Ⅱ(A)和轻链κⅥ家簇.%The VH and VL genes were amplified from two hybridoma cell lines producing mouse McAb against alpha-txoin of Clostridium perfringens type A by RT-PCR. The VH and VL genes were connected through a flexible Linker (Gly4Ser)3,and the VH-Linker-VL(ScFv) fusion gene was cloned into a clone vector pGEM-T. The 2E3-ScFv and 1A8-ScFv gene were sequenced and analyzed by computer. The ScFv genes consist of 726 bp and 729 bp respectively.Both VH and VL genes were functionally rearranged mouse immunoglobulin variable region genes and appeared to be new genes. According to Kabat classed method,the VH gene segment and VL gene segment of 2E3-ScFv belong to the mouse Ig heavy chain subgroup Ⅱ (B) and к chain subgroup Ⅲ respectively,but the VH gene segment and VL gene segment of 1A8 -ScFv belong to the mouse Ig heavy chain subgroup Ⅱ (A) and к chain subgroup Ⅵ respectively.

  12. Twenty-Channel Voice Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    programs and vocabulary. 0 Telephone Company (TELCO) Switched Lines - provides access to VRS using telephones. * Bell 407C Data Sets - Converts the Touch...from the twenty 407C units. 0 DLII-E - Asynchronous interface to the 11/34 unibus for the VOTRAX unit. * 20 Channel ADPCM Decoder - a specially designed

  13. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  14. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  15. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  16. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.;

    2006-01-01

    similarities; especially that entrepreneurship within universities has to be welcomed and facilitated top-down, but organically occurs and develops bottom-up. Implementing entrepreneurship at universities is thus about stimulating a culture of organic intrapreneurship and we provide practical recommendations...... studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...... by the interviewees was surveyed. We showed that the practices have been implemented only to various degrees and rather unsystematically. There are important differences among the universities, to some extent depending on the level of ambition that each university has regarding each practice. There are also important...

  17. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  18. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  19. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  20. Recovery of active anti TNF-α ScFv through matrix-assisted refolding of bacterial inclusion bodies using CIM monolithic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, Krishnan; Bilgimol, Chuvappumkal Joseph; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A; Satheeshkumar, Padikara Kutty

    2012-04-01

    Anti TNF-α molecules are important as therapeutic agents for many of the autoimmune diseases in chronic stage. Here we report the expression and purification of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (ScFv) specific to TNF-α from inclusion bodies. In contrast to the conventional on column refolding using the soft gel supports, an efficient methodology using monolithic matrix has been employed. Nickel (II) coupled to convective interaction media (CIM) support was utilized for this purpose with 6M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) as the chaotropic agent. The protein purified after solubilization and refolding proved to be biologically active with an IC₅₀ value of 15 μg. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the application of methacrylate based chromatographic supports for matrix-assisted refolding and purification of Escherichia coli inclusion bodies. The results are promising to elaborate the methodology further to exploit the potential positive features of monoliths in protein refolding science.

  1. Molecular characterization of a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) specific for PspA from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, ShinA; Kim, Gyuhee; Oh, Jihye; Lee, Seungyeop; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Sangho

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major infectious agent responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis and meningitis. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a well-characterized virulence factor localized on the surface and a target for vaccine development. In this study, we screened a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) using phage display from a human synthetic library to select a clone 2B11. Affinity (Kd) of 2B11 was measured to be 5 nM using biolayer interferometry. 2B11 exhibited a dose-dependent recognition of recombinant PspA with no cross-reactivity towards pneumococcal antigens. The epitope on PspA was defined to residues 231-242 by mutational analysis. Molecular docking analysis supported the experimentally determined epitope, suggesting that the helix spanning residues 231-242 can bind to 2B11 with residues in the CDR-H3 (complementarity determining region 3 in the heavy chain) actively participating in the molecular contacts. Comparison of 2B11 with a commercial PspA antibody revealed that 2B11 exhibited a better specificity towards recombinant PspA antigen. 2B11 was capable of detecting endogenous PspA from pneumococcal lysates with affinity similar to that of the commercial antibody. Our study provides a molecular tool for biosensors detecting pneumococcal diseases.

  2. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  3. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  4. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  5. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  6. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  7. Isolation and characterisation of a human-like antibody fragment (scFv that inactivates VEEV in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Rülker

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the Alphavirus genus and several species of this family are pathogenic to humans. The viruses are classified as potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism and sensitive detection as well as effective prophylaxis and antiviral therapies are required.In this work, we describe the isolation of the anti-VEEV single chain Fragment variable (scFv, ToR67-3B4, from a non-human primate (NHP antibody gene library. We report its recloning into the bivalent scFv-Fc format and further immunological and biochemical characterisation.The scFv-Fc ToR67-3B4 recognised viable as well as formalin and ß-propionolactone (ß-Pl inactivated virus particles and could be applied for immunoblot analysis of VEEV proteins and immuno-histochemistry of VEEV infected cells. It detected specifically the viral E1 envelope protein of VEEV but did not react with reduced viral glycoprotein preparations suggesting that recognition depends upon conformational epitopes. The recombinant antibody was able to detect multiple VEEV subtypes and displayed only marginal cross-reactivity to other Alphavirus species except for EEEV. In addition, the scFv-Fc fusion described here might be of therapeutic use since it successfully inactivated VEEV in a murine disease model. When the recombinant antibody was administered 6 hours post challenge, 80% to 100% of mice survived lethal VEEV IA/B or IE infection. Forty to sixty percent of mice survived when scFv-Fc ToR67-3B4 was applied 6 hours post challenge with VEEV subtypes II and former IIIA. In combination with E2-neutralising antibodies the NHP antibody isolated here could significantly improve passive protection as well as generic therapy of VEE.

  8. DNA immunization combined with scFv phage display identifies antagonistic GCGR specific antibodies and reveals new epitopes on the small extracellular loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woning, Bas; De Boeck, Gitte; Blanchetot, Christophe; Bobkov, Vladimir; Klarenbeek, Alex; Saunders, Michael; Waelbroeck, Magali; Laeremans, Toon; Steyaert, Jan; Hultberg, Anna; De Haard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functional monoclonal antibodies directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is challenging because of the membrane-embedded topology of these molecules. Here, we report the successful combination of llama DNA immunization with scFv-phage display and selections using virus-like particles (VLP) and the recombinant extracellular domain of the GPCR glucagon receptor (GCGR), resulting in glucagon receptor-specific antagonistic antibodies. By immunizing outbred llamas with plasmid DNA containing the human GCGR gene, we sought to provoke their immune system, which generated a high IgG1 response. Phage selections on VLPs allowed the identification of mAbs against the extracellular loop regions (ECL) of GCGR, in addition to multiple VH families interacting with the extracellular domain (ECD) of GCGR. Identifying mAbs binding to the ECL regions of GCGR is challenging because the large ECD covers the small ECLs in the energetically most favorable 'closed conformation' of GCGR. Comparison of Fab with scFv-phage display demonstrated that the multivalent nature of scFv display is essential for the identification of GCGR specific clones by selections on VLPs because of avid interaction. Ten different VH families that bound 5 different epitopes on the ECD of GCGR were derived from only 2 DNA-immunized llamas. Seven VH families demonstrated interference with glucagon-mediated cAMP increase. This combination of technologies proved applicable in identifying multiple functional binders in the class B GPCR context, suggesting it is a robust approach for tackling difficult membrane proteins.

  9. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  10. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  11. 抗胃癌单链抗体免疫毒素重组质粒的构建及表达%Construction of Anti-carcinoma ScFv Immunotoxin Recombina nt Plasmid and its Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩梅; 戴寿芝; 靳更林; 寿成超

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To construct the recombinant plasm id that expresses anti-carcinoma ScF v immunotoxin.Methods By recombinant technique,the cDNA coding the anti-carcinoma ScFv antibody was recombined with the cDNA coding Pseudomonas areuginosa exotoxin to form the recombinanr plasmid.The E Coli.BL-21,after bein g transformed with the recombinant plasmid,was induced by IPTG to express the an ti-carcinoma ScFv immumotoxin.Results The recombinantion of pla smid was identifide to be correct by endonuclease restriction analysis and the B L-21 that contain the recombinant plasmid abundantly expressed the immunotoxin b y IPTG inducement.The size of the expressed protein is similar to that anticipat ed in MW. Conclusions The recombinant plasmid that can express the anti -carcinoma ScFv immunotoxin is successfully obtained.%目的 构建能表达抗胃癌单链抗体免疫毒素的重组质粒并进行表达。方法 应用基因工程方法,将抗胃癌的单链抗体基因与绿脓杆菌外毒素基因进行重组,得到的重组质粒转化大肠杆菌BL-21 ,鉴定后的阳性克隆经IPTG诱导表达。结果 重组质粒经酶切鉴定正确,IPTG诱导后可看到明显的表达带,分子大小与预计值相符。结论 得到了能表达抗胃癌单链抗体免疫毒素的重组质粒。

  12. Generation of a rabbit single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody for specific detection of Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 in both free-living and bacteroid forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Nguyen Xuan; Pruksametanan, Natcha; Srila, Witsanu; Yuttavanichakul, Watcharin; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Teaumroong, Neung; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2017-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the detection of specific nitrogen-fixing bacteria in both free-living and bacteroid forms is essential for the development and application of biofertilizer. Traditionally, a polyclonal antibody generated from an immunized rabbit was used for detection. However, the disadvantages of using a polyclonal antibody include limited supply and cross-reactivity to related bacterial strains. This is the first report on the application of phage display technology for the generation of a rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibody for specific detection and monitoring of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in both free-living form and in plant nodules. Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9, a broad host range soil bacteria, originally isolated from the root nodules of Aeschynomene americana in Thailand was used as a model in this study. A recombinant single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody library was constructed from the spleen of a rabbit immunized with DOA9. After three rounds of biopanning, one specific phage-displayed scFv antibody, designated bDOA9rb8, was identified. Specific binding of this antibody was confirmed by phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage ELISA). The phage antibody could bind specifically to DOA9 in both free-living cells (pure culture) and bacteroids inside plant nodules. In addition to phage ELISA, specific and robust immunofluorescence staining of both free-living and bacteroid forms could also be observed by confocal-immunofluorescence imaging, without cross-reactivity with other tested bradyrhizobial strains. Moreover, specific binding of free scFv to DOA9 was also demonstrated by ELISA. This recombinant antibody can also be used for the study of the molecular mechanism of plant-microbe interactions in the future.

  13. Construction and identification of anti-ENR phage display scFv libraries%抗恩诺沙星噬菌体单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温凯; 沈建忠; 孟辉; 吴聪明; 王战辉; 张素霞

    2011-01-01

    本研究以兽药恩诺沙星为对象,构建噬菌体抗体库,为低成本、快速制备目的抗体提供新的途径.以恩诺沙星-鸡卵清蛋白(ENR-OVA)为免疫原对Balb/c小鼠进行免疫,取其脾细胞提取总RNA,并分别扩增全套抗体轻、重链基因,通过重叠延伸PCR技术,以编码柔性多肽(Gly3Ser)4的基因为接头,将轻重链基因组装为完整的scFv基因,将之克隆入pCANTAB5E载体,转化大肠杆菌XL1-Blue,以辅助噬菌体M13KO7对其进行超感染,构建噬菌体抗体库并进行富集、筛选和鉴定;构建了库容量约为2.2×106的抗恩诺沙星噬菌体单链抗体库,并筛选出26株阳性克隆,为表达单链抗体、建立免疫检测方法奠定基础.%This study focuses on construction and identification of immunized phage display library from splenocytes of hyperimmunized BALB/C mice for screening and isolation of scFv fragment against ENR, an alternative method to produce antibodies for veterinary drug residues detection. The total RNA was isolated from splenocytes of a BALB/C mouse hyperimmunized with the Enrofloxacin conjugated to chicken OVA. Variable light and heavy domains of the immunoglobulin genes were amplified by PCR and assembled to produce full-length single-chain Fv(scFV) by overlap extension PCR using a linker primer containing flexible polypeptide-(Gly3Ser)4. The scFv DNA fragment was ligated into phagemid vector pCANTAB5E and electroporated into E. coli XL1-Blue cells. The transformed cells were rescued by M13KO7 helper phage and phage libraries were constructed. The size of antibody libraries is 2.2 × 106. Following the construction of phage display scFv libraries, the recombinant phage displaying scFv were enriched and identified. There are 26 clones against ENR generated in this study.

  14. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  15. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  16. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  17. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  18. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  19. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  20. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  1. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  2. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  3. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  4. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  5. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  6. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  7. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  8. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  9. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  10. Yangzhou’s Famous Twenty-fourth Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “LOOMING green moun-tains and runningstreams;grass does notwither and fall,though the autumnhas come to an end in the south.The bright moon arises overTwenty-fourth Bridge.Where doyou teach pure-jade Yangzhouwomen to play music on bambooflutes?”This poem by Du Mu(803-c.852),a famous poet of thelate Tang Dynasty,is well remem-bered today It made Yangzhou’sTwenty-fourth Bridge Known to la-ter generations.Of many ancientpoems about Twenty-fourth Bridge

  11. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    pollutant emissions on human driving the development of highly efficient low- health range from respiratory diseases (e.g., child- emission combustion...Systems (N. 101. Stein, S. E., Walker, J. A., Suryan, M. M., and Fahr , Peters and B. Rogg, eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, A., in Twenty-Third Symposium...M. M., and Fahr , A., and Kawano, H., Int. j. Chem. Kinet. 21:643-666 in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Com- (1989). bustion, The

  12. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  13. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  14. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  15. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  16. 一种特异性识别斑马鱼卵黄蛋白原的噬菌体展示单链抗体的可溶性表达方案%Strategy for soluble expression of phage-displayed scFv antibody specific for zebrafish vitellogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶瑜; 钟利桥; 张凤; 张晓华; 戴和平

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new method for soluble expression of phage-displayed scFv antibody specific for zebrafish vitellogenin. The scFv antibody F5 could bind zebrafish vitellogenin specifically in phage-displayed form but not soluble form. The gene of scFv antibody F5 was cloned into vector pET 32a and transferred into Escherichia coli ori DE3. With inducible expression, soluble scFv antibody 32a-F5 was obtained successfully and could also specifically bind to zebrafish vitellogenin. The insoluble expression of phage-displayed scFv antibody was a common problem in the practical use of phage display. This study offered a feasible way to express soluble scFv antibodies with biological activity.%为了实现特异性识别斑马鱼卵黄蛋白原的噬菌体展示单链抗体的可溶性表达,将不能以可溶性蛋白形式表达的、只能以噬菌体展示形式特异性识别斑马鱼卵黄蛋白原的单链抗体F5的基因,克隆到pET 32a载体并转化入大肠杆菌ori DE3中.结果表明,通过诱导表达,可获得可溶性的并且仍特异性识别斑马鱼卵黄蛋白原的单链抗体32a-F5.噬菌体展示单链抗体不能可溶性表达是噬菌体展示技术应用中常见的问题,该方法提供了一种表达可溶性单链抗体的可行性方案.

  17. Screening and immunological identification of the human ScFv antibody against PSMA%全人源抗PSMA单链抗体的筛选及免疫活性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才田; 刘金霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen and identify a human single-chain variable fragment(scFv) antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen(PSMA) from a human scFv antibody library.Methods Using a synthetic PSMA peptide as the coating antigen, the antibody library was screened by five rounds of combining-eluting-amplification.The phage antibody against PSMA with high specificity was screened out from the human scFv antibody library and its binding ability to the antigen was tested by ELISA.The soluble antibody was produced by plasmids extracted from highly specific clones, whose binding ability to PSMA was further identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.The affinity constant of the soluble antibody was measured by non-competitive ELISA.Results The screened phage antibody was specific for PSMA by ELISA.The soluble antibody was also specific for PSMA, its molecular weight was about 30 kD by SDS-PAGE and its affinity constant was about 5.077 × 106 L/mol.Conclusions The screened scFv antibody is specific and has low immunogenicity.It can be further used in the target treatment of malignant tumors.%目的 从全人源单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出抗前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)特异性单链抗体并进行免疫活性鉴定.方法 以合成的PSMA多肽为抗原,经过五轮吸附-洗脱-扩增,从单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出特异性抗PSMA噬菌体抗体,ELISA检测其抗原结合能力,并对特异性较强的克隆提取质粒,表达可溶性抗体.Western Blotting和免疫组织化学检测其抗原结合性,非竞争ELSIA法检测其亲和常数.结果 从单链噬菌体抗体库中筛选出的噬菌体抗体,经ELISA鉴定为抗PSMA的特异性噬菌体抗体.抗PSMA可溶性抗体相对分子质量约为3.0×104,与PSMA特异性结合,其亲和常数约为5.077×106L/mol.结论 所得全人源抗PSMA单链抗体保留完整抗体分子结合抗原的特异性,免疫原性弱,是肿瘤导向治疗的理想栽体.

  18. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  19. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Combustion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, p. 81. 12. Ross, H. D., Miller, F. J., Schiller, D. N., and Sirig- nano , W...Mech. 48:547-591 (1971). 2. Lazaro , B. J. and Lasheras, J. C, Phys. Fluids 1:1035 (1989). 3. Kiger, K. T. and Lasheras, J. C, Twenty-Fifth Sympo

  20. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  1. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  2. Educators Guide to Free Filmstrips. Twenty-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Comp.; Diffor, John C., Comp.

    A total of 453 titles of filmstrips, slide sets, and sets of transparencies available free of charge to educators are listed in this guide. More than 20,000 separate frames are offered from 95 sources. Twenty of the filmstrips may be retained permanently by the borrower. The films cover topics in the fields of accident prevention, aerospace…

  3. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  4. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  5. Powering into the twenty-first century [Singapore Power Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century power industry, Singapore Power was incorporated as a commercial entity in October 1995. As the leading energy company in Singapore, SP continues to invest heavily in infrastructure development to improve its service efficiency and reliability, and to maintain its reputation as one of the world`s best power suppliers. (UK)

  6. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  7. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  8. Blended Instruction: The Roaring Twenties Meets Coursesites.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    The action research study described in this report outlines the design and implementation of a unit of blended instruction in a traditional high school English classroom. Twenty technical high school students in an 11th grade Honors English class engaged in a variety of internet-based activities in conjunction with traditional learning activities…

  9. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  10. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  11. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  12. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  13. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  14. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  15. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  16. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  17. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  18. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  19. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  20. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  1. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  2. Specific single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies to angiotensin II AT(2) receptor: evaluation of the angiotensin II receptor expression in normal and tumor-bearing mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masaaki; Yan, Heping; Zegarra-Moro, Ofelia; Edl, Jennifer; Oursler, Stephanie; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Andrews, Gordon; Kanehira, Tsutomu; Takekoshi, Susumu; Mernaugh, Ray

    2008-08-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) regulates carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis, we have newly developed anti-AT(2) single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies using a rodent phage-displayed recombinant antibody library with various peptide fragments of the receptor protein, and investigated the expression of the AT(2) receptor protein. The specificity of the antibodies was verified using AT(2) over-expressing COS-7 cells and AT(2) naturally expressing PC12W cells. In control wild type mouse lung, a stronger immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelial cells. A moderate immunoreactivity was detected in pulmonary vascular walls and vascular endothelial cells. In the lungs possessing tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK)-induced tumors, significantly increased AT(2) and AT(1 )immunostaining was observed in adenomatous lesions. These data suggest that the increase in both receptors' expression in the alveolar epithelial cells may be accompanied with the onset of NNK-induced tumorigenesis and hence play important roles in lung tumorigenesis.

  3. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  4. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rules of engagement for force protection.19 NATO Foreign Ministers authorized the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to begin the next stage of...the mission on 9 December 2004. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It allowed the deployment of 300...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  5. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  6. About capital in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present three key facts about income and wealth inequality in the long run emerging from my book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, and seek to sharpen and refocus the discussion about those trends. In particular, I clarify the role played by r > g in my analysis of wealth inequality. I also discuss some of the implications for optimal taxation, and the relation between capital-income ratios and capital shares.

  7. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-15

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  8. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  9. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  10. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  12. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  13. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  14. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  15. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  16. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  17. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  18. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  19. Earth observations in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the achievements of earth observations from past space missions are described. Also discussed are the achievements to be anticipated from currently approved and planned earth observation missions. In looking forward to what the objectives of earth observations from space are expected to be in the future, together with what technology is expected to enable, what the earth observing program will look like during the first part of the twenty-first century is discussed. It is concluded that a key part of this program will be long-term observations holistically viewing the earth system.

  20. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  1. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  2. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  3. Existence and Uniqueness in Shape from Shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雁萍; 李价谷

    1997-01-01

    For the image of a smooth surface object fully contained within the field of view and illuminated in and arbitrary direction,this paper discusses the existence and uniqueness o the conditions for solving a shape-from-shading problem under the conditions that the Fourier series expansion of the image intensity contains only zero and first order terms in a polar coordinate system.Three theorems are established,one for the existence and two for the uniqueness of z-axis symmetric shape from shading.

  4. Expression and optimization of anti-AFB1 scFv in Escherichia coli%抗黄曲霉毒素B1单链抗体在大肠杆菌中的表达及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炼; 张艳红; 丁虎生; 王丽云; 陈卫; 张灏

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] A drawback of the expression of single chain antibody fragment (scFv) in prokaryotic system is the protein accumulation in the cytoplasm as inclusion body. We aimed at high-level production of an anti-aflatoxin Bl scFv in functional form. [Methods] The gene of scFv-H4 was cloned into pET22b vector and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and Origami (DE3), respectively. The amount of functional scFv-H4 was optimized in terms of IPTG concentration and induction temperature. [Results] scFv-H4 could be expressed in both BL21(DE3) and Origami (DE3). Compared with BL21(DE3), Origami(DE3) could express multifunctional scFv-H4 (35 mg/mL) and less in inclusion body (11% of the total expression) . The expression of scFv-H4 was significantly affected by induction temperature rather than IPTG concentration. [Conclusion] The p£T22b could be used for high-level expression of the functional scFv-H4 in Origami (DE3) , which has an oxidative cytoplasm. In addition, the induction at low temperature avoided the formation of inclusion body.%[目的]继杂交瘤技术后,重组抗体技术是新一代的抗体制备技术.然而如何用原核系统中较多地表达具有生物活性的单链抗体,避免包涵体形成仍是一个需要探讨的问题.[方法]将目的基因scFv-H4克隆到载体pET22b上,分别转入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)和Origami(DE3)中,通过改变诱导温度和IPTG浓度,比较具有生物活性的蛋白量以及包涵体的量.[结果]在BL21(DE3)中,pET22b能产生大量表达scFv-H4,而BL21(DE3)的含有trxA和gor双突变的衍生菌Origami(DE3)表达的scFv-H4的总量较少,但是具有生物活性的蛋白量较多(35 mg/L培养物),具有生物活性的蛋白比例也较BL2l(DE3)高.另外IFrG的浓度对scFv-H4表达没有显著影响,而较高的诱导温度会促使表达的蛋白形成包涵体.[结论]在较低的温度下,pET22b能在Origami(DE3)能较好地表达具有生物活性的scFv-H4,减少包涵体的比例,为后续的抗

  5. Uniqueness vs non-uniqueness in complete connections with modified majority rules

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, J. C. A.; Friedli, S.

    2013-01-01

    We take a closer look at a class of chains with complete connections introduced by Berger, Hoffman and Sidoravicius. Besides giving a sharper description of the uniqueness and non-uniqueness regimes, we show that if the pure majority rule used to fix the dependence on the past is replaced with a function that is Lipschitz at the origin, then uniqueness always holds, even with arbitrarily slow decaying variation.

  6. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  7. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  8. Uniqueness of meromorphic functions concerning differential polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Based on a unicity theorem for entire funcitions concerning differential polynomials proposed by M. L. Fang and W. Hong, we studied the uniqueness problem of two meromorphic functions whose differential polynomials share the same 1-point by proving two theorems and their related lemmas. The results extend and improve given by Fang and Hong's theorem.

  9. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  10. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  11. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  12. Multicultural Poetry: Voices Unique, yet Universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    As teachers gravitate more and more to the use of literature and strive to include a range of cultural experiences in their classrooms, the use of poetry from various cultural groups should be considered. Poetry is a very real means of having children see themselves and others as being both unique and yet the same. In considering poetry across…

  13. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  14. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  15. UNIQUENESS OF DIFFERENCE POLYNOMIALS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 祁晓光

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the uniqueness problems of difference polynomials of meromorphic functions and obtain some results which can be viewed as discrete analogues of the results given by Shibazaki. Some examples are given to show the results in this article are best possible.

  16. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  17. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  18. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  19. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  20. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  1. Twenty-first century power needs. Challenges, and supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Solar Energy Lab.

    1997-11-01

    The challenge of providing adequate power to enable world prosperity in the twenty-first century to continue was discussed. It was estimated that by 2050, a prosperous world of 10 billion people will require 60 TWt of thermal power. Conventional power systems will not be able to provide the needed energy because of limited fuels, contamination of the biosphere and costs. A viable, cost effective alternative will be solar energy that is captured in space and from facilities on the Moon, and that is imported to Earth by microwaves. Global electric power systems that use the Moon and deliver 1,000 TWe-Y of energy by 2070 was suggested as the most obvious alternative. Despite the huge initial cost of 20 to 100 trillion dollars, the long-term cost was said to be small compared to terrestrial and Earth-orbital options. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  3. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  4. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  5. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  6. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  7. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  8. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  9. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  10. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  11. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  12. A unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old Asian girl was referred to the nephrology unit with rapidly progressive renal failure. At the age of 15 she was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus but had defaulted treatment. Her renal functions improved with cyclophosphamide pulse treatment but she continued to have central nervous system vasculitis, gastrointestinal vasculitis and opportunistic infections making her a unique and challenging case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  13. Uniqueness from locality and BCFW shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a BCFW shift which can be used to recursively build the full Yang-Mills amplitude as a function of polarization vectors. Furthermore, in line with the recent results of arXiv:1612.02797, we conjecture that the Yang-Mills scattering amplitude is uniquely fixed by locality and demanding the usual asymptotic behavior under a sufficient number of shifts. Unitarity therefore emerges from locality and constructability. We prove this statement at the leading order in the soft expansion.

  14. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  15. Twenty-three hour recovery: observation versus hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, P; Sangermano, C

    1992-10-01

    In the wake of the rapidly changing health care delivery environment, it is becoming essential to health care organizations that unique, innovative methods of managing resources be implemented. Further, such developments must be achieved within the confines of those requirements and revisions occurring within the reimbursement structures of Medicare and Medicaid as well as other third-party payors in keeping with the delivery of quality patient care. The evaluation of patients in an outpatient environment for a period of time before a final decision regarding disposition is made creates the "observation concept." This article discusses the significance of 23-hour observation units for ambulatory surgery patients.

  16. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  17. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  18. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.P. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK).

  19. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  20. New Bachelards?: Reveries, Elements and Twenty-First Century Materialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an infusion of new ideas into material philosophy through the work of the so-called ‘new materialists’. Poignant examples appear within two recent books: the first, Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (2010, sets out to “enhance receptivity to the impersonal life that surrounds and infuses us” (2010: 4. The second, Elemental Philosophy by David Macauley (2010, advocates an anamnesis or recollection of the elements as imaginatively dynamic matter. Within his essays on the imagination of matter, Gaston Bachelard outlined an archetypal vision of the elements predicated upon the material imagination. He explored the manner in which the imagination inhabits the world, is triggered by the stimulus of material dynamism, and is formed from a co-constitution of subject and object. This article proposes that recent trends in materialist philosophy – as exemplified by the monographs of Bennett and Macauley – reinforce the ideas of Bachelard and take them in new directions. Bachelard provides us with a compelling argument for the rediscovery of material imagination, whereas New Materialism portrays a vision of matter filled with autonomous dynamism that lends itself to entering into a relationship with this imagination. Consequently, this article proposes that Gaston Bachelard has gained a new relevance as a result of contemporary trends in material philosophy, has taken on new possibilities through recent scholarship, and remains a force within the twenty-first century discursive landscape.

  1. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  2. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  3. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  4. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  5. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  6. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  7. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  8. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  9. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  10. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  11. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  12. Uniqueness of Centauro-type events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Analysis to discriminate Centauro events from normal events is made without previous identification of secondary emitted particles. For this purpose their energy and derived quantities like distance from the center of momenta it were mainly used. As a result we found in a sample of (280+87) experimental events only 3 were compatible with 5 Centauro events, but none of them dad a high content of hadrons, characteristic of Centauro events. With this result we are confident about the uniqueness of Centauro events, especially for two events that have vertex directly determined. Comparing with some interaction models features we depict a possible scenario to explain Centauro events.

  13. Uniqueness of the Trautman-Bondi mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chru\\'sciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  14. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  15. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  16. Uniqueness, Self belonging and Intercourse in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Dr. Marvin / E.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general...

  17. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  18. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  20. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  1. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  2. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  3. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  4. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  5. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  6. Computational Transition at the Uniqueness Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sly, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The hardcore model is a model of lattice gas systems which has received much attention in statistical physics, probability theory and theoretical computer science. It is the probability distribution over independent sets $I$ of a graph weighted proportionally to $\\lambda^{|I|}$ with fugacity parameter $\\lambda$. We prove that at the uniqueness threshold of the hardcore model on the $d$-regular tree, approximating the partition function becomes computationally hard on graphs of maximum degree $d$. Specifically, we show that unless NP$=$RP there is no polynomial time approximation scheme for the partition function (the sum of such weighted independent sets) on graphs of maximum degree $d$ for fugacity $\\lambda_c(d) 0$. Weitz produced an FPTAS for approximating the partition function when $0<\\lambda < \\lambda_c(d)$ so this result demonstrates that the computational threshold exactly coincides with the statistical physics phase transition thus confirming the main conjecture of [28]. We further analyze the s...

  7. Organizing the spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic activity is quickly changing the hydrosphere. Panta Rhei calls for improved understanding of changing hydrosphere dynamics in their connection with human systems. I argue that progress within the Panta Rhei initiative is strongly limited by the absence of hydrological principles that help to organise our spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere; without guiding principles (e.g. classification systems) hydrology will continue to be a case study dominated science that will have a hard time to efficiently improve understanding, estimation and prediction of human affected systems. Exposing such organising principles should not be considered as a step backwards into the recent PUB decade. Instead, it should be regarded as an exciting scientific challenge that is becoming increasingly relevant now the hydrosphere is quickly changing.

  8. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  9. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  10. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  11. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  12. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  13. Decadal potential predictability of twenty-first century climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, George J. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, PO Box 3065, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Decadal prediction of the coupled climate system is potentially possible given enough information and knowledge. Predictability will reside in both externally forced and in long timescale internally generated variability. The ''potential predictability'' investigated here is characterized by the fraction of the total variability accounted for by these two components in the presence of short-timescale unpredictable ''noise'' variability. Potential predictability is not a classical measure of predictability nor a measure of forecast skill but it does identify regions where long timescale variability is an appreciable fraction of the total and hence where prediction on these scale may be possible. A multi-model estimate of the potential predictability variance fraction (ppvf) as it evolves through the first part of the twenty-first century is obtained using simulation data from the CMIP3 archive. Two estimates of potential predictability are used which depend on the treatment of the forced component. The multi-decadal estimate considers the magnitude of the forced component as the change from the beginning of the century and so becomes largely a measure of climate change as the century progresses. The next-decade estimate considers the change in the forced component from the past decade and so is more pertinent to an actual forecast for the next decade. Long timescale internally generated variability provides additional potential predictability beyond that of the forced component. The ppvf may be expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and takes on values between 0 and 1. The largest values of the ppvf for temperature are found over tropical and mid-latitude oceans, with the exception of the equatorial Pacific, and some but not all tropical land areas. Overall the potential predictability for temperature generally declines with latitude and is relatively low over mid- to high-latitude land. Potential predictability for

  14. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  15. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  16. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  17. Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4 ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  18. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  19. Hemodynamic characterization of recombinant inbred strains: twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunes, Jaroslav; Dobesová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlícek, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Kren, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) strains (Prague HXB/BXH set) represent a unique model that allows for permanent summation of genetic and physiological information as well as the study of age-dependent changes in phenotypes and/or gene regulation. This study compared blood pressure (BP) measured in adult animals of RI strains by radiotelemetry with BP values obtained in conscious rats of comparable age subjected to short-term carotid catheterization or with those obtained by direct carotid puncture under ether anesthesia (almost 20 years ago). After radiotelemetry recording, the contribution of major vasoactive systems to BP maintenance was studied by consecutive inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and nitric oxide synthase. We found highly significant interrelationships among baseline BP values obtained by radiotelemetry, carotid catheterization, or carotid puncture. This indicates considerable stability of RI strains over the course of their long existence, and confirms the reliability of BP values used for genetic studies performed in the past. Subsequent analysis of vasoactive system participation revealed the importance of SNS for the maintenance of BP, as determined by either radiotelemetry or catheterization. The BP of catheterized rats also correlated closely with acute captopril-induced BP changes, but this was not the case for rats measured by radiotelemetry. NO-dependent vasodilatation matched the BP effects of SNS and RAS in both measuring conditions. Residual BP (recorded at sodium nitroprusside-induced dilatation of resistance vessels) was also responsible for a significant portion of the BP variation in RI strains. Our study confirms the validity of RI strains for the further genetic and physiological research of hypertension.

  20. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  1. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  2. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  3. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  4. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  5. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  6. Condition evaluation of a unique mining site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junsheng; Chen Frank Y.; Ma Yan; Zhang Siya

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the existing conditions and the stability of a mining site in which the unique features of seismicity, mining activity, hydrological conditions, geological con-ditions, environmental conditions, and future development plans were considered. In particular, the potential subsidence locations near the proposed construction site, the effects of mining boundary profile, and the influence scope of the mining activity on the neighboring areas were investigated using the finite element method. The study results indicate:(1) the overlying sandstone layer to the coal layer is the key to the stability of the mining roof; (2) the broken boundary has the most effect, followed by the arc boundary and linear boundary; (3) the safe distance from the mining boundary should be at least 400 m if the proposed structure is to be built near an active mining site. Other relevant engineering rec-ommendations are also proposed. The concluded results from this study may serve as a guide to other similar sites in the world.

  7. 人源抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白单链抗体的筛选及初步鉴定%Screening and initial identification of human anti-vibrio vulnificus haemolysin ScFv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学渊; 付凯飞; 王欲晓; 吴成林; 周丽君

    2016-01-01

    目的 从天然单链(scFv)大容量噬菌体抗体库中筛选特异性抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白(vibrio vulnificus haemolysin,VVH)的scFv并进行初步鉴定.方法 以表达纯化后的VVH为靶抗原,采用酸洗脱的方法从天然大容量噬菌体抗体库中筛选人源抗VVH噬菌体单链抗体,并将噬菌体抗体的上清梯度稀释后感染HB2151菌,经异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达后获得抗VVH蛋白可溶性单链抗体,ELISA检测其与抗原结合活性,DNA序列测定鉴定抗体序列.结果 经过4轮筛选,共筛选到22株可以与VVH结合的噬菌体阳性克隆,其中8株获得可溶性表达,DNA序列分析表明获得3株可变区基因型不同的单链抗体.结论 利用大容量噬菌体抗体库筛选技术获得抗创伤弧菌溶血素蛋白的可溶性抗体,为创伤弧菌感染的治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To screen specific human antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus hemolysin (VVH ) from natural single stranded large capacity phage antibody library and to perform initial identification of the antibodies,for the treatment of vibrio vulnificus infection.Methods The specific antibody against purified VVH was screened from large natural phage antibody library by 4 rounds of " adsorption-elution-amplification" screening process.Soluble ScFvs were prepared through infecting E coli.HB2151 and inducing expression with IPTG.The antigen binding activity and DNA sequence of the antibodies against VVH were identified by ELISA and DNA fingerprint analysis.Results After 4 rounds of panning,22 positive clones with specific binding ability to VVH were obtained,of which 8 obtained soluble expressions.DNA sequence analyses showed that the variable region genes of the clones belonged to different subgroups of immunoglobulin gene family.Conclusions The acquirement of human anti-VVH ScFv from large phage antibody library has laid a good foundation for the treatment of vibrio vulnificus infection.

  8. 全人源抗鼻咽癌噬菌体单链抗体的筛选与鉴定%Screening and characterization of human scFv antibodies against nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳东; 谢平丽; 王甲甲; 李跃辉; 胡锦跃; 李官成

    2009-01-01

    目的 从全人源抗鼻咽癌噬菌体抗体库中筛选特异性单链抗体(ScFv),并对其特异性进行鉴定.方法 通过噬菌体表面展示技术把ScFv表达在噬菌体表面,以鼻咽癌细胞作为抗原,用抗原递减法,通过"吸附-洗脱-扩增"过程筛选并富集特异性抗体,及ELISA筛选,获得特异阳性克隆进行免疫组化鉴定并测序.结果 通过对抗体库进行三轮正负淘洗和富集后,随机挑选4212个克隆进行ELISA,发现3个克隆对CNE2呈强阳性反应,而与人正常细胞系HUVEC等呈弱阳性反应或不反应.对克隆HNSAO33进一步进行免疫细胞化学验证,结果与ELISA反应一致;免疫组织化学鉴定表明克隆HNSAO33与鼻咽癌组织和鼻咽组织阳性率的差别有统计学意义.结论 通过淘选富集、ELISA和免疫化学鉴定获得特异性较强的噬菌体克隆,为鼻咽癌发病机制的研究和临床诊断以及治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To screen the anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma scFv from a human anti-nasopharyngeal carcinoma single-chain phage antibody library, and identify its characteristics. Methods The single-chain phage antibody library was subjected to three rounds of positive and negative cell panning and enrichment, and then it was selected by ELISA. The binding specificity of phage antibodies with naso-pharyngeal carcinoma cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results After panning, enrichment and testing by ELISA, 3 phage an-tibody clones reacting with CNE2 more strongly than HUVEC and NP69 were picked out from 4212 clones. One clone, HNSAO33, was fur-ther analyzed after DNA sequencing. The results of immunohistochemistry with cultured cells were similar to those of ELISA. HNSAO33 spe-cifically reacted to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in most human nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue sections except a few human normal naso-pharyngeal tissue sections. The distinction of positive rates was of a great statistical significance. Conclusion ELISA

  9. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  10. Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

  11. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  12. The Einstein constraints: uniqueness and non-uniqueness in the conformal thin sandwich approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarte, T W; Pfeiffer, H P; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Murchadha, Niall \\'{O}; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2006-01-01

    We study the appearance of multiple solutions to certain decompositions of Einstein's constraint equations. Pfeiffer and York recently reported the existence of two branches of solutions for identical background data in the extended conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint alone, when expressed in a certain way, admits two branches of solutions with properties very similar to those found by Pfeiffer and York. We construct these two branches analytically for a constant-density star in spherical symmetry, but argue that this behavior is more general. In the case of the Hamiltonian constraint this non-uniqueness is well known to be related to the sign of one particular term, and we argue that the extended conformal thin-sandwich equations contain a similar term that causes the breakdown of uniqueness.

  13. 肿瘤干细胞表面标志物CD133单链抗体基因的分离与鉴定%Identification and characterization of single chain antibody of cancer stem cell surface marker CD133 scFv CD133

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑜; 周炳喜; 张延瑞; 韩双印

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify,construct and express scFv CD133,verify its biological function.Methods VL and VH were isolated from hybridoma of mAb CD133 by using antibody engineering technology.Its DNA sequencing and CDR were determined.scFv CD133 was then cloned into pET32a,transformed into Origami,induced by IPTG,purified by Ni2+-NTA His resin.Its affinity and specificity were tested by NH4SCN elution and ELISA.Results The size of VL and VH of scFv CD133 was 339 bp and 342 bp,which coded 113 and 114 amino acid separately.Its VL belonged to mouse Igκ chain and VH belonged to mouse IgG heavy chain subtype I.The molecular weight of scFv CD133 was about 27 × 103 which was testified by SDSPAGE and Western blot.Its affinity and specificity were also verified.Conclusion scFv CD133 has been successfully constructed and expressed in Origami,which could supply basis for target therapy of CD+133 cancer stem cell.%目的 分离、构建和表达抗人CD133单链抗体(scFvCD133),测定其生物学活性.方法 用抗体工程技术从抗人CD133单克隆抗体(mAb)杂交瘤细胞中分离抗体可变区基因(VL和VH),测定DNA序列并确定抗体互补决定区(CDR);将scFv CD133基因克隆至pET32a中,转化Origami菌株,IPTG诱导,Ni2+-NTA His树脂纯化单链抗体,梯度硫氰酸盐洗脱法和酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测其亲和性和特异性.结果 scFvCD133基因VL和VH长度分别为339 bp和342 bp,各编码113和114个氨基酸,其中VL隶属于小鼠Ig κ轻链,VH隶属于小鼠Ig重链Ⅰ亚类.scFvCD133经SDS-PAGE和Western blot 分析证明相对分子质量为27 × 103,体外实验具有一定的亲和性和特异性.结论 获得scFv CD133基因,为CD+133肿瘤干细胞的靶向治疗奠定了基础.

  14. 细胞表达流感病毒抗体CR6261VH与scFv对流感病毒感染的影响%Effect of antibody CR6261 VH and scFv expression on influenza virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 李秀岚; 严景华

    2011-01-01

    The emerging CR6261 antibody could neutralize several subtype influenza virus with high affinity, whose VH domain binds to the HA protein conserved domain. Therefore, it has drawn much attention as a potential broad-spectrum therapeutic antibody against influenza virus. In this study, we constructed the eukaryotic expression vectors pCR6261VH, pCR6261VH-GFP and pCR6261scFv and screened the monoclonal cell lines that could stably express CR6261VH, CR6261VH-GFP and CR6261scFv on the cell membrane. After influenza virus infecting the stable cell lines, the titers of viruses were tested by hemagglutination inhibition test. The result shows that the titers of viruses in CR6261scFv and CR6261VH-GFP stable expression cell lines decreased and there was no obvious discrimination between the CR6261VH expression cell line and the negative control, suggesting that CR6261VH and CR6261scFv expressing on the cell membrane could partly inhibit the virus infection. Though the effective inhibition strategy is undergoing, our research will provide new clues for the breeding of anti influenza transgenic animals.%由于新发现的流感病毒抗体CR6261可以中和多种亚型的流感病毒,而且是其VH区结合于流感病毒蛋白HA的保守区,因此该抗体有望成为一种广谱的流感治疗性抗体而备受关注.通过构建真核表达栽体pCR6261VH、pCR6261VH-GFP、pCR6261 scFv,成功地筛选到在细胞膜上稳定表达CR6261 VH、CR6261VH-GFP与CR6261 scFv的单克隆细胞系.用流感病毒去感染稳定细胞系,间隔12 h取上清检测病毒血凝效价.结果表明:稳定表达CR6261 scFv和CR6261VH-GFP细胞系能够降低病毒的血凝效价,而表达CR6261VH细胞系的血凝效价与对照无显著差异.说明CR6261VH与CR6261scFv在细胞膜上表达能够部分抑制病毒侵染细胞.尽管更有效的抑制策略还在研究中,但本研究将为抗流感转基因动物的育种提供新的思路.

  15. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution

  16. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  17. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  18. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  19. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  20. SEVERAL UNIQUENESS THEOREMS OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS ON ANNULI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang TAN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniqueness problem of algebroid functions on an-nuli, we get several uniqueness theorems of algebroid functions on annuli, which extend the Nevanlinna value distribution theory for algebroid functions on annuli.

  1. Existence and uniqueness of positive eigenfunctions for certain eigenvalue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ru-Ying; Yang, Yi-Min

    2004-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions for some quasilinear elliptic systems are considered. Some necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions are given.

  2. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF POSITIVE EIGENVALUES FOR CERTAIN EIGENVALUE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ruying; QIN Yuchun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we consider certain eigenvalue systems.Imposing some reasonable hypotheses, we prove that theeigenvalue system has a unique eigenvalue with positiveeigenfunctions, and that the eigenfunction is unique upto a scalar multiple.

  3. Uniqueness Problems for Meromorphic Functions that Share Three Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigate the uniqueness problems for meromorphic functions that share three values CM and proves a uniqueness theorem on this topic which can be used to improve some previous related results.

  4. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  5. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  6. Exploring the Unique Features of a First Nations Graduate-Level Social Work Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C. Bodor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a one-time cohort of graduate-level social work students completed a unique MSW program. The program was delivered in partnership between the Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary and Blue Quills First Nations College and, of the twenty four graduates; twenty-one were of First Nations or Me´tis ancestry. The program honored traditional knowledge and ways of learning combined with a critical analysis of Western perspectives of social work knowledge. Strong fiscal resources enabled the program to establish a formal support network for the students and to support the development of Indigenous curriculum and programming that encouraged success for the students. The program was fundamentally different than urban on-campus programs while still maintaining graduate level accreditation requirements. This analysis of the program required the use of Indigenous Research Methodology to collect and create an understanding of the program. Instructors commented on the centered, empowered, balanced, and congruent students. The formal and informal, concrete and invisible supports to the students ensured the success of this program and this cohort of students. As one student commented, the program started in ceremony, ended in ceremony, and could not fail within the context ceremony.

  7. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  8. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  9. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Twenty-first Workshop in Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, held at Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA, January 22-24, 1996. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions including: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling/hot-dry-rock, low enthalpy, fluid injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption, and well stimulation.

  11. Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-06-01

    We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature.

  12. Existence and uniqueness theorem for ODE: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Swarup; Dhiman, Aman

    2016-01-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solutions became important due to the lack of general formula for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compact form of existence and uniqueness theory appeared nearly 200 years after the development of the theory of differential equation. In the article, we shall discuss briefly the differences between linear and nonlinear first order ODE in context of existence and uniqueness of solutions. Special emphasis is given on the Lipschit...

  13. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The 1970s Nigeria witnessed oil boom which turns out to be a disaster to people ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of ..... that demand high intelligence, proper planning and long term preparation.

  14. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Laurberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors.

  15. Screening scFv Specific to Vcam-1 by Phage Display Library and Its Activity Evaluation%噬菌体展示库筛选构建血管细胞黏附分子-1单链抗体及其效价检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯宝; 宋夷龄; 张永学

    2015-01-01

    were transferred into E.coli ,and the clone with the highest expression was regarded as the final requisite one.Competent cells were infected by the final requisite clone and scFv was expressed.After purification ,the activity of scFv was tested by ELISA and its affinity was evaluated.Results Molecular weight of Vcam‐1 antigen protein was 85-90 kD.Positive clones were screened out by taking Vcam‐1 protein as the antigen ,and 9 high titer clones were obtained by single phage ELISA.Gene sequencing of these clones was carried out and 3 sequences were obtained ,1 of which got the highest expression.Molecular weight of the expressed scFv was about 30 kD.The scFv got high affinity to Vcam‐1 antigen according to ELISA ,in spite of its lower activity than full‐length monoclonal antibody.Conclusion scFv antibody specific to Vcam‐1 was successfully obtained from phage display librar‐y ,which laid the foundation of subsequent in vivo diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Genome comparison without alignment using shortest unique substrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Friedrich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparison by alignment is a fundamental tool of molecular biology. In this paper we show how a number of sequence comparison tasks, including the detection of unique genomic regions, can be accomplished efficiently without an alignment step. Our procedure for nucleotide sequence comparison is based on shortest unique substrings. These are substrings which occur only once within the sequence or set of sequences analysed and which cannot be further reduced in length without losing the property of uniqueness. Such substrings can be detected using generalized suffix trees. Results We find that the shortest unique substrings in Caenorhabditis elegans, human and mouse are no longer than 11 bp in the autosomes of these organisms. In mouse and human these unique substrings are significantly clustered in upstream regions of known genes. Moreover, the probability of finding such short unique substrings in the genomes of human or mouse by chance is extremely small. We derive an analytical expression for the null distribution of shortest unique substrings, given the GC-content of the query sequences. Furthermore, we apply our method to rapidly detect unique genomic regions in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus strain MSSA476 compared to four other staphylococcal genomes. Conclusion We combine a method to rapidly search for shortest unique substrings in DNA sequences and a derivation of their null distribution. We show that unique regions in an arbitrary sample of genomes can be efficiently detected with this method. The corresponding programs shustring (SHortest Unique subSTRING and shulen are written in C and available at http://adenine.biz.fh-weihenstephan.de/shustring/.

  17. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  18. Uniqueness and existence for bounded boundary value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehme, J.; Lanz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of solutions for the boundary value problems with general linear point evaluation boundary conditions is established. We assume that f is bounded and that there is uniqueness on a homogeneous problem and on the linear variational problems. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All righ

  19. Existence and Uniqueness of Solution to ODEs: Lipschitz Continuity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Poria; Aman Dhiman

    2017-05-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solution of ordinarydifferential equation (ODE) became important due to the lack ofgeneral formula for solving nonlinear ODEs. In this article, weshall discuss briefly about the existence and uniqueness of solutionof a first order ODE. A special emphasis is given on theLipschitz continuous functions in the discussion.

  20. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauerberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Pumbley, Mark;

    2008-01-01

    have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors....

  1. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  2. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  3. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  4. Uniqueness of limiting solution to a strongly competing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetik Arakelyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove a uniqueness for the positive solution to a strongly competing system of Lotka-Volterra type problem in the limiting configuration, when the competition rate tends to infinity. We give an alternate proof of uniqueness based on properties of limiting solutions.

  5. The Uniqueness of Optimal Solution for Linear Programming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanlingWei; HongYan; JunWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates an old problem in operations research, the uniqueness of the optimal solution to a linear programming problem. We discuss the problem on a general polyhedron, give some equivalent conditions for uniqueness testing. In addition, we discuss the implementation issues for linear programming based decision making procedures,which motivated this research.

  6. Projection of drought hazards in China during twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulian; Wang, Yongli; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenbin; Jin, Shaofei; Han, Mingchen

    2017-06-01

    Drought is occurring with increased frequency under climate warming. To understand the behavior of drought and its variation in the future, current and future drought in the twenty-first century over China is discussed. The drought frequency and trend of drought intensity are assessed using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is calculated based on historical meteorological observations and outputs of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The simulation results of drought period, defined by PDSI class, could capture more than 90% of historical drought events. Projection results indicate that drought frequency will increase over China in the twenty-first century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the mid-twenty-first century (2021-2050), similar patterns of drought frequency are found under the three emission scenarios, and annual drought duration would last 3.5-4 months. At the end of the twenty-first century (2071-2100), annual drought duration could exceed 5 months in northwestern China as well as coastal areas of eastern and southern China under the RCP8.5 scenario. Drought is slightly reduced over the entire twenty-first century under the RCP2.6 scenario, whereas drought hazards will be more serious in most regions of China under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  7. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence,uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations.A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given.We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations,then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit.As consequences,some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  8. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-yi DAI; Yu-xia FU; Yong-geng GU

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence, uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given. We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations, then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit. As consequences, some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  9. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  10. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  11. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  12. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  13. Identification of an avirulent Entamoeba histolytica strain with unique tRNA-linked short tandem repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escueta-de Cadiz, Aleyla; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Highly polymorphic, non-coding short tandem repeats (STR) are scattered between the tRNA genes in Entamoeba histolytica in a unique tandemly arrayed organization. STR markers that correlate with the virulence of individual E. histolytica strains have recently been reported. Here we evaluated the usefulness of tRNA-linked STR loci as genetic markers in identifying virulent and avirulent strains of E. histolytica from 37 Japanese E. histolytica samples (12 diarrheic/dysenteric, 20 amebic liver abscess (ALA), and 5 asymptomatic cases). Twenty three genotypes, assigned by combining the STR sequence types from all 6 STR loci, were identified. One to 8 new STR sequence types per locus were also discovered. Genotypes found in asymptomatic isolates were highly polymorphic (4 out of 5 genotypes were unique to this group), while in symptomatic isolates, almost half of the genotypes were shared between diarrhea/dysentery and ALA. One asymptomatic isolate (KU27) showed unique STR patterns in 4 loci. This strain, though associated with the typical pathogenic zymodeme II, failed to induce amebic liver abscess by animal challenge, which suggests that inherently avirulent E. histolytica strains exist, that are associated with unique genotypes. Furthermore, STR genotyping and in vivo challenge of 2 other asymptomatic isolates (KU14 and KU26) verified the covert virulence of these strains.

  14. Nonlinear independent component analysis: Existence and uniqueness results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Aapo; Pajunen, Petteri

    1999-04-01

    The question of existence and uniqueness of solutions for nonlinear independent component analysis is addressed. It is shown that if the space of mixing functions is not limited there exists always an infinity of solutions. In particular, it is shown how to construct parameterized families of solutions. The indeterminacies involved are not trivial, as in the linear case. Next, it is shown how to utilize some results of complex analysis to obtain uniqueness of solutions. We show that for two dimensions, the solution is unique up to a rotation, if the mixing function is constrained to be a conformal mapping together with some other assumptions. We also conjecture that the solution is strictly unique except in some degenerate cases, as the indeterminacy implied by the rotation is essentially similar to estimating the model of linear ICA.

  15. Uniqueness and existence results for ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, J. Angel; Heikkila, Seppo; Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2006-04-01

    We establish some uniqueness and existence results for first-order ordinary differential equations with constant-signed discontinuous nonlinear parts. Several examples are given to illustrate the applicability of our work.

  16. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet The Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand Hand therapy, a specialty practice area of occupational ... are treated by occupational therapy practitioners specializing in hand rehabilitation. Practitioners who treat clients with conditions of the ...

  17. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  18. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Random Impulsive Differential Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jin Wu; Xiao-lin Guo; Song-qing Lin

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness in mean square of solutions to certain random impulsive differential systems is discussed in this paper. Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Lipschtiz condition and techniques in stochastic analysis are employed in achieve the desired results.

  19. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  20. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  1. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  2. UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONS WITH AVALANCHE TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jiasheng; Wang Yuanming

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial and mixed boundary value problems for the semiconductor equations with avalanche term, the uniqueness of the weak solution for the semiconductor equation has been proved.

  3. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  4. Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin

    2015-09-13

    We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.

  5. Limit theorem and uniqueness theorem of backward stochastic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Long

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a limit theorem for solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). By this limit theorem, this paper proves that, under the standard assumption g(t,y,0)≡0, the generator g of a BSDE can be uniquely determined by the corresponding g-expectation εg; this paper also proves that if a filtration consistent expectation ε can be represented as a g-expectation εg, then the corresponding generator g must be unique.

  6. Generic uniqueness conditions for the canonical polyadic decomposition and INDSCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    We find conditions that guarantee that a decomposition of a generic third-order tensor in a minimal number of rank-$1$ tensors (canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD)) is unique up to permutation of rank-$1$ tensors. Then we consider the case when the tensor and all its rank-$1$ terms have symmetric frontal slices (INDSCAL). Our results complement the existing bounds for generic uniqueness of the CPD and relax the existing bounds for INDSCAL. The derivation makes use of algebraic geometry. We...

  7. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation.

  8. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient′s unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient′s Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  9. Unique Measure for Time-Dependent Random Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves the uniqueness of measure for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations under a random kick-force and a time-dependent deterministic force. By extending a result for uniqueness of measure for time-homogeneous Markov processes to the time-inhomogeneous case, it is shown that the measures are exponentially mixing for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere.

  10. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  11. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  12. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  13. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  14. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  15. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  16. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    political and ecological aspirations, rather than by a sound analysis of State practice. State practice during non-international armed conflicts does...Chipka were visited in the English Channel, the German Las Palmas twenty-two nautical miles south of Cape Vicent and the German Archsum fifty-four

  17. 22 CFR 181.5 - Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements. 181.5 Section 181.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND..., including the Department of State, that concludes an international agreement within the meaning of the Act...

  18. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  19. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  20. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  1. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  2. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  3. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunitie

  4. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  5. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  6. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  7. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  8. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  9. Land and Freedom [Twenty Lessons for High School American Studies Classroom Instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Stan

    Twenty self-contained lessons about land and freedom feature activities that can be used with high school social studies classes. The lessons are: Indian Land Ownership, The Dutch and the New World, Colonial Mercantilism, the Declaration and Natural Rights, Jefferson and Liberty, Louisiana Purchase, the Tariff Issue of 1824, Panic of 1837, John…

  10. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  11. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  12. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  13. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  14. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  15. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  16. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  17. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  18. Twenty-One: cross-language disclosure and retrieval of multimedia documents on sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, ter W.G.; Beijert, J.-H.; Bruin, de G.; Gent, van J.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Netter, K.; Smart, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Twenty-One project brings together environmental organisations, technology providers and research institutes from several European countries. The main objective of the project is to make documents on environmental issues—in particular, on the subject of sustainable development—available on CD-RO

  19. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  20. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  1. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  2. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  3. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  4. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  5. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  6. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  7. Photons uniques indiscernables à partir d'une boîte quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons développé et caractérisé une source de photons uniques basée sur l'émission spontanée d'une boîte quantique unique insérée dans une cavité à bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce système nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilité supérieure à 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilité des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la durée de vie, met en évidence un effet Purcell supérieur à 25 dans ce système.

  8. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  9. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  10. On existence and uniqueness of solutions for variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a term from the geosciences and refers to methods for estimating orbits of dynamical models from observations. Variational techniques for data assimilation estimate these orbits by minimising an appropriate cost functional which takes the error with respect to the observations but also deviations of the orbits from the model equations into account. Such techniques are very important in practice. In this contribution, the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to variational data assimilation is investigated. Under mild hypotheses a solution to this problem exists. The problem of uniqueness is investigated as well, and several results (which all have analogues in optimal control) are established in the present context. The value function is introduced as the cost of an optimal trajectory starting from a given initial condition. The necessary conditions in combination with an envelope theorem can be used to demonstrate that the solution is unique if and only if the value function is differentiable at the given initial condition. This occurs for all initial conditions except maybe on a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Several examples are studied which demonstrate that non-uniqueness of solutions cannot be ruled out altogether though, which has important consequences in practice. References: J. Bröcker, "Existence and Uniqueness For Four Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in Discrete Time.", SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems (accepted).

  11. Uniqueness Domains in the Workspace of Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    This work investigates new kinematic features of parallel manipulators. It is well known that parallel manipulators admit generally several direct kinematic solutions for a given set of input joint values. The aim of this paper is to characterize the uniqueness domains in the workspace of parallel manipulators, as well as their image in the joint space. The study focuses on the most usual case of parallel manipulators with only one inverse kinematic solution. The notion of aspect introduced for serial manipulators in [Borrel 86] is redefined for such parallel manipulators. Then, it is shown that it is possible to link several solutions to the forward kinematic problem without meeting a singularity, thus meaning that the aspects are not uniqueness domains. An additional set of surfaces, namely the characteristic surfaces, are characterized which divide the workspace into basic regions and yield new uniqueness domains. This study is illustrated all along the paper with a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator. An oc...

  12. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  13. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  14. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  15. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  16. Uniqueness of form extensions and domination of semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Daniel; Schmidt, Marcel; Wirth, Melchior

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a new method to treat uniqueness of form extensions in a rather general setting including various magnetic Schr\\"odinger forms. The method is based on the theory of ordered Hilbert spaces and the concept of domination of semigroups. We review this concept in an abstract setting and give a characterization in terms of the associated forms. Then we use it to prove a theorem that transfers uniqueness of form extension of a dominating form to that of a dominated form. ...

  17. Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-08

    AD-A243 365’ l!1111iLI[li In M aR C ’ PHASE I FINAL REPORT Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks DARPA SBIR 90-115 Contract # DAAH01-91...Contents Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract i 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 The NGO-VRP Solver 2...34 solution is thus obtained through analogy. Because of this activity, artificial neural networks have emerged as a primary artificial intelligence

  18. Unique cardiac and cerebral anomalies with chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Waggoner, D J; Dowton, S B

    1998-01-06

    Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is associated with a variety of genetic and nongenetic conditions. We report a girl with CDP, complex congenital cardiac disease, central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and clinical findings that resemble those of the sibs described by Toriello et al. [1993, Am J Med Genet 47:797-799]. The cardiac defects and CNS abnormalities reported are unique in the context of CDP and may serve to expand the phenotypic spectrum of the unique form of CDP described by Toriello et al. [1993].

  19. How Has Elderly Migration Changed in the Twenty-First Century? What the Data Can-and Cannot-Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Rork, Jonathan C

    2016-08-01

    Interstate elderly migration has strong implications for state tax policies and health care systems, yet little is known about how it has changed in the twenty-first century. Its relative rarity requires a large data set with which to construct reliable measures, and the replacement of the U.S. Census long form (CLF) with the American Community Survey (ACS) has made such updates difficult. Two commonly used alternative migration data sources-the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Statistics of Income (SOI) program of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-suffer serious limitations in studying the migration of any subpopulation, including the elderly. Our study informs migration research in the post-2000 era by identifying methodological differences between data sources and devising strategies for reconciling the CLF and ACS. Our investigation focusing on the elderly suggests that the ACS can generate comparable migration data that reveal a continuation of previously identified geographic patterns as well as changes unique to the 2000s. However, its changed definition of residence and survey timing leaves us unable to construct a comparable national migration rate, suggesting that one must use national trends in the smaller CPS to investigate whether elderly migration has increased or decreased in the twenty-first century.

  20. Wicked Female Characters in Roddy Doyle’s “The Pram”: Revisiting Celtic and Polish Myths in the Context of Twenty-First Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gülüm Tekin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available “The Pram” is the only horror story in Roddy Doyle’s collection The Deportees and Other Stories (2007. It is also unique in terms of its approach to Ireland’s multicultural scene in the twenty-first century. Doyle turns the other side of the coin and introduces a migrant caretaker (Alina, who loses her mind due to her employees’ (the O’Reilly family ill-treatment. As a reaction to their scornful attitude, Alina becomes a murderer. Set in the context of twenty-first century Dublin, “The Pram” contains various references to Celtic and Polish mythological female figures (in particular, the Old Hag of Beara and Boginka, which strengthen the thrilling, mythical elements in the plot. This paper aims to examine the characters’ negative attitude towards migrants in Ireland in the light of the racist discourse present in the story. Also, I will focus on the story’s female characters and discuss the handicaps of being a female migrant in Ireland. The parallels between the mythical female figures and the protagonist Alina will be another point to be analyzed. The argument of this paper is that Doyle does not always portray the positive outcomes of a multicultural society. On the contrary, he conveys the perspective of the incoming migrant. “The Pram” stages the obstacles that a female outsider may experience in Ireland and her subsequent transformation as a result of the racism she encounters there.

  1. What's unique about unique entities? An fMRI investigation of the semantics of famous faces and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-09-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as "unique entities" (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing.

  2. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  3. New Poetics of the Film Body: Docility, Molecular Fundamentalism and Twenty First Century Destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Susan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty first century film evokes a new topology of the body. Science and technology are the new century’s ‘sovereign power’ which enforces biopolitics through bodies which, by virtue of being seen at their most fundamental level, have become docile surfaces. The film body is at once manipulated and coerced into an ethos of optimization; a thoroughly scientific and ‘molecular’ optimization which proffers ‘normalization’ and intimately regulated bodies. In the film bodies of this millennium, bodily intervention results in surveillance becoming internalized. Now the body is both a means and an end of social control. This essay applies the philosophies Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose to twenty first century Hollywood film, elucidating a new tropos, a new film body/body of film.

  4. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  5. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  6. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  7. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  8. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  9. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  10. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  11. Monetary Policy Implementation and Results in Twenty Inflation-Targeting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel.; Matías Tapia

    2002-01-01

    Inflation targeting is an increasingly popular monetary regime among industrialized and developing central banks. However, there is little cross-country comparative information about commonalties and differences in monetary policy implementation and results across inflation-targeting countries. This paper presents the results of a survey on monetary policy conducted among the world’s twenty central banks that currently target inflation. Survey responses highlight operational features of monet...

  12. Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, G.R.; Bacho, A.; Karmis, M. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research are presented. The Conference was held in Blacksburg, Virginia on August 28-30, 1995 and covered such topics as themes of change, miner`s safety, personal and corporate liability, behavioral changes and positive reinforcement, and meeting health and safety objectives in mining operations. A separate abstract was prepared for the thirteen papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. A Summary of the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (AAAI-15) was held in January 2015 in Austin, Texas (USA) The conference program was cochaired by Sven Koenig and Blai Bonet. This report contains reflective summaries of the main conference, the robotics program, the AI and robotics workshop, the virtual agent exhibition, the what's hot track, the competition panel, the senior member track, student and outreach activities, the student abstract and poster program, the doctoral conso...

  14. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  15. The truncated Second Main Theorem and uniqueness theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first establish a truncated Second Main Theorem for algebraically nondegenerate holomorphic mappings from the complex plane into a complex projective variety V intersecting hypersurfaces. We then prove some uniqueness results for meromorphic mappings. The result of Demailly about a partial solution to the Fujita’s conjecture is used.

  16. Uniqueness Result in the Cauchy Dirichlet Problem via Mehler Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Bishnu P.

    2014-09-01

    Using the Mehler kernel, a uniqueness theorem in the Cauchy Dirichlet problem for the Hermite heat equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions on a class P of bounded functions U( x, t) with certain growth on U x ( x, t) is established.

  17. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The resul...

  18. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  19. Solutions of fractional nabla difference equations - existence and uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Mohan Jonnalagadda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss existence, uniqueness and dependency of solutions of nonlinear fractional nabla difference equations in a Banach space equipped with a suitable norm, using the contractive mapping approach. As an application of the established results we present and analyse a few examples.

  20. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guérékata GastonM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations , , , in a Banach space , where . New results are obtained by fixed point theorem. An application of the abstract results is also given.

  1. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschner, Johannes [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Yamamoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  2. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  3. Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, W. Ethan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

  4. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciepliński Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  5. On the uniqueness of minimal projections in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szlachtowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(X\\ be a uniformly convex Banach space with a continuous semi-inner product. We investigate the relation of orthogonality in \\(X\\ and generalized projections acting on \\(X\\. We prove uniqueness of orthogonal and co-orthogonal projections.

  6. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  7. Uniqueness of group-measure space Cartan subalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kyed, David

    2011-01-01

    These notes provide an account on four lectures given by Adrian Ioana at the Institut Henri Poincare in May 2011, regarding a number of "uniqueness of Cartan" type results obtained in a recent series of papers by Chifan-Peterson and Popa-Vaes. The text is purely expository.

  8. The stereochemistry of baishouwubenzophenone, a unique atropisomer from C. wilfordii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Linwei; Zhang, Ke; Peng, Qing; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Jian; Sun, Tiemin

    2016-12-01

    Baishouwubenzophenone (1), possessing a unique atropisomeric feature, has been isolated from the roots of Cynanchum wilfordii. The congested structure makes it showing optical activity and consequently the absolute configuration was identified by experimental CD and computational approaches. Configurational assignment was further confirmed by exciton chirality method. The structural features in baishouwubenzophenone molecule allow it to be a potential atropisomeric ligand in asymmetric synthesis.

  9. Unique Issues in Rural Couple and Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Baker, Brad G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding rural couple and family counseling, in conjunction with the findings of research in closely related fields. This review is conducted in an effort to identify unique practice issues facing rural couple and family counselors. (Contains 77 references.) (GCP)

  10. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  11. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  12. The quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for thin sets

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    We consider some analogs of the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for geodesics, horocycles, or ``shrinking'' families of sets. In particular, we prove the analog of the QUE conjecture for Eisenstein series restricted to the infinite geodesic connecting 0 and infinity inside the modular surface.

  13. THE UNIQUENESS OF BIFURCATION TO SEPARATRIX LOOPS IN SUPERCRITICAL CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIANHUA

    1994-01-01

    In paper[4] the existence of bifurcation to separatrix loops in supercritical cases on the plane is studied.This note is a continuation of [4].The author proves the uniqueness of limit cycles in a neighb-orhood of the separatrix loop,and the results strengthen the relevant conclusions in[1-6].

  14. Unique Characteristics of a Graduate Program in Applied Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stuart M.; Mills, Kim White; Dick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Addresses one Communication Department's sojourn in designing, developing, and proposing a unique Master of Arts in Applied Communication. Discusses steps in developing an applied graduate program, the mission statement for the program, the curriculum, the expected impact of the graduate program on the undergraduate program, and program strengths.…

  15. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  16. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  17. Minimal fusion systems with a unique maximal parabolic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    We define minimal fusion systems in a way that every non-solvable fusion system has a section which is minimal. Minimal fusion systems can also be seen as analogs of Thompson's N-groups. In this paper, we consider a minimal fusion system F on a finite p-group S that has a unique maximal p-local s...

  18. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  19. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  20. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vil' danova, V F [Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Mukminov, F Kh [Bashkir State University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  1. On the Uniqueness Result for the Dirichlet Problem and Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płócienniczak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide an existence and uniqueness theorem for the Dirichlet problem div Hz(y,Ñx(y=ÑxF(y,x(y.The assumption that both H and F are invex with respect to the second variable is imposed and the direct variational method is applied. The applicationis also shown.

  2. Uniquely D-colourable digraphs with large girth

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Ararat; Mohar, Bojan; Rafferty, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Let C and D be digraphs. A mapping $f:V(D)\\to V(C)$ is a C-colouring if for every arc $uv$ of D, either $f(u)f(v)$ is an arc of C or $f(u)=f(v)$, and the preimage of every vertex of C induces an acyclic subdigraph in D. We say that D is C-colourable if it admits a C-colouring and that D is uniquely C-colourable if it is surjectively C-colourable and any two C-colourings of D differ by an automorphism of C. We prove that if a digraph D is not C-colourable, then there exist digraphs of arbitrarily large girth that are D-colourable but not C-colourable. Moreover, for every digraph D that is uniquely D-colourable, there exists a uniquely D-colourable digraph of arbitrarily large girth. In particular, this implies that for every rational number $r\\geq 1$, there are uniquely circularly r-colourable digraphs with arbitrarily large girth.

  3. Endogone, one of the oldest plant-associated fungi, host unique Mollicutes-related endobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirò, Alessandro; Faccio, Antonella; Kaech, Andres; Bidartondo, Martin I; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Glomeromycota have been considered the most ancient group of fungi capable of positively interacting with plants for many years. Recently, other basal fungi, the Endogone Mucoromycotina fungi, have been identified as novel plant symbionts, challenging the paradigm of Glomeromycota as the unique ancestral symbionts of land plants. Glomeromycota are known to host endobacteria and recent evidences show that also some Mucoromycotina contain endobacteria. In order to examine similarities between basal groups of plant-associated fungi, we tested whether Endogone contained endobacteria. Twenty-nine Endogone were investigated in order to identify Mollicutes-related endobacteria (Mre). Fruiting bodies were processed for transmission electron microscopy and molecularly investigated using fungal and Mre-specific primers. We demonstrate that Mre are present inside 13 out of 29 Endogone: endobacteria are directly embedded in the fungal cytoplasm and their 16S rDNA sequences cluster together with the ones retrieved from Glomeromycota, forming, however, a separate new clade. Our findings provide new insights on the evolutionary relations between Glomeromycota, Mucoromycotina and endobacteria, raising new questions on the role of these still enigmatic microbes in the ecology, evolution and diversification of their fungal hosts during the history of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  4. Twenty-first century Arctic climate change in the CCSM3 IPCC scenario simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Haiyan; Washington, Warren M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; Buja, Lawrence E.; Strand, Gary W. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Arctic climate change in the Twenty-first century is simulated by the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3). The simulations from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) are analyzed using eight (A1B and B1) or five (A2) ensemble members. The model simulates a reasonable present-day climate and historical climate trend. The model projects a decline of sea-ice extent in the range of 1.4-3.9% per decade and 4.8-22.2% per decade in winter and summer, respectively, corresponding to the range of forcings that span the scenarios. At the end of the Twenty-first century, the winter and summer Arctic mean surface air temperature increases in a range of 4-14 C (B1 and A2) and 0.7-5 C (B1 and A2) relative to the end of the Twentieth century. The Arctic becomes ice-free during summer at the end of the Twenty-first century in the A2 scenario. Similar to the observations, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominant factor in explaining the variability of the atmosphere and sea ice in the 1870-1999 historical runs. The AO shifts to the positive phase in response to greenhouse gas forcings in the Twenty-first century. But the simulated trends in both Arctic mean sea-level pressure and the AO index are smaller than what has been observed. The Twenty-first century Arctic warming mainly results from the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases. The 1st empirical orthogonal function (explains 72.2-51.7% of the total variance) of the wintertime surface air temperature during 1870-2099 is characterized by a strong warming trend and a ''polar amplification''-type of spatial pattern. The AO, which plays a secondary role, contributes to less than 10% of the total variance in both surface temperature and sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  5. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  6. Binding of HIV-1 gp41-directed neutralizing and non-neutralizing fragment antibody binding domain (Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv antibodies to the ectodomain of gp41 in the pre-hairpin and six-helix bundle conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Louis

    Full Text Available We previously reported a series of antibodies, in fragment antigen binding domain (Fab formats, selected from a human non-immune phage library, directed against the internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR of HIV-1 gp41. Broadly neutralizing antibodies from that series bind to both the fully exposed N-HR trimer, representing the pre-hairpin intermediate state of gp41, and to partially-exposed N-HR helices within the context of the gp41 six-helix bundle. While the affinities of the Fabs for pre-hairpin intermediate mimetics vary by only 2 to 20-fold between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, differences in inhibition of viral entry exceed three orders of magnitude. Here we compare the binding of neutralizing (8066 and non-neutralizing (8062 antibodies, differing in only four positions within the CDR-H2 binding loop, in Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv formats, to several pre-hairpin intermediate and six-helix bundle constructs of gp41. Residues 56 and 58 of the mini-antibodies are shown to be crucial for neutralization activity. There is a large differential (≥ 150-fold in binding affinity between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to the six-helix bundle of gp41 and binding to the six-helix bundle does not involve displacement of the outer C-terminal helices of the bundle. The binding stoichiometry is one six-helix bundle to one Fab or three ScFvs. We postulate that neutralization by the 8066 antibody is achieved by binding to a continuum of states along the fusion pathway from the pre-hairpin intermediate all the way to the formation of the six-helix bundle, but prior to irreversible fusion between viral and cellular membranes.

  7. 抗黄曲霉毒素B1单链抗体在Sf9昆虫细胞中的表达与性质分析%Expression and Characterization of Anti-AFB1 scFv Expressed in Sf9 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱平; 李诚; 刘书亮; 王小红; 陈福生

    2016-01-01

    目的:在原核表达抗黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1)单链抗体(single chain Fv fragment,scFv)研究的基础上,为进一步了解和提高抗AFB1 scFv的活性,利用Sf9昆虫细胞表达抗AFB1scFv,并对其活性进行探索研究.方法:构建pFastBac 1-scFv2E6VHVL重组质粒,将重组质粒转化Escherichia coli(E.coli)DH10Bac细胞,进行蓝白斑筛选,挑取阳性克隆.提取相应的重组杆状病毒穿梭载体Bacmid侵染Sf9昆虫细胞,表达scFv,利用镍亲和层析法纯化scFv,并以ELISA检测scFv活性.结果:蓝白斑筛选后,经菌落PCR和测序验证挑取的白斑阳性单克隆含有正确的单链抗体基因.提取相应的重组杆状病毒穿梭载体Bacmid侵染Sf9昆虫细胞,通过Westem blot检测得知抗AFB1 scFv在Sf9昆虫细胞中成功表达.AFB1对scFv的抑制中浓度(IC50)为30μg/ml.结论:与E.coli BL21 (DE3)表达系统相比,scFv灵敏度转好,但仍有较大提升空间.

  8. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  9. Theranostic pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using picomolar affinity {sup 86}Y- or {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Bn binding scFv C825/GPA33 IgG bispecific immunoconjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Lee, Sang-gyu; Punzalan, Blesida; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, New York, NY (United States); Xu, Hong; Guo, Hong-fen [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Chalasani, Sandhya; Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fung, Edward K. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Jungbluth, Achim [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Zanzonico, Pat B.; O' Donoghue, Joseph [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter M. [Stony Brook University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Wittrup, K.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheung, Nai-Kong V. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-05-15

    GPA33 is a colorectal cancer (CRC) antigen with unique retention properties after huA33-mediated tumor targeting. We tested a pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) approach for CRC using a tetravalent bispecific antibody with dual specificity for GPA33 tumor antigen and DOTA-Bn-(radiolanthanide metal) complex. PRIT was optimized in vivo by titrating sequential intravenous doses of huA33-C825, the dextran-based clearing agent, and the C825 haptens {sup 177}Lu-or {sup 86}Y-DOTA-Bn in mice bearing the SW1222 subcutaneous (s.c.) CRC xenograft model. Using optimized PRIT, therapeutic indices (TIs) for tumor radiation-absorbed dose of 73 (tumor/blood) and 12 (tumor/kidney) were achieved. Estimated absorbed doses (cGy/MBq) to tumor, blood, liver, spleen, and kidney for single-cycle PRIT were 65.8, 0.9 (TI 73), 6.3 (TI 10), 6.6 (TI 10), and 5.3 (TI 12), respectively. Two cycles of PRIT (66.6 or 111 MBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Bn) were safe and effective, with a complete response of established s.c. tumors (100 - 700 mm{sup 3}) in nine of nine mice, with two mice alive without recurrence at >140 days. Tumor log kill in this model was estimated to be 2.1 - 3.0 based on time to 500-mm{sup 3} tumor recurrence. In addition, PRIT dosimetry/diagnosis was performed by PET imaging of the positron-emitting DOTA hapten {sup 86}Y-DOTA-Bn. We have developed anti-GPA33 PRIT as a triple-step theranostic strategy for preclinical detection, dosimetry, and safe targeted radiotherapy of established human colorectal mouse xenografts. (orig.)

  10. Boundary Unique Continuation Properties for Elliptic Operators With Singular Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥兴

    2006-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction Because of applications to control theory, see Schmit and Weck's work in [1], the following unique continuation question (UCP) was raised in [2-3]: if u is a harmonic function in a connected Lipschitz domainΩ, vanishing continuously on an open subset Г of the boundary ( )Ω and whose normal derivative vanishes on a subset of Г of positive surface measure, does it follows that u is identically zero in Ω? On the other hand, the unique continuation problem has been focusing on second order equations in which the coefficients of the lower-order terms are allowed to be singular, which is suggested by situations of physical interest; see for instance the extensive survey papers [4-6].

  11. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  12. Uniqueness of system response time for transient condensing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)); Beck, B.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); Roslund, G.L. (General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1989-11-01

    The unique characteristics under consideration in this paper are encountered in condensing flows, and have to do with a system's response time for various degrees of outlet flow quality. Specifically, the system response time for condensing flows appears to increase monotonically with decreasing outlet flow quality, reaching a maximum for systems having an outlet flow quality of between 10 and 20%. The system response time then decreases for outlet flow qualities that are less than that value. These unique characteristics are predicted theoretically by system mean void fraction model. The purpose of this paper is to develop analytically the characteristics, explain the physics of the phenomena responsible, and discuss the experimental verification efforts that have thus far been carried out.

  13. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  14. A general Lipschitz uniqueness criterion for scalar ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Diblik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical Lipschitz-type criteria guarantee unique solvability of the scalar initial value problem $\\dot x=f(t,x$, $x(t_0=x_0,$ by putting restrictions on $|f(t,x-f(t,y|$ in dependence of $|x-y|$. Geometrically it means that the field differences are estimated in the direction of the $x$-axis. In 1989, Stettner and the second author could establish a generalized Lipschitz condition in both arguments by showing that the field differences can be measured in a suitably chosen direction $v=(d_{t},d_{x}$, provided that it does not coincide with the directional vector $(1,f(t_{0},x_{0}$. Considering the vector $v$ depending on $t$, a new general uniqueness result is derived and a short proof based on the implicit function theorem is developed. The advantage of the new criterion is shown by an example. A comparison with known results is given as well.

  15. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  16. Dusty plasma as a unique object of plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.

  17. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  18. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  19. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim Chee Liew; Mohan B.Singh; Prem L.Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmo-spheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  20. Uniqueness of Black Holes with Bubbles in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We generalise uniqueness theorems for non-extremal black holes with three mutually independent Killing vector fields in five-dimensional minimal supergravity in order to account for the existence of non-trivial 2-cycles in the domain of outer communication. The black hole space-times we consider may contain multiple disconnected horizons and be asymptotically flat or asymptotically Kaluza-Klein. We show that in order to uniquely specify the black hole space-time, besides providing its domain structure and a set of asymptotic and local charges, it is necessary to measure the magnetic fluxes that support the 2-cycles as well as fluxes in the two semi-infinite rotation planes of the domain diagram.

  1. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies.

  2. The unique chemical reactivity of a graphene nanoribbon's zigzag edge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, D; Sumpter, B G; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2007-01-01

    The zigzag edge of a graphene nanoribbon possesses a unique electronic state that is near the Fermi level and localized at the edge carbon atoms. We investigate the chemical reactivity of these zigzag edge sites by examining their reaction energetics with common radicals from first principles. A "partial radical" concept for the edge carbon atoms is introduced to characterize their chemical reactivity, and the validity of this concept is verified by comparing the dissociation energies of edge-radical bonds with similar bonds in molecules. In addition, the uniqueness of the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon is further demonstrated by comparing it with other forms of sp2 carbons, including a graphene sheet, nanotubes, and an armchair-edged graphene nanoribbon.

  3. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  4. [International progress of unique device identification for medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2014-09-01

    Unique Device Identification (UDI) is a hot spot research area in the medical device administration. It comes a breakthrough from International Medical Device Regulators Forum (IMDRF) and government implementation recently. The article reviewed the advancement of IMDRF UDI program, discussed the framework for UDI system, analyzed the implementation of UDI in other countries, put forward some suggestions on the development of medical device coding system in our country.

  5. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  6. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  7. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  8. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2017-02-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  9. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ciepliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  10. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.

  11. Osteomyelitis variolosa with fracture: A unique case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox has been eradicated completely but its unique pathology and sequlae are still found in routine clinical practice. We present a report of a patient having osteomyelitis variolosa in both elbow joints and wrist with fracture of humerus. The condyles were typically elongated as central portion of distal humerus absorbed. The fracture united uneventfully following stabilization with dynamic compression plate and bone grafting. Patient had satisfactory elbow function at the end of the last follow-up.

  12. A uniqueness theorem for higher order anharmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Soren; Sundqvist, Mikael Persson

    2015-01-01

    We study for alpha is an element of R, k is an element of N \\ {0} the family of self-adjoint operators -d(2)/dt(2) + (t(k+1)/k+1 - alpha)(2) in L-2(R) and show that if k is even then alpha = 0 gives the unique minimum of the lowest eigenvalue of this family of operators. Combined with earlier res...

  13. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations dqu(t/dtq+Au(t=f(t,u(t+∫0ta(t−sg(s,u(sds, t∈[0,T], u(0=u0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  14. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2016-08-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  15. A unique case of isolated, spontaneous, symptomatic celiac trunk dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of isolated spontaneous celiac trunk dissections have been appearing in the literature more recently with the increased availability of high-resolution computerized tomography angiograms. We report a unique case of this entity. A 48-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain that radiated to the back and worsened with breathing. This was diagnosed as a celiac trunk dissection by computerized tomography angiogram. She was treated conservatively with antihypertensive medications, anticoagulants, and opioid medication for pain control.

  16. [I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Martín

    2008-01-01

    The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious.

  17. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ha Huy Khoai

    2003-01-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z sub S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z sub S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C sup n) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS.

  18. Existence and Uniqueness of Fixed Point in Partially Ordered Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. NIETO; Rosana RODR(I)GUEZ-L(O)PEZ

    2007-01-01

    We prove some fixed point theorems in partially ordered sets, providing an extension of theBanach contractive mapping theorem. Having studied previously the nondecreasing case, we considerin this paper nonincreasing mappings as well as non monotone mappings. We also present someapplications to first-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions, provingthe existence of a unique solution admitting the existence of a lower solution.

  19. On Integers, Primes and UniqueFactorization in Quadratic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenlund, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. This thesis will deal with quadratic elds. The prob- lem is to study such elds and their properties including, but not limited to, determining integers, nding primes and deciding which quadratic elds have unique factorization. The goal is to get famil- iar with these concepts and to provide a starting point for students with an interest in algebra to explore eld extensions and inte- gral closures in relation to elementary number theory. The reader will be assumed to have a basic kn...

  20. Unique factorization of tensor products for Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, R.; Viswanath, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable, category O-modules of indecomposable symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebras. We prove that unique factorization of tensor products of irreducible modules holds in this category, upto twisting by one dimensional modules. This generalizes a fundamental theorem of Rajan for finite dimensional simple Lie algebras over C. Our proof is new even for the finite dimensional case, and uses an interplay of representation theory and combinatorics to analyze the Kac-Weyl character formula.

  1. The uniqueness-of-norm problem for Calkin algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Skillicorn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We examine the question of whether the Calkin algebra of a Banach space must have a unique complete algebra norm. We present a survey of known results, and make the observation that a recent Banach space construction of Argyros and Motakis (preprint, 2015) provides the first negative answer. The parallel question for the weak Calkin algebra also has a negative answer; we demonstrate this using a Banach space of Read (J. London Math. Soc. 1989).

  2. A Tandem Valve, a unique complication of TAVR

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Sattiraju; Sanjay Mehta; Mathew Gibb; Scott Cook; Michael Colla; Emil Missov

    2016-01-01

    , MD1*,, MD1,, MD1,, MD2, MD2,, MD, PhD3 1. Division of Cardiology, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 2. Cardiovascular Surgery, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 3. Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Received: 11-1-16, Reviewed: 22-1-16, Accepted: 26-1-16 Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, TAVR, Valve embolisation DOI: ABSTRACT We report a unique complica...

  3. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nectaria A. B. Gizani; M. A. Garrett; J. P. Leahy

    2002-03-01

    We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies as they present similar and unique characteristics, compared to the ones from our general knowledge about double radio galaxies associated with active galactic nuclei.

  4. A note on the uniqueness of global static decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Miguel [Departamento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Senovilla, Jose M M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-12-07

    We discuss when static Killing vector fields are standard, that is, leading to a global orthogonal splitting of the spacetime. We prove that such an orthogonal splitting is unique whenever the natural space is compact. This is carried out by proving that many notable spacelike submanifolds must be contained in an orthogonal slice. Possible obstructions to the global splitting are also considered. (comments, replies and notes)

  5. Unique Properties of Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利玲

    2011-01-01

    We study tie unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks. A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dot-lead coupling. The relation of Q o I (I is the system current) fails in nanosystems, while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias. As a result, one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one, the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.%We study the unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks.A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dotlead coupling.The relation of Q o I(I is the system current)fails in nanosystems,while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias.As a result,one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one,the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.

  6. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  7. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  8. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  9. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  10. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture of extremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1) the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2) the thin films of austenite between the individual ferrite platelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale.Considering the nanometer grain sizes the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes), and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and "green" material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over altemative materials.

  11. Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla, Bertram M; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M; Maranas, Costas D; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as "chassis" strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a "green E. coli." In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  12. Establishing the R&D agenda for twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    An infusion of twenty-first century skills into American public education necessitates a plan for research and development to further such reform. While the nation agrees that students must obtain critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills to succeed in the current global marketplace, this chapter puts forth a long-term, proactive agenda to invest in targeted research to propel and sustain this shift in education. The authors examine the impact such an R&D agenda would have on pedagogy and assessment and the implications for institutions of higher education. As the United States struggles to maintain dominance in the international economy, it faces a great challenge in keeping up with European and Asian competitors' strategies for preparing youth for the global marketplace. The authors hope the global reality will help contextualize the debate around American education--the current trend toward basics and accountability needs to be broadened. Building on frameworks created by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this chapter proposes questions to guide research around teaching, professional development, and assessment significant to twenty-first century skills. Knowing that educational change depends on providing teachers with the tools, support, and training to make fundamental changes in their practice, the authors argue for extensive research around best practices. In addition, if assessments are created to measure the desired outcomes, such measuring tools can drive reform. Furthermore, large-scale changes in teacher preparation programs must take place to allow teachers to adequately employ twenty-first century teaching and assessment strategies.

  13. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  14. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbahn, John A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  15. Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, R. K. [ed.

    1977-12-01

    Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  16. Managing the twenty-first century reference department challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Learn the skills needed to update and manage a reference department that efficiently meets the needs of clients today?and tomorrow! Managing the Twenty-First Century Reference Department: Challenges and Prospects provides librarians with the knowledge and skills they need to manage an effective reference service. Full of useful and practical ideas, this book presents successful methods for recruiting and retaining capable reference department staff and management, training new employees and adapting current services to an evolving field. Expert practitioners address the changing role of the r

  17. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  18. Digital images and art libraries in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Wyngaard, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Increase your knowledge of the digital technology that is essential for art librarianship today! Digital Images and Art Libraries in the Twenty-First Century is your key to cutting-edge discourse on digital image databases and art libraries. Just as early photographers tried to capture the world to make it accessible, now information professionals in art libraries and art museums are creating and sharing digital collections to make them broadly accessible. This collection shares the experience and insight of art information managers who have taken advantage of digital technology to exp

  19. Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-first Century

    OpenAIRE

    Puleio, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-First CenturyThe relevance of modern dance being performed today has been a growing topic in the dance field as legacy companies age and the field of contemporary dance continues to expand. This thesis begins with critical response to mid-century modern dance in the work of well-known dance critics John Martin, Edwin Denby and Louis Horst and how they substantiated modern dance’s place in dance history. My interviews with dance critics Alastair...

  20. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  1. Twenty of China's best physics PhD students visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Twenty of the top physics PhD students in China were honoured with the 'E=mc2 to modern science' Einstein Award and received a three week tour of major laboratories in Germany and Switzerland, including CERN, DESY and the Max Planck Institute. The Einstein Award is co-sponsored by the German and Swiss Embassies in celebration of the 'Year of Physics' in 2005. For many years, Germany, Switzerland and China have been involved in numerous areas of scientific research and cooperation.

  2. Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease (1995-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S F; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Robertson, I D; Malik, R

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease were identified retrospectively. The criteria for inclusion were consistent clinical signs or histopathology and no other identifiable aetiology. Patient records were analysed to determine historical, clinical, clinicopathologic and radiographic features. The main presenting complaints were coughing and dyspnoea. The most common physical finding was dyspnoea. The majority of radiographs had a bronchial pattern either as the sole change or as a component of a mixed pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology was neutrophilic or eosinophilic in the majority of cats. There was no association between age, breed, sex, clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology or radiographic severity and disease severity.

  3. Twenty natural organic pigments for application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D.; Sánchez Juárez, A.; Espinosa Tapia, S.; Guaman, A.; Obregón Calderón, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the results of a study of twenty natural pigments obtained from plants and insects from southern Ecuador. Many of them will be considered as a potential natural sensitizer for the construction of DSSCs. The results indicate that these pigments have a good performance in the absorbance and wavelength spectra. Were selected four best pigments for the construction of DSSCs, Rumex tolimensis Wedd, Raphanus sativus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Prunus serótina, however the conversion efficiency is lower than 1%.

  4. Authority in the Virtual Sangat : Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsh, Doris R.

    2006-01-01

    In her paper Authority in the Virtual Sanga. Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century, Doris Jakobsh analyses the change of authority based on her research on Sikhs on the Internet. She stresses the Web as a ‘third place’ of communication among the Sikhs as well as the phenomenon of new authorities online. However, this does not imply the replacement of the traditional seats of authority, the Akal Takht, SGPC, or gurdwara managements, but one can recognize a significant shift ...

  5. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  6. A perspective of dental education in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D L; Finnegan, W N

    1989-04-01

    With the beginning of the twenty-first century only twelve years away, it is clearly not too early for dental educators to be planning for it. If one compares the practice of dentistry and the nature of dental education in 1888 with that of 1988, and then tries to project what they will be like in the year 2088, we have a difficult task indeed. As Alvin Toffler has pointed out in his book Future Shock, we are in an ever escalating period of change. Dentistry and dental education will change much more in the next one hundred years than they have in the last one hundred years.

  7. The economics of urologic practice in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1998-02-01

    Our nation's health care has been undergoing an economic revolution. The practice of urology has not escaped. Speculation regarding the economics of urologic practice in the twenty-first century must be based on the continuation of policy trends begun over the last decade by government and managed care coupled with the impact of changes in the science of urology, shifting population demographics, and changing social factors. The hallmarks of the years ahead include increased physician accountability, expanded use of clinical care guidelines, continued relentless penetration of managed care, and reduced reimbursement for surgical services.

  8. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  9. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  10. Rethinking Individual Authorship: Robert Burns, Oral Tradition, and the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Knezevich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The songs of late-eighteenth-century Scottish poet Robert Burns provide a rich case study of literature that challenges existing notions of the author as an autonomous entity. Responding to twenty-first-century examples of contested issues of intellectual property and plagiarism in an age of digital media, this project illustrates the ways in which precepts of oral tradition can inform our thinking about cultural production within contexts seemingly permeated by ever-present literacy or text-based thinking in order to provide a new outlook on such situations of artistic borrowing or “plagiarism.”

  11. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality.Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  12. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central

  13. Collecting duct carcinomas represent a unique tumor entity based on genetic alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Becker

    Full Text Available Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare renal neoplasm that is associated with poor prognosis due to its highly aggressive course and limited response to immuno- or chemotherapy. Histologically, CDC is defined as a subtype of renal cell carcinomas, but in some cases, it is difficult to differentiate from urothelial carcinomas (UC. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine genetic alterations of CDC in comparison to that of urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC to clarify the histological origin of this rare tumor entity. Twenty-nine CDC samples were obtained from seven different German centers and compared with twenty-six urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH was used to investigate the genetic composition of patients' tumors and allowed the detection of losses and gains of DNA copy numbers throughout the entire genome. The clinical data were correlated with CGH results. CGH analysis of CDC revealed DNA aberrations in many chromosomes. DNA losses were more frequently observed than gains, while high-level amplifications were not detected. The mean frequency of CDC chromosomal aberrations (4.9/case was slightly lower than that in UUT-UC (5.4/case. Recurrent CDC DNA losses occurred at 8p (n=9/29, 16p (9/29, 1p (n=7/29 and 9p (n=7/29, and gains occurred in 13q (n=9/29. In contrast to CDC, the most frequently detected UUT-UC DNA aberration was a loss at 9q (n=13/26. DNA losses at 9q, 13q and 8q as well as gains at 8p showed significant variations in UUT-UC compared to CDC. There was no correlation between the patients' clinical course and the presence or absence of these recurrent genetic alterations. CDCs are characterized by a different genetic pattern compared to UUT-UC. Regarding the published data on renal cell carcinoma, we conclude that CDC appears to be a unique entity among kidney carcinomas.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nariman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDue to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infections. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured by tubeand agar dilution methods for the biologically active plant extracts.ResultsOf the twenty plant extracts analyzed, sixteen exhibited good anti-H. pylori activity, using disc diffusion.The ten most active extracts were Carum bulbocastanum, Carum carvi, Mentha longifolia, Saliva limbata,Saliva sclarea, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus caramanicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations measured for the 10 biologically activeplant extracts were within the range of 31.25 to 500 μg/ml.ConclusionAmong the ten plant extracts effective against H. pylori clinical isolates, Carum carvi, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum showed the highest activity.Keywords: Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Iranian plants, Organic extracts

  16. Secondary battery which flaps in the twenty-first century; 21seiki ni habataku nijidenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Z. [kansai University, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-25

    The development of a secondary battery of large safety and high-power high energy density will be advanced in the twenty-first century, while both sides in environment and resources are considered. The high tension battery will be advantageous, and the development of this battery will be promoted mainly by the lithium secondary battery. The battery which uses manganese system compounds for cathode active material was used in the early time practically, and in addition, it will develop to the ferrous compounds. In the electrolyte, the metallic lithium is used in negative electrode active materials, and an organic polymer thin film including an ion cluster which is active in the nonaqueous solvent will be developed. The secondary battery which has only a power generation function at the inside of a container and has active material at the outside of the container is suitable for large-sized and large-capacity secondary batteries. The battery of this conformer of which belongs the redox, flow battery which possesses active material in liquid electrolyte and the fuel cell using a gas active material. The development of the lithium secondary battery using the new material will be promoted competitively with the development of the fuel cell and the redox, flow battery, etc., when the field where the application of the battery expanded in the twenty-first century was considered. (NEDO)

  17. Proceedings of Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockosh, G.R. [ed.] [Pittsburgh Research Center, US Dept. of Energy (United States); Langton, J. [ed.] [Mine Safety and Health Administration, US Dept. of Labor (United States); Karmis, M. [ed.] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dept. of Mining and Minerals Engineering, Blacksburg (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This Proceedings contains the presentations made during the program of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, on August 26-28, 1996. The Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining, Health, Safety and Research was the latest in a series of conferences held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, cosponsored by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, United States Department of Labor, and the Pittsburgh Research Center, United States Department of Energy (formerly part of the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of Interior). The Institute provides an information forum for mine operators, managers, superintendents, safety directors, engineers, inspectors, researchers, teachers, state agency officials, and others with a responsible interest in the important field of mining health, safety and research. In particular, the Institute is designed to help mine operating personnel gain a broader knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of mining health and safety, and to present them with methods of control and solutions developed through research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  18. Impact of Power Play Overs on the Outcome of Twenty20 Cricket Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find if better performance in power play leads a team to victory in a Twenty20 match. Based on the methodology devised to do so, the study tries to measure the performance of both the teams during power play overs in terms of batting and bowling. The developed measure is called ‘Prod’ which is a product of the difference of batting and bowling performance of the teams during power play overs. The team with better performance in both the skills during power play is expected to win the match. But it would be difficult to predict the outcome of a match if the performance of a team is better in bowling and worse in batting and vice-versa. A total of 261 matches from different seasons of Indian Premier League (IPL are considered for the study. The outcomes of 220 matches are predicted based on the performance of two teams in power play out of which 153 of them were correctly predicted. Remaining 41 matches could not be predicted as it is not clear which team performed better during power play. Thus, out of the matches where the dominance of a team was clear in the power play, 70 percent cases that team ultimately won the match in Twenty20 cricket.

  19. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Twenty-first century changes in snowfall climate in Northern Europe in ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Changes in snowfall in northern Europe (55-71°N, 5-35°E) are analysed from 12 regional model simulations of twenty-first century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. As an ensemble mean, the models suggest a decrease in the winter total snowfall in nearly all of northern Europe. In the middle of the winter, however, snowfall generally increases in the coldest areas. The borderline between increasing and decreasing snowfall broadly coincides with the -11 °C isotherm in baseline (1980-2010) monthly mean temperature, although with variation between models and grid boxes. High extremes of daily snowfall remain nearly unchanged, except for decreases in the mildest areas, where snowfall as a whole becomes much less common. A smaller fraction of the snow in the simulated late twenty-first century climate falls on severely cold days and a larger fraction on days with near-zero temperatures. Not only do days with low temperatures become less common, but they also typically have more positive anomalies of sea level pressure and less snowfall for the same temperature than in the present-day climate.