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Sample records for twenty schizophrenia patients

  1. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia

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    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. Methods: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student′s tests. Results: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05. Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05, these differences were not significant in females. Conclusions: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia.

  2. A preliminary study on the alterations of grey matter volume in patients with early adulthood episode schizophrenia

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    刘萍萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the grey matter volume in patients with early adulthood episode (18-25 ages)schizophrenia and the correlations between regional volume and symptoms severity. Methods Twenty-one schizophrenia patients with early adulthood episode and twenty-one normal controls matched with age,sex and education

  3. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA IN GUJARAT

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    Patel Krunal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia, a psychiatric illness is a 4th leading cause of disability among adults. It is estimated to affect 1% of the general population. Aim of the present study was to conduct epidemiological survey of patients suffering of schizophrenia in Gujarat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients visiting Santvan Hospital Nadiad,Gujarat. Data were collected by the case report forms and analyzed for age, sex, symptoms of schizophrenic patients and prescribed drugs. Male and female patients (n=55 with age > 15 years and 50 years were excluded from this study. Analysis of the data revealed that females and males affecting schizophrenia were almost equal. This disease appeared earlier in men usually in early twenties than in women who were affected in the twenties to early thirties. Female patients were suffered from irritable mood more than males. Male patients suffered from apathetic mood more than females. All cases studied were had negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Polypharmacy was observed in drug prescription as on an average drugs prescribed per patient was 3 to 4. Olanzapine (98% was most prescribed drug followed by clozapine (64%, lorazepam (64%, escitalopram (50% and risperidone (32%.

  4. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

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    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...

  5. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  6. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle E; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients with schizophr......Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients...... with schizophrenia and comorbid psychopathy, we investigated if psychopathy measured with the total Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) score and the factors described in the two-factor model and the facets described in the four-factor model are associated with type of aggression in schizophrenia and to explore...... aggression than the three-factor model. These findings delineate the role of psychopathy including antisocial features in the understanding of premeditated aggression in schizophrenia....

  7. Language Disorder In Schizophrenia Patient: A Case Study Of Five Schizophrenia Paranoid Patients In Simeulue District Hospital

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    Kurnia, Beby Febri

    2015-01-01

    Language disorder in schizophrenia patients is an acquired language disorder due to thought disorder. This analysis analyzed language disorder in schizophrenia paranoid patients in Simeulue District Hospital. The objective of this analysis were: (1) to find out the types of schizophrenic speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, (2) to find out the most dominant type of schizophrenia speech found in schizophrenia paranoid patients, and (3) to find out which patient has most severe lang...

  8. Reduced reward-related probability learning in schizophrenia patients

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    Yılmaz A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpaslan Yilmaz1,2, Fatma Simsek2, Ali Saffet Gonul2,31Department of Sport and Health, Physical Education and Sports College, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, SoCAT Lab, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USAAbstract: Although it is known that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate marked impairment in reinforcement learning, the details of this impairment are not known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reward-related probability learning is altered in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-five clinically stable schizophrenia patients and 25 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. A simple gambling paradigm was used in which five different cues were associated with different reward probabilities (50%, 67%, and 100%. Participants were asked to make their best guess about the reward probability of each cue. Compared with controls, patients had significant impairment in learning contingencies on the basis of reward-related feedback. The correlation analyses revealed that the impairment of patients partially correlated with the severity of negative symptoms as measured on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale but that it was not related to antipsychotic dose. In conclusion, the present study showed that the schizophrenia patients had impaired reward-based learning and that this was independent from their medication status.Keywords: reinforcement learning, reward, punishment, motivation

  9. The glycometabolism abnormality among schizophrenia patients

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    吴小立

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential glycometabolism abnormality and the related factors of schizophrenia patients in China. Methods This cross-sectional study included 44 healthy controls(group 1) and 178 inpatient

  10. Stigma Resistance in Patients With Schizophrenia

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    Sibitz, Ingrid; Unger, Annemarie; Woppmann, Andreas; Zidek, Thomas; Amering, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Background: An individual's capacity to counteract the stigma of mental illness, stigma resistance (SR), is considered as playing a crucial role in fighting stigma. However, little is known about SR and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Aim: Exploring SR in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method: One hundred fifty-seven participants completed the “Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness” (ISMI) Scale including its subscale on SR....

  11. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

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    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  12. Pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia

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    Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...

  13. Twenty Years of Schizophrenia Research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966: A Systematic Review

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    Erika Jääskeläinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth cohort designs are useful in studying adult disease trajectories and outcomes, such as schizophrenia. We review the schizophrenia research performed in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966, which includes 10,934 individuals living in Finland at 16 years of age who have been monitored since each mother’s mid-pregnancy. By the age of 44, 150 (1.4% had developed schizophrenia. There are 77 original papers on schizophrenia published from the NFBC 1966. The early studies have found various risk factors for schizophrenia, especially related to pregnancy and perinatal phase. Psychiatric and somatic outcomes were heterogeneous, but relatively poor. Mortality in schizophrenia is high, especially due to suicides. Several early predictors of outcomes have also been found. Individuals with schizophrenia have alterations in brain morphometry and neurocognition, and our latest studies have found that the use of high lifetime doses of antipsychotics associated with these changes. The schizophrenia research in the NFBC 1966 has been especially active for 20 years, the prospective study design and long follow-up enabling several clinically and epidemiologically important findings. When compared to other birth cohorts, the research in the NFBC 1966 has offered also unique findings on course and outcome of schizophrenia.

  14. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

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    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  15. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

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    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  16. Pregnancy outcome of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Hizkiyahu, Ranit; Levy, Amalia; Sheiner, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    We sought to identify whether schizophrenia during pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. A population-based study comparing women with and without schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders was performed. Stratified analysis using multiple logistic regression models was performed to control for confounders. During the study period, there were 186,554 deliveries, of which 97 occurred in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. The schizophrenic patients were significantly older (mean age 30.6 versus 28.6, P = 0.001), with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus as compared with the comparison group (13.4% versus 6.7%, P = 0.009). The need for induction and augmentation of delivery, congenital malformations, and low birth weight (schizophrenic patients. No significant differences were noted between the groups regarding labor complications such as cesarean delivery (16.5% versus 13.2%, P = 0.337) and placenta previa and placental abruption (1% versus 4%, P = 0.333 and 1% versus 0.7%, P = 0.51, respectively). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders during pregnancy were independent risk factors for congenital malformations (odds ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.9, P = 0.027). Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders are independent risk factors for congenital malformations.

  17. Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents

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    Omori Ataru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

  18. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerumen impaction in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Saana, Eskelinen; Eila, Sailas; Kaisla, Joutsenniemi; Matti, Holi; Jaana, Suvisaari

    2014-07-01

    Cerumen impaction may cause hearing loss and pain. We investigated the prevalence of cerumen impaction in a population of outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum psychoses and studied factors contributing to it. As a part of our study--"The Living Conditions and Physical Health of Outpatients with Schizophrenia"--we performed a thorough medical examination including otoscopy of the ear canal for patients treated in the community mental health center of one Finnish municipality. Out of a total of 61 patients, cerumen impaction was found in 12 (19.7%). In a logistic regression model, living in a group home (OR 13.7, 95% confidence interval 3.0-64.0, p=0.0008) significantly predicted cerumen impaction. Cerumen impaction was also associated with male gender and lower GAF scores. Cerumen impaction is common in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with low level of functioning. Diagnosis and treatment of cerumen impaction among schizophrenia patients is essential in avoiding this easily treatable cause of hearing loss and its consequences such as difficulties in cognition and social interaction.

  20. Impact of panic attacks on quality of life among patients with schizophrenia.

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    Ulaş, Halis; Polat, Selma; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Köksal

    2010-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients had decreased levels of quality of life compared to normal population. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of panic attacks on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Eighty-eight patients with schizophrenia and 85 healthy subjects were included in the study. World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form (WHOQOL-Bref) was given to patients and healthy subjects to assess quality of life. Panic module of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was administered to patients for diagnosis of panic attacks and panic disorder. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for symptom severity and Calgary Depression Scale (CDS) for depressive symptoms were administered to the patients. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly lower scores compared to healthy controls in all domains of WHOQOL-Bref. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) with schizophrenia had panic attacks (PA) and 10 patients (11.4%) met criteria for panic disorder (PD). Schizophrenia patients with PA had significantly lower scores on psychological domain of WHOQOL-Bref compared to the patients without PA. Schizophrenic patients with panic attacks had higher CDS scores than patients without PA. In the multivariate regression analyses the variance in psychological domain of WHOQOL-Bref was explained by depression rather than panic attack. In patients with schizophrenia comorbid panic attacks may have a negative impact on quality of life, which is associated with depression significantly. Panic attacks and depressive symptomatology must be examined comprehensively in order to improve quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Insomnia and Clinical and Quality of Life Correlates in Chinese Patients With Schizophrenia Treated in Primary Care.

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    Hou, Cai-Lan; Li, Yan; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ng, Chee H; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Tam, Man-Ian; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in schizophrenia patients treated in primary care. Six hundred and twenty-three schizophrenia patients from 22 primary care services were recruited. The prevalence of at least one type of insomnia was 28.9% (180/623), while those of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning wakening were 20.5%, 19.6%, and 17.7%, respectively. Only 53.3% of patients suffering from insomnia received treatment. Insomnia is common in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and the rate of treatment appears low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Eye movements of patients with schizophrenia in a natural environment.

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    Dowiasch, Stefan; Backasch, Bianca; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Leube, Dirk; Kircher, Tilo; Bremmer, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of eye movements in schizophrenia patients have been widely described for laboratory settings. For example, gain during smooth tracking is reduced, and fixation patterns differ between patients and healthy controls. The question remains, whether such results are related to the specifics of the experimental environment, or whether they transfer to natural settings. Twenty ICD-10 diagnosed schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study, each performing four different oculomotor tasks corresponding to natural everyday behavior in an indoor environment: (I) fixating stationary targets, (II) sitting in a hallway with free gaze, (III) walking down the hallway, and (IV) visually tracking a target on the floor while walking straight-ahead. In all conditions, eye movements were continuously recorded binocularly by a mobile lightweight eye tracker (EyeSeeCam). When patients looked at predefined targets, they showed more fixations with reduced durations than controls. The opposite was true when participants were sitting in a hallway with free gaze. During visual tracking, patients showed a significantly greater root-mean-square error (representing the mean deviation from optimal) of retinal target velocity. Different from previous results on smooth-pursuit eye movements obtained in laboratory settings, no such difference was found for velocity gain. Taken together, we have identified significant differences in fundamental oculomotor parameters between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during natural behavior in a real environment. Moreover, our data provide evidence that in natural settings, patients overcome some impairments, which might be present only in laboratory studies, by as of now unknown compensatory mechanisms or strategies.

  3. RISPERIDONE IN INDIAN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Agarwal, A.K.; Bashyam, V.S.P; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Dhavale, H.S.; Khan, M.A.M.; Khanna, Sumant; Pradhan, P.V.; Katiyar, M.; Rajkumar, R.; Niazi, Faiz R.; Jalali, R.K.; Gowrishankar, R.; Mishra, S.K.; Sood, O.P.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional antipsychotic agents are not effective against negative symptoms of schizophrenia and are also noted for their extrapyramidal side effects. Risperidone is a noval antipsychotic agent whose dual antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors is believed to underlie its efficacy against negative symptoms and the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. An open, non-comparative study of seven weeks duration was performed to evaluate risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Indian patients. Previous antipsychotic therapy was discontinued for a week before risperidone therapy was initiated. At the end of six weeks of risperidone therapy, clinical improvement (≥ 20% reduction in total score on positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS;; was shown by 128 (87.7%) of the 146 evaluable patients. Statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) occurred in the total score of this scale and in the subscale scores for positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms and in the clinical global impression severity score. The number of patients with adverse experiences were 108 (65.5%) at baseline and 120 (72.7%) at the end of risperidone therapy. Extrapyramidal symptoms, seen in 65 (39.4%) patients compared to 22 (13.3%) patients at baseline, were largely mild to moderate in intensity. PMID:21494480

  4. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  5. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

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    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish.......20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases...... and families, was greater among people with no family history of psychosis. In addition, the increased risk for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis did not differ by type of epilepsy but increased with increasing number of admissions to hospital and, particularly, was significantly greater for people...

  6. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

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    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  7. Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality.

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    Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal

    2017-09-07

    Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.

  8. Characteristics of trees drawn by patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Inadomi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Goro; Ohta, Yasuyuki

    2003-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between schizophrenia subtype and morphological characteristics of trees drawn in the Baum test. Subjects comprised the following three groups: 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (10th revision; ICD-10) criteria; 26 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria; and 53 healthy individuals. Differences in psychiatric symptoms as assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score were compared between patients with paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, differences in two morphological characteristics of trees, namely trunk-to-crown ratio and trunk end opening, were compared between the three groups. No differences in psychiatric symptoms were identified between patients with paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenia. Conversely, mean +/- SD trunk-to-crown ratio was 13.1 +/- 8.0 for patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia, 8.8 +/- 4.6 for patients with paranoid schizophrenia, and 5.4 +/- 3.4 for healthy individuals. Significant differences were identified between all three groups. Furthermore, mean trunk end opening was 0.80 +/- 0.7 for patients with paranoid schizophrenia, 0.38 +/- 0.6 for patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia, and 0.06 +/- 0.3 for healthy individuals. Again, significant differences were apparent between all three groups. These findings suggest that morphological differences in trees drawn in the Baum test can be observed between the two schizophrenia subtypes in terms of not only psychopathological interpretation, but also gestalt formation, as assessed on the basis of trees with collapsed gestalt or with some degree of gestalt. This suggests the possibility of multiple disorders at a physiological level. The present study confirmed that the Baum test can quantitatively assess facets of schizophrenia that existing scales such as BPRS are unable to analyze

  9. Courses of substance use and schizophrenia in the dual-diagnosis patients : is there a relationship?

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    Goswami S

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interrelationship of schizophrenia and substance use is complex and multifactorial. Examining the influence of various psychoactive substances on course of patients with pure dual-diagnosis schizophrenia may help to solve this riddle. AIM: To examine the relationship of the courses of substance use and schizophrenic symptomatology in substance abusing "dual-diagnosis" patients with schizophrenia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Outpatient Deaddiction and Treatment Center of a tertiary care hospital with a retrospective design. METHODS and MATERIAL: Twenty-two substance abusing dual-diagnosis patients with schizophrenia were investigated regarding the course of substance use (abuse/dependence, use, non-use and that of schizophrenia (psychotic, non-psychotic, in remission. A graphical representation of course of schizophrenia and substance abuse was made and their relationship studied by superimposition of respective graphs. STATISTICS: The Friedman two-way analysis of variance of ranks was applied to see the relationship between time spent by patients while on and off various substances. RESULTS: In five cases, the onset of schizophrenia preceded the onset of substance use. In seven out of 22 subjects, the schizophrenic exacerbation was clearly preceded by increase in substance abuse in the preceding two-twelve months. In none of the subjects decrease in substance use led to a decrease or increase in schizophrenic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Although substance use disorder preceded the onset of schizophrenic illness in the majority, and increase in substance abuse preceded schizophrenic exacerbation in one-third of dual-diagnosis patients, overall there was no evidence that the course of substance use was associated with that of schizophrenia after both disorders were diagnosed.

  10. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Alzuhairi, Karam

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...... patients had a diagnosis consistent with previous MI. RESULTS: A total of 937 ECGs were interpreted, 538 men (57.4%) and 399 women (42.6%). Mean age at the time of ECG acquisition was 40.6 years (95% CI: 39.7-41.5, range: 15.9-94.6). We identified 32 patients with positive ECG signs of MIs. Only two...... of these patients had a diagnosis of MI in the National Patient Registry. An additional number of eight patients had a diagnosis of MI in the Danish National Patient Registry, but with no ECG signs of previous MI. This means that 30 out of 40 (75%) MIs were unrecognised. Only increasing age was associated...

  11. Depressive and paradepressive symptoms clinical features in patients with schizophrenia

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    K. A. Sincha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, etiology and pathogenesis of which is still not completely uncovered and cause number of complications, decrease quality of life and hinder rehabilitation of the patients. Materials and metods. In order to establish depression and paradepressive symptoms features in patients with schizophrenia the next methods were used: clinical- psychopathological, anamnestic and catamnestic methods. 107 patients with schizophrenia (F20 and 30 patients with schizoaffective disorder, mixed type (F25 were examined. Conclusion. Correlative relationship between depressive, hallucinatory-delusional, deficits and neuroleptic manifestations symptoms has been indicated. factors of induction and amplification of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were determined. Ethiopsychopathogenic variants of depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia were obtained.

  12. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Share NAMI Share Home Learn More Mental Health Conditions Schizophrenia IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Schizophrenia Overview Treatment Support Discuss Schizophrenia is a ...

  13. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy......Studies of birth cohorts show evidence of greater risk of violence among patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. However, the contribution of schizophrenia to violence is heavily debated and remains unclear. This debate has spurred research whose focus can be associated......, predict violence, regardless of other symptomatology associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, emergent data suggest that specific mentalizing profiles can be associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia, an issue that warrants further consideration in future research....

  14. Facilitating recruitment of patients with schizophrenia to a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Bettina Ellen

    People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....

  15. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

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    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Premorbid cognitive deficits in young relatives of schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Shreedhar R Kulkarni; Tejas Bhojraj; Alan Francis; Vaibhav Diwadkar; Montrose, Debra M.; Larry Seidman; John Sweeney

    2010-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia and their relation to brai...

  17. Stigma resistance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Unger, Annemarie; Woppmann, Andreas; Zidek, Thomas; Amering, Michaela

    2011-03-01

    An individual's capacity to counteract the stigma of mental illness, stigma resistance (SR), is considered as playing a crucial role in fighting stigma. However, little is known about SR and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Exploring SR in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. One hundred fifty-seven participants completed the "Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness" (ISMI) Scale including its subscale on SR. Measures of perceived devaluation and discrimination, depression, self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life, and demographic and clinical variables were obtained. Two-thirds of all patients showed high SR. SR correlated positively with self-esteem, empowerment, and quality of life and negatively with stigma measures and depression. A social network with a sufficient number of friends, being single or married, in contrast to being separated, as well as receiving outpatient treatment, was associated with higher SR. SR is a new and promising concept. The development of stigma-resisting beliefs might help individuals in their hope of finding a fulfilling life and in their recovery from mental illness.

  18. Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia

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    Steffen Moritz

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate overconfidence in errors among individuals with psychosis using a visual perception task. Speaking to the specificity of this abnormality for schizophrenia and its pathogenetic relevance, overconfidence in errors and knowledge corruption were elevated in patients with schizophrenia relative to both control groups and were correlated with paranoia.

  19. Spatial compatibility and affordance compatibility in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yu; Sato, Fumiyasu; Hiraoka, Yuya; Suzuki, Shingo; Niyama, Yoshitsugu

    2016-12-01

    A deterioration in information-processing performance is commonly recognized in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Although the enhancement of cognitive skills in patients with schizophrenia is important, the types of external stimuli that influence performance have not received much attention. The aim of present study was to clarify the effects of spatial and affordance compatibility in patients with schizophrenia, compared with those in healthy people. The subjects (25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls) participated in two experiment examining the effects of the spatial location of stimuli and the action-relevance of objects. The results showed that the effect of spatial compatibility was similar in both the patients and the controls, whereas the influence of action-relevant objects was not highlighted in either patients with chronic schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings provide important evidence of a normal spatial compatibility effect in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, further research examining the affordance compatibility effect is needed, taking into consideration the symptomatology and the severity of the social functioning level in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of perceived intimacy on social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Shin, Jung Eun; Han, Kiwan; Shin, Yu-Bin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Social dysfunctions including emotional perception and social decision-making are common in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the level of intimacy formation and the effect of intimacy on social decision in patients with schizophrenia using virtual reality tasks, which simulate complicated social situations. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls performed the 2 virtual social tasks: the intimacy task and the social decision task. The first one was to estimate repeatedly how intimate participants felt with each avatar after listening to what avatars said. The second one was to decide whether or not participants accepted the requests of easy, medium, or hard difficulty by the intimate or distant avatars. During the intimacy task, the intimacy rating scores for intimate avatars were not significantly different between groups, but those for distant avatars were significantly higher in patients than in controls. During the social decision task, the difference in the acceptance rate between intimate and distant avatars was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. In detail, a significant group difference in the acceptance rate was found only for the hard requests, but not for the easy and medium difficulty requests. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in emotional perception and social decision-making. Various factors such as a peculiarity of emotional deficits, motivational deficits, concreteness, and paranoid tendency may contribute to these abnormalities.

  1. Effect of perceived intimacy on social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung ePark

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social dysfunctions including emotional perception and social decision-making are common in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the level of intimacy formation and the effect of intimacy on social decision in patients with schizophrenia using virtual reality tasks which simulate complicated social situations. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls performed the two virtual social tasks: the intimacy task and the social decision task. The first one was to estimate repeatedly how intimate participants felt with each avatar after listening to what avatars said. The second one was to decide whether or not participants accepted the requests of easy, medium or hard difficulty by the intimate or distant avatars. During the intimacy task, the intimacy rating scores for intimate avatars were not significantly different between groups, but those for distant avatars were significantly higher in patients than in controls. During the social decision task, the difference in the acceptance rate between intimate and distant avatars was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. In detail, a significant group difference in the acceptance rate was found only for the hard requests, but not for the easy and medium difficulty requests. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in emotional perception and social decision-making. Various factors such as a peculiarity of emotional deficits, motivational deficits, concreteness, and paranoid tendency may contribute to these abnormalities.

  2. Facial emotion recognition in patients with violent schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbuga, Sedat; Sahin, Esat; Ozver, Ismail; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Kandemir, Eyup; Varkal, Mihriban D; Emul, Murat; Ince, Haluk

    2013-03-01

    People with schizophrenia are more likely considered to be violent than the general population. Besides some well described symptoms, patients with schizophrenia have problems in recognizing basic facial emotions which could underlie the misinterpretation of others' intentions that could lead to violent behaviors. We aimed to investigate the facial emotion recognition ability in violent or non-violent patients with schizophrenia. The severity in both groups was evaluated according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A computer-based test included the photos of four male and four female models with happy, surprised, fearful, sad, angry, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions from Ekman & Friesen's series has been performed to groups. Totally, 41 outpatients with violent schizophrenia and 35 outpatients with non-violent schizophrenia participated in the study. The mean age of violent schizophrenia group was 41.50±7.56, and control group's mean age was 39.94±6.79years. There were no significant differences between groups among reaction time for each emotion while recognizing them (p>0.05). In addition, the accuracy rate of answers towards facial emotion recognition test for each emotion and the distribution misidentifications were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). The facial emotion recognition in violent schizophrenia is lacking and we found that the facial emotion recognition ability in violent schizophrenia seems to be a trait feature of the illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test...

  4. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  5. Evaluation of Dream Content Among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses Other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

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    Leeba Rezaie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content of individuals with other mental disorders, first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and community controls . Method: Seventy-two patients were selected and placed in 4 groups. The first group consisted of 18 inpatients with schizophrenia whose medications were stable for at least four weeks; the second group consisted of 16 nonpsychotic mentally ill inpatients; the third group consisted of 18 individuals who were siblings of patients with schizophrenia; and the fourth group consisted of 20 healthy individuals in the community with no family history of mental or somatic disorders. The four groups were matched by age and gender. A 14-item dream content questionnaire was administered for all the participants, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS was also administered for the two groups of hospitalized patients . Results: Results showed that there were significant differences in dream content among groups included friends acquaintances, females and colorful components. No significant differences were found between the positive and negative subscales of PANSS and any of the dream questionnaire subscales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there were a few changes in the dream content of the patients with schizophrenia compare to other groups.

  6. Exploring the presence of narcolepsy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansa, Gemma; Gavaldà, Alba; Gaig, Carles; Monreal, José; Ercilla, Guadalupe; Casamitjana, Roser; Ribera, Gisela; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan

    2016-06-01

    There are several case reports of patients with narcolepsy and schizophrenia, but a systematic examination of the association of both disorders has not been done. The aim of this work is to assess the frequency of narcolepsy with cataplexy in a large consecutive series of adult patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We screened 366 consecutive patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with a sleep questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepines scale (ESS) exploring narcoleptiform symptoms. Those who screened positive were assessed by a sleep specialist, and offered an HLA determination. CSF hypocretin-1 determination was proposed to those who were HLA DQB1*06:02 positive. On the screening questionnaire, 17 patients had an ESS score ≥11 without cataplexy, 15 had cataplexy-like symptoms with an ESS score narcolepsy with cataplexy is not an unrecognized disease in adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  7. Systematic Suicide Risk Assessment for Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup Pedersen, Charlotte; Wallenstein Jensen, Signe Olrik; Gradus, Jaimie;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge...... and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. Methods: A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009....... Results: The proportion of patients receiving suicide risk assessment at discharge from a psychiatric ward increased from 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]=71%-74%) in 2005, when the national monitoring began, to 89% (CI.89%-90%) in 2009. Within one year after discharge, 1% of all registered patients had...

  8. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  9. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  10. Cancer in patients with schizophrenia: What is the next step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Frank H-C; Tsai, Kuan-Yi; Wu, Hung-Chi; Shen, Shih-Pei

    2016-11-01

    People with schizophrenia, who constitute approximately 0.3-1% of the general population, have a nearly 20% shorter life expectancy than the general population. The incidence of varied types of cancers in patients with schizophrenia is controversial. The majority of previous research has demonstrated that patients who have schizophrenia and cancer have early mortality compared to the general population with cancer. The causes of early mortality in patients with schizophrenia and cancer might be attributed to a lower cancer screening rate and lack of effective treatment, including: (i) patient factors, such as poor lifestyle, passive attitude toward treatment, or comorbidity; (ii) physician factors, such as physician bias, which may decrease the delivery of care for individuals with mental disorders; and (iii) hospital administration factors, such as stigma and discrimination. Additional studies on patients with schizophrenia and cancer are warranted and should include the following: a comprehensive review of previous studies; a focus on differentiating the specific types of cancer; and methods for improvement. To decrease the early mortality of patients with schizophrenia, the following measures are proposed: (i) enhance early detection and early treatment, such as increasing the cancer screening rate for patients with schizophrenia; (ii) provide effective, timely treatment and rehabilitation; (iii) improve patients' psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment; (iv) promote healthy behavior in the general population and emphasize healthy lifestyles in vulnerable populations; and (v) remove the stigma of schizophrenia. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this group of patients. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

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    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  12. Crowding deficits in the visual periphery of schizophrenia patients.

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    Rainer Kraehenmann

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that basic visual information processing is impaired in schizophrenia. However, deficits in peripheral vision remain largely unexplored. Here we hypothesized that sensory processing of information in the visual periphery would be impaired in schizophrenia patients and, as a result, crowding - the breakdown in target recognition that occurs in cluttered visual environments - would be stronger. Therefore, we assessed visual crowding in the peripheral vision of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Subjects were asked to identify a target letter that was surrounded by distracter letters of similar appearance. Targets and distracters were displayed at 8° and 10° of visual angle from the fixation point (eccentricity, and target-distracter spacing was 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, 6°, 7° or 8° of visual angle. Eccentricity and target-distracter spacing were randomly varied. Accuracy was defined as the proportion of correctly identified targets. Critical spacing was defined as the spacing at which target identification accuracy began to deteriorate, and was assessed at viewing eccentricities of 8° and 10°. Schizophrenia patients were less accurate and showed a larger critical spacing than healthy individuals. These results indicate that crowding is stronger and sensory processing of information in the visual periphery is impaired in schizophrenia. This is in line with previous reports of preferential magnocellular dysfunction in schizophrenia. Thus, deficits in peripheral vision may account for perceptual alterations and contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  13. Crowding deficits in the visual periphery of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Vollenweider, Franz X; Seifritz, Erich; Kometer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that basic visual information processing is impaired in schizophrenia. However, deficits in peripheral vision remain largely unexplored. Here we hypothesized that sensory processing of information in the visual periphery would be impaired in schizophrenia patients and, as a result, crowding - the breakdown in target recognition that occurs in cluttered visual environments - would be stronger. Therefore, we assessed visual crowding in the peripheral vision of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Subjects were asked to identify a target letter that was surrounded by distracter letters of similar appearance. Targets and distracters were displayed at 8° and 10° of visual angle from the fixation point (eccentricity), and target-distracter spacing was 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, 6°, 7° or 8° of visual angle. Eccentricity and target-distracter spacing were randomly varied. Accuracy was defined as the proportion of correctly identified targets. Critical spacing was defined as the spacing at which target identification accuracy began to deteriorate, and was assessed at viewing eccentricities of 8° and 10°. Schizophrenia patients were less accurate and showed a larger critical spacing than healthy individuals. These results indicate that crowding is stronger and sensory processing of information in the visual periphery is impaired in schizophrenia. This is in line with previous reports of preferential magnocellular dysfunction in schizophrenia. Thus, deficits in peripheral vision may account for perceptual alterations and contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  14. Prevalence and attributes of criminality in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Ghoreishi; Soleiman Kabootvand; Ebrahim Zangani; Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi; Alireza Ahmadi; Habibolah Khazaie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Existing research in law and psychiatry point to schizophrenia as a risk factor for violence and offense behaviors. The present study aims to: 1) report on the prevalence and types of offensive or criminal acts in patients with schizophrenia; 2) identify attributes of schizophrenic offenders; and 3) examine factors associated with offensive or criminal behaviors within a sample of schizophrenic offenders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 patients with sch...

  15. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia.

  16. Working Memory Training in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

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    Martina Hubacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is evidence that patients with schizophrenia suffer from decline in working memory performance with consequences for psychosocial outcome. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized working memory training program (BrainStim in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods. Twenty-nine inpatients with chronic schizophrenia were assigned to either the intervention group receiving working memory training (N=15 or the control group without intervention (N=14. Training was performed four times a week for 45 minutes during four weeks under neuropsychological supervision. At baseline and followup all participants underwent neuropsychological testing. Results. Pre-post comparisons of neuropsychological measures showed improvements in visual and verbal working memories and visual short-term memory with small and large effect sizes in the intervention group. In contrast, the control group showed decreased performance in verbal working memory and only slight changes in visual working memory and visual and verbal short-term memories after 4 weeks. Analyses of training profiles during application of BrainStim revealed increased performance over the 4-week training period. Conclusions. The applied training tool BrainStim improved working memory and short-term memory in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The present study implies that chronic schizophrenic patients can benefit from computerized cognitive remediation training of working memory in a clinical setting.

  17. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  18. Amisulpride for older patients with long-standing schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridan, Shani; Baruch, Yehuda; Swartz, Marnina; Barak, Yoram

    2014-12-01

    A large and growing number of older people across the world experience schizophrenia. Recommendations for their treatment are largely based on data extrapolated from studies of the use of antipsychotic medications in younger populations. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of amisulpride monotherapy in a diagnostically homogeneous group of elderly patients without cognitive impairment experiencing schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for schizophrenia). Mortality and rehospitalization for a 5-year period were the predefined outcome measures. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all elderly (60 years and older) schizophrenia patients treated in a large tertiary care center. Of the 527 elderly schizophrenia patients for a 5-year period (2007-2013), 30 patients, mean (SD) age of 67.5 (5.8) years, were treated with amisulpride monotherapy. There were 19 women and 11 men in the analyzed group. Mean duration of disease was 34.4 years. All had been exposed to at least 3 first- and second-generation antipsychotics before amisulpride treatment. Amisulpride was very well tolerated by the patients, and mortality rate (10% vs 19%) was significantly lower than that of other first- and second-generation antipsychotics (P amisulpride were significantly lower than those with other second-generation antipsychotics (P amisulpride is an efficacious and safe atypical antipsychotic for the treatment for elderly schizophrenia patients.

  19. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (Pblonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  20. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

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    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  1. The Effectiveness and Applicability of Compensatory Cognitive Training for Japanese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

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    Sadao Otsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive remediation or training for schizophrenia has been developed, few studies on the subject have focused on Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness and applicability of compensatory cognitive training (CCT in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with schizophrenia were assigned to either the CCT plus treatment as usual group (n=13 or the treatment as usual alone group (n=13. CCT is a 12-session, manualized, group-based training that coaches compensatory strategies in four cognitive domains (prospective memory, attention, verbal memory, and executive functions. Cognitive, functional, and clinical symptom measures were implemented at baseline, after treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Mixed design analyses of variance with group and time for each measure demonstrated that effects of CCT on verbal memory, processing speed, and social functioning at postintervention were significant, and the effects on processing speed were maintained at follow-up. Our study suggests that CCT has beneficial effects on cognitive performance, improving functional outcomes in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, the high degrees of attendance rates and level of satisfaction rated by the CCT participants ensure the applicability of this methodology to this population.

  2. A comparison of physical fitness in patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls.

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    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2016-10-01

    To compare the physical fitness of inpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder, and 22 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched inpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were included. All participants performed the Eurofit test battery and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. One way analyses of variance with post hoc Scheffe were applied to examine differences. Both patient groups were significantly more physically inactive and had a significantly impaired speed of limb movement, explosive muscle strength and abdominal muscular endurance compared to the healthy controls. No significant differences between the patient groups were found. The results suggest that physical fitness and physical activity participation are similar among inpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia but markedly lower than healthy controls. Chronic inpatients with lower levels of physical activity may particularly benefit from rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical fitness should receive similar attention in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Sedentary patients with a longer duration of illness need additional support in changing lifestyle behaviours. Rehabilitation should not only consider cardio-respiratory fitness but also muscular endurance, muscular strength and balance.

  3. Investigation of cigarette smoking among male schizophrenia patients.

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    Jundong Jiang

    Full Text Available Male schizophrenia patients are known to have a heavier smoking pattern compared with the general population. However, the mechanism for this association is not known, though hypothesis that smoking could alleviate symptomatology of schizophrenia and reduce side effects of antipsychotics has been suggested. The aims of this study were to validate the heavier smoking pattern among male schizophrenia patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms for the association. To enhance the reliability of the study, we recruited two large independent samples with 604 and 535 male Chinese schizophrenia patients, and compared their smoking pattern with that of 535 healthy male controls recruited from general population. Validated multiple indicators and multiple causes structure equation model and regression models were used to investigate the association of smoking with factors of schizophrenia symptomatology and with the usage of antipsychotics and their extra-pyramidal side effects (EPS. Schizophrenia patients had significantly heavier smoking pattern compared with healthy controls in our sample (42.4% vs. 16.8%, p<0.001 for current smoking prevalence; 23.5% vs. 43.3%, p<0.001 for smoking cessation rate; 24.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001 for heavy smoker proportion. Their smoking status was also found to be consistently and significantly associated with reduced negative factor scores for schizophrenia symptomatology (β = -0.123, p = 0.051 for sample-A; β = -0.103, p = 0.035 for sample-B; β = -0.082, p = 0.017 for the combined sample. However, no significant association was found between smoking and antipsychotics usage or risk of EPS. These results support that smoking is associated with improved negative symptoms, which could account for the heavier smoking pattern among schizophrenia patients.

  4. Theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia: is mentalizing delayed?

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    Pedersen, Anya; Koelkebeck, Katja; Brandt, Matthias; Wee, Melissa; Kueppers, Kerstin Annika; Kugel, Harald; Kohl, Waldemar; Bauer, Jochen; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    Functional imaging studies have used numerous neurocognitive designs to investigate brain activation during theory of mind (ToM) tasks in patients with schizophrenia. The majority of studies asks participants to retrospectively attribute mental states to others. We used a novel animated task to investigate implicit mentalizing online. Because behavioral studies have revealed slower ToM performance reaction times in patients with schizophrenia, we hypothesized that time would influence functional MRI (fMRI) activation patterns also. We applied the "Moving Shapes" paradigm, which involves two interacting triangles, to a functional MRI block design and investigated the neural activation patterns of 15 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy controls. We additionally analyzed the first and second halves of each video separately to assess time-related differences. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed increased activation in the inferior and middle frontal gyri, the superior temporal gyrus, the precuneus and the cerebellum compared with controls during ToM versus non-ToM videos. Most importantly, patients with schizophrenia had predominantly increased activation in ToM-related brain areas during the second half of the ToM paradigm, whereas the activation in areas of the ToM-network in healthy controls occurred during the first half of the presentation. Our results confirm recent findings of significantly stronger neural activations that encompass the fronto-temporo-parietal cerebral areas in patients with schizophrenia compared with controls during ToM tasks. The observation of slower cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia during mentalizing might explain some of the contradictory imaging findings in these patients and have implications for cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated homocysteine level in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Geller, Vadim; Friger, Michael; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2013-12-30

    Increased homocysteine plasma levels were reported in patients with schizophrenia and Levine et al. (2002) suggested that such increase characterizes mainly males. In the following study we examined whether such increased levels also characterize male siblings of schizophrenia patients. Forty-four pairs of schizophrenia patients and their corresponding healthy male siblings were recruited and sampled for homocysteine. We also had age-matched controls for each of the sibling. The median homocysteine plasma level for patients was 13.0 µMol/L and 11.7 µMol/L for their male siblings compared with a median of 10.9 µMol/L for the siblings' controls. There was no significant difference between homocysteine plasma level in patients and their siblings. Significant difference was found for homocysteine plasma level between the siblings' group and their matched controls. A partial correlation of Ln plasma homocysteine level between patients and their siblings was found to be close to a zero correlation of -0.089, p=0.57 for the whole study group and -0.15, p=0.38 in the male-male patient-sibling pairs. Our results show that elevated homocysteine plasma level may characterize schizophrenia patients' male siblings, a finding that seems to agree with previous studies suggesting elevated homocysteine level as a risk factor for developing schizophrenia.

  6. Distinct molecular phenotypes in male and female schizophrenia patients.

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    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have carried out multiplex immunoassay profiling of sera from 4 independent cohorts of first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n = 133 and controls (n = 133 to identify such sex-specific illness processes in the periphery. The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In female patients, the inflammation-related analytes alpha-1-antitrypsin, B lymphocyte chemoattractant BLC and interleukin-15 showed negative associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS scores. In male patients, the hormones prolactin and testosterone were negatively associated with PANSS ratings. In addition, we investigated molecular changes in a subset of 33 patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics and found that treatment induced sex-specific changes in the levels of testosterone, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin-13 and macrophage-derived chemokine. Finally, we evaluated overlapping and distinct biomarkers in the sex-specific molecular signatures in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients.

  7. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what causes it. Genes may play a role. Schizophrenia occurs in just as many men as women. It usually begins in the teen or young ... but it may begin later in life. In women, it tends to begin later ... Schizophrenia in children usually begins after age 5. Childhood ...

  8. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008355 Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, risperidone controlled, multicenter study. YAN Jun(闫俊), et al. Instit Mental Health, Peking Univ, Beijing 100083. Chin J Psychiat 2008;41(2):81-84.Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in treating acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

  9. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

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    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  10. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  11. Cognition and Social Cognition in non-psychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Hamid, Sobia; Butt, Kate; Wykes, Til

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in Social Cognition are common in people with schizophrenia. However, it is not clear if these deficits are a vulnerability marker and whether they are independent to cognitive difficulties. This study investigates these two issues in individuals with a genetic liability to psychosis. Twenty-one healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia were compared with 21 healthy individuals on a range of cognitive and social cognitive measures. Significant differences in cognitive domains were controlled for when comparing the two groups on measures of social cognition. Siblings of people with schizophrenia performed significantly worst on tests of theory of mind and social perception but not on affect recognition. Scores on tests of executive function, processing speed and general IQ were also lower in the sibling group. When controlled for differences in cognitive tests, the two groups still retained significant differences in theory of mind and social perception. However, executive function significantly contributed to theory of mind and processing speed to social perception differences. These results further suggest that difficulties in some domains of social cognition are associated with a genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. In these areas, cognitive difficulties account only partially for social cognition problems suggesting that these two domains may represent relatively independent liability factors.

  12. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

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    Shuler KM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an

  13. Apparent motion perception in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; de Millas, Walter; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Impaired perceptual inference has been suggested to be at the core of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Apparent motion (AM) is a visual illusion in which perceptual inference gives rise to the experience of a single object moving back and forth when two spatially separated objects are flashed in alternation. Here, we investigated the strength of AM perception in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients were less susceptible to the illusion as indicated by a lower probability of motion perception at the individual's optimal presentation frequency for AM. In addition, the probability of AM perception was inversely related to delusional conviction in the patient group. These results suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with a reduced susceptibility to visual phenomena that commonly rely on perceptual inference.

  14. Coping strategies in Aymara caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Miranda-Castillo, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Deinstitutionalization has forced families of patients with schizophrenia to take responsibility of informal care, without having the tools to exert their role properly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coping strategies of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, belonging to the Aymara ethnic group, (aborigines who are located on the highlands of Northern Chile). The studied sample comprised 45 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia users of the Mental Health Service of Arica, Chile. The results from the Family Coping Questionnaire (FCQ) show that both, Aymara and non-Aymara caregivers use the same coping strategies except for spiritual help which is more likely to be used by Aymara. This strategy might be related with the worldview they possess, thus the relation with the deities has a meaningful importance in the way of explaining and coping with different phenomena.

  15. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-08-10

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.

  16. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

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    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  17. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  18. Prevalence and attributes of criminality in patients with schizophrenia

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    Abolfazl Ghoreishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Existing research in law and psychiatry point to schizophrenia as a risk factor for violence and offense behaviors. The present study aims to: 1 report on the prevalence and types of offensive or criminal acts in patients with schizophrenia; 2 identify attributes of schizophrenic offenders; and 3 examine factors associated with offensive or criminal behaviors within a sample of schizophrenic offenders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted to a psychiatric ward in Iran between 2004 and 2008. Study data was collected using patients’ medical, criminal records, as well as via personal interview with the family member. Study variables included criminality or offensive behavior, types of schizophrenia (paranoid vs. nonparanoid, experiencing hallucination, disease onset, and patients’ demographics. Results: Of the sample, 64.8% were male, 80.7% were 45 years old or younger, and 74.1% were either single or divorced. Slightly over 59 % were offenders with criminal status, of which, 9.8% were legal offenders and 48.6% were hidden offenders. The results of unadjusted logistic regression between these variables and criminality show, except for employment,marital status, and opium use, all other variables were statically associated with criminality. Conclusions: Methodological difficulties arising from this study, as well as, the role of mental health professionals, family, and legal system for prevention of violence in and by patients with schizophrenia are discussed.

  19. Can renaming schizophrenia reduce negative attitudes toward patients in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Servet; Böke, Ömer; Oğuz, Gülay

    2016-06-01

    To determine the perception of the term schizophrenia among university students. This cross-sectional study was performed in April 2015 with students from Canik Başarı University (Samsun/Turkey). A patient history was first established. We then investigated to what extent students agreed with 10 statements based on that patient history. Three separate questionnaire forms (versions A, B and C), differing only in terms of the diagnosis in the patient in the history, were prepared. The three diagnoses were 'Schizophrenia' (version A), 'A psychiatric disease by the name of Bleuler's syndrome' (version B) and 'Brain tumor' (version C). The questionnaires were administered in a class environment. In all, 771 students participated. Statistically significant differences between the forms were determined in only two statements ('A.'s disease will represent a problem in A.'s future career' and 'A. will in all probability have problems with the law in the future'). While no difference was determined between versions A and B at two-way comparisons, a statistically significant difference was observed between versions A and B and version C. No difference was determined between students' attitudes toward a diagnosis of 'schizophrenia' and one of 'a psychiatric disease known as Bleuler's syndrome'. The focus in preventing stigmatization of schizophrenia should not concentrate on a name change alone. Changing the name schizophrenia may be of no use unless public ignorance and fear of psychiatric diseases can also be overcome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Predictors of treatment resistance in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Støvring, Henrik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at high risk of treatment-resistant schizophrenia at the time of schizophrenia diagnosis would be of great clinical benefit in minimising the delay to clozapine treatment in patients unlikely to respond to non-clozapine antipsychotics. However, little is known...... the criteria for inclusion. In multivariable complete-case analyses, 1703 (21%) of 8044 patients fulfilled the main proxy definition of treatment-resistant schizophrenia during a median follow-up of 9·1 years (IQR 6·3-11·9). Younger age (hazard ratio 0·96 [95% CI 0·95-0·97]), living in a less urban area...... (provincial 1·38 [1·23-1·56], rural 1·44 [1·25-1·65]), primary education level (0·88 [0·79-0·98]), more than 30 bed-days in psychiatric hospital in the year before first schizophrenia diagnosis (1·54 [1·35-1·75]), inpatient at first schizophrenia diagnosis (2·07 [1·87-2·29]), paranoid subtype (1·24 [1...

  1. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  2. Emotion recognition and oxytocin in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, B. B.; Bobin, T.; Evans, S.; Shergill, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia are impaired at recognizing emotions. Recently, it has been shown that the neuropeptide oxytocin can have beneficial effects on social behaviors. Method To examine emotion recognition deficits in patients and see whether oxytocin could improve these deficits, we carried out two experiments. In the first experiment we recruited 30 patients with schizophrenia and 29 age- and IQ-matched control subjects, and gave them an emotion recognition task. Following this, we carried out a second experiment in which we recruited 21 patients with schizophrenia for a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of the effects of oxytocin on the same emotion recognition task. Results In the first experiment we found that patients with schizophrenia had a deficit relative to controls in recognizing emotions. In the second experiment we found that administration of oxytocin improved the ability of patients to recognize emotions. The improvement was consistent and occurred for most emotions, and was present whether patients were identifying morphed or non-morphed faces. Conclusions These data add to a growing literature showing beneficial effects of oxytocin on social–behavioral tasks, as well as clinical symptoms. PMID:21835090

  3. Theory of mind impairments in patients with deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukly, Gábor; Polgár, Patrícia; Tombor, László; Benkovits, Judit; Réthelyi, János

    2014-02-01

    The deficit syndrome, a subgroup within schizophrenia, is characterized by enduring, idiopathic negative symptoms. Theory of mind (ToM), a domain of social cognition, is the ability of attributing mental states to ourselves and other people. ToM impairments have not been investigated earlier in deficit schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine ToM differences between patients with deficit (SZ-D) and non-deficit schizophrenia (SZ-ND). Gender differences were also investigated, and based on the literature a better ToM performance was expected in female patients. The participants were 28 patients with SZ-ND, 30 patients with SZ-D, and 29 healthy control volunteers. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test" was used to asses ToM deficits. Control subjects outperformed both patient groups, while there were no significant differences between the two schizophrenia subgroups. In female subjects, both controls and patients with SZ-ND performed significantly better than the SZ-D subgroup. In male subjects, controls performed significantly better than both patient groups. The "diminished emotional range" and the "curbing of interest" items of the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome showed significant negative relationship with the ToM score. Our main finding is that female subjects with SZ-ND performed significantly better than female subjects with SZ-D. © 2014.

  4. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV) an

  5. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsi

  6. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV) an

  7. A virtual reality task based on animal research - spatial learning and memory in patients after the first episode of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajnerová, Iveta; Rodriguez, Mabel; Levčík, David; Konrádová, Lucie; Mikoláš, Pavol; Brom, Cyril; Stuchlík, Aleš; Vlček, Kamil; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models, we designed a virtual analog of the Morris water maze (MWM), the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN) task. Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM) session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions. Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to the healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and a similar deficit in spatial bias in the probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. The age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well with the previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in comparative research.

  8. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  9. Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients During Appetitive Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioural level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and galvanic skin recordings (GSR while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US. Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS- conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity across striatal, hippocampal and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum (VS to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11 in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS- compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS- in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia.

  10. Modifications of blood platelet proteins of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative damage to lipids in plasma, blood platelets and neurons in patients with schizophrenia was described. The aim of our present study was to evaluate oxidative/nitrative modifications of blood platelets proteins by measurement the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as carbonyl groups, thiol groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins in patients with schizophrenia and compare with a control group. Levels of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine residues in platelet proteins were measured by ELISA and competition ELISA, respectively. The method with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) has been used to analyse thiol groups in platelet proteins. We demonstrated for the first time in platelet proteins from patients with schizophrenia a statistically significant increase of the level of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress such as carbonyl groups or 3-nitrotyrosine; in schizophrenic patients the amount of thiol groups in platelet proteins was lower than in platelets from healthy subjects. Our results strongly indicate that in patients with schizophrenia reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species induce not only peroxidation of lipids, but also may stimulate oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins. The consequence of these modifications may be the alteration of platelet protein structure and function.

  11. Object versus spatial visual mental imagery in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, André; de Haan, Edward H.F.; Kahn, René S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Recent research has revealed a larger impairment of object perceptual discrimination than of spatial perceptual discrimination in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that mental imagery may share processing systems with perception. We investigated whether patients with schizophrenia would show greater impairment regarding object imagery than spatial imagery. Methods Forty-four patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy control subjects were tested on a task of object visual mental imagery and on a task of spatial visual mental imagery. Both tasks included a condition in which no imagery was needed for adequate performance, but which was in other respects identical to the imagery condition. This allowed us to adjust for nonspecific differences in individual performance. Results The results revealed a significant difference between patients and controls on the object imagery task (F1,63 = 11.8, p = 0.001) but not on the spatial imagery task (F1,63 = 0.14, p = 0.71). To test for a differential effect, we conducted a 2 (patients v. controls) х 2 (object task v. spatial task) analysis of variance. The interaction term was statistically significant (F1,62 = 5.2, p = 0.026). Conclusions Our findings suggest a differential dysfunction of systems mediating object and spatial visual mental imagery in schizophrenia. PMID:15644999

  12. Assessing patient-rated vs. clinician-rated adherence to the therapy in treatment resistant schizophrenia, schizophrenia responders, and non-schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasevoli, Felice; Fagiolini, Andrea; Formato, Maria Vittoria; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; Giordano, Sara; Balletta, Raffaele; De Luca, Vincenzo; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluated consistency, reliability, and determinants of two real-world measures of adherence to prescription in 57 schizophrenia and 61 non-schizophrenia patients. Treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was additionally diagnosed in 28 of the schizophrenia patients. Patients were screened for clinical severity, cognitive functioning, and adherence by 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) or Adherence-to-Therapy (AtT), a clinician-rated tool developed by our group. DAI-10 and AtT scores showed a significant correlation (p=0.039; ρ=0.21; df=103). Compared to the DAI-10 scale, a higher number of variables were associated with AtT. In schizophrenia and TRS patients, substance abuse was the only significant predictor of lower DAI-10 score (p=0.027, F=5.2, R(2)=0.07, and p=0.06, F=8.9, R(2)=0.23, respectively). Lower AtT score was significantly associated with first-generation antipsychotic use (p=0.001, RR: 2.00 [1.40-2.87]), positive symptoms (p=0.02, RR: 1.63 [1.05-2.53]), impaired verbal fluency (p=0.01, RR: 1.88 [0.81-4.32]) or problem solving (p=0.01, RR: 2.14 [0.92-4.98]). AtT, but not DAI-10, score correlated with the score on the Personal and Social Performance scale (p=0.02, F=5.86, R(2)=0.08). Overall, AtT score was predicted by pharmacological, psychopathological, and cognitive factors, and predictive of psychosocial functioning. Therefore, AtT measure may represent a convenient and practical tool to evaluate schizophrenia patients' adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Usta

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  14. The clinical utility of lurasidone in schizophrenia: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey PD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Harvey1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Bruce W Carter VA Medical Center, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in a number of countries including the United Kingdom, other European countries, the United States, and Canada. In addition to full antagonist activity at the dopamine D2 (Ki, 1 nM and serotonin 5-HT2A (Ki, 0.5 nM receptors, the pharmacodynamic profile of lurasidone is notable for its high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors (0.5 nM and its partial agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors (Ki, 6.4 nM. Long-term treatment of schizophrenia with lurasidone has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Lurasidone appears to be associated with minimal effects on body weight, and low risk for clinically meaningful alterations in glucose, lipids, or electrocardiography parameters. Evidence from two randomized trials also suggests improvement in functional capacity and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia. A significant evidence base supports the use of lurasidone as a promising agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. Keywords: long-term treatment, antagonist, pharmacodynamic profile

  15. Exploration of somatosensory P50 gating in schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Chen, Andrew C. N.

    2004-01-01

    Originally, the hypothesis of a sensory gating defect in schizophrenia evolved from studies of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), although the idea has primarily been pursued in the auditory modality. Gating is the relative attenuation of amplitude following the second stimulus in a stimulus...... pair. Recently, SEP P50 gating was seen when recording the SEP P50 in a paradigm similar to the one used for auditory P50 gating. Hypothetically, abnormality of somatosensory information processing could be related to anhedonia, which is considered a core feature of schizophrenia. Twelve unmedicated......, but no gating defect. The reduced amplitude was particularly evident in subjects with high scores on the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. Early somatosensory information processing seems abnormal in schizophrenia spectrum patients. This could be in agreement with the theory of loss of the benefit of regularity...

  16. Deletion of PLCB1 gene in schizophrenia-affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Cardinale, Giuseppina; Polonia, Patrizia

    2012-04-01

    A prevalence of 1% in the general population and approximately 50% concordance rate in monozygotic twins was reported for schizophrenia, suggesting that genetic predisposition affecting neurodevelopmental processes might combine with environmental risk factors. A multitude of pathways seems to be involved in the aetiology and/or pathogenesis of schizophrenia, including dopaminergic, serotoninergic, muscarinic and glutamatergic signalling. The phosphoinositide signal transduction system and related phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes seem to represent a point of convergence in these networking pathways during the development of selected brain regions. The existence of a susceptibility locus on the short arm of chromosome 20 moved us to analyse PLCB1, the gene codifying for PI-PLC β1 enzyme, which maps on 20p12. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we found deletions of PLCB1 in orbito-frontal cortex samples of schizophrenia-affected patients.

  17. Sleep of patients with schizophrenia: On and off melatonin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotenberg, V.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A summary of the main findings in the field of melatonin treatment will be given in order to get a better understanding of its workings and its possible clinical application in patients with schizophrenia. Methods The authors conducted an extensive literature review, using, among others,

  18. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dervaux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Material and Methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (n=34 and in a group without lifetime substance abuse or dependence (n=66. The patients were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI for DSM-III-R disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS, the Zuckerman Seeking Sensation Scale (SSS, and the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS. Results: The mean scores for impulsivity and sensation seeking were higher in the group with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence than in the group without substance abuse or dependence (BIS: 63.4 SD: 18,7 vs 51.3 SD: 14.2 respectively, ANOVA: F=11.12, p=0.001; SSS: 17.6 SD: 5.9 vs 13.5 SD: 6.7 respectively, ANOVA: F=7.45, p=0.008. There was no significant differences between the two groups on PAS score. Conclusion: Increased impulsivity or sensation seeking may be a link between schizophrenia and alcohol abuse or dependence.

  19. Pharmacological treatment of severe dyslipidaemia in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssens, Linda; De Hert, Marc; Kalnicka, Dita; van Winkel, Ruud; Wampers, Martien; Van Eyck, Dominique; Scheen, Andre; Peuskens, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Mortality rates in patients with schizophrenia are double compared with the general population, with cardiovascular disease causing 50% of the excess. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is recognized as a primary target for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality. The effects of lipid-l

  20. Are Prolactin Levels in Drug-Naive Schizophrenia Patients A Clinical Indicator?

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The relationship between serum prolactin (PRL) levels in patients with schizophrenia and the psychopathology, risk of relapse, symptom severity, the side effects after antipsychotics and schizophrenia subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to examine the serum PRL level difference between drug naive schizophrenia patients and healthy control group and between schizophrenia subtypes. Material and Method: 45 untreated volunteer participant between the ages of 18-55 who applied to Ank...

  1. Effect of Family Therapy on Prognosis of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianming; Li Wei

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of family therapy on prognosis of patients with schizophrenia.Method 200 patients after discharging from hospital were randomly divided into two groups:control group (n=100) and experiment group (n=100).Family therapy was actualized in patients of experiment group.Results There was significant difference in percent of recurrence rate between control group(38%) and experiment group(18%,P<0.05).Conclusion Family therapy may decrease recurrence rate of schizophrenic after discharging from hospital.

  2. Switching antipsychotics to aripiprazole or blonanserin and plasma monoamine metabolites levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Itaru; Shiga, Tetsuya; Katsumi, Akihiko; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2014-03-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug that has efficacy equal to risperidone. We investigated the effects of aripiprazole and blonanserin on clinical symptoms and plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4hydroxyphenylglycol in the switching strategy of schizophrenia. Twenty two Japanese patients with schizophrenia were enrolled into this open study. The antipsychotics of all patients were switched to aripiprazole or blonanserin for the improvement of clinical symptoms or side effects. Plasma monoamine metabolites levels were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant effects for time (p = 0.346) or time × group interaction (p = 0.27) on the changes of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) total score, although blonanserin decreased PANSS scores. We observed negative correlation between pHVA at baseline and the change in PANSS total score (rs = -0.450, p = 0.046). We also found positive correlation between the changes in pHVA and the changes in PANSS total (rs = 0.536, p = 0.015) and positive (rs = 0.572, p = 0.008) scores. There were no differences between blonanserin and aripiprazole in the improvement of clinical symptoms. Our results suggest that pHVA may be useful indicator for the switching strategy to aripiprazole or blonanserin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Vander Meer, Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Aleman, André

    2016-12-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control. Functional connectivity was investigated with generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI). During self-reflection compared to semantic, BD-patients had decreased connectivity between several cortical-midline structures (CMS) nodes (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex), the insula and the head of the caudate while HC showed increased connectivities. Schizophrenia-patients, during close other-reflection compared to semantic, demonstrated reduced ventral-anterior insula-precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) functional connectivity, whereas this was increased in HC. There were no differences between BD and schizophrenia during self- and close other-reflection. We propose that decreased functional connectivity between the CMS nodes/insula and head of the caudate in BD-patients may imply a reduced involvement of the motivational system during self-reflection; and the reduced functional connectivity between the ventral-anterior insula and precuneus/PCC during close other-reflection in schizophrenia-patients may subserve difficulties in information integration of autobiographical memory and emotional awareness in relation to close others. These distinctive impaired patterns of functional connectivity in BD and schizophrenia (compared to HC) deserve further investigation to determine their

  4. Is nonverbal communication disrupted in interactions involving patients with schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2013-09-01

    Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding). 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients' symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient. Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport. Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients' social interactions.

  5. Is Gray Matter Volume an Intermediate Phenotype for Schizophrenia? A VBM Study of Patients with Schizophrenia and their Healthy Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, Robyn A.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Hobbs, Katherine B.; Pezawas, Lukas; Mattay, Venkata S.; Egan, Michael F.; Verchinski, Beth; Passingham, Richard E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Callicott, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings may represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover previously unidentified gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings using optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM). Methods: We studied 169 patients with schizophrenia, 213 of their unaffected siblings, and 212 healthy volunteers from the CBDB/NIMH Genetic Study of Schizophrenia with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Patients with schizophrenia had significant regional gray matter decreases in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices compared with healthy volunteers. Their unaffected siblings tended to share gray matter decreases in the medial frontal, superior temporal and insular cortices, but these decreases were not significant after correction for multiple comparisons, even when we looked at a subgroup of siblings with a past history of mood disorder. As an exploratory analysis, we estimated heritability using regions of interest from the VBM analysis, as well as from the hippocampus. Hippocampal volume was significantly correlated within sibling-pairs. Conclusions: Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in ill subjects with schizophrenia. Furthermore, these data argue that while siblings may share some regional gray matter decreases with their affected siblings, the pattern of regional differences may be a weak intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:17689500

  6. Willingness to Pay in Caregivers of Patients Affected by Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltio, Claudiane Salles; Attux, Cecilia; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that often requires the affected individual to receive care from a caregiver. Willingness to Pay (WTP) technique allows a valuation of the health state preferences by assessing the impact of the disease and translating it into monetary terms. The objective was to determine the WTP of schizophrenic patients' caregivers on a hypothetical recovery scenario and correlate it to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, Knowledge of Disease, Quality of life and Burden of Disease. A convenience sample consecutively assessed 189 outpatients' caregivers from Schizophrenia Program of Federal University of Sao Paulo. A single caregiver was considered for each patient, taking into consideration their close relationship and their direct involvement in the treatment. Open WTP questionnaire for a hypothetical schizophrenia recovery scenario, KAST (Knowledge of Disease), SF-6D (Quality of life) and ZBI-22 (Burden of Disease) scales were applied. A monthly WTP mean value (SD) of US\\USD 63.63 (111.88) was found. The average value (SD) found was 12.96 (2.45) on KAST, 0.78 (0.08) on SF6D and 29.91 (16.10) on ZARIT. Income, education, social class, knowledge of disease and burden of caregiver were positively correlated to the WTP value. By linear regression model, income and education remained significant. Willingness to Pay (WTP) is a method that can be used to determine the strength of preference of patients and caregivers for a recovery in schizophrenia. The higher the income and education, the higher the willingness to pay. No clinical characteristics of patients had a statistically significant relation to the value the caregiver would pay. WTP is a potentially useful tool to determine values and health care preferences, and can be used for the development of mental health policies. Future research should be used to enhance WTP tool in mental health studies on the impact of diseases, including schizophrenia.

  7. Rumination and autobiographical memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, J J; Hernández, J V; Latorre, J M; Danion, J M; Berna, F

    2014-12-01

    Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit autobiographical memory impairment, which is considered to be a limiting factor in their daily life, the mechanisms underlying such impairment have been rarely studied. In the current study, we investigate whether rumination and, in particular, brooding, which is a form of maladaptive repetitive thinking, may be linked to the difficulty that patients with schizophrenia experience when attempting to access specific autobiographical memories. Our results indicate that patients reported less specific autobiographical memories compared to control participants. Patients also displayed a higher level of brooding and had more depressive symptoms. According to the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), depression and brooding were associated with memory specificity in control participants. In contrast, neither depression nor brooding was correlated with memory specificity in patients. These results suggest that depression and rumination may not be directly related to patients' difficulty to recall specific memories and that other factors, such as metacognitive deficits, must first be considered when seeking interventions aimed to improve autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. ["Schizophrenia versus cannabis", a novel psychoeducational workshop designed with patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillet, Christelle; Simon, Morgane; Kular, Sonia

    A therapeutic workshop involving patients with schizophrenia and consumers of cannabis was created within the Lavallois adult psychiatry department. The collaboration between two nurses and a psychologist enabled new working tools to be designed and implemented with a pilot group of four patients, informed and aware of their condition, and admitting their use of cannabis. This article provides an initial assessment of this rewarding scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Schizophrenia Patients: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Tomasik; Yolken, Robert H; Sabine Bahn; Dickerson, Faith B

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough peripheral immune system abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia pathophysiology, standard antipsychotic drugs show limited immunological effects. Thus, more effective treatment approaches are required. Probiotics are microorganisms that modulate the immune response of the host and, therefore, may be beneficial to schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study was to examine the possible immunomodulatory effects of probiotic supplementation in chronic schizophrenia...

  10. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishi T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taro Kishi,1 Yuki Matsuda,1 Kiyoshi Fujita,2,3 Nakao Iwata1 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3The Neuroscience Research Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Background: Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8.Results: Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia, and 28 (75.7% completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score (P<0.0001 and in positive (P<0.0001, negative (P<0.0001, and general subscale scores (P<0.0001. In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and

  11. Schizophrenia patients with predominantly positive symptoms have more disturbed sleep-wake cycles measured by actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; Brissos, Sofia; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-08-30

    Sleep disturbances are widespread in schizophrenia, and one important concern is to determine the impact of this disruption on self-reported sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to evaluate the sleep-wake cycle in a sample of patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and whether sleep patterns differ between patients with predominantly negative versus predominantly positive symptoms, as well as its impact on sleep quality and QoL. Twenty-three SZ outpatients were studied with 24 h continuous wrist-actigraphy during 7 days. The quality of sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the self-reported QoL was evaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life - Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref). About half of the studied population presented an irregular sleep-wake cycle. We found a trend for more disrupted sleep-wake patterns in patients with predominantly positive symptoms, who also had a trend self-reported worse quality of sleep and worse QoL in all domains. Overall, patients with worse self-reported QoL demonstrated worse sleep quality. Our findings suggest that SZ patients are frequently affected with sleep and circadian rhythm disruptions; these may have a negative impact on rehabilitation strategies. Moreover, poor sleep may play a role in sustaining poor quality of life in SZ patients.

  12. Spanish validation of the Brief Assessment in Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, N; Bernardo, M; Gutierrez, F; Justicia, A; Fernadez-Egea, E; Allas, M; Safont, G; Contreras, F; Gascon, J; Soler-Insa, P A; Menchon, J M; Junque, C; Keefe, R S E

    2011-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and is closely associated with functional outcome. The importance of cognitive assessment is broadly accepted today, and an easy-to-use, internationality validated cognitive assessment tool is needed by researchers and in daily clinical practice. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) has been validated in English, French, Japanese and Italian. It is as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of requiring less than 35minutes to complete. In our study, we tested the psychometric characteristics of a Spanish version of the BACS in 117 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 36 healthy controls. All BACS cognitive subtests discriminated between patients and controls (PBACS and a traditional neuropsychological test battery was similar to that reported in other languages. We conclude that the BACS can facilitate the comparison of the cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia in many different countries.

  13. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient education about schizophrenia: initial expectations and later satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher-Svanum, H; Rochford, S; Cisco, D; Claveaux, A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated patients' expectations prior to participation in an education program about coping with schizophrenia, and their evaluations of the program upon its completion. Adult inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenic disorders (N = 123) responded anonymously to a preintervention expectation measured and a postintervention evaluation questionnaire. Results point to high expectations of this illness self-management education program, and a high level of satisfaction upon its completion, with a self-fulfilling prophecy effect, in which those with high expectations later reported greater satisfaction. Patients perceived, however, a differential level of helpfulness of the program's nine content areas, and rated learning about diagnosis and medication management as most helpful. Content areas that were rated less helpful included prevalence of schizophrenia, its psychosocial rehabilitation, and use of community resources. Implications for clinical practice in patient education are identified and discussed.

  15. Functional connectivity-based signatures of schizophrenia revealed by multiclass pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI from schizophrenic patients and their healthy siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a growing number of neuroimaging studies have begun to investigate the brains of schizophrenic patients and their healthy siblings to identify heritable biomarkers of this complex disorder. The objective of this study was to use multiclass pattern analysis to investigate the inheritable characters of schizophrenia at the individual level, by comparing whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity of patients with schizophrenia to their healthy siblings. Methods Twenty-four schizophrenic patients, twenty-five healthy siblings and twenty-two matched healthy controls underwent the resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI scanning. A linear support vector machine along with principal component analysis was used to solve the multi-classification problem. By reconstructing the functional connectivities with high discriminative power, three types of functional connectivity-based signatures were identified: (i state connectivity patterns, which characterize the nature of disruption in the brain network of patients with schizophrenia; (ii trait connectivity patterns, reflecting shared connectivities of dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy siblings, thereby providing a possible neuroendophenotype and revealing the genetic vulnerability to develop schizophrenia; and (iii compensatory connectivity patterns, which underlie special brain connectivities by which healthy siblings might compensate for an increased genetic risk for developing schizophrenia. Results Our multiclass pattern analysis achieved 62.0% accuracy via leave-one-out cross-validation (p  Conclusions Based on our experimental results, we saw some indication of differences in functional connectivity patterns in the healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients compared to other healthy individuals who have no relations with the patients. Our preliminary investigation suggested that the use of resting-state functional

  16. No association of Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 variation with prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, D P; Mechelli, A; Picchioni, M; Fu, C H Y; Kane, F; Kalidindi, S; McDonald, C; Kravariti, E; Toulopoulou, T; Bramon, E; Walshe, M; Murray, R; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2011-04-01

    The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene has been implicated in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by linkage and genetic association studies. Altered prefrontal cortical function is a pathophysiological feature of both disorders, and we have recently shown that variation in DISC1 modulates prefrontal activation in healthy volunteers. Our goal was to examine the influence of the DISC1 polymorphism Cys704Ser on prefrontal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. From 2004 to 2008, patients with schizophrenia (N = 44), patients with bipolar disorder (N = 35) and healthy volunteers (N = 53) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a verbal fluency task. The effect of Cys704Ser on cortical activation was compared between groups as Cys704 carriers vs. Ser704 homozygotes. In contrast to the significant effect on prefrontal activation we had previously found in healthy subjects, no significant effect of Cys704Ser was detected in this or any other region in either the schizophrenia or bipolar groups. When controls were compared with patients with schizophrenia, there was a diagnosis by genotype interaction in the left middle/superior frontal gyrus [family-wise error (FWE) P = 0.002]. In this region, Ser704/ser704 controls activated more than Cys704 carriers, and there was a trend in the opposite direction in schizophrenia patients. In contrast to its effect in healthy subjects, variation in DISC1 Cys704Ser704 genotype was not associated with altered prefrontal activation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. The absence of an effect in patients may reflect interactions of the effects of DISC1 genotype with the effects of other genes associated with these disorders, and/or with the effects of the disorders on brain function.

  17. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005280 Association between polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene and qualitative and quantitative characters of schizophrenia in Chinese. ZHAO Ai-ling(赵爱玲),et al. Dept Psych, 2nd Xi-angya Hosp,Central South Univ,Changsha 410011. Chin J Psychi,2005;38(1) :3-6. Objective: To investigate the relationship between 48 bp variant number tandem repeat polymorphism in the third exon of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

  19. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008489 Establishment of a schizophrenia mouse model of deficient sensorimotor gating by MK-801. SU Yunai(苏允爱), et al. Key Lab, Ment Health, Health Ministry, Instit Ment Health Peking Univ, Beijing 100083.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2008;34(5):283-286. Objective To investigate the effects of MK-801, a selective non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on

  20. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, ppostural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which was independent of clinical characteristics. Patients further demonstrated similar pattern and level of utilizing sensory information to maintain balance compared to the controls.

  2. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  3. Improving quality of care among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Svendsen, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    -based cohort study, we identified 14 228 patients admitted to psychiatric departments between 2004 and 2011 from The Danish Schizophrenia Registry. The registry systematically monitors the adherence to guideline recommended processes of care. RESULTS: The overall proportion of all relevant recommended...... processes of care increased from 64 to 76% between 2004 and 2011. The adherence to individual processes of care increased over time, including assessment of psychopathology using a diagnostic interview (relative risk (RR): 2.01, 95% CI: 1.51-2.68), contact with relatives (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.......27-1.62), psychoeducation (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48), psychiatric aftercare (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and suicide risk assessment (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.21-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Quality of care improved from 2004 to 2011 among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia in Denmark. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None. COPYRIGHT...

  4. Effectiveness of Sulpiride in Adult Patients With Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness among sulpiride, risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol by evaluating the persistence of drug use. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients with schizophrenia aged 18–65 years and newly prescribed with a single oral antipsychotic medication between years 2003 and 2008 were included. The primary outcome was the persistence of antipsychotic agents by c...

  5. Minor physical anomalies are more common in schizophrenia patients with the history of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tényi, Tamás; Halmai, Tamás; Antal, Albert; Benke, Bálint; Jeges, Sára; Tényi, Dalma; Tóth, Ákos Levente; Csábi, Györgyi

    2015-02-28

    Minor physical anomalies may be external markers of abnormal brain development, so the more common appearance of these signs in homicidal schizophrenia might suggest the possibility of a more seriously aberrant neurodevelopment in this subgroup. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia with the history of committed or attempted homicide comparing them to patients with schizophrenia without homicide in their history and to normal control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies, 44 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia were examined with the history of committed or attempted homicide, as a comparison 22 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia without the history of any kind of homicide and violence and 21 normal control subjects were examined. Minor physical anomalies are more common in homicidal schizophrenia patients compared to non-homicidal schizophrenia patients and normal controls, which could support a stronger neurodevelopmental component of etiology in this subgroup of schizophrenia. The higher rate of minor physical anomalies found predominantly in the head and mouth regions in homicidal schizophrenia patients might suggest the possibility of a more seriously aberrant brain development in the case of homicidal schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Subcortical and cortical gray matter differences between Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients identified using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vicente; Hernández, Juan A; Sanz, Javier; Paniagua, Juan C; Hernández, Ana I; Martín, Carmen; Matías, Juan; Calama, Julia; Bote, Berta

    2010-10-30

    The long-term outcome of schizophrenia patients may differ depending on their brain structure. This would be reflected in significant structural differences between poor-outcome (i.e., Kraepelinian) and non-Kraepelinian patients. To assess this possibility, we have evaluated the degree of deviation in brain structure in Kraepelinian patients with respect to controls and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients. We used voxel-brain morphometry (VBM) to assess the differences in gray matter volume across the brain in the Kraepelinian group with respect to the healthy controls and non-Kraepelinian patients. Twenty-six Kraepelinian and 18 non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia patients and 41 healthy controls were included. With respect to the healthy controls, the Kraepelinian patients showed a very significant decrease in gray matter in the frontal, occipital, and limbic cortices, and, at a subcortical level, bilaterally in the striatum and thalamus. In comparison with the non-Kraepelinian patients, the Kraepelinian individuals continued to show a similar subcortical decrease. Thus, Kraepelinian patients may be characterized by a distinct pattern of brain abnormalities, in particular, in subcortical regions.

  7. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  8. Quality of Care and Outcomes of Heart Failure Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Egstrup, Kenneth; Johnsen, Søren P

    2017-09-15

    Research on the association between schizophrenia and the quality of care and clinical outcomes of heart failure (HF) remains sparse. This nationwide study compared the quality of care and clinical outcomes of HF among Danish patients with and without schizophrenia. In a population-based cohort study, we identified 36,718 patients with incident HF with hospital contacts, including 108 with schizophrenia, using Danish registries between 2004 and 2013. High quality of HF care was defined as receiving ≥ 80% guideline-recommended process-performance measures of care. Potential predictors of HF care among patients with schizophrenia included patient-specific factors (age, gender, Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF] score, alcohol or drug abuse, duration of schizophrenia); provider-specific factors (quality of schizophrenia care); and system-specific factors (patient-volume defined as hospital departments and clinics yearly average patient-volume of patients with incident HF). Clinical outcomes included 4-week all-cause readmission and 1-year all-cause mortality after a first-time hospital contact with incident HF. Results showed that compared with patients with incident HF who have no schizophrenia, patients with incident HF who have schizophrenia had a lower chance of receiving high-quality HF care (relative risk 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.91). A high GAF score was associated with a higher chance of receiving high-quality HF care among patients with incident HF who have schizophrenia. Patients with incident HF who have schizophrenia had a higher risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.59 to 5.04), but not a higher risk of readmission than patients with incident HF who have no schizophrenia. In conclusion, efforts are warranted to reduce the high mortality among patients with incident HF who have schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotion Processing and its Relationship to Social Functioning in Schizophrenia Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sohee; Hooker, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have demonstrated deficits in affect recognition. Whether this deficit is part of a general difficulty in face perception or a specific problem in affect recognition is debatable. However, there is little research investigating the functional consequences of difficulties in identifying emotion in schizophrenia patients. We tested 20 chronic, medicated schizophrenia patients and 27 normal control participants on a battery of face recognition and affect recognition tasks....

  10. Subjective experience of the disease in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Kaliksztein Fihman

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive investigation explores experimentation of the disease in 15 schizophrenic patients from the perspective of the patients themselves through semistructured interviews. The most significan! testimonies were the attribution of the disease to a lack of orientation from the parents, the perception of difficulties in learning and attention abilities in class and the scarce and conflictive interpersonal relationships. Having an occupation, psychological support and stability in their Ji ves were mentioned as aspects that contribute to significan! improvement. Feelings like fear, depression, lack of peace among others are inherent aspects of the disease. In our opinion listening to the patient helps to better understand the experiencing of schizophrenia.

  11. Delusional "pseudotranssexualism" in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, Laurence; Huguelet, Philippe; Eytan, Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Twenty percent of all schizophrenic patients experience sexual delusions at some point during the evolution of their illness. Among them, some patients develop the conviction of belonging to the other sex. Although true coexistence of schizophrenia and gender identity disorder is rare, it can be difficult to disentangle the two conditions. We report the case of a 40-year-old male patient with chronic schizophrenia who developed intrusive gender identity preoccupations over the years. Using this clinical case as a starting point, relevant literature is then reviewed and discussed. Long-lasting florid delusions of sex change are unusual but have been noted among patients with schizophrenia. Considering the irreversible consequences of surgery and its medico-legal implications, these patients should be properly detected.

  12. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice : their prevalence and health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, Marian J. T.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physic

  13. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  14. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice : their prevalence and health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, Marian J. T.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physic

  15. Fatal thromboembolism following physical restraint in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Rossana; Lazzaro, Antonella; Catanese, Miriam; Mandarelli, Gabriele; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Fatal thromboembolism during physical restraint in patients suffering from psychotic disorders is a very rare occurrence. In the case we present here, the criteria used in forensic pathology for the age determination of venous thrombi are applied to a case of pulmonary embolism in a patient suffering from schizophrenia who died after physical restraint. The possible association between conventional antipsychotic drugs and deep venous thrombosis, followed by pulmonary embolism, in a man with no predisposing risk factors, as well as the question concerning the appropriateness of medical care, are discussed.

  16. Application in Mexico of psychosocial rehabilitation with schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelo; Rascon, Maria Luisa; Juarez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo; Liberman, Robert Paul

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether evidence-based, psychosocial treatments developed in the United States and England are applicable to Mexican outpatients with schizophrenia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of family psycho-education and psychosocial skills training added to customary treatment vs. customary treatment alone. Clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 12-month randomized, controlled trial at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. An experimental group (N = 47) received the combination of psychosocial skills training, family psycho-education and customary pharmacotherapy while the comparison group (N = 36) received customary treatment alone. Patients were assessed at baseline and one year after commencement of treatment. Significant differences favoring the group that received psychosocial rehabilitation were found in ratings of adherence to medication, attendance at appointments, symptoms, social functioning, relapse, and re-hospitalization. While some adaptations were made in the psychosocial treatments to resolve cultural differences, the results provide cross-national validation of evidence-based treatments for persons with schizophrenia.

  17. Premorbid cognitive deficits in young relatives of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcheri S Keshavan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR for schizophrenia and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also provide some additional data pertaining to the relation of these deficits to psychopathology and brain structural alterations from the Pittsburgh Risk Evaluation Program (PREP. Cognitive deficits are noted in the HR population, which are more severe in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree relatives and primarily involve psychomotor speed, memory, attention, reasoning, and social-cognition. Reduced general intelligence is also noted, although its relationship to these specific domains is underexplored. Premorbid cognitive deficits may be related to brain structural and functional abnormalities, underlining the neurobiological basis of this illness. Cognitive impairments might predict later emergence of psychopathology in at-risk subjects and may be targets of early remediation and preventive strategies. Although evidence for neurocognitive deficits in young relatives abounds, further studies on their structural underpinnings and on their candidate status as endophenotypes are needed.

  18. Impaired integration of disambiguating evidence in delusional schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, N; Veckenstedt, R; Moritz, S; Balzan, R P; Woodward, T S

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that a cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) is associated with delusions. However, small samples of delusional patients, reliance on difference scores and choice of comparison groups may have hampered the reliability of these results. In the present study we aimed to improve on this methodology with a recent version of the BADE task, and compare larger groups of schizophrenia patients with/without delusions to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, a population with persistent and possibly bizarre beliefs without psychosis. A component analysis was used to identify cognitive operations underlying the BADE task, and how they differ across four groups of participants: (1) high-delusional schizophrenia, (2) low-delusional schizophrenia, (3) OCD patients and (4) non-psychiatric controls. As in past studies, two components emerged and were labelled 'evidence integration' (the degree to which disambiguating information has been integrated) and 'conservatism' (reduced willingness to provide high plausibility ratings when justified), and only evidence integration differed between severely delusional patients and the other groups, reflecting delusional subjects giving higher ratings for disconfirmed interpretations and lower ratings for confirmed interpretations. These data support the finding that a reduced willingness to adjust beliefs when confronted with disconfirming evidence may be a cognitive underpinning of delusions specifically, rather than obsessive beliefs or other aspects of psychosis such as hallucinations, and illustrates a cognitive process that may underlie maintenance of delusions in the face of counter-evidence. This supports the possibility of the BADE operation being a useful target in cognitive-based therapies for delusions.

  19. Sustained attention and planning deficits but intact attentional set-shifting in neuroleptic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilti, Caroline C; Delko, Tarik; Orosz, Ariane T; Thomann, Kathrin; Ludewig, Stephan; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X; Feldon, Joram; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The nature of deficits in tests of sustained attention, planning and attentional set-shifting has not been investigated in neuroleptic-naïve first-episode (FE) schizophrenia patients. Based on previous literature of chronic and medicated FE schizophrenia patients, we predicted that the neuroleptic-naïve patients would show deficits in these cognitive processes. Twenty-nine neuroleptic-naïve FE schizophrenia patients and 33 healthy controls - matched by age, gender, and nicotine consumption - performed 3 tests from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) thought to measure these cognitive processes: the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP, sustained attention), the Stockings of Cambridge task (SOC, planning), and the Intradimensional/Extradimensional set-shifting task (IDED, attention shifting). The patients were significantly impaired in the sensitivity index (A') of the RVIP, and in the number of problems solved with minimum moves on the SOC. Nevertheless, the groups did not differ regarding the number of participants who failed at the crucial extradimensional shift stage of the IDED. Sustained attention and planning abilities are already impaired in neuroleptic-naïve FE schizophrenia patients, whereas set-shifting abilities as measured with the IDED task seem to be intact at illness onset. Since chronic schizophrenia patients have been shown to have impaired IDED performance, we tentatively propose that IDED performance deteriorates over time with illness chronicity and/or medication.

  20. Generating personalized advice for schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerencia, A.; van der Krieke, Lian; Sytema, S.; Petkov, N.; Aiello, M.

    The results of routine patient assessments in psychiatric healthcare in the Northern Netherlands are primarily used to support clinicians. We developed Wegweis, a web-based advice platform, to make this data accessible and understandable for patients. Objective: We show that a fully automated

  1. [Maintenance Treatment With Antipsychotics for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and security of the antipsychotics available for the management of adult patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. To develop recommendations of treatment for the maintenance phase of the disease. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. 18 studies were included to evaluate the effectiveness and / or safety of different antipsychotic drugs first and second generation. Overall, antipsychotics (AP) showed superiority over placebo in relapse rate over 12 months (RR 0.59 95% CI 0.42, 0.82) and hospitalization rate over 24 months of follow-up (RR 0.38 95% 0.27, 0.55); its use is associated with increased risk of treatment dropout (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.46, 0.61) and adverse events such as weight gain, dystonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation. There was no difference in the outcome of re hospitalizations, comparisons on quality of life, negative symptoms or weight gain between AP first and second generation. Continuous or standard dose regimens appear to be superior to intermittent or low doses in reducing the risk of abandonment of treatment regimes. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia should receive maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. The medication of choice will depend on the management of the acute phase, the patient's tolerance to it and the presentation of adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of antipsychotics on microRNA expression of peripheral blood in schizophrenia patients

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    Xin-yang SUN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes in microRNA (miRNA expression levels in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients before and after treatment with antipsychotics. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients with schizophrenia (case group and 62 normal controls (control group hospitalized to the 102nd Hospital of PLA from July 2012 to May 2013 were involved in this study. The relative expression levels of 9 miRNAs (miR-181b, miR-195, miR-132, miR-212, miR-30e, miR-346, miR-34a, miR-432, miR-7 in the peripheral blood plasma of patients in two groups were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Twenty-five schizophrenia patients with total score of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS >70 were selected to determine the miRNA expression levels before and 3 and 6 weeks after antipsychotics (including olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone treatment, and the clinical symptoms and treatment effect in different stages of therapy were assessed by PANSS, Global Assessment Scale (GAS, and Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI. Results The expression levels of miR-181b, miR-30e, miR-346, miR-34a and miR-7 in case group were significantly higher than those in control group (P70, the expression level of miR-132 lowered 3 weeks after treatment (P0.05. The expression of miR-132, miR-195, miR-30e and miR-432 were significantly correlated with the PANSS total score and GAS score along with the treatment course (P<0.05. Conclusion The miR-181b, miR-132, miR-30e and miR-432 may be used as biological markers for the prediction of the prognosis of patients with schizophrenia. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.09

  3. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  4. Inverse association between 18-carbon trans fatty acids and intelligence quotients in smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Vágási, Judit; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Decsi, Tamás

    2014-01-30

    This study aimed to investigate polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomeric fatty acid status in schizophrenia patients. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) was analyzed by gas chromatography in 29 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls. We found no difference in PL n-3 fatty acid status between the two groups, while the values of 22:5n-6 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In TG, values of docosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. We found no difference in the trans fatty acid status between patients and controls. In smoking schizophrenia patients significant negative correlations were detected between Wechsler adult full-scale intelligence quotients and values of total trans fatty acids in PL lipids, whereas no such correlation was seen either in non-smoking schizophrenia patients, or in healthy controls. While data obtained in the present study fail to furnish evidence for n-3 PUFA supplementation to the diet of patients with schizophrenia, they indicate that in smoking schizophrenia patients high dietary exposure to trans fatty acids is associated with lower intelligence quotients.

  5. Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Depressive and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Naturalistic Study

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    Marco Innamorati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this naturalistic study was to investigate whether treatment with clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for at least 2 years was associated with a reduction in psychotic and depressive symptoms and an improvement in chronic schizophrenia patients’ awareness of their illness. Methods. Twenty-three adult outpatients (15 men and 8 women treated with clozapine and 23 patients (16 men and 7 women treated with other atypical antipsychotics were included in the study. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, and insight was assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD. Results. The sample as a whole had a significant reduction in positive, negative, and general symptoms, whereas the reduction in depression was significant only for patients with CDSS scores of 5 and higher at the baseline. At the follow-up, patients treated with other atypical antipsychotics reported a greater reduction in depression than patients treated with clozapine, but not when limiting the analyses to those with clinically relevant depression. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotics may be effective in reducing psychotic and depressive symptoms and in improving insight in patients with chronic schizophrenia, with no differences in the profiles of efficacy between compounds.

  6. [Researching subordinate personality atavism in schizophrenia from the perspective of physical, mental and spiritual healing, and helping the patient to recover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tien-Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Schizophrenia is not an incurable condition. If we had not understood the operating model of schizophrenia in its spiritual phase, we would not know what its causes were, and there would be no cure for it. The author has studied The Seth Material for more than twenty years. New Age thinking has it that schizophrenia can be redefined as a phenomenon of subordinate personality or secondary personality. This new definition has directly pointed out and solved the core problems of schizophrenia. It has provided a perfect explanation of phenomenology. Also, the etiology of schizophrenia has been built. A guide to diagnosis and the new treatment has been produced. The secondary personality, as described above, prevents the patient from being willing to face and grow with his main personality, and causes him to split from it. A new vision of mind and spirit enables a schizophrenic episode to be seen in fact as a process which forces him to face himself and push him to grow into one and self-heal. According to the symptoms of schizophrenia (auditory hallucinations, thought withdrawal, insertion and interruption, thought broadcasting, somatic hallucinations, delusional perception, external agents), which are the key points of recovery, the author proposes the theory of recorder as a spiritual prescription for healing which has succeeded in helping our patients.

  7. Increased pentane and carbon disulfide in the breath of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M; Sabas, M; Greenberg, J

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To determine the concentrations of pentane (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and other volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS--Volatile organic compounds were assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) in 88 subjects--25 with acute schizophrenic psychosis, 26 with psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, and 37 normal volunteers. RESULTS--The mean alveolar gradients of pentane and carbon disulfide (CS2) were significantly higher in the patients with schizophrenia than in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS--Schizophrenia may be accompanied by accelerated lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, as well as increased manufacture of CS2, a known neurotoxin. PMID:8227439

  8. Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Patient with Treatment-Resistant Paranoid Schizophrenia and Comorbid Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppe Micallef-Trigona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of choice for acute schizophrenia is antipsychotic drug treatment and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and should only be considered as an option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, where treatment with clozapine has already proven ineffective or intolerable. The use of ECT as a maintenance treatment for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy is uncommon as scant evidence exists to support this. We describe a patient with a serious case of paranoid schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy who had not responded to typical and atypical antipsychotic medication, but responded remarkably to acute ECT and required maintenance ECT to sustain a positive therapeutic response.

  9. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef-Trigona, Beppe; Spiteri, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of choice for acute schizophrenia is antipsychotic drug treatment and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and should only be considered as an option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, where treatment with clozapine has already proven ineffective or intolerable. The use of ECT as a maintenance treatment for patients with schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy is uncommon as scant evidence exists to support this. We describe a patient with a serious case of paranoid schizophrenia and comorbid epilepsy who had not responded to typical and atypical antipsychotic medication, but responded remarkably to acute ECT and required maintenance ECT to sustain a positive therapeutic response.

  10. The relationship between facial emotion recognition and executive functions in first-episode patients with schizophrenia and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zezhi; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Liu, Na; Huang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; He, Leiying; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Chen, Fazhan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Jijun; Lu, Zheng

    2015-10-08

    Although many studies have examined executive functions and facial emotion recognition in people with schizophrenia, few of them focused on the correlation between them. Furthermore, their relationship in the siblings of patients also remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to examine the correlation between executive functions and facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their siblings. Thirty patients with first-episode schizophrenia, their twenty-six siblings, and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. They completed facial emotion recognition tasks using the Ekman Standard Faces Database, and executive functioning was measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to assess the correlation between executive functions and facial emotion recognition. Our study found that in siblings, the accuracy in recognizing low degree 'disgust' emotion was negatively correlated with the total correct rate in WCST (r = -0.614, p = 0.023), but was positively correlated with the total error in WCST (r = 0.623, p = 0.020); the accuracy in recognizing 'neutral' emotion was positively correlated with the total error rate in WCST (r = 0.683, p = 0.014) while negatively correlated with the total correct rate in WCST (r = -0.677, p = 0.017). People with schizophrenia showed an impairment in facial emotion recognition when identifying moderate 'happy' facial emotion, the accuracy of which was significantly correlated with the number of completed categories of WCST (R(2) = 0.432, P emotion recognition in the healthy control group. Our study demonstrated that facial emotion recognition impairment correlated with executive function impairment in people with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings but not in healthy controls.

  11. Neural correlates of planning performance in patients with schizophrenia - Relationship with apathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith J.; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni J. L. A. S.; Bais, Leonie; Knegtering, Henderikus; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Renken, Remco J.; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from apathy: a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors that impairs daily functioning. We hypothesized that schizophrenia patients with high levels of apathy would show decreased activation in brain regions involved in planning and goal-d

  12. Prevalence of 22q11.2 deletions in 311 Dutch patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Jalali, Gholam R; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sinke, Richard J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the o

  13. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  14. Improving quality of life and physical health in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...

  15. Prevalence of 22q11.2 deletions in 311 Dutch patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Jalali, Gholam R; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sinke, Richard J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S

    UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the

  16. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  17. Genetic load on amygdala hypofunction during sadness in nonaffected brothers of schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habel, U.; Klein, M.; Shah, N.J.; Toni, I.; Zilles, K.; Falkai, P.; Schneider, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, the authors reported that patients with schizophrenia show subcortical-limbic hypoactivity during sadness. In this study, they capitalized on those findings in order to assess the genetic influence of negative mood experience in schizophrenia patients. Brain activity

  18. Predictors of poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quach, Phuong Le; Mors, Ole; Christensen, Torben Østergaard;

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.......This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  19. Benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like drugs, and typical antipsychotics impair manual dexterity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Arima, Kunimasa; Amano, Naoji; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Impaired dexterity is a major psychomotor deficit reported in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, the Purdue pegboard test was used to compare the manual dexterity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We also examined the influence of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and benzodiazepine-like drugs on manual dexterity. Subjects were 93 patients with schizophrenia and 93 healthy controls, matched for sex and age distributions. Control subjects scored significantly higher on all scores of Purdue pegboard than patients with schizophrenia. Age, PANSS negative symptom scale, typical antipsychotic dose, and use of benzodiazepines and/or benzodiazepine-like drugs were negatively correlated with the pegboard scores in patients with schizophrenia. The present results indicate that patients with schizophrenia have impaired gross and fine fingertip dexterity compared to healthy controls. The use of typical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines and/or benzodiazepine-like drugs, but not atypical antipsychotics, had significant negative impact on dexterity in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrists should be aware that some psychotropic medications may enhance the disability caused by the impairment of dexterity in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. ASPECTS OF CYCLON AND BDNF GENE EXPRESSION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS

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    Rinaldo Shishkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the schizophrenic illness is still not fully elucidated. Many studies have been conducted revealing different aspects but may be the studies of greatest significance are studying the genetic aspects of expression of trophic factors and enzymes associated with nervous system development and plasticity. In this relation we aimed at measuring the Cyclon and BDNF genes expression in blood of patients suffering from schizophrenia and to test for correlation between them. Our result did not reveal correlation in spite of their connection with the disease

  1. Aberrantly flattened responsivity to emotional pictures in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Kang, Jee In; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Hong, Taekyong; Jeon, Jong Hee; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-08-30

    To investigate the nature of emotional experience in schizophrenia, we examined emotional responses to affective stimuli. Twenty-one outpatients with schizophrenia (9 paranoid, 12 nonparanoid) and 20 normal controls rated the arousal and valence that they experienced from the presentation of 60 pictures. Schizophrenia patients displayed less emotional responsivity to the positive stimuli and they displayed diverse responsivity to the negative stimuli, which depended upon arousal level. Further analysis, using schizophrenia subtype, indicated that nonparanoid patients reported increased negative responsivity and decreased positive responsivity, regardless of arousal level. However, paranoid schizophrenia patients showed enhanced self-reported experiences of emotion to the low arousing stimuli and diminished responsivity to the high arousing stimuli. This pattern was robust to the negative stimuli. These findings suggest that paranoid schizophrenia patients might suffer from aberrantly flattened responses to negative emotional stimuli, and that this may account for paranoid tendency and secondary social isolation in paranoid schizophrenia.

  2. Importance of oral glucose tolerance test in patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Badanjak, Anica

    2005-06-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old patient with schizophrenia who developed worsening of glucose metabolism during treatment with two different atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine. Diabetes mellitus was recognized during clozapine treatment. During quetiapine treatment, while patient was taking diabetic diet, fasting and 1-hour glucose levels and body mass index, decreased, but 2-hour glucose levels increased. This suggests that, in some patients, monitoring of only fasting glucose level and body mass index may be insufficient for detecting the glucose metabolism abnormalities. In those patients oral glucose tolerance test may be recommended. Recommendations about when and how often clinicians should administer the test do not exist in current guidelines. Further studies are needed for the elucidation of this question.

  3. Me, myself and I: temporal dysfunctions during self-evaluation in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, Katharina D.; Kircher, Tilo T. J.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Self-concept is deeply affected in schizophrenia. Positive symptoms in particular are related to disturbed self/other distinctions. The neural networks underlying self-evaluation in schizophrenia have barely been investigated. The study reported here involved 13 patients with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls. During functional MRI, participants decided in three conditions whether the presented positive and negative personality traits characterized themselves, an intimate person, or inclu...

  4. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumova, Sashka [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Rukova, Blaga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Todinova, Svetla [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Gartcheva, Lidia [National Specialized Hospital for Active Treating of Haematological Diseases, 6 Plovdivsko pole Str., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Milanova, Vihra [Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Sofia, 1 Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Toncheva, Draga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Taneva, Stefka G., E-mail: stefka.germanova@ehu.es [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment.

  5. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping.

  6. Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina

    2014-08-15

    Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation.

  7. Cure or curse? Ambivalent attitudes towards neuroleptic medication in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Naber

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic non-compliance remains a serious challenge for the treatment of psychosis. Non-compliance is predominantly attributed to side effects, lack of illness insight, reduced well-being or poor therapeutic alliance. However, other still neglected factors may also play a role. Further, little is known about whether psychiatric patients without psychosis who are increasingly prescribed neuroleptics differ in terms of medication compliance or about reasons for non-compliance by psychosis patients. As direct questioning is notoriously prone to social desirability biases, we conducted an anonymous survey. After a strict selection process blind to results, 95 psychiatric patients were retained for the final analyses (69 participants with a presumed diagnosis of schizophrenia psychosis, 26 without psychosis. Self-reported neuroleptic non-compliance was more prevalent in psychosis patients than non-psychosis patients. Apart from side effects and illness insight, main reasons for non-compliance in both groups were forgetfulness, distrust in therapist, and no subjective need for treatment. Other notable reasons were stigma and advice of relatives/acquaintances against neuroleptic medication. Gain from illness was a reason for non-compliance in 11-18% of the psychosis patients. Only 9% of all patients reported no side effects and full compliance and at the same time acknowledged that neuroleptics worked well for them. While pills were preferred over depot injections by the majority of patients, depot was judged as an alternative by a substantial subgroup. Although many patients acknowledge the need and benefits of neuroleptic medication, non-compliance was the norm rather than the exception in our samples.

  8. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  9. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  10. Combined visual and motor disorganization in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eGiersch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments are difficult to relate to clinical symptoms in schizophrenia, partly due to insufficient knowledge on how cognitive impairments interact with one another. Here, we devised a new sequential pointing task requiring both visual organization and motor sequencing. Six circles were presented simultaneously on a touch screen around a fixation point. Participants pointed with the finger each circle one after the other, in synchrony with auditory tones. We used an alternating rhythmic 300/600 ms pattern so that participants performed pairs of taps separated by short intervals of 300 ms. Visual organization was manipulated by using line-segments that grouped the circles two by two, yielding three pairs of connected circles, and three pairs of unconnected circles that belonged to different pairs. This led to 3 experimental conditions. In the ‘congruent condition’, the pairs of taps had to be executed on circles grouped by connecters. In the ‘non congruent condition’, they were to be executed on the unconnected circles that belonged to different pairs. In a neutral condition, there were no connecters. 22 patients with schizophrenia with mild symptoms and 22 control participants performed a series of 30 taps in each condition.Tap pairs were counted as errors when the produced rhythm was inverted (expected rhythm 600/300=2; inversed rhythm<1. Error rates in patients with a high level of clinical disorganization were significantly higher in the non-congruent condition than in the two other conditions, contrary to controls and the remaining patients. The tap-tone asynchrony increased in the presence of connecters in both patient groups, but not in the controls. Patients appeared not to integrate the visual organization during the planning phase of action, leading to a large difficulty during motor execution, especially in those patients revealing difficulties in visual organization. Visual motor tapping tasks may help detect those

  11. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  12. Creative thinking deficits in patients with schizophrenia: neurocognitive correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Jan; Patrzała, Amelia; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate selected measures of creativity in schizophrenic patients and their relationship with neurocognitive executive functions Forty-three inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia who were in symptomatic remission (a total of 60) and 45 healthy control participants were included. Creativity was assessed using the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS) and the inventiveness part of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Test (BIS). Executive functions were measured by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Schizophrenic patients gave responses on the BWAS, had lower total score on the BIS and in the figural test, and performed worse on all domains of the WCST compared with control subjects. Their lower scores on the BIS correlated with lower scores on the WCST. Our results indicate that remitted schizophrenic patients perform worse on selected measures of creativity than healthy subjects and that executive dysfunctions may partially explain these deficits.

  13. History of religious delusions and psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Rebeca; López-Luna, Sonia; Páez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raúl; Camarena, Beatriz; Fresán, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The association between global functionality and religiosity among patients from developing and predominantly Catholic countries warrants attention. To compare religiosity and psychosocial functioning in Mexican schizophrenia patients with and without a history of religious delusions, seventy-four patients with paranoid schizophrenia were recruited. Patients with a history of religious delusions had more psychiatric hospitalizations and poorer psychosocial functioning compared with those without a history of religious delusions. No differences emerged between groups in the total scores of religiosity scales. A history of religious delusions rather than religiosity itself may have an influence on psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with schizophrenia.

  14. [The relation to the humor and laugh in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanenko, E A; Enikolopov, S N; Ivanova, E M

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the data on gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (the joy of being laughed at) and katagelasticism (the joy of laughing at others) in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls. Gelotophobia was significantly higher and katagelasticism was significantly lower in psychiatric patients than in controls. The negative correlation was found between gelotophobia and the duration of illness among patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Gelotophilia and katagelasticism were correlated positively both in patients and controls. In patients with schizotypal disorder, gelotophobia was also correlated with katagelasticism. High scores on katagelasticism and gelotophilia typical for men in the control group became typical for women in schizophrenia group.

  15. Preserved strategic grain-size regulation in memory reporting in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Elçin; Izaute, Marie; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2014-07-15

    Cognitive and introspection disturbances are considered core features of schizophrenia. In real life, people are usually free to choose which aspects of an event they recall, how much detail to volunteer, and what degree of confidence to impart. Their decision will depend on various situational and personal goals. The authors explored whether schizophrenia patients are able to achieve a compromise between accuracy and informativeness when reporting semantic information. Twenty-five patients and 23 healthy matched control subjects answered general knowledge questions requiring numerical answers (how high is the Eiffel tower?), freely at first and then through a metamemory-based control. In the second phase, they answered with respect to two predefined intervals, one narrow and one broad; attributed a confidence judgment to both answers; and afterward selected one of the two answers. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance with group as the between-subjects factor. Patients reported information at a self-paced level of precision less accurately than healthy participants. However, they benefited remarkably from the framing of the response and from the metamemory processes of monitoring and control to the point of improving their memory reporting and matching healthy subjects' accuracy. In spite of their memory deficit during free reporting, after accuracy monitoring, patients strategically regulated the grain size of their memory reporting and proved able to manage the competing goals of accuracy and informativeness. These results give some cause for optimism as to the possibility for patients to adapt to everyday life situations. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Sandeep; Nehra, Ritu; Bhateja, Gaurav; Kulhara, Parmanand; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia ...

  17. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Sandeep; Nehra, Ritu; Bhateja, Gaurav; Kulhara, Parmanand; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia ...

  18. No difference in the prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) between first-episode schizophrenia patients, offspring of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Sohi, Jasdeep; Arfken, Cynthia; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2008-08-01

    The reported prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), is extremely variable (from 0.1% to 85%) depending upon the measurement method or imaging resolution. Higher prevalence of CSP has been found in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the prevalence of CSP in a large number of first-episode schizophrenia patients, young relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We manually measured CSP using 1.5 mm T1 MRI scans from ongoing studies at University of Pittsburgh in 89 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (age=23.8+/-7.4, M/F=61/28), 64 genetically at-risk individuals (offspring and siblings of schizophrenia patients, age 15.2+/-3.7, M/F=29/32) and 120 comparison subjects (n=120, age=22.1+/-7.9, M/F62/50). CSP was present in 64% of the first-episode patients (mean length 1.87+/-2.3 mm), 64.6% of the at-risk individuals (1.64+/-1.96 mm) and 64.2% of the normal controls (1.88+/-2.0 mm). There was no difference in the prevalence of CSP exceeding 4 mm. We also did not find any influence of the sex or age in the presence or size of CSP. Our data cast doubt on the significance of CSP as markers of neurodevelopmental pathology in schizophrenia.

  19. Cross diagnostic comparisons of quality of life deficits in remitted and unremitted patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Min Yi; Ho, New Fei; Sim, Kang

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been found to report lower quality of life (QOL) compared to healthy controls separately. However, data are wanting on cross diagnostic comparisons of QOL within psychotic spectrum conditions. This study examined QOL differences and clinical predictors between schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Based on extant data, we hypothesized that patients with remitted SCZ and BD had comparable QOL levels, and that more severe symptoms and poorer psychosocial functioning predicted poorer QOL in our patients. Two hundred and twenty-two sex and age-matched subjects (44 BD, 122 SCZ, 56 healthy controls) were assessed on their QOL, psychosocial functioning, symptomatology, and state of remission. Overall, SCZ patients had worse QOL in the environment domain (p=0.008) and overall QOL (p=0.007) compared with BD patients. Both patient groups in remission had similar QOL, while unremitted SCZ patients reported poorer QOL in all domains compared to unremitted BD patients (p<0.01). Within patients, greater severity of negative symptoms and poorer psychosocial functioning were associated with poorer QOL (p<0.05). Remission status affected QOL in both patient groups. The association of worse QOL with greater negative psychotic psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning highlighted potential clinical markers of QOL, which can aid in the management of psychotic spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of polymorphism in the promoter of the melatonin receptor 1A gene with schizophrenia and with insomnia symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jeong; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Su Kang; Cho, Ah-Rang; Kim, Jong Woo; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients commonly have sleep disturbances. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the melatonin receptor genes (MTNR1A and MTNR1B) were associated with schizophrenia and with sleep problems such as insomnia and hypersomnia in schizophrenia patients. We genotyped two promoter SNPs [rs2119882 (-184T/C) of MTNR1A and rs4753426 (-1193C/T) of MTNR1B] using direct sequencing in 289 schizophrenia patients and 505 control subjects. We found that rs2119882 of MTNR1A was associated with schizophrenia in recessive model [CC vs. TT/TC, p = 0.013, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-2.55]. Interestingly, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2119882 of MTNR1A was also associated with insomnia symptoms of schizophrenia (recessive model, p = 0.010, OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.21-4.14), but not with hypersomnia symptoms as determined using the Operational Criteria checklist. However, rs4753426 of MTNR1B was not associated with either schizophrenia or clinical phenotypes. Our results suggest that MTNR1A may be a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and may be associated with insomnia symptoms exhibited in schizophrenia patients.

  1. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  2. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  3. Are Prolactin Levels in Drug-Naive Schizophrenia Patients A Clinical Indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Yalcin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The relationship between serum prolactin (PRL levels in patients with schizophrenia and the psychopathology, risk of relapse, symptom severity, the side effects after antipsychotics and schizophrenia subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to examine the serum PRL level difference between drug naive schizophrenia patients and healthy control group and between schizophrenia subtypes. Material and Method: 45 untreated volunteer participant between the ages of 18-55 who applied to Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, in patient and outpatient departments of Psychiatry, diagnosed with schizophrenia with the DSM IV-TR classification were included to study before getting treated. Participants were given sociodemographic information form; Axis-II for definitions Semi-Structured Clinical Interview, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF and biochemical measurements were made. Results: The mean serum PRL levels in drug naive patients with schizophrenia were higher compared to the control group (p = 0.004. When patients with schizophrenia divided in to two groups as “paranoid” and “non-paranoid”, the mean serum prolactin levels among these groups were significantly different (p = 0.000. There was no significant relationship between serum PRL levels and GAF scores (P = 0.116 or PANSS total scores (P = 0.676 in patients with drug naive schizophrenia. Discussion: The difference between mean serum PRL levels in drug naive schizophrenia patients and schizophrenia subtypes are consistent with studies in the literature. As to use PRL levels as a marker in the clinic, further studies are needed.

  4. PREDICTORS FORMATION OF SOCIAL MALADJUSTMENT IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH CONCOMITANT SOMATIC-NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Semionovici PIDKORYTOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the level of stress in patients with paranoid schizophrenia with concomitant somatic-neurological disorders and quality of life as predictors of the formation of their social exclusion. The influence of somatic-neurological pathology for paranoid schizophrenia at different levels of stress.

  5. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. D

  6. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The

  7. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The patien

  8. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  9. Serum Growth Arrest Specific Protein 6 (Gas-6 Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethullah Gerin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have investigated serum growth ar­rest-specific protein 6 (GAS-6 levels from patients with schizophrenia divided into acute phase remission phases as well as control group. Methods: This study was conducted in Psychiatry De­partment of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Fac­ulty. The patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia after regular psychiatric examination according to DSM-IV criteria (n=22 as well as control subjects were includ­ed in the study. Schizophrenia patients with acute phase and remission phase were evaluated by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Clinical global Impression Scale (CGI-S. The serum GAS-6 levels of schizophrenia patients during acute phase and remission phase were compared with the serum GAS-6 levels of healthy controls. Serum GAS-6 levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Results: No difference was found in serum GAS-6 levels among the three groups; schizophrenia with acute phase, schizophrenia with remission phase, and controls. There were no correlations between serum GAS-6 levels and PANSS and CGI scores. Conclusion: To reach a definitive data and better in­terpretation about the relationship between GAS-6 and schizophrenia, future studies with larger groups of pa­tients with schizophrenia subdivided by drug naïve and treated with antipsychotics/other treatment modalities and controls are needed.

  10. Serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Yong Chen; Zhong Chen; Xue-Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology.Methods:A total of 90 chizophrenia patient with MS, including 41 cases with simple schizophrenia and 39 cases with simple metabolic syndrome were included for study. The values of nerve electrophysiology indexes and serum illness-related indexes were compared among included patients, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed.Results:Compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, P300 latency of schizophrenia with MS group was longer, and the amplitude was shorter; N2-P3 latency and amplitude were shorter (P<0.05); serum SOD, S100b, BDNF, ABAb, PAI-1,α-HBDH, AST, cystatin c, TG, FBG and 2hPG values of schizophrenia with MS group were higher, IGF1, HMW-APN and HDL-C levels were lower, and compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, differences were significant (P<0.05); P300 latency, P300 amplitude, N2-P3 latency and N2-P3 amplitude of schizophrenia with MS group were directly correlated with serum cytokine contents (P<0.05).Conclusions:There are significantly abnormal serum cytokines and nerve electrophysiology indexes in schizophrenia patient with MS, and nerve electrophysiology detection can be used as the means to judge disease and guide treatment.

  11. Clonidine Normalizes Sensorimotor Gating Deficits in Patients With Schizophrenia on Stable Medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-01-01

    sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Methods : In a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized, yet balanced, cross-over experiment, 20 male schizophrenia patients on stable medication were assessed in an auditory prepulse inhibition (PPI), sensitization, and habituation of the startle reflex...

  12. Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation in Patients with Schizophrenia and Non-Affected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; Swart, Marte; van der Velde, Jorien; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia often experience problems regulating their emotions. Non-affected relatives show similar difficulties, although to a lesser extent, and the neural basis of such difficulties remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we investigated whether schizophrenia p

  13. Neurocognitive functioning in parents of schizophrenia patients: Attentional and executive performance vary with genetic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Lennertz, Leonhard; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Pukrop, Ralf; Dreher, Jan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2015-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits are candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia which can assist to explain the neurocognitive impact of genetic risk variants. The identification of endophenotypes is often based on the familiality of these phenotypes. Several studies demonstrate neuropsychological deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients without differentiating between genetic and non-genetic factors underlying these deficits. We assessed N=129 unaffected biological parents of schizophrenia patients, N=28 schizophrenia patients (paranoid subtype), and N=143 controls without a family history of schizophrenia with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Direct comparison of N=22 parents with an ancestral history of schizophrenia (more likely carriers, MLC) and N=17 of their spouses without such a history (less likely carriers, LLC) allowed the separation of genetic and non-genetic aspects in cognition. Overall, parents showed significant deficits in neuropsychological tasks from all cognitive domains with medium effect sizes. Direct comparisons of MLC- and LLC-parents showed that attentional and executive tasks were most strongly affected by genetic loading. To conclude, unaffected parents of schizophrenia patients showed modest yet significant impairments in attention, memory, and executive functioning. In particular, attentional and executive impairments varied most strongly with genetic loading for schizophrenia, prioritising these dysfunctions for genotype-endophenotype analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social motor coordination in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients: A potential intermediate phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eDel-Monte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behaviour anomalies as potential trait-marker of the disease. However, none of them investigated social motor coordination despite the importance of their anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis.

  15. Resistin as an inflammatory marker in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemettilä, Jari-Pekka; Kampman, Olli; Seppälä, Niko; Viikki, Merja; Hämäläinen, Mari; Moilanen, Eeva; Leinonen, Esa

    2017-02-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with excess cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality related to lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity, poor diet, and smoking. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increased among patients with schizophrenia, with the highest rates among patients on clozapine treatment. Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, airway inflammation and obstruction, and adipose tissue and inflammatory marker activation are related in systemic inflammation. Low-grade inflammation is also associated with schizophrenia. Adipokine resistin is a biomarker involving several acute and chronic inflammatory states. However, the inflammatory role of resistin is so far inconclusive and studies in schizophrenia are scanty. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of serum resistin as an inflammatory marker in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. Associations between serum levels of resistin and some other selected cytokines/adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, adipsin, IL-6, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, hs-CRP) and metabolic markers in 190 patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Among male patients especially, smokers had higher levels of resistin than non-smokers, and among smokers resistin levels were associated with IL-1Ra and hs-CRP levels. In the whole patient group levels of resistin associated with levels of IL-1Ra, and among male patients with low HDL-cholesterol. Resistin is a biomarker of systemic inflammation associated with smoking among patients with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment. Resistin might have a role as a marker of cardiovascular comorbidity.

  16. [Clinical psychopathological research on late-onset schizophrenia--mainly patients with schizophrenia from a hospital psychiatric ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Manabu; Kato, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the field of clinical psychiatry, cases of late-onset schizophrenia are often observed in the population of 40 years or older. Female patients seem to significantly predominate those diagnosed with late-onset schizophrenia. Generally, paranoid delusions of reference with family members, neighbors, and friends are observed as clinical features of such late-onset schizophrenia conditions. Medical treatment for such a condition is often effective and considered to improve the prognosis. The authors conducted clinical research at Jichi Medical University Hospital psychiatric ward involving 38 late-onset schizophrenia patients (7 males; 31 females) diagnosed over the age of 40 using DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Subjects were selected from 316 schizophrenia patients (164 males; 152 females) admitted to the hospital for schizophrenia treatment at some time during the 13 years from April 1, 1993 to March 31, 2006. Also, another 14 late-onset schizophrenia patients diagnosed over the age of 40 (1 male; 13 females), with additional investigation, were selected from 130 cases (50 males; 80 females) treated in related facilities at some time during the 2 years from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2006. The investigation revealed the following results: (1) Cases showing an onset after the age of 40 comprised 12% of the total population. Female cases comprised 20.4%, being significantly higher than that of male cases (4.3%). Within the psychiatric ward, cases showing an onset after 40 made up 10.8% of the total population. Female cases comprised 16.3%, being significantly higher than that of male cases (2.0%). (2) The paranoid type comprised 55.3% of the total population of late-onset cases, being significantly higher than in early-onset cases younger than 40 years old. A total of 55.3% of late-onset cases also showed depressive symptoms, being significantly higher than in early-onset cases. (3) For late-onset, 55.3% of patients showed an introverted premorbid character, while

  17. Childhood trauma and emotional processing circuits in schizophrenia: A functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancel, Aïda; Comte, Magali; Boutet, Claire; Schneider, Fabien C; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Boukezzi, Sarah; Gay, Aurélia; Sigaud, Torrance; Massoubre, Catherine; Berna, Fabrice; Zendjidjian, Xavier Y; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier; Fakra, Eric

    2016-12-13

    Childhood trauma strongly impacts emotional responses in schizophrenia. We have explored an association between early trauma and the amygdala functional connectivity using generalized psychophysiological interaction during an emotional task. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and twenty-five controls were included. In schizophrenia patients, higher levels of sexual abuse and physical neglect during childhood were associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the posterior cingulate/precuneus region. Additionally, patients showed decreased coupling between the amygdala and the posterior cingulate/precuneus region compared to controls. These findings suggest that early trauma could impact later connectivity in specific stress-related circuits affecting self-consciousness and social cognition in schizophrenia.

  18. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  19. Restricted attention to social cues in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaides, Alexandra; Miess, Susanne; Auvera, Isabella; Müller, Ralf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Deficits of psychosocial functioning are a robust finding in schizophrenia. Research on social cognition may open a new avenue for the development of effective interventions. As a correlate of social perceptive information processing deficits, schizophrenia patients (SZP) show deviant gaze behavior (GB) while viewing emotional faces. As understanding of a social environment requires gathering complex social information, our study aimed at investigating the gaze behavior of SZP related to social interactions and its impact on the level of social and role functioning. GB of 32 SZP and 37 healthy control individuals (HCI) was investigated with a high-resolution eye tracker during an unguided viewing of 12 complex pictures of social interaction scenes. Regarding whole pictures, SZP showed a shorter scanpath length, fewer fixations and a shorter mean distance between fixations. Furthermore, SZP exhibited fewer and shorter fixations on faces, but not on the socially informative bodies nor on the background, suggesting a cue-specific abnormality. Logistic regression with bootstrapping yielded a model including two GB parameters; a subsequent ROC curve analysis indicated an excellent ability of group discrimination (AUC .85). Face-related GB aberrations correlated with lower social and role functioning and with delusional thinking, but not with negative symptoms. Training of spontaneous integration of face-related social information seems promising to enable a holistic perception of social information, which may in turn improve social and role functioning. The observed ability to discriminate SZP from HCI warrants further research on the predictive validity of GB in psychosis risk prediction.

  20. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Nehra, Ritu; Bhateja, Gaurav; Kulhara, Parmanand; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-07-01

    Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  1. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  2. Functional remission and employment among patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Rahima; Midin, Marhani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Abdul Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Baharudin, Azlin; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the rates of functional remission and employment as well as the factors associated with functional remission among patients with Schizophrenia, receiving community psychiatric service in an urban setting in Malaysia. From a total of 250 patients randomly selected, 155 fulfilled the study requirement and were assessed on their functional remission status using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. The relationships between functional remission and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, social support, symptom remission and rates of hospitalization were examined. The results revealed that 74% (n=115) of the respondents had functional remission with only 20% (n=31) currently employed. Functional remission was found to be significantly associated with good social support (84.4% versus 36.4% p<0.001, OR=9.487 [95% CI=4.008-22.457]); shorter illness duration of less than 10 years (81.2% versus 66.7% p=0.038, OR=2.167 [95% CI=1.035-4.535]); good medication compliance (79.1% versus 50.0% p=0.002, OR=3.778 [95% CI=1.570-9.090]); hospital admissions of lower than 3 per year (80.5% versus 44.4% p<0.001 OR=5.150 [95% CI=2.145-12.365]) and; symptomatic remission (87.3% versus 37.4% p<0.001 [95% CI=0.070 (0.029-0.168]). A multiple regression analysis revealed only social support, lower hospitalization rate and symptom remission, as significant predictors of functional remission. A majority of patients with Schizophrenia in this study achieved functional remission, however, only a small percentage of them were employed. Functional remission was influenced by severity of illness and levels of social support in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term efficacy and safety of blonanserin in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yuriko; Miyamoto, Seiya; Tenjin, Tomomi; Ogino, Shin; Miyake, Nobumi; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of blonanserin, a second-generation antipsychotic drug developed in Japan, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Twenty-three antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia were treated within an open-label, 1-year, prospective trial of blonanserin (2-24 mg/day). Clinical evaluations were conducted at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after the start of treatment. The main outcome measures were changes in subjective well-being and subjective quality of life, as assessed by the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic treatment scale Short form-Japanese version and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale-Japanese version, respectively. Secondary outcome measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version, laboratory tests, bodyweight, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Fourteen patients (60.9%) remained on the study at 1 year. In the intention-to-treat analysis, significant improvements were observed in several subscales on the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic treatment scale Short form-Japanese version, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale-Japanese version, and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version, and in all factor scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Improvement in depressive symptoms with blonanserin treatment was positively correlated with improvements in subjective well-being and subjective quality of life, as well as verbal memory. No significant changes were noted for any safety measure during the 1-year study period. Blonanserin was well tolerated and effective for the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in terms of subjective wellness, cognition, and a wide range of pathological symptoms. Further large-scale studies are warranted to confirm our findings. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014

  4. Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969-1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mellemkjær, Lene; Thomassen, L.

    2005-01-01

    with schizophrenia (SIR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.38) should be interpreted with caution, given the high proportion of nulliparous women with schizophrenia in Denmark. The data might support reduced risks for prostate and rectal cancer among male patients with schizophrenia, whereas a changing smoking pattern might......We investigated the cancer risk of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in a nationwide cohort study. All 22766 adults admitted for schizophrenia, ICD-8 295, in Denmark between 1969 and 1993 were followed up for cancer through 1995. The incidence of site-specific cancers was compared...... with national incidence rates, adjusted for sex, age and calendar time. The risk for cancer was increased for both men and women during the first year of follow-up. When the first year of follow-up was excluded, the risk for all tobacco-associated cancers and for prostate and rectal cancers was reduced for male...

  5. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Decreased default-mode network homogeneity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Jiajing; Su, Qinji; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Liuyu; Zhai, Jinguo; Xiao, Changqing

    2014-12-30

    The dysconnectivity hypothesis proposes that abnormal resting state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about alterations of the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Unaffected siblings have unique advantages as subjects of neuroimaging studies independent of the clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies of the patients themselves. In the present study, we investigated NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls who underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Automated NH and group independent component analysis (ICA) approaches were used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients showed decreased DMN homogeneity in the left precuneus. No significantly increased DMN homogeneity was found in the sibling group relative to the control group. Our results suggest that there is decreased NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and indicate that the alternative perspective of examining the DMN NH in patients׳ siblings may improve understanding of the nature of schizophrenia.

  7. Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Stone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46 and healthy controls (N = 57 using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  9. [Illness Concepts of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Triangulation Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Reichhardt, Lea; Lang, Fabian U; Krumm, Silvia; Jäger, Markus

    2017-04-03

    Objective Therapists' and patients' concepts of illness often show severe discrepancies. This study explores the illness concepts of patients with schizophrenic disorders (n = 40). Methods Two German scales were used, the "Causal Belief Questionnaire" and the "Illness Concept Scale for Schizophrenic Patients". We compared our data with data published previously. A semi structured interview was performed in a convenience sample (n = 7). Results The domains "trust in medication" and "trust in the treating physician" yielded high scores, yet in comparison with data published 30 years ago, trust in medication is unaltered, while trust in psychiatrists is even slightly lower. Recent psychosocial factors scored high as a possible cause of mental illness. Several patients felt responsible for being mentally ill. No patient in the interview mentioned the neurotransmitter hypothesis of schizophrenia. Conclusion Illness concepts of patients with schizophrenic disorders are a complex phenomenon. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods proves to be a promising approach for future studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. PET findings in patients with chronic paranoid schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Hideji [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders; Toyoda, Junzo; Iio, Masaaki

    1995-07-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of chronic schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions and normal controls was compared. The subjects were 5 male chronic inpatients (average age of 41.4 yrs, BPRS 29.3{+-}15.0). Normal controls (6 males) were matched for age and sex. rCBF was determined by PET, based on the consecutive inhalation of {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2}. rCBF in the paranoid schizophrenics was significantly higher than that in normal controls in the temporal lobe and cerebellum (p<0.05). rCBF in paranoid schizophrenia showed a tendency to be higher in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampus and putamen, but not in the thalamus. (author).

  11. Inflammation and elevation of interleukin-12p40 in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eBedrossian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized ELISA technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n=123. The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p=0.002. Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.009. Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p<0.001, healthy females (p=0.018 and healthy males (p<0.001, respectively. Male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.023. The study’s results suggest that IL-12p40

  12. Depression in patients with schizophrenia admitted to the acute services of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana

    OpenAIRE

    Llanes Basulto, Yasmani; Barrios Hernández, Yanquiel; Oliva Hernández, Ignacio; Pimentel Noda, Susel de la Caridad; Calvo Guerra, Esvieta

    2014-01-01

    The presence of depression in the acute phase of schizophrenia is evaluated, and the clinical and psychosocial characteristics that can be associated with depression are identified. Participants included 73 patients that were admitted to the acute services of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana, given that depression is a symptom in a significant amount of the patients with schizophrenia, 35.6% of the patients presented clinically significant symp- toms, and these were related significantly wi...

  13. Theory of Mind and Selective Attention, Response Inhibition, Cognitive Flexibility in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Köşger, Ferdi; Akarsu, Ferdane Özlem; Özaydin, Özer; Güleç, Gülcan

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the current study are to investigate the relationship between selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility that are among executive functions and sociocognitive and socioperceptual theory of mind (ToM) functions and also to investigate whether selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are predictive factors for ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a control group consisting of 42 individuals were administered demographic information form, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Stroop test, Eye test, Hinting test. Positive and negative syndrome scale was applied to the schizophrenia group. In comparison to the control group, the schizophrenia group performed significantly worse on Eyes test and Hinting test. Eyes Test score and age, WCST perseverative error scores were significantly negatively correlated; education and WCST categories achieved scores were significantly positively correlated in patients with schizophrenia. Age and cognitive flexibility were found to predict the Eyes test score in patients with schizophrenia. ToM functions that are important in maintaining socioperceptual functioning are closely related with cognitive flexibility, and impairment in cognitive flexibility may predict the ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. Smaller than expected cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients from the population-representative ABC catchment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennertz, Leonhard; An der Heiden, Wolfram; Kronacher, Regina; Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Maier, Wolfgang; Häfner, Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Most neuropsychological studies on schizophrenia suffer from sample selection bias, with male and chronic patients being overrepresented. This probably leads to an overestimation of cognitive impairments. The present study aimed to provide a less biased estimate of cognitive functions in schizophrenia using a population-representative catchment area sample. Schizophrenia patients (N = 89) from the prospective Mannheim ABC cohort were assessed 14 years after disease onset and first diagnosis, using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A healthy control group (N = 90) was carefully matched according to age, gender, and geographic region (city, rural surrounds). The present sample was representative for the initial ABC cohort. In the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, the schizophrenia patients were only moderately impaired as compared to the healthy control group (d = 0.56 for a general cognitive index, d = 0.42 for verbal memory, d = 0.61 for executive functions, d = 0.69 for attention). Only 33 % of the schizophrenia patients scored one standard deviation unit below the healthy control group in the general cognitive index. Neuropsychological performance did not correlate with measures of the clinical course including age at onset, number of hospital admissions, and time in paid work. Thus, in this population-representative sample of schizophrenia patients, neuropsychological deficits were less pronounced than expected from meta-analyses. In agreement with other epidemiological studies, this suggests a less devastating picture of cognition in schizophrenia.

  15. Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970394 A study of insight and its relative factors inschizophrenia. GAN Jingli(甘景梨), et al. Ment HealthCenter, 160th Hosp, Jinan Command, Jiaozhuo,454003. Chin J Psychiat 1997; 30(1): 17-19. Objective: To determine the clinical value of the in-sight and its relative factors in schizophrenic patients.Methods: The insight, the brief psychiatric rating scale

  16. Preliminary Study on Quantitative Sleep EEG Characteristics in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Won; Choi, Jae Won; Jeong, Do-Un

    2017-01-01

    We used quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) spectral analysis to compare activity in the bilateral frontal, central, and occipital areas in nine patients with schizophrenia and ten healthy control subjects during standard nocturnal polysomnography. Patients with schizophrenia had longer sleep latency than controls. In N2 sleep, the patients had significantly lower 0.5–1 Hz power and higher theta power in the left frontal region, and higher beta power in the left occipital region than did control subjects. In N3 sleep, the patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher alpha power in the left occipital region than did controls. These findings show distinctive EEG sleep patterns in patients with schizophrenia, which may reflect brain dysfunction or medication effects.

  17. Reasons for schizophrenia patients remaining out of treatment: results from a prospective study in a rural south indian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies have examined the factors associated with schizophrenia patients remaining untreated in India. Materials and Methods: We identified 184 schizophrenia patients in a rural community, offered the treatment with antipsychotics and followed them up in their Primary Health Centers for 1-year. Twenty-nine (15.8% patients remained untreated at both the baseline and 1-year follow-up despite our best attempts to keep them under the treatment umbrella. They were interviewed in detail regarding the reasons for remaining untreated. This group was compared with another group of patients (n = 69 who had stopped the treatment at baseline but were successfully brought under the treatment umbrella throughout the 1-year follow-up period. Results: The reasons for remaining untreated were (n; %: (a Unsatisfactory improvement with previous treatment attempts (19; 65.5%, (b poor bond between the patients and the families (6; 20.7%, (c active symptoms not allowing any treatment efforts from the family members (6; 20.7%, (d magico-religious beliefs about the illness and its treatment (4; 13.8%, (e poor social support (3; 10.3%, (f adverse effects of the medications (2; 6.9%, and (g perception of recovery and cure (1; 3.4%. For many patients, a constellation of these reasons was responsible for them remaining untreated. In contrast, the common reasons for those who restarted medications to have stopped the treatment at some time were the lack of awareness, the need to continue medications (47; 68.1%, and the financial constraints (28; 40.6%. Conclusion: The predominant reason for schizophrenia patients not remaining on the treatment in this rural community was the families′ lack of faith in antipsychotic treatment. Provision of comprehensive treatment package including medical, psychosocial and rehabilitative services, and sensitizing the community about benefits of the treatment may help in ensuring that all patients with psychosis receive

  18. Family burden in patient with schizophrenia and depressive disorder: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family care burden among schizophrenia and depressive disorders has not been addressed in the research. Family burden was significantly high in patient with schizophrenia except the effect on physical health of other family member. Comparing burden in these two groups may help in the psychosocial management. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine family care burden in families of schizophrenia patient and compare them with patients having depressive disorders. Materials and Methods: One hundred family caregivers of patient with schizophrenia and 100 family caregivers of patient with depressive disorders were recruited for the study. It was cross sectional study. The patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (all types and depressive disorders using International Classification of Disease-10, Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research ICD-10 DCR criteria. Pollack and Perlick scale was used to identify the key family caregivers. Patient with 2 or more than 2 years duration of illness were included in the study groups. Family burden was assessed in the both groups by using the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS of Pai and Kapur. Data was analyzed using the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test. Results: Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in comparison to depressive disorder has significantly increased mean FBIS score (P<0.001. The family burden was significantly high in family caregivers of patients with the schizophrenia except the effect on physical health of other family members. Conclusion: To conclude caregivers of patient with schizophrenia experience high-level of burden than the caregivers of patients with the depressive disorders.

  19. Expressed emotion and caregiver burden in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family′s expressed emotion has been shown to be predictive of outcome in mental and physical illnesses in a variety of cultural settings. The relationship between caregiver burden and high level of expressed emotions has demonstrated a high level of relapse among the psychiatric patients in the West. Aim: The current study explores the relationship between caregivers′ burden and level of expressed emotions by the patients with schizophrenia in Indian setting. Materials and Methods : The sample for the study consisted of totally 70 subjects comprising 35 schizophrenic patients and 35 caregivers. The schizophrenic patients who were attending the Day Care Center run by Department of Psychiatric and Neuro Rehabilitation Unit at National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS in Bangalore, India (a tertiary care center and their primary caregivers were included. Family emotional involvement and criticism scale and The burden assessment schedule were administered to assess the expressed emotions and caregivers′ burden. Carl Pearson Correlation test used to study the relationship between the variables. Results and Conclusion: The study highlighted the need for addressing expressed emotion in comprehensive psychosocial intervention plan. More attention should be paid to the needs of the caregivers in order to alleviate their burden in managing mentally ill patients.

  20. Inflammation and Elevation of Interleukin-12p40 in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nora; Haidar, Mariam; Fares, Jawad; Kobeissy, Firas H; Fares, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although, the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL)-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F) ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n = 123). The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002). Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.009). Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p = 0.023). The study's results suggest that IL-12p40 has a putative role as a potential marker in schizophrenia and

  1. Cognitive performance of long-term institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paim Diaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive impairment is inherent to the ageing process. Several studies suggest that patients with late-life schizophrenia have more marked cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and institutionalized elderly control patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases, matched for age, educational level and institutionalization time. Methods: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMCOG was used to test 10 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. Results were compared with those of 10 institutionalized control patients with history of Hansen's disease. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed a worse performance in terms of total CAMCOG score and on its subtests of orientation, language, abstraction, and memory (p≤0.05. Patients with schizophrenia also disclosed a non-significant trend toward lower scores on the MMSE and on calculus. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that schizophrenia was associated to worse cognitive impairment in long-term institutionalized elderly patients compared with institutionalized patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases.

  2. Profiling cognitive impairment in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan Aleksander; Gościmski, Piotr; Kiejna, Andrzej; Misiak, Błażej

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between schizophrenia patients with and without treatment resistance (TRS and non-TRS patients) taking into account psychopathological symptoms and antipsychotic treatment. The following cognitive tests were administered to 53 TRS patients and 32 non-TRS subjects: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B), verbal fluency tests (FAS test and Supermarket), as well as selected Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R-PI) subtests: Digit Symbol Coding Test, Digit Span Forward and Backward and Similarities. TRS patients performed significantly worse in comparison with non-TRS patients on the measures of processing speed (TMT-A, Stroop test, FAS test, Supermarket test, Digit Symbol Coding test), verbal fluency (FAS test, Supermarket test), cognitive flexibility and executive functions (Stroop test) after controlling for age, illness duration, clinical symptoms severity, the number of years of completed education and antipsychotics' dose. Cognitive performance was associated with negative and general symptomatology. Anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics had debilitating effect on cognitive functioning in non-TRS patients (FAS test) and in TRS patients (TMT-B test, Stroop test, RAVLT subtests, Digit Coding test and Similarities test), while low anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics was associated with better cognitive performance in non-TRS patients (Backward Digit Span test) and in TRS patients (Similarities test). Results of this study indicate that cognitive deficits are more robust in TRS patients than in non-TRS subjects, and are associated with clinical symptoms as well as the treatment with antipsychotics that exert high anticholinergic activity.

  3. En undersøgelse af livshistorier blandt patienter med skizofreni. (An examination of life stories among patients with schizophrenia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Tine; Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    Lack of self-continuity is a defining feature in schizophrenia, which involves the experience that the past self is not meaningfully connected to the present self. Self-continuity may be established through the life story. In this study-in-progress we examine whether patients with schizophrenia...

  4. Saccadic distractibility is elevated in schizophrenia patients, but not in their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, James H; Simon, Helen; Zanelli, Jolanta W; Walwyn, Rebecca; McDonald, Colm D; Murray, Robin M

    2005-12-01

    Saccadic distractibility, as measured by the antisaccade task, has attracted attention as a putative endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia. Some studies have suggested that this measure is elevated in the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients. However, recent studies have called this into question and the topic remains controversial. Saccadic distractibility was measured in 53 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, 80 unaffected first-degree relatives and 41 unaffected controls.Results. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than relatives and controls combined (p<0.00001), but relatives did not differ significantly from controls. Performance in multiply affected families was no worse than that in singly affected families. Relatives with a high presumed genetic risk for schizophrenia performed no worse than other relatives. The performance of the patients did not predict that of their relatives. These results demonstrate that saccadic distractibility is strongly associated with disease status but not with genetic loading for schizophrenia. We conclude that saccadic distractibility is unlikely to be useful as an endophenotypic marker in schizophrenia.

  5. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  6. TP53 polymorphisms are involved in inverse colorectal cancer comorbidity in Chinese schizophrenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Liming; Huang Guoxin; Zhao Leyong; Chen Xiaofen; Chen Wenjiao

    2015-01-01

    The inverse cancer comorbidity in schizophrenia patients may be related to the genetic factors ,involving the regu‐lation of apoptosis .The tumour suppressor gene TP53 ,involved in neural apoptosis ,is one of the potential candidate genes associat‐ed with schizophrenia which might reduce colorectal cancer risk .We recruited 270 schizophrenia patients and 312 colorectal cancer patients without schizophrenia .To examine the genetic association between schizophrenia and colorectal cancer ,we analysed eight SNPs (rs12951053 ,rs1625895 ,rs2909430 ,rs9895829 ,rs1042522 ,rs8079544 ,rs8064946 ,rs17806770) covering 14 .35 kb in the re‐gion of TP53 .We observed that one of the eight genetic polymorphisms showed statistically significant differences between the colo‐rectal cancer subjects and the schizophrenia subjects (rs12951053 ,P=0 .000 1 ,OR 1 .70 ,95% CI 1 .30-2 .23) .In addition ,the hap‐lotype of A‐G (rs12951053‐rs8064946) ,giving a global P=0 .001 8 ,was the most significant .Our data indicate that the polymor‐phisms of rs12951053 in TP53 confer reduced susceptibility to colorectal cancer and suggest a potential protective mechanism a‐gainst colorectal cancer in the schizophrenia patients of Han Chinese origin .

  7. Thalamic nuclear abnormalities as a contributory factor in sudden cardiac deaths among patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia have a two- to three-fold increased risk of premature death as compared to patients without this disease. It has been established that patients with schizophrenia are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Moreover, an important issue that has not yet been explored is a possible existence of a "cerebral" focus that could trigger sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. Along these lines, several structural and functional alterations in the thalamic complex are evident in patients with schizophrenia and have been correlated with the symptoms manifested by these patients. With regard to abnormalities on the cellular and molecular level, previous studies have shown that schizophrenic patients have fewer neuronal projections from the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex as well as a reduced number of neurons, a reduced volume of either the entire thalamus or its subnuclei, and abnormal glutamate signaling. According to the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia, hypofunctional corticostriatal and striatothalamic projections are directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Animal and post-mortem studies have provided a large amount of evidence that links the sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP that occurs in patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy to thalamic changes. Based on the results of these prior studies, it is clear that further research regarding the relationship between the thalamus and sudden cardiac death is of vital importance.

  8. Neural correlates of planning performance in patients with schizophrenia--relationship with apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg, Edith J; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni J L A S; Bais, Leonie; Knegtering, Henderikus; van Osch, Matthias J P; Renken, Remco J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from apathy: a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors that impairs daily functioning. We hypothesized that schizophrenia patients with high levels of apathy would show decreased activation in brain regions involved in planning and goal-directed behavior. Patients with schizophrenia or psychotic spectrum disorder (n=47) and healthy controls (n=20) performed the Tower of London (ToL) task during fMRI scanning using arterial spin labeling. To investigate the relationship between apathy and planning in patients, a proxy measure of apathy based on the Positive and Negative syndrome Scale was regressed against the task-related brain activation. Brain activation was also compared between patients and healthy controls. Higher levels of apathy were associated with less task-related activation within the inferior parietal lobule precuneus and thalamus. Compared to controls, patients showed lower activation in lateral prefrontal regions, parietal and motor areas, and a higher activation of medial frontal areas. Apathy was related to abnormal activation in thalamus and parietal regions during the ToL task. This supports the hypothesis that impaired function of brain regions involved in planning and goal-directed behavior may underlie apathy in schizophrenia. Moreover, impaired lateral prefrontal activation in schizophrenia patients compared to controls is consistent with the hypofrontality model of schizophrenia. In contrast, stronger medial frontal activation in patients may be related to increased effort to perform a task with conflicting task solutions.

  9. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagar Tadmor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  11. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  12. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  13. Effectiveness of sulpiride in adult patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hsien; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Lin, Chia-Yin

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness among sulpiride, risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol by evaluating the persistence of drug use. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Patients with schizophrenia aged 18-65 years and newly prescribed with a single oral antipsychotic medication between years 2003 and 2008 were included. The primary outcome was the persistence of antipsychotic agents by calculating the treatment duration till treatment changed. All defined treatment changes were also analyzed separately, including discontinuation, switching, augmentation, and hospitalization. A total of 1324 eligible patients were included, with an average age of 36 years old and approximately 45% of them were female. The most prevalent antipsychotic use was risperidone (42.1%), followed by sulpiride (36.0%), haloperidol (14.2%), and olanzapine (7.7%). After adjusting for patient demographics, mental illness characteristics, and propensity score, the Cox regression models found that the risk of nonpersistence was significantly higher in patients receiving risperidone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.40), haloperidol (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.63-2.40), and olanzapine (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.68), as compared with sulpiride, suggesting the effectiveness of sulpiride was better than the other 3 antipsychotics. Therefore, this study would provide strong grounds for a properly conducted randomized controlled trial of the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of sulpiride vs atypical antipsychotics.

  14. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  15. Factors Influencing Rehospitalisation of Patients with Schizophrenia in Japan: A 1-year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shimada

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study provided preliminary support for the finding that individualized occupational therapy and proper adherence to outpatient treatment and medication are associated with reducing the rehospitalisation of patients with schizophrenia in Japan.

  16. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Sandeep; Nebhinani, Naresh; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Avasthi, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. Methods...

  17. Stigma and its correlates in patients with schizophrenia attending a general hospital psychiatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakanksha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia experience stigma and stigma is associated with lower level of functioning and better knowledge about illness is associated with lower level of stigma.

  18. Sleep disorders in patients with depression or schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial using acupuncture treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this preliminary clinical trial was to investigate whether acupuncture has a positive influence on sleep and symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used. One hundred participants were recruited: 40

  19. Application of Empowerment Scale to patients with schizophrenia: Japanese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sumie; Suzuki, Kunifumi

    2007-12-01

    Rogers et al. invented the Empowerment Scale, and conducted a factor analysis, which found five factors: self-esteem, power, activism, righteous anger and optimism. Hata et al. translated this scale into Japanese and named it Empowerment Scale-J. They found that the score of the righteous anger factor does not have a significant correlation with the overall score of the Empowerment Score-J. With the aim of clarifying the characteristics of the Empowerment Scale-J, the purpose of the present study was to assess the levels of empowerment in 72 Japanese patients with chronic schizophrenia using the scale, and examine the relationship between the results of the scale and the results of the following two batteries: Social Adjustment Scale II (SAS II), and Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire (EASQ; a questionnaire to assess some aspects of attitude toward negative circumstances). Four results were obtained as follows. No significant correlation was found between the score of righteous anger factor and overall score. No significant correlation was found between the Empowerment Scale-J score and the degree of social adjustment. Significant correlations were found between some subscales of Empowerment Scale-J and the degree of social adjustments: self-esteem and optimism, but inverse correlations were obtained between the power factor and the righteous anger factor and the degree of social adjustment. Results for the EASQ showed that subjects with a higher righteous anger score have a tendency opposite to that of subjects with higher social adjustment. On the basis of these results it is suggested that behavior related to the righteous anger among Japanese persons with schizophrenia may have some negative influence on their social adaptation and that in applying Empowerment scale-J attention should be paid to the significance of the righteous anger factor.

  20. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  1. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  2. Prolactin and estradiol serum levels in unmedicated male paranoid schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Michael; Avital, Avi; Berstein, Severina; Derevenski, Andrei; Sandbank, Sergio; Weizman, Abraham

    2007-03-30

    There is evidence for the involvement of the endocrine system in schizophrenia. This involment was widely investigated in female patients. In the current study, we examined prolactin and estradiol serum levels in hospitalized unmedicated men with first-episode and recurrent schizophrenia and then tested possible correlation with various subtypes of the disease. In addition, the estradiol and prolactin levels were compared with a healthy control group. The serum samples were assessed the morning following admission in fifty-seven schizophrenia male patients. There was a significant difference in prolactin serum levels between the paranoid and "nonparanoid" schizophrenia subgroups. However, no significant differences were found in estradiol serum levels between schizophrenia subtypes or between the patients and their healthy counterparts. Finally, a significant and positive correlation was found between the prolactin and estradiol levels in the paranoid subgroup alone. Thus, it appears that low estradiol levels are associated with low prolactin levels, alleged hyperdopaminergic tone and psychotic breakdown in paranoid schizophrenia. The results of the present study further support our previous report of the association between prolactin serum levels and the schizophrenia cluster subtypes, indicating a different dopaminergic activity for the various forms of the disease.

  3. Cannabinoid receptors on peripheral leukocytes from patients with schizophrenia: Evidence for defective immunomodulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Carli, Salvina Maria; Araújo, Marcio Sobreira; de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda Cardoso; de Rezende, Vitor Bortolo; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Ferretjans, Rodrigo; Ribeiro-Santos, Rafael; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Berk, Michael; Salgado, João Vinícius; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-04-01

    to evaluate cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) expression on peripheral immune cells, i.e., blood monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and NK cells, and their relationship to a wide range of serum cytokine levels in subjects with schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 55 people with chronic schizophrenia and 48 controls were enrolled in the study. The expression of the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R was evaluated in peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry. Serum levels of cytokines/chemokines were simultaneously analyzed by cytometric bead array. We found higher expression of cannabinoid receptors on cells of the innate immune system in subjects with schizophrenia when compared with controls. Serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN-γ), and (C-X-C motif) ligand 10/interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (CXCL10/IP10) were decreased, while levels of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) were increased in the schizophrenia group in comparison with controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed simpler correlation network between cytokines and CBRs expression than controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed increased CBRs expression in cells of the innate immune system and simpler correlation network between cytokines and CBRs expression when compared with controls. These results suggest a defective endocannabinoid system-mediated immunomodulation in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative MRI Measures of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Volavka, Jan; Elisabeth M Weiss; Czobor, Pál; Szeszko, Philip R.; Gerig, Guido; Chakos, Miranda; Blocher, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie L.; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Sheitman, Brian; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Bilder, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volumes and functional domains in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is poorly undestood. OFC dysfunction is implicated in several of the behaviors that are abnormal in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the relationship between these behaviors and OFC volumes. Forty-nine (49) patients received magnetic resonance imaging scanning as part of a double-blind treatment study in which psychiatri...

  5. Comparison of Hemoglobin Transmition Spectrums of Healthy Persons and Patients with Schizophrenia Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Marsel L.; Vlokh I.; Moroz O.; Dudok K.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the study of human hemoglobin transmission spectrums that were divided into four groups: hemoglobin of healthy persons, patients with schizophrenia, persons and people with and without the prodrome of schizophrenia that are in genetic susceptibility with patients. The change of absorption spectrums of hemoglobin of these groups was determined. The shifting of transmission minimums of the hemoglobin that correspond to electronic transitions in the hemoglobin mol...

  6. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kudumija Slijepčević, Marija; Jukić, Vlado; Novalić, Darko; Žarković-Palijan, Tija; Milošević, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. Method The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N = 104) and without (N = 102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, sui...

  7. Association of gliadin antibodies, HLA alleles, and schizophrenia in Cuban population patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Galván

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse antibodies, as well as the presence of the HLA alleles, HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 (DQ2 and HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8, among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls were evaluated. Gliadin antibodies were determined by a visual semiquantitative assay and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were determined both by one-step immunochromatografic assay and ELISA. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification using sequence-specific primers for each allele. Results: We found a strong association between the presence of gliadin antibodies and schizophrenia (OR 3.488; 95% CI, 1.43-8.44. However, tissue transglutaminase antibodies were not detected in either group neither by immunochromatograpic or ELISA. No significant association was found for the DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimer and the disease, but a significant positive association between schizophrenia and HLA alleles DQA1*0301 and DQB1*02 was present (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.27-6.17, and OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.24-4.53, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that the presence of gliadin antibodies was not correlated with the presence of HLA DQA1*0301 or DQB1*02 alleles within the group of patients with schizophrenia. Our study replicates the findings that anti-gliadin antibodies are associated with schizophrenia but also suggests that the presence of these antibodies and the HLA alleles DQB1*02 and DQA1*0301 are independently associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  8. Can patients with schizophrenia undergo renal transplantation with success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Bouhlel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 41-year-old man suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. The patient has been consulting in our psychiatric hospital since he was 29 years old. Eight years later, he developed kidney failure and required peritoneal dialysis. After more than two years, the nephrology team indicated a renal transplantation and his brother suggested giving his kidney. There were no obstacles for transplantation in the immune and histological compatibilities; the psychiatric staff decided to check the patient′s compliance with medication. The patient was compliant to all his medications and to the salt-free diet after the transplant operation. Few weeks later, he developed steroid-induced diabetes. Through the last two years, he had psychotic exacerbations with major anxiety and fear of losing the transplant. These relapses were managed by increasing doses of antipsychotics without need for hospitalization. At the present time, three years after transplantation, the nephrologists are decreasing the immunosuppressive agents and the steroids. The renal function is optimum and the diabetes is stabilized. This case exemplifies the potential for schizophrenic patients to undergo renal transplantation and to comply with follow-up medical care through a close cooperation between the patient′s family, the psychiatric staff and the nephrology team.

  9. The relationship between obesity and health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhanchou; Zhai, Jinguo; Wu, Renrong; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-02-01

    Studies have reported that up to 60% of individuals with schizophrenia are overweight or obese. This study explored the relationship between obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 1,108 patients with schizophrenia aged 18-50 years were recruited from 10 different sites in China. Demographic and medical information were collected; the Mandarin version of Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess HRQoL; in addition,height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese using cutoffs for Asian populations recommended by the World Health Organization. Fifty-six percent of participants with schizophrenia were overweight or obese. A higher BMI was associated with significantly lower scores in physical functioning, role-physical, and physical component summary (p's ≤ 0.010). Obese patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores in 3 domains and physical component summary of the SF-36 compared with normal weight patients (p's ≤ 0.007). Obesity is associated with decreased HRQoL in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest that the prevention and management of weight gain and obesity is important in improving HRQoL in patients who suffer from this devastating mental illness.

  10. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  11. Extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Svarer, Claus; Baaré, William F C; Allerup, Peter; Friberg, Lars; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2017-10-01

    Long-term dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade, common to all antipsychotics, may underlie progressive brain volume changes observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined associations between cortical volume changes and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials (BPND) in first-episode schizophrenia patents at baseline and after antipsychotic treatment. Twenty-two initially antipsychotic-naïve patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(123)I]epidepride single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT), and psychopathology assessments before and after 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (N = 13) or zuclopenthixol (N = 9). Twenty healthy controls matched on age, gender and parental socioeconomic status underwent baseline MRI and SPECT. Neither extrastriatal D2/3 receptor BPND at baseline, nor blockade at follow-up, was related to regional cortical volume changes. In post-hoc analyses excluding three patients with cannabis use we found that higher D2/3 receptor occupancy was significantly associated with an increase in right frontal grey matter volume. The present data do not support an association between extrastriatal D2/3 receptor blockade and extrastriatal grey matter loss in the early phases of schizophrenia. Although inconclusive, our exclusion of patients tested positive for cannabis use speaks to keeping attention to potential confounding factors in imaging studies.

  12. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tropisetron in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with psychosocial deficits that are primarily responsible for the poor long-term outcome of this disease. Auditory sensory gating P50 deficits are correlated with neuropsychological deficits in attention, one of the principal cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Our studies suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR agonist tropisetron might be a potential therapeutic drug for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate the effects of tropisetron on the cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled trial of tropisetron in patients with schizophrenia was performed. A total of 40 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had taken risperidone (2 to 6 mg/day were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed titration of tropisetron (n = 20, 10 mg/day or placebo (n = 20 in an 8-week double-blind trial. Auditory sensory gating P50 deficits and Quality of Life Scale (QLS, Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores were measured. Results In all, 33 patients completed the trial. Tropisetron was well tolerated. Administration of tropisetron, but not placebo, significantly improved auditory sensory gating P50 deficits in non-smoking patients with schizophrenia. The score on the rapid visual information processing (sustained visual attention task of CANTAB was significantly improved by tropisetron treatment. Total and subscale scores of PANSS were not changed by this trial. QLS scores in the all patients, but not non-smoking patients, were significantly improved by tropisetron trial. Conclusions This first randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial supports the safety and efficacy of adjunctive tropisetron for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  13. [The Relationship between Violence and Clinical Features, Insight and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köşger, Ferdi; Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Sönmez, İpek; Güleç, Gülcan; Genek, Müge; Akarsu, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the predictive factors of violent behavior in schizophrenia and the relationship between violent behavior and insight and cognitive functions in this study. 68 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were separated into two groups; with a history of violent behavior (n = 30) and without (n = 38). Both group swere administered the Positiveand Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, Schedule for Assessing the Three Components of Insight, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop Test. Male gender, the number of hospitalizations, incompliance with the treatment, alcohol and substance abuse, the number of suicide attempts, the mean score of PANSS positive symptoms, PANSS general symptoms and PANSS total were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia with a history of violent behavior, compared to non-violent group. Long delayed response subsection of CVLT mean score was lower in patients with violent behavior. Incompliance with the treatment (OR:5.927, p=0.041), alcohol and substance abuse (OR:21.089, p=0.000), and PANSS total score (OR:1.053, p=0.011)were identified as predictive factors of violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Lack of insight and executive function impairment are the core symptoms of schizophrenia and not seems to be associated with violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Impairment of memory may be associated with violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Incompliance with treatment, alcohol and substance abuse, and the severity of positive symptoms are important factors in predicting violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Ockelmann, Hans Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, over 2500 people are in psychiatric treatment in forensic mental health services at any one time, most suffering from schizophrenia. Many of them have illnesses that are resistant to medication. There is evidence of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT......) for schizophrenia, but not explicitly for this complex forensic group. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using ECT as augmentation therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia who were failing to respond to antipsychotic medication. METHODS: In one university......-based psychiatric clinic, data were extracted from the medical records of all patients treated with ECT during a 6-year period. Fifty-nine of these patients were diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum and eight were in specialist forensic hospital services. RESULTS: The mean duration of illness...

  15. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography assessment of sensory gating in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Nikolaj; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    in deficient sensory gating in schizophrenia patients. Twenty healthy male volunteers and 23 male schizophrenia patients were initially assessed in a somatosensory P50 suppression paradigm using concurrent electroencephalography (EEG)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology. The trials...

  16. Strategies to improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia: the role of support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallakh, Peggy; Findlay, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe research over the past 10 years on the role of support services in promoting medication adherence in mental health consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted using the terms "medication adherence," "schizophrenia," and "support services," using Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL. Reference lists from published studies were also reviewed to identify additional research studies. Twenty-two articles focused on support-service intervention studies, and these were selected for review. Available support-service interventions include adherence therapy, electronic reminders via text messages and telephones, cognitive-behavioral and motivational strategies, and financial incentives. Support-service intervention strategies need to be tailored to the specific needs of mental health consumers with schizophrenia. More research is needed to investigate effective support services to enhance long-term adherence and adherence to medications for medical illnesses in this population.

  17. Increased serum G72 protein levels in patients with schizophrenia: a potential candidate biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Albayrak, Yakup; Aksoy, Nurkan; Şahin, Başak; Beyazyüz, Murat; Kuloğlu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study. Materials and methods In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age-sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels. The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=-3.89, pschizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821. We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  18. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peggy Bosch; Maurits van den Noort; Sujung Yeo; Sabina Lim; Anton Coenen; Gilles van Luijtelaar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as wel as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory performance in patients with depression or schizophrenia and whether acupuncture can improve these. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A pragmatic clinical trial design was used. The study was conducted in a psychiatric clinic. Fifty patients with depression and 50 with schizophrenia were randomly divided into an experimental and a waiting-list group. Additional y, 25 healthy control participants were included. Twelve weeks of individualized acupuncture treatment was used as the clinical intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Al patients were tested before (T1) and after (T2) acupuncture treatment on a mood scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II), a simple working memory task (digit span), and a complex working memory task (letter-number sequencing); the healthy controls were tested at T1 only. RESULTS: Patients with depression scored worse than the others on the BDI-II, and patients with schizophrenia scored worse than the healthy controls. On the digit span, patients with schizophrenia did not differ from healthy controls whereas they scored worse of al on the letter-number sequencing. With respect to the acupuncture findings, first, the present study showed that the use of acupuncture to treat patients with schizophrenia was both practical and safe. Moreover, acupuncture had a positive effect on the BDI-II for the depression group, but acupuncture had no effect on the digit span and on the letter-number sequencing performance for the two clinical groups. CONCLUSION: The clinical improvement in patients with depression after acupuncture treatment was not accompanied by any significant change in a simple working memory task or in a more complex working memory

  19. Theory of mind impairments in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen K Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Wang, Yi; Li, Zhi; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-08-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment has been consistently demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia, but whether ToM impairments exist in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Few studies have examined the affective and cognitive components of ToM in schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine whether ToM impairments exist in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings, and whether there is any dissociation between the affective and cognitive components of ToM. We adopted a family-based case-control design. Participants were 41 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 43 unaffected siblings, and 42 healthy controls. The Yoni Task which measures the participants' ability to understand first- and second-order affective versus cognitive ToM and the Faux Pas Task which taps into integration of the affective and cognitive components of ToM were administered. Multivariate and univariate ANCOVAs were used to examine the group differences in ToM, while controlling for other neurocognitive functions. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings performed poorer on the Faux Pas Task (pschizophrenia performed worse than controls on second-order affective condition of the Yoni Task (p=0.004), but their unaffected siblings did not (p=0.063). We did not find any significant Group-by-Condition interaction in the Yoni Task (p=0.358). Patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings exhibit ToM impairments, but no dissociation between affective and cognitive component of ToM was found. Our findings support the notion that ToM deficit may be a trait marker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways to similar executive impairment: comparison of schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2013-12-30

    Executive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia, in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and dementia and in healthy aging. Identifying processes that critically constrain executive function can advance investigation of their biological basis and treatment planning. Recent findings that elderly healthy individuals showed similar impairment on conditional exclusion task as schizophrenia patients raised the question whether similar processes are impaired. To test this we compared 56 schizophrenia patients, 57 elderly and 77 young healthy individuals on three executive tests: conditional exclusion, abstraction and inhibition and tests of working memory and psychomotor speed. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than elderly healthy on abstraction, inhibition and verbal working memory. They were similarly impaired on Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET) outcome measures but differed in performance characteristics. Schizophrenia patients needed relatively more trials to learn the first PCET category than the second or the third. This correlated with other cognitive impairments, particularly in working memory. Elderly healthy individuals found it most difficult to learn the last category. The two groups showed different error patterns. We propose that schizophrenia patients have particular difficulty in early (probabilistic) learning ("what to do") while aging individuals have selective impairment in executive integration. These constitute distinct targets for customized treatment in the two conditions.

  1. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential...... (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty...... antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp...

  2. [Hematological Evaluation and Monitoring in Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila, Mauricio J; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Arenas González, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    To guide the clinician in taking decisions on the best strategies for assessing and monitoring the risk of blood disorders in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia in pharmacological treatment. A clinical practice guideline was developed following the guidelines of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection to collect evidence and grade recommendations. De novoliterature researchwas performed. With the use of antipsychotics there isriskofreducción in the leukocyte count and the risk of agranulocytosis,the later associated with the use of clozapine, although it is a rare event(0.8%) can be fatal; this effect occurs most frequently in the first twelve weeks of treatment and the risk is maintained aroundthe first year of it. The recommendations were considered strongin all hematologic related monitoring.A blood count should be taken at the start of pharmacological treatment. If the patient is started on clozapine one shouldbe taken weekly during the first three months, monthly until completing one year and every six months thereafter. If there is a decrease in white blood cell count the patient should be monitored regularly, stopping if is a less than 3,500 cells/mm(3) and consider referral if is less than 2,000 cells/mm(3). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. [How to involve patients with schizophrenia in their treatment using psychoeducation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized not only by symptoms, but also by a reduced insight that contributes to functional outcomes through a bad acceptation of the disease and a low involvement in treatment and care. Functional outcomes of schizophrenia are conditioned by the acceptance of the troubles, by the involvement in psychopharmacological treatment and in psychosocial care and by the expressed emotion level of the family. Psychoeducation improves adherence to treatment. Psychoeducation lowers relapse rate. All the patients suffering from schizophrenia and their families should benefit from psychoeducation.

  4. Dental caries status of patients with schizophrenia in Seville, Spain: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Monsalve-Guil, L; Ortiz-Garcia, I; Jimenez-Guerra, A; Lopez-Lopez, J; Segura-Egea, J J

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the dental status (DMFT) in patients with schizophrenia compared with a control group. In this case-control study, 50 patients with schizophrenia attended in the Psychiatric Unit at the Virgen Macarena University Hospital of Seville were compared with 50 people (without systemic diseases and not taking psychotropic drugs) in a control group attended in the School of Dentistry of Seville. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed according to the World Health Organization WHO criteria. Patients with schizophrenia showed a decayed teeth (DT) score of 7.26 ± 5.69 compared with 6.50 ± 4.37 for patients the control group. These differences were significant and suggest that dental caries are most prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. People who smoked showed significantly higher DT scores in both groups. Among patients with schizophrenia, smokers scored 9.34 ± 5.42 compared with 4.38 ± 4.82 for non-smokers. Among the healthy controls, smokers scored 6.88 ± 4.85 compared with 6.12 ± 3.85 for non-smokers (p schizophrenia showed a missing teeth (MT) score of 9.10 ± 8.56 compared with 5.38 ± 5.14 in control patients. MT scores increased significantly with age and with smoking in both groups of patients (p schizophrenia showed a filled teeth (FT) score of 1.38 ± 2.70 compared with 2.34 ± 3.48 in control patients. FT differences in gender and smoking habits between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects were statistically significant (p schizophrenia have extensive untreated dental disease. Patients with schizophrenia constitute a high risk population for dental health. This group showed a greater prevalence of decayed and missing teeth and more extensive treatment needs.

  5. High-functioning autism patients share similar but more severe impairments in verbal theory of mind than schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, L N W; Lui, S S Y; Ho, K K Y; Hung, K S Y; Wang, Y; Yeung, H K H; Wong, T Y; Lam, S M; Chan, R C K; Cheung, E F C

    2017-09-18

    Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM. The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients. The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism-schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.

  6. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia in a selected Medical College Hospital, Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Kunjalata Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a severe form of mental disorder which is chronic and disabling in nature. Family members of schizophrenia patients often show negative attitude with higher range of expressed emotion (EE) towards their relative as they experience significant stress in coping with caring such patients. Material and methods: The present study was conducted to assess EE of family members of patients with schizophrenia. The study setting was outpatient department and psychiatric ...

  8. Broader visual orientation tuning in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel eRokem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA levels in cerebral cortex are thought to contribute to information processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SZ, and we have previously reported lower in vivo GABA levels in the visual cortex of patients with SZ. GABA-mediated inhibition plays a role in sharpening orientation tuning of visual cortical neurons. Therefore, we predicted that tuning for visual stimulus orientation would be wider in SZ. We measured orientation tuning with a psychophysical procedure in which subjects performed a target detection task of a low-contrast oriented grating, following adaptation to a high-contrast grating. Contrast detection thresholds were determined for a range of adapter-target orientation offsets. For both SZ and healthy controls, contrast thresholds decreased as orientation offset increased, suggesting that this tuning curve reflects the selectivity of visual cortical neurons for stimulus orientation. After accounting for generalized deficits in task performance in SZ, there was no difference between patients and controls for detection of target stimuli having either the same orientation as the adapter or orientations far from the adapter. However, patients’ thresholds were significantly higher for intermediate adapter-target offsets. In addition, the mean width parameter of a Gaussian fit to the psychophysical orientation tuning curves was significantly larger for the patient group. We also present preliminary data relating visual cortical GABA levels, as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and orientation tuning width. These results suggest that our finding of broader orientation tuning in SZ may be due to diminished visual cortical GABA levels.

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutfi Incesu; Meral Baydin; Kerim Aslan; Baris Diren; Huseyin Sahin; Omer Boke; Senol Dane

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits the assessment of cerebral neurometabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, in vivo and has been used to study schizophrenia. The present study used 1H-MRS to compare the spectroscopy change of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus of both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, as well as between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the schizophrenia patients. Results showed that N-acetylaspartate and creatine metabolite levels in the left anterior cingulate gyrus were significantly lower in the schizophrenia patients than in the healthy controls, indicating hypometabolism. In addition, choline concentration in the left caudate nucleus of schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than in the right caudate nucleus, indicating that it is necessary to study the cerebral lateralization of 1H-MRS in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Structural and functional cerebral changes in patients with schizophrenia and genetic risk-allele carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Kambeitz, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders and is associated with a substantial part of worldwide disease burdon1. The clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia can be separated into positive symptoms such as halluciations and delusions as well as negative symptoms such as cognitive impairments, apathy, blunted affect and social withdrawal2. It has been suggested that understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes that give rise to these symptoms is a cr...

  11. Gendering and schizophrenia: Negotiating power relations, gender understandings and experience in psychiatric/patient interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Linda Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis uses a discursive approach to examine psychiatric understandings of gender and schizophrenia in clinical encounters between professionals and patients. Chief reasons for undertaking the research were an unease about the concept of schizophrenia and a lack of attention to interactive psychiatric contexts in feminist work on gender and madness. This study attempts to move b...

  12. Stigma in patients with schizophrenia receiving community mental health care: a review of qualitative studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Bart; Mestdagh, Annelien

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this review is to identify consistent themes among the qualitative literature on stigma as experienced by community mental health patients with schizophrenia. With the treatment focus of schizophrenia nowadays shifting more and more towards community-based mental health care, professionals need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of their clients in their social environment as a result of stigma towards their disease. In-depth knowledge on stigma is cr...

  13. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Faget-Agius Catherine; Laurent Boyer; Wirsich Jonathan; Ranjeva Jean-Philippe; Richieri Raphaelle; Soulier Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny Sylviane; Auquier Pascal; Guye Maxime; Lançon Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Comp...

  14. Efficacy of social skill training in patient with chronic schizophrenia: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with schizophrenia often have social skills deficits. Social skill training (SST is a structured learning oriented approach for patient with schizophrenia. Effectiveness of SST improves communication, which achieves patient′s goals in social situations. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of SST in patient with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 65 patients with chronic schizophrenia participated in the study, 34 in experimental and 31 as a control group. This was cross-sectional interventional study. The patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (all types disorders using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10, classification of mental and behavioral disorders, ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research criteria. Patient with more than 2 years duration of illness were included in the study groups. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to rule out predominant positive symptoms. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and social adaptive functioning evaluation (SAFE were used to measure the efficacy of SST in schizophrenia patient. All participants were examined on SANS, and SAFE on pre- and post-test design. Data were analyzed using Statistical pakage for social sciences SPSS 17 version. P < 0.005 was considered as statistically significance. Results: The pre-and post-intervention score of SAFE of the control group did not show significant differences (P = 0.053. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-intervention SAFE scores in the experimental group were noted (P < 0.002. The result indicated no significant decrease in SANS score in the experimental group compared to the control group (P = 0.072. However, results indicated significant improvement in alogia, apathy, and anhedonia (P = 0.007, P = 0.030, P = 0.025. Conclusion: SST is effective in improving social skills of patients with schizophrenia. SST is effective in alogia, apathy

  15. Gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Sulejmanpašić Arslanagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is devastating neuropsychiatric disorder that has no clearly identified etiology. The subtypes of schizophrenia are distinguished by the prevalent symptomatology. The aim of this study was to determine gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia.Methods: A longitudinal, prospective,original,clinical investigation first in our local area, with application of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I was used in this work. The study included 121 patients during five years period. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions to the Psychiatric clinic, from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Sarajevo region.Results: The study was conducted on a group of schizophrenic patients which consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female patients. Average duration of the episode was about a month. Majority of patients (male were in the group of disorganized (hebephrenic schizophrenia. The duration of current psychotic episode was similar in all three groups regarding subtypes of schizophrenia. Psychotic episodes appear equally in both gender (higher in disorganized group with a statistically significant difference between all groups (p<0.001.Conclusions: Male group patients showed tendency to be younger than women. Most of the schizophrenic individuals start to suffer from this disease between age of 20 and 39 years. Male group patients suffered mostly of disorganized (hebephrenic type of schizophrenia. Duration of psychotic episode was proportionally the same in both groups while in male group the highest number of episodes was found in group of disorganized schizophrenia.

  16. Gray Matter Volume Decreases in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677

  17. Neuron-specific Enclose and Myelin Basic Protein in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with First Episode Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuying; WU Hanrong; GUO Huirong; ZHAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to study whether patients with schizophrenia have cerebral injury, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP)in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 patients with first episode schizophrenia and 9 from the control group were determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. The results showed that there was significant difference in the NSE contents between the experimental group and control group (P<0.01). The NSE contents in CSF in the experimental group were positively correlated with MBP in schizophrenia patients (P<0.05). These findings suggested that patients with schizophrenia had cerebral injury.

  18. Bizarre delusions: A qualitative study on Indian schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delusions are an important symptom for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ in both the commonly used international classificatory systems - the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV - American Psychiatric Association, 2000 and the International Classification of Diseases, X (ICD X - World Health Organization, 1992. Of special significance are "bizarre delusions" the presence of which is alone sufficient for a diagnosis of SZ in DSM IV. In an attempt to find out the frequency, criteria for classification, and other clinical aspects of bizarre delusions and justification of their importance in the diagnostic system, this retrospective study was conducted. Methodology: Records of 1952 Indian patients affected with SZ, recruited for various research projects at one center were included in this study. All had a diagnosis of DSM IV SZ; all symptoms of SZ from the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies were asked regardless of the presence of specific symptoms - like bizarre delusions - sufficient for diagnosis. Results: The prevalence of bizarre delusions was 2.56%. Five themes, identified on analyzing their contents are described. Main themes were unnatural, bodily sensation, change in identity, sexual, and religious. Conclusions: These themes were culture based, but definitely out of context, excessive or extremely odd. Moreover, the rarity of bizarre delusions makes it difficult to include them as a sole criterion for diagnosis.

  19. Aberrant interference of auditory negative words on attention in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norichika Iwashiro

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that deficits in attention-emotion interaction are implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Although disruption in auditory processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, deficits in interaction between emotional processing of auditorily presented language stimuli and auditory attention have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, the current study used a dichotic listening task to examine 22 patients with schizophrenia and 24 age-, sex-, parental socioeconomic background-, handedness-, dexterous ear-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a word recognition task on the attended side in which a word with emotionally valenced content (negative/positive/neutral was presented to one ear and a different neutral word was presented to the other ear. Participants selectively attended to either ear. In the control subjects, presentation of negative but not positive word stimuli provoked a significantly prolonged reaction time compared with presentation of neutral word stimuli. This interference effect for negative words existed whether or not subjects directed attention to the negative words. This interference effect was significantly smaller in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the smaller interference effect was significantly correlated with severe positive symptoms and delusional behavior in the patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest that aberrant interaction between semantic processing of negative emotional content and auditory attention plays a role in production of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. (224 words.

  20. Parental age effects on odor sensitivity in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Dolores; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Antonius, Daniel; Dracxler, Roberta; Rothman, Karen; Puthota, Jennifer; Gilman, Caitlin; Feuerstein, Jessica L; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R; Buckley, Peter; Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A schizophrenia phenotype for paternal and maternal age effects on illness risk could benefit etiological research. As odor sensitivity is associated with variability in symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia, we examined if it was related to parental ages in patients and healthy controls. We tested Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL) as an explanatory factor, as LTL is associated with paternal age and schizophrenia risk. Seventy-five DSM-IV patients and 46 controls were assessed for detection of PEA, WAIS-III for cognition, and LTL, assessed by qPCR. In healthy controls, but not schizophrenia patients, decreasing sensitivity was monotonically related to advancing parental ages, particularly in sons. The relationships between parental aging and odor sensitivity differed significantly for patients and controls (Fisher's R to Z: χ(2)  = 6.95, P = 0.009). The groups also differed in the association of odor sensitivity with cognition; lesser sensitivity robustly predicted cognitive impairments in patients (<0.001), but these were unassociated in controls. LTL was unrelated to odor sensitivity and did not explain the association of lesser sensitivity with cognitive deficits.Parental aging predicted less sensitive detection in healthy subjects but not in schizophrenia patients. In patients, decreased odor sensitivity strongly predicted cognitive deficits, whereas more sensitive acuity was associated with older parents. These data support separate risk pathways for schizophrenia. A parental age-related pathway may produce psychosis without impairing cognition and odor sensitivity. Diminished odor sensitivity may furthermore be useful as a biomarker for research and treatment studies in schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of Oxytocin on Neural Response to Facial Expressions in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Park, Hye Yoon; Jung, Wi Hoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yun, Je-Yeon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Sung Nyun; Han, Hyun Jung; Kim, So-Yeon; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2015-07-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition is a core deficit in schizophrenia. Oxytocin has been shown to improve social perception in patients with schizophrenia; however, the effect of oxytocin on the neural activity underlying facial emotion recognition has not been investigated. This study was aimed to assess the effect of a single dose of intranasal oxytocin on brain activity in patients with schizophrenia using an implicit facial emotion-recognition paradigm. Sixteen male patients with schizophrenia and 16 age-matched healthy male control subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial at Seoul National University Hospital. Delivery of a single dose of 40 IU intranasal oxytocin and the placebo was separated by 1 week. Drug conditions were compared by performing a region of interest (ROI) analysis of the bilateral amygdala on responses to the emotion recognition test. It was found that nasal spray decreased amygdala activity for fearful emotion and increased activity for happy faces. Further, oxytocin elicited differential effects between the patient and control groups. Intranasal oxytocin attenuated amygdala activity for emotional faces in patients with schizophrenia, whereas intranasal oxytocin significantly increased amygdala activity in healthy controls. Oxytocin-induced BOLD signal changes in amygdala in response to happy faces was related to attachment style in the control group. Our result provides new evidence of a modulatory effect of oxytocin on neural response to emotional faces for patients with schizophrenia. Future studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of long-term treatment with intranasal oxytocin on neural activity in patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Clozapine prescription and quality of life in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C-L; Cai, M-Y; Ma, X-R; Zang, Y; Jia, F-J; Lin, Y-Q; Chiu, H F K; Ungvari, G S; Ng, C H; Zhong, B-L; Cao, X-L; Li, Y; Shinfuku, N; Xiang, Y-T

    2015-09-01

    Clozapine is frequently used to treat schizophrenia in China. Maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by Chinese primary care physicians, but no study has investigated the frequency of its use prescribed by primary care physicians. This study described the frequency, demographic and clinical characteristics of clozapine treatment and its impact on insight and quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. A total of 623 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 primary care services in Guangzhou, China in 2013 formed the study sample. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology, medication side effects and QOL were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection. The frequency of clozapine prescription was 35.6% with a mean daily dose of 127.7±88.2 mg. There were no significant differences between the patients with and without clozapine in either of the QOL domains after controlling the confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that patients on clozapine had younger age of onset, more hospitalizations, more severe extrapyramidal side effects, but better insight and fewer prescriptions of first generation antipsychotics. Clozapine use was found to be common and associated with better insight in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. Further examination of the rationale and appropriateness of clozapine in primary care in China is warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Surgical treatment of pelvic sarcoma in children: outcomes for twenty six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Muayad; Womer, Richard B; Dormans, John P

    2017-07-27

    Pelvic sarcoma is uncommon in children and challenging to treat. This study examined different surgical approaches to treat pelvic sarcoma with the aim of assessing the oncologic, and functional outcomes. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent surgery for pelvic sarcoma at our institution from 1992 to 2010. The functional status of the patients was examined after a minimum follow-up of two years. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. Nineteen (73%) patients were male and seven (27%) were female. Mean age at presentation was 12.0 ± 3.9 years. Nineteen patients had Ewing sarcoma (73%), five had osteosarcoma (19%), one had chondrosarcoma (4%) and one had rhabdomyosarcoma (4%). Iliac wing resection with no reconstruction was done in three patients. Reconstruction with free fibular graft A-frame was performed in four patients, saddle endoproshtesis in five patients, iliac autoclave in one patient, and internal hemipelvectomy in nine patients. Hindquarter amputation was performed in five patients. Median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 2.6-16 years). Nineteen patients were alive (73%); of those, 13 were known to be without disease, three were with disease and three did not have known tumor status. Six patients were reported deceased, three had osteosarcoma and three had Ewing sarcoma. Function was assessed in 17 patients; 64% were asymptomatic and ambulatory and 36% were symptomatic and ambulatory. Salvage reconstruction for pelvic sarcoma can be performed through various procedures on the extent of necessary bony resection. Survival rate and functional outcomes were promising in the performed study.

  4. Theory of Mind in first-episode schizophrenia patients: correlations with cognition and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Pedersen, Anya; Suslow, Thomas; Kueppers, Kerstin Annika; Arolt, Volker; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2010-06-01

    There is substantial evidence for Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Many psychotic symptoms may best be understood in light of an impaired capacity to infer one's own and other persons' mental states and to relate those to executing behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate ToM abilities in first-episode schizophrenia patients and to analyze them in relation to neuropsychological and psychopathological functioning. A modified Moving Shapes paradigm was used to assess ToM abilities in 23 first-episode patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched healthy controls. Participants had to describe animated triangles which moved (1) randomly, (2) goal-directed, or (3) in complex, socially interactive ways (ToM video sequences). Neuropsychological functioning, psychopathology, autistic and alexithymic features as well as empathetic abilities were correlated with ToM performance. Compared to healthy controls, first-episode schizophrenia patients gave more incorrect descriptions and used less ToM-related vocabulary when responding to socially complex ToM video sequences. No group differences were revealed for videos with random movements. ToM abilities correlated significantly with positive symptoms, reasoning, verbal memory performance and verbal IQ, but not with empathetic abilities or autistic and alexithymic features. When controlling for reasoning, verbal memory performance and verbal IQ, the correctness of video descriptions was still significantly worse in schizophrenia patients. The results of our study in first-episode schizophrenia patients underline recent findings on ToM deficits in the early course of schizophrenia. Only a moderate influence of neurocognitive deficits on ToM performance was observed. Impairment in ToM abilities seems to be predominantly independent of clinical state, alexithymia and empathy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal discounting of rewards in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Rass, Olga; Fridberg, Daniel J; Bishara, Anthony J; Forsyth, Jennifer K; Breier, Alan; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Hetrick, William P; Bolbecker, Amanda R; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2011-11-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) often show decision-making deficits in everyday circumstances. A failure to appropriately weigh immediate versus future consequences of choices may contribute to these deficits. We used the delay discounting task in individuals with BD or SZ to investigate their temporal decision making. Twenty-two individuals with BD, 21 individuals with SZ, and 30 healthy individuals completed the delay discounting task along with neuropsychological measures of working memory and cognitive function. Both BD and SZ groups discounted delayed rewards more steeply than did the healthy group even after controlling for current substance use, age, gender, and employment. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that discounting rate was associated with both diagnostic group and working memory or intelligence scores. In each group, working memory or intelligence scores negatively correlated with discounting rate. The results suggest that (a) both BD and SZ groups value smaller, immediate rewards more than larger, delayed rewards compared with the healthy group and (b) working memory or intelligence is related to temporal decision making in individuals with BD or SZ as well as in healthy individuals.

  6. Possible Drug-drug Interaction between Pregabalin and Clozapine in Patients with Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, O; Lykkegaard, S; Damkier, P

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug with anti-anxiety properties and is approved for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is common in patients with schizophrenia and pregabalin has been suggested as an off-label add-on treatment. METHODS: Pregabalin was added...... to clozapine in 2 patients with schizophrenia, who both suffered from severe anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Both patients experienced falls and consequently bone fractures. Increased plasma levels of clozapine likely contributed to the outcome. One patient had confirmed seizures whereas the mechanism in the other...

  7. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression (n = 892) were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found. CONCLUSION: Based...

  8. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su......PAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish...... Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. RESULTS: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10...

  9. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative correlation between cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels and negative symptoms of male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Ota, Miho; Yoshida, Sumiko; Arima, Kunimasa; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Amano, Naoji; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that oxytocin plays an important role in social interactions. Previous studies also suggest altered oxytocin function in patients with schizophrenia and depression. However, few studies have examined the central oxytocin levels in these disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oxytocin levels were measured by ELISA in male participants consisting of 27 patients with schizophrenia, 17 with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 21 healthy controls. CSF oxytocin levels of patients with schizophrenia or MDD did not differ significantly with healthy controls. The antidepressant dose or the Hamilton depression rating scale score did not significantly correlate with the oxytocin levels in MDD patients. CSF oxytocin levels in schizophrenic patients significantly negatively correlated with second generation antipsychotic dose (r=-0.49, P=0.010) but not with first generation antipsychotic dose (r=-0.13, P=0.50). A significant correlation was observed between oxytocin levels and negative subscale of PANSS (r=-0.38, P=0.050). This correlation remained significant even after controlling for second generation antipsychotic dose (r=-0.47, P=0.016). We obtained no evidence of altered CSF oxytocin levels in patients with schizophrenia or those with MDD. However, lower oxytocin levels may be related to higher second generation antipsychotic dose and more severe negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Me, myself and I: temporal dysfunctions during self-evaluation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Katharina D; Kircher, Tilo T J; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2014-11-01

    Self-concept is deeply affected in schizophrenia. Positive symptoms in particular are related to disturbed self/other distinctions. The neural networks underlying self-evaluation in schizophrenia have barely been investigated. The study reported here involved 13 patients with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls. During functional MRI, participants decided in three conditions whether the presented positive and negative personality traits characterized themselves, an intimate person, or included a certain letter. Based on the responses, each experimental condition was designed using a flexible factorial model. Controls and patients showed a similar behavioral pattern during self-evaluation, with group comparison revealing decreased activation in patients in the left inferior temporal gyrus and both temporal poles during self-ascription of traits, and in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of an intimate person. In patients, positive symptoms correlated positively with brain activation in the left parahippocampus during trait self-ascription. Hence, while evaluating themselves, schizophrenia patients revealed decreased activation in areas related to self-awareness overlapping with networks involved in theory of mind, empathy and social knowledge. Moreover, patients' brain activation during self-reflection was affected by the current positive symptomatology. The close interaction between self and other highlights the clinical and social relevance of self-processing deficits in schizophrenia.

  12. Schizophrenia patients with a history of childhood trauma have a pro-inflammatory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, U; McKernan, D; Cryan, J; Dinan, T

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia and patients with this syndrome have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in schizophrenia is associated with childhood trauma and that patients without a history of such trauma have a similar immune profile to healthy controls. We recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls, all of whom completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, we measured peripheral levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These immune parameters were compared in schizophrenia with childhood trauma, schizophrenia without childhood trauma and healthy controls. Patients with childhood trauma had higher levels of IL-6 and TNF-α than patients without trauma and healthy controls, and TNF-α levels correlated with the extent of the trauma. Patients with no trauma had similar immune profiles to controls. Childhood trauma drives changes, possibly epigenetic, that generate a pro-inflammatory phenotype.

  13. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afe Taiwo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. "n "nMethod: Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003- 2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. "nResults: There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female  ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. "nConclusion:Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  14. Fronto-striatal dysfunction during reward processing in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Max; Kahn, René S; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that is associated with impaired functioning of the fronto-striatal network, in particular during reward processing. However, it is unclear whether this dysfunction is related to the illness itself or whether it reflects a genetic vulnerability to develop schizophrenia. Here, we examined reward processing in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain activity was measured during reward anticipation and reward outcome in 27 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy volunteers using a modified monetary incentive delay task. Task performance was manipulated online so that all subjects won the same amount of money. Despite equal performance, siblings showed reduced activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and supplementary motor area (SMA) during reward anticipation compared to controls. Decreased ventral striatal activation in siblings was correlated with sub-clinical negative symptoms. During the outcome of reward, siblings showed increased activation in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex compared to controls. Our finding of decreased activity in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation and increased activity in this region during receiving reward may indicate impaired cue processing in siblings. This is consistent with the notion of dopamine dysfunction typically associated with schizophrenia. Since unaffected siblings share on average 50% of their genes with their ill relatives, these deficits may be related to the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia.

  15. FDG-PET scans in patients with Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Buchsbaum, Monte S; DeCastro, Alex; Shihabuddin, Lina; Mitelman, Serge A

    2016-09-01

    We recruited 14 unmedicated patients with Kraepelinian schizophrenia (12 men and 2 women; mean age = 47 years old), 27 non-Kraepelinian patients (21 men and 6 women; mean age = 36.4 years old) and a group of 56 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FDG positron emission tomography and MRI scans were coregistered for both voxel-by-voxel statistical mapping and stereotaxic regions of interest analysis. While both Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian patients showed equally lower uptake than healthy volunteers in the frontal lobe, the temporal lobes (Brodmann areas 20 and 21) showed significantly greater decreases in Kraepelinian than in non-Kraepelinian patients. Kraepelinian patients had lower FDG uptake in parietal regions 39 and 40, especially in the right hemisphere, while non-Kraepelinian patients had similar reductions in the left. Only non-Kraepelinian patients had lower caudate FDG uptake than healthy volunteers. While both patient groups had lower uptake than healthy volunteers in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, Kraepelinian patients alone had higher uptake in the ventral nuclei of the thalamus. Kraepelinian patients also showed higher metabolic rates in white matter. Our results are consistent with other studies indicating that Kraepelinian schizophrenia is a subgroup of schizophrenia, characterized by temporal and right parietal deficits and normal rather than reduced caudate uptake. It suggests that Kraepelinian schizophrenia may be more primarily characterized by FDG uptake decreased in both the frontal and temporal lobes, while non-Kraepelinian schizophrenia may have deficits more limited to the frontal lobe. This is consistent with some neuropsychological and prognosis reports of disordered sensory information processing in Kraepelinian schizophrenia in addition to deficits in frontal lobe executive functions shared with the non-Kraepelinian subtype.

  16. [Metabolic Control, Evaluation and Follow-up Interventions in Patients With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Tamayo, Nathalie; Arenas, María Luisa; Vélez Fernández, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the laboratory tests, related to metabolic risk that should be practiced to adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. To assist the clinician decision-making process about complementary diagnostic evaluation strategies in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The risk of overall mortality in schizophrenia is higher than in the general population excluding suicide. Results related with mortality associated to antipsychotics showed contradictory results. Metabolic outcomes showed a higher incidence and association with schizophrenia and treatment with antipsychotics (AP). The diagnosis of dyslipidemia in men with schizophrenia appears to be lower in comparison with the general population. However, changes in weight, blood sugar levels, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by the use of antipsychotics in general there is a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in adults with schizophrenia. Based on the evidence found a plan was formulated for the evaluation of physiological and paraclinical variables during and before the management with AP in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. The overall quality of evidence is low considering that most of the reports come from observational studies that have risk of bias and some designs have methodological limitations. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-05-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P 4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69-93.87, P schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relationship between depressive symptoms and quality of life in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Aloba, Olutayo O; Mapayi, B M; Oloniniyi, I O; Fatoye, F O; Makanjuola, R O A

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia is influenced by various factors such as depressive symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between depressive symptoms and QOL in outpatients with schizophrenia in Nigeria and evaluated the associated socio-demographic and clinical factors. One hundred patients with 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of schizophrenia participated in this study. Socio-demographic and clinical factors such as depression were assessed with Zung Self-rating Depression Scale and symptoms of schizophrenia with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia (PANSS). The level of functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. QOL was assessed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale. There were 27 (27.0 %) patients with depression. The depressed patients reported significant lower scores in all QOL domains when compared with the non-depressed group. All QOL domains were significantly negatively correlated with the total PANSS and all its subscales (except for psychological domain with total PANSS and social relationship and environmental domains with PANSS positive). Severity of depressive symptoms was significantly negatively correlated with all QOL domains. Functioning was significantly positively correlated with all QOL domains except in the environmental domain. Multiple regression analysis showed that depressive symptoms predicted all QOL domains except the social relationship domain while negative symptoms predicted social relationship and environmental domains. Depression is a common occurrence during the course of schizophrenia. Depressive and negative symptoms have a significant impact on the QOL of patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Atopic Diseases and Subsequent Ischemic Stroke Among Patients With Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Li, Cheng-Ta; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays an important role in schizophrenia and atopic diseases, and studies have suggested that chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of stroke. The role of atopic diseases in the development of stroke among patients with schizophrenia is still unknown. A total of 63,913 patients with schizophrenia without a stroke history between 2002 and 2008 and 63,913 age- and sex-matched controls were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Patients with schizophrenia and the reference group were divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of atopic diseases. Individuals who developed stroke during follow-up were identified. Patients with schizophrenia had an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke (no atopic disease: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-2.53; with atopic disease: HR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.63-3.69) compared with the reference group without atopic diseases. Among patients with schizophrenia, the presence of atopic diseases increased the risk of developing ischemic stroke (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.24-1.66), with a cumulative relationship between greater numbers of atopic comorbidities and a greater risk of ischemic stroke (one atopic disease: HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.19-1.63; two atopic comorbidities: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-2.00; at least 3 atopic comorbidities: HR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.55-5.12). The combined presence of schizophrenia and atopic diseases is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in later life compared with individuals without these conditions.

  20. Impaired automatization of a cognitive skill in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagshal, Dana; Knowlton, Barbara Jean; Cohen, Jessica Rachel; Poldrack, Russell Alan; Bookheimer, Susan Yost; Bilder, Robert Martin; Asarnow, Robert Franklin

    2014-02-28

    We studied healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia to test the hypothesis that deficits in cognitive skill learning are associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia. Using the Weather Prediction Task (WPT), 23 healthy controls and 10 adult first-degree Relatives Of Schizophrenia (ROS) patients were examined to determine the extent to which cognitive skill learning was automated using a dual-task paradigm to detect subtle impairments in skill learning. Automatization of a skill is the ability to execute a task without the demand for executive control and effortful behavior and is a skill in which schizophrenia patients possess a deficit. ROS patients did not differ from healthy controls in accuracy or reaction time on the WPT either during early or late training on the single-task trials. In contrast, the healthy control and ROS groups were differentially affected during the dual-task trials. Our results demonstrate that the ROS group did not automate the task as well as controls and continued to rely on controlled processing even after extensive practice. This suggests that adult ROS patients may engage in compensatory strategies to achieve normal levels of performance and support the hypothesis that impaired cognitive skill learning is associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia.

  1. Dimensions of intelligence in schizophrenia: evidence from patients with preserved, deteriorated and compromised intellect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Dragović, Milan; Waters, Flavie A V; Jablensky, Assen

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing a subgroup of "high-functioning" people with schizophrenia who show preserved intellectual ability (IQ). A detailed characterisation of the cognitive abilities of this group may be important in targeting appropriate treatment, management and services for patients with schizophrenia. It is a widely held belief that variation in cognitive processing speed is the basis of individual differences in intelligence. The main objective of this study was to identify subgroups of schizophrenia patients with preserved (N=45), deteriorated (N=47) and compromised (N=17) intellect in order to study whether these subgroups differ in specific cognitive abilities (e.g. executive functions) or in general cognitive processing speed, as measured with an inspection time (IT) task. The patients who displayed an average estimated premorbid IQ, with no evidence of IQ decline (premorbid-current IQ difference high functioning patients are impaired in terms of cognitive processing speed. Furthermore, the average IT for all schizophrenia groups was significantly slower than that of healthy controls. These findings suggest that high functioning patients with schizophrenia exhibit enduring cognitive difficulties that may impact on their ability to benefit from rehabilitation interventions.

  2. Impact of antipsychotic medication on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Chhabra, Harleen; Kalmady, Sunil V; Varambally, Shivarama; Nitsche, Michael A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has generated interest as a treatment modality for schizophrenia. Dopamine, a critical pathogenetic link in schizophrenia, is also known to influence tDCS effects. We evaluated the influence of antipsychotic drug type (as defined by dopamine D2 receptor affinity) on the impact of tDCS in schizophrenia. DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia patients [N=36] with persistent auditory hallucinations despite adequate antipsychotic treatment were administered add-on tDCS. Patients were divided into three groups based on the antipsychotic's affinity to D2 receptors. An auditory hallucinations score (AHS) was measured using the auditory hallucinations subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Add-on tDCS resulted in a significant reduction inAHS. Antipsychotic drug type had a significant effect on AHS reduction. Patients treated with high affinity antipsychotics showed significantly lesser improvement compared to patients on low affinity antipsychotics or a mixture of the two. Furthermore, a significant sex-by-group interaction occurred; type of medication had an impact on tDCS effects only in women. Improvement differences could be due to the larger availability of the dopamine receptor system in patients taking antipsychotics with low D2 affinity. Sex-specific differences suggest potential estrogen-mediated effects. This study reports a first-time observation on the clinical utility of antipsychotic drug type in predicting tDCS effects in schizophrenia.

  3. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Metacognition as a Framework to Understanding the Occurrence of Aggression and Violence in Patients with Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    in precipitating increased violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Over the last few years, it has become increasingly clear that the ability to comprehend the mental states of self and other, also termed metacognition, is a useful measure to understanding the psychopathology and social functioning...... in patients with schizophrenia. Characterizing the metacognitive profile in patients with schizophrenia can thus contribute to explaining the occurrence of violence and aggression in these patients.In this chapter, we present evidence supporting the viability and utility of metacognition as a framework...... of aggression and violence, and how these concepts are linked and conceptualized in this chapter. Here, we introduce a distinction between two subtypes of aggression and violence, namely impulsive and premeditated aggression/violence. This is followed by a section describing the nature of metacognitive...

  5. Impact of gray matter reductions on theory of mind abilities in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Saze, Teruyasu; Dannlowski, Udo; Ubukata, Shiho; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Pedersen, Anya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    To identify the brain regions involved in the interpretation of intentional movement by patients with schizophrenia, we investigated the association between cerebral gray matter (GM) volumes and performance on a theory of mind (ToM) task using voxel-based morphometry. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and thirty healthy controls participated in the study. Participants were given a moving shapes task that employs the interpretation of intentional movement. Verbal descriptions were rated according to intentionality. ToM performance deficits in patients were found to be positively correlated with GM volume reductions in the superior temporal sulcus and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings confirm that divergent brain regions contribute to mentalizing abilities and that GM volume reductions impact behavioral deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Sensory gating deficits and impaired quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Faugere, Mélanie; Boyer, Laurent; Cermolacce, Michel; Fond, Guillaume; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Vion-Dury, Jean; Lancon, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    New determinants of quality of life in schizophrenia need to be identified. As sensory gating deficit is core impairment in schizophrenia, the present study hypothesized that sensory gating deficit is a determinant of impaired quality of life in schizophrenia. This study therefore investigated the relationship between sensory gating deficit and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia after adjusting for key confounding factors. Sensory gating was assessed with the auditory event-related potential method by measuring P50 amplitude changes in a double-click conditioning-testing procedure, perceptual impairments related to sensory gating deficit was assessed with the SGI questionnaire and quality of life was assessed with the SQoL 18 questionnaire in 39 patients with schizophrenia. Patients with sensory gating deficit (n=14) had a lower subjective quality of life on the psychological well-being dimension evaluated with SQoL 18 questionnaire (p=0.008) compared to those without it (n=25). This result remained significant (B=-0.45, Wald=4.84, p=0.02) after taking into account 7 potential confounding factors (gender, age, level of education, duration of disorder, positive symptoms, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms). Poorer psychological well-being was related to a higher score on the SGI (rho=-0.40, p=0.01), in particular on the Distractibility dimension (rho=-0.47, p=0.001). These findings suggest that sensory gating deficit may be a determinant of impaired quality of life in schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to address the causal relationship between sensory gating deficit, perceptual impairments, attentional deficit and impaired quality of life in schizophrenia in order to act more efficiently on the quality of life of patients with this disorder.

  7. Neural correlates of out-group bias predict social impairment in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, J U; Williams, L E; Heckers, S

    2015-05-01

    Social impairments are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and are a key predictor of functional disability. Deficits in social information processing likely underlie social impairment; however, this relationship is understudied. We previously demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia fail to habituate to neutral faces, providing evidence for an alteration in basic social information processing. It remains unknown whether patients with schizophrenia also show deficits in processing of more complex social information. Out-group bias provides an excellent opportunity to test complex social information processing because the bias requires basic face processing skills, the ability to discriminate between groups, as well as the ability to categorize oneself into a salient social group. Study participants were 23 patients with schizophrenia and 21 controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, habituation of response to 120 s of repeated presentations of faces was assessed in participants who viewed either same-gender faces or opposite-gender faces. The interaction between face gender (same/opposite) and group was examined in three key regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and visual cortex. Social impairment was measured using the PANSS and correlations between social impairment and out-group effect (main effect of face type) were performed in patients. Patients with schizophrenia had aberrant neural responses to opposite-gender faces (interaction, psocial impairment. Patients with no social impairment showed a heightened neural response to opposite-gender faces after 30s, whereas patients with mild-moderate social impairment failed to ever show a heightened response. Alterations in neural responses during out-group processing predicted degree of social impairment in patients with schizophrenia; thus, neural responses to opposite-gender faces may provide a novel measure for studies of treatment response and disease outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. The incidence rate of cancer in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Jiasi; Yu, Xiya; Zheng, Huiwen; Sun, Xu; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Chunbo; Bi, Xiaoying

    2017-09-21

    Numerous studies report that cancer prevalence in patients with schizophrenia might be different from the general population, but findings remain controversial. Our updated meta-analysis of cohort studies aims to analyze the data from cohort studies concerning the incidence risk of overall cancer and some site-specific cancers in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a systemic search through electronic databases. Cohort studies evaluating and describing the cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for assessing the incidence risk of cancer. There were 16 cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, which combined a total of 480,356 participants with schizophrenia and 41,999 cases of cancer. Results showed that there was a slight significant decreased overall risk ratio of cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia (RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99). When stratified by cancer site and gender, there were significant decreased incidence risk rates of colorectal cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) and prostate cancer (RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71) in those patients, moreover, the incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased significantly in male patients (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98), and the incidence rate of lung cancer increased significantly in female patients (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The incidence risk of some cancers was reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Gender and type of cancer were two important confounding factors contributed to the heterogeneity that required adjustment in our cancer incidence meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug Addiction in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia and Its Relation With Psychopathology and Impulsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrgozar, Somayeh; Ahmadi, Reza; Yousefnezhad, Azadeh; Roshandelrad, Mahbobeh; Khosravi, Termeh; Ellahi, Masuomeh; Pakdaman, Mahdiyeh; Eskandari, Ameneh

    2015-03-26

    Using drugs is a common affliction in patients with Schizophrenia affecting their increasing death rate. They have to tolerate longer treatment time and staying in hospital and they further show more violence and their living quality decreases. It also seems that this factor is among the influential factors of unsuccessful results in treating these patients. Despite all this, there is little data about drug consumption, psychopathology and demographic information in patients with chronic schizophrenia in Iran. This paper reviews the relation between drug consumption and the mentioned qualities in patients afflicted by chronic Schizophrenia. In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients with Schizophrenia were interviewed based on DSM-IV-TR diagnostic parameters and according to a psychiatrist´s views. The severity of psychopathology was evaluated, using PANSS, (SCID-I) DSM-IV and BARRAT. The results show that in patients with chronic schizophrenia, there is a meaningful relation between cigarette consumption and education, gender, family background and BARRAT. It also has a direct correlation with Attention and Motor. Drug consumption has a meaningful relation with gender and Motor (p<0.05). But it has no relation with BARRAT. Of the variables having a relation with correlation, cigarette and treatment period factors have a predicting effect for drug consumption. According to the results, drug and cigarette consumption is high among patients with Chronic Schizophrenia. Common cigarette consumption and its relation with impulsiveness increase, and death rate are the reasons which make us take the needed steps to have these patients quit smoking.

  10. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007, along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology.

  11. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in Chinese patients with first-episode, medication-na(i)ve schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-ren; TAN Yun-long; YANG Fu-de; ZHANG Wu-fang; ZOU Yi-zhuang; TAN Shu-ping; SONG Chong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have prominent abnormality in information processing that can be observed by measures of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex and PPI deficits have been considered as a candidate endophenotypic marker of schizophrenia.However,there has been little information on PPI and related measures in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.The research was to explore the deficits of acoustic startle reflex that might exist in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.Methods Startle response to acoustic stimuli,habituation,and PPI were examined in 31 Chinese patients with first-episode,medication-naǐve schizophrenia and 30 age-and sex-matched healthy Chinese controls.At the same day of startle testing,psychopathological symptoms of the patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results Compared with healthy controls,patients exhibited the significant reduction in startle response and PPI deficits at 60 milliseconds (ms) intervals (PPI60,P <0.05) but not at 30 or 120 ms intervals.Furthermore,there was a relatively strong correlation between PPI60 (P <0.05) and scores of positive scale of PANSS in patients with schizophrenia.Conclusion Our findings confirmed impaired PPI in Chinese patients with schizophrenia and suggested that a relationship between sensorimotor gating deficits and clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia might exist.

  12. In patients with schizophrenia, symptoms improvement can be uncorrelated with quality of life improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-d'Almeida, K; Karrow, A; Bralet, M-C; Bazin, N; Hardy-Baylé, M-C; Falissard, B

    2013-03-01

    Quality of life has been found to be associated with symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the mechanism that underlies this association is still unclear. The objective of this paper is to prospectively evaluate the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia in relation to the concurrent evolution of their symptoms, their expectations and their perceived position in life. Participants included 306 outpatients with schizophrenia who were interviewed at baseline, 6 and 12 months, about their quality of life (Outcome revealed by Preference in Schizophrenia, OPS) and symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS). Quality of life relative to subject expectations remained stable over time. A decrease in symptoms was correlated to an increase in both expectations and perceived position in life but did not correlate to quality of life. The level of expectations seems to play a major role in the subjective assessment of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Symptom improvement is not necessarily associated with quality of life improvement relative to subject expectations. Caregivers should be aware of this result so as to deal with possible disappointments in patients receiving a new efficient treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the cool executive function using frontal electroencephalogram signals in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Zhao, Yun; Si, Yajing; Ren, Qiongqiong; Ren, Wu; Jing, Changqin; Zhang, Hongxing

    2016-11-25

    In schizophrenia, executive dysfunction is the most critical cognitive impairment, and is associated with abnormal neural activities, especially in the frontal lobes. Complexity estimation using electroencephalogram (EEG) recording based on nonlinear dynamics and task performance tests have been widely used to estimate executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The present study estimated the cool executive function based on fractal dimension (FD) values of EEG data recorded from first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during the performance of three cool executive function tasks, namely, the Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B), and Tower of Hanoi tasks. The results show that the complexity of the frontal EEG signals that were measured using FD was different in first-episode schizophrenia patients during the manipulation of executive function. However, no differences between patients and controls were found in the FD values of the EEG data that was recorded during the performance of the Tower of Hanoi task. These results suggest that cool executive function exhibits little impairment in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  14. Study of the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Granados, B; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Sanjuan, J; Aguilar, E J; Marti-Bonmati, L; Molla, E; Celda, B

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Previous studies have suggested morphometric and functional abnormalities in the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia. Auditory hallucinations are one of the central symptoms in schizophrenia. In this complex and multidimensional event both attention and emotion are thought to play a key role. AIM. To study metabolic changes in the inferior colliculus, a nucleus integrated in the auditory pathway, in patients with schizophrenia and the possible relationship with auditory hallucinations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging studies were performed in 30 right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (19 of them with auditory hallucinations) and 28 controls. A magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 2D slice was acquired and the voxels representative of both inferior colliculi were selected. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) peak areas were measured. RESULTS. The patients with schizophrenia showed a NAA/Cr significant reduction in the right inferior colliculus compared to the control subjects. The metabolic data in the right inferior colliculus were correlated with emotional auditory hallucinations items. CONCLUSIONS. The contribution of the inferior colliculus on neural underpinnings of auditory hallucinations is particularly relevant for the right inferior colliculus and is centered on attention-emotional component of this symptom.

  15. Polymorphisms of XRCC4 are involved in reduced colorectal cancer risk in Chinese schizophrenia patients

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    Li Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors related to the regulation of apoptosis in schizophrenia patients may be involved in a reduced vulnerability to cancer. XRCC4 is one of the potential candidate genes associated with schizophrenia which might induce colorectal cancer resistance. Methods To examine the genetic association between colorectal cancer and schizophrenia, we analyzed five SNPs (rs6452526, rs2662238, rs963248, rs35268, rs2386275 covering ~205.7 kb in the region of XRCC4. Results We observed that two of the five genetic polymorphisms showed statistically significant differences between 312 colorectal cancer subjects without schizophrenia and 270 schizophrenia subjects (rs6452536, p = 0.004, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.86; rs35268, p = 0.028, OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26. Moreover, the haplotype which combined all five markers was the most significant, giving a global p = 0.0005. Conclusions Our data firstly indicate that XRCC4 may be a potential protective gene towards schizophrenia, conferring reduced susceptibility to colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population.

  16. Implications of epigenetic modulation for novel treatment approaches in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Kudlow, Paul A; Baskaran, Anusha; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and complex mental disorder with high rates of disability, non-recovery, and relapse. The primary pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia are antipsychotics. Notwithstanding the efficacy of antipsychotics in ameliorating positive symptoms and reducing relapse rates, cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are not sufficiently treated with available pharmaceutical agents. Moreover, schizophrenia is associated with consistent, replicable, and clinically significant deficits in cognition. The importance of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is emphasized by reports indicating that the severity of cognitive deficits is predictive of treatment compliance, adherence, and risk of relapse among first-episode individuals. Taken together, this review highlights epigenetic modulations involving histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a potential avenue for novel treatment toward improvements in cognition and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. The combination of epigenetic modulation with pharmacological interventions that engage multiple disparate physiological systems implicated in schizophrenia are discussed, and may represent a more effective strategy in ameliorating cognitive deficits and mitigating symptoms for improved functionality.

  17. Examining patient race and area predictors of inpatient admission for schizophrenia among hospital users in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Rudoler, David; Durbin, Janet; Laporte, Audrey; Callaghan, Russell C

    2014-12-01

    According to international research African-Caribbean and Black African populations have increased risk of hospitalization for schizophrenia, compared to Whites. Less is known about admission risk for other racial-ethnic groups. This study investigated racial-ethnic differences in hospital admission for schizophrenia in California. It also investigated the influence of area social factors (racial-ethnic neighborhood composition, and per capita income) and health service factors (presence of primary care clinics). The study sample included individuals admitted to a California hospital during 1990-2005 with a primary appendicitis related diagnosis, and without a prior or concurrent indication of schizophrenia. The adjusted logistic model examined how patient racial-ethnicity (White, Black, Hispanic, Other), other personal, area social characteristics and presence of primary care clinics influenced hospital admissions for schizophrenia. Black individuals were almost twice as likely as Whites to be admitted while Hispanics and Other race individuals were less to be admitted. In addition, male sex, having more comorbidities and living in areas with greater proportions of non-Whites increased risk. The increased risk for Blacks compared to Whites was consistent with the existing literature. However, this is among the first studies to report that Hispanics had a reduced risk of admission for schizophrenia, compared to Whites. Future studies may want to include a broader range of health services to better understand patterns of care use among individuals with schizophrenia.

  18. Subjective symptoms in euthymic bipolar disorder and remitted schizophrenia patients: A comparative study

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    Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003. Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder.

  19. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Олександрівна Марута

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the modern literature on the problem of depressive disorders in schizophrenia structure demonstrated that despite the acceptance of the important role of depressive disorders at schizophrenia there are no single opinion about its place, clinical assessment, therapy, prognostic value for today and the conclusions of different authors on this problem are ambiguous and contradictory that proves that the researches of this direction are timely.Aim of research – to study the clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia for improvement of diagnostics of this pathology.Materials and methods. 120 patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptomatology in the clinical picture took part in research. They were divided into 3 groups according to the aim of research: 38 patients with schizophrenia with the duration of disease less than 5 years (I group, 39 patients with the duration of disease 7-8 years (II group and 43 patients with duration of disease more than 13 years (III group.For realization of the aim were used the following methods: clinical-psychopathological that included the assessment of psychic state of patient (collection of complaints, anamnesis, its psychopathological interpretation; Calgary depression scale schizophrenia (CDSS; WHO brief questionnaire of the quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF; questionnaire of the social isolation “The method of evaluation of the suicide risk”, “Self-actualization test” and method of statistical processing of the received data.Results of research. At the research was studied and described the syndrome structure of depression at schizophrenia and pathopsychological features of demonstration of depression at schizophrenia. There was shown that at the different stages of disease depression undergo the significant changes: anxious and obsessive syndrome complexes with time lose its emotional specificity and transform into

  1. Impairments of social motor coordination in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that motor coordination of interacting people plays a crucial role in the success of social exchanges. Abnormal movements have been reported during interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and a motor coordination breakdown could explain this social interaction deficit, which is one of the main and earliest features of the illness. Using the dynamical systems framework, the goal of the current study was (i to investigate whether social motor coordination is impaired in schizophrenia and (ii to determine the underlying perceptual or cognitive processes that may be affected. We examined intentional and unintentional social motor coordination in participants oscillating hand-held pendulums from the wrist. The control group consisted of twenty healthy participant pairs while the experimental group consisted of twenty participant pairs that included one participant suffering from schizophrenia. The results showed that unintentional social motor coordination was preserved while intentional social motor coordination was impaired. In intentional coordination, the schizophrenia group displayed coordination patterns that had lower stability and in which the patient never led the coordination. A coupled oscillator model suggests that the schizophrenia group coordination pattern was due to a decrease in the amount of available information together with a delay in information transmission. Our study thus identified relational motor signatures of schizophrenia and opens new perspectives for detecting the illness and improving social interactions of patients.

  2. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

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    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...

  3. The Application of Theta Burst Stimulation in Negative Symptoms of Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Reza Kazemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this research is study of theta burst stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in remission of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Materials and Methods: In a placebo, double blind and randomized study, 10 patients with schizophrenia assigned in experimental and control group. The experimental group received 20 sessions of TBS with 50 Hz frequency, but control group were treated just with sham coil. All the patients were appraised before, the 10th sessions and after the treatment. The treatment efficacy was calculated with ANOVA.Results: The results indicated that the experimental group had statistical difference to control group in negative symptoms (p>0.007 and social functioning (p>0.01. But there weren’t any significant difference in quality of life and depression between two groups.Conclusion: Theta burst stimulation can be mentioned as an efficacious treatment for people with schizophrenia.

  4. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls

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    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran;

    2012-01-01

    on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were......Background: Patients with schizophrenia show increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA). This compound is an end-metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, and its formation indirectly depends...... selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. Results: We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA...

  5. QTc interval in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic treatment as monotherapy or polypharmacy

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    Elliott, Anja Friis; Johan Mørk, Thibault; Højlund, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Antipsychotics are associated with a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, which, in the worst case, can lead to sudden cardiac death. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) is used as a clinical proxy for torsades de pointes. The QTc interval can be prolong...... on monitoring the QTc interval in women with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics as polypharmacy....... by antipsychotic monotherapy, but it is unknown if the QTc interval is prolonged further with antipsychotic polypharmaceutical treatment. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between QTc interval and antipsychotic monotherapy and antipsychotic polypharmaceutical treatment in schizophrenia......, and measured the frequency of QTc prolongation among patients. Methods: We carried out an observational cohort study of unselected patients with schizophrenia visiting outpatient facilities in the region of Central Jutland, Denmark. Patients were enrolled from January of 2013 to June of 2015, with follow...

  6. Increased prevalence of Chlamydophila DNA in post-mortem brain frontal cortex from patients with schizophrenia.

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    Fellerhoff, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    Infection can initiate symptoms of mental illness. It has been shown previously that Chlamydophila DNA is present six times more often in the blood of patients with schizophrenia than in the blood of control individuals. Monocytes, the main targets of Chlamydiaceae infection, are microglia precursors. We identified Chlamydiaceae infection using blinded brain DNA samples derived from the frontal cortex. Using PCR and sequence analysis, we found Chlamydophila DNA to be four times greater in patients with schizophrenia than in controls (schizophrenia: N=34, microbial DNA frequency 23.5%; controls: N=35, microbial DNA frequency 5.7%; P=0.045, OR=5.08). Persistent Chlamydophila-infected microglia or neuronal cells may impair neuronal circuits and thus be a mechanism for causing psychiatric illness in these patients.

  7. Diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia spectrum disorders among chronic patients with functional psychoses

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    Jakobsen, K D; Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether diagnostic agreement across different diagnostic systems improves in a sample of chronic patients suffering from functional psychosis compared to first-admitted patients. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Among 353 patients with a history of functional psychosis, a subset...... of 100 individuals (35 women and 65 men) were randomly sampled and assessed using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness and Affective Illness (OPCRIT). Based on the OPCRIT diagnoses the subjects suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to seven...... diagnostic systems were identified. Diagnostic agreement was assessed using unweighted kappa-statistics and pairwise concordance rates (CR). RESULTS: High diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia was observed across the ICD-10 and DSM systems (CR >0.70, kappa >0.70), which all had a significantly lower...

  8. Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Functional Remission of Patients With Schizophrenia.

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    Uzdil, Nurcan; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychosocial skills training on functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 100 patients were divided into the training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. The 13-session training program was given in the form of face-to-face group training and 45- to 60-min sessions twice a week. Training was completed by five groups. Every group comprised of 9 to 12 individuals on average. The training group had higher scores significantly on functional remission levels compared with the control group after psychosocial skills training (p Psychosocial skills training has become considerably effective in increasing the functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Strategies to improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia: the role of support services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallakh P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peggy El-Mallakh, Jan FindlayCollege of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review is to describe research over the past 10 years on the role of support services in promoting medication adherence in mental health consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted using the terms “medication adherence,” “schizophrenia,” and “support services,” using Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL. Reference lists from published studies were also reviewed to identify additional research studies. Twenty-two articles focused on support-service intervention studies, and these were selected for review. Available support-service interventions include adherence therapy, electronic reminders via text messages and telephones, cognitive–behavioral and motivational strategies, and financial incentives. Support-service intervention strategies need to be tailored to the specific needs of mental health consumers with schizophrenia. More research is needed to investigate effective support services to enhance long-term adherence and adherence to medications for medical illnesses in this population.Keywords: schizophrenia, medication adherence, support services, therapy, interventions

  10. Genetic variants of interleukin-10 gene promoter are associated with schizophrenia in Saudi patients: A case-control study

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    Saeed Mohammad Al-Asmary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10 gene is considered as a potential candidate gene in schizophrenia association studies. The polymorphisms on IL-10 gene have been reported to be linked with susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia within consistent results. Aims: The aim of this case-control study was to examine whether the -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C polymorphisms in IL-10 gene are implicated in schizophrenia development in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Molecular genotyping of IL-10 gene polymorphisms was performed to analyze the genotypes and alleles distribution of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in patients (n = 181 and healthy individuals as control group (n = 211. Results: The frequencies of GA genotype at -1082, and CC genotype at positions -592 and -819 were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy subjects suggesting that GA, CC, and CC genotypes are susceptible to schizophrenia. The ACC haplotype known to be associated with intermediate production of IL-10 are more prevalent in our schizophrenia patients. On the other hand, genotypes -1082 GG, -819 CT, and -592 CA of IL-10 were more prevalent in healthy controls suggesting protective effects of GA, CT, and CA genotypes against schizophrenia. There was no significant association of IL-10 polymorphisms with sex or positive or negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Conclusion: This study indicates that the IL-10 gene polymorphisms play a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia in Saudi Arabians patients.

  11. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Yeo, S.; Lim, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory

  12. FEATURES OF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND NEUROTROPHIC REGULATION IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    V.B. Vilyanov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidative systems and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Present study indicates associations between the studied parameters and type of progression, duration of disease and gender of patients.

  13. Relationship between cardiovagal modulation and psychotic state in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Wernich, Kirsten; Boettger, Silke; Cordes, Joachim; Boettger, Michael Karl; Löffler, Stefan; Kornischka, Jürgen; Agelink, Marcus-Willi

    2008-01-15

    Disturbed autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in schizophrenia might contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality. We obtained heart rate variability indices from 40 unmedicated schizophrenic patients and 58 matched controls. Mainly we found that patients displaying stronger psychotic symptoms as assessed by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale exhibit more severe cardiac ANS disturbances compared with controls.

  14. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Yeo, S.; Lim, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory performan

  15. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  16. Distinct molecular phenotypes in male and female schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); E. Schwarz (Emanuel); P.C. Guest (Paul); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); J. Steiner (Johann); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we have carried out multiplex

  17. Diminishing striatal activation across adolescent development during reward anticipation in offspring of schizophrenia patients.

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    Vink, Matthijs; de Leeuw, Max; Pouwels, Ruby; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Kahn, René S; Hillegers, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with impaired fronto-striatal functioning. Similar deficits are observed in unaffected siblings of patients, indicating that these deficits are linked to a familial risk for the disorder. Fronto-striatal deficits may arise during adolescence and precede clinical manifestation of the disorder. However, the development of the fronto-striatal network in adolescents at increased familial risk for schizophrenia is still poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the impact of familial risk on fronto-striatal functioning across age related to reward anticipation and receipt in 25 adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (SZ offspring) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (range 10-19years). Subjects performed a reward task while being scanned with functional MRI. Overall response times and the amount of money won did not differ between the groups. Striatal activation during reward anticipation decreased across age in the SZ offspring, while it did not in the healthy controls. Activation in the orbitofrontal cortex during reward receipt did not differ between the groups. These results, taken together with data from adult schizophrenia patients and their siblings, indicate that the diminishing striatal activation across adolescence may signify a familial vulnerability for schizophrenia.

  18. The assessment of quality of life in clinical practice in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Karow, Anne; Wittmann, Linus; Schöttle, Daniel; Schäfer, Ingo; Lambert, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to review QoL scales used in studies investigating patients with schizophrenia over the past 5 years, and to summarize the results of QoL assessment in clinical practice in these patients. Literature available from January 2009 to December 2013 was identified in a PubMed search using the key words "quality of life" and "schizophrenia" and in a cross-reference search for articles that were particularly relevant. A total of n=432 studies used 35 different standardized generic and specific QoL scales in patients with schizophrenia. Affective symptoms were major obstacles for QoL improvement in patients with schizophrenia. Though positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive functioning may be seen as largely independent parameters from subjective QoL, especially in cross-sectional trials, long-term studies confirmed a critical impact of early QoL improvement on long-term symptomatic and functional remission, as well as of early symptomatic response on long-term QoL. Results of the present review suggest that QoL is a valid and useful outcome criterion in patients with schizophrenia. As such, it should be consistently applied in clinical trials. Understanding the relationship between symptoms and functioning with QoL is important because interventions that focus on symptoms of psychosis or functioning alone may fail to improve subjective QoL to the same level. However, the lack of consensus on QoL scales hampers research on its predictive validity. Future research needs to find a consensus on the concept and measures of QoL and to test whether QoL predicts better outcomes with respect to remission and recovery under consideration of different treatment approaches in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Decreased regional activity of default-mode network in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest.

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    Guo, Wenbin; Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Jiajing; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Liuyu; Zhai, Jinguo; Xiao, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that abnormal resting-state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) acts as a key role in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the regional alterations of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. Unaffected siblings have a unique advantage in neuroimaging studies independent of clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies on patients themselves. In the present study, we used fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) to investigate regional alterations of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest. Forty-six unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fALFF and independent component analysis (ICA) approaches were used to analyze the data. The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients had lower fALFF than the controls in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). No significantly increased fALFF was found in any brain regions in the siblings compared to that in the controls. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and support vector machine (SVM) analyses showed that the fALFF values of the left ITG could be utilized to separate the siblings from the controls. Our results first suggest that there is decreased regional activity of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, and provide a clue that decreased regional activity of the left ITG could be applied as a candidate biomarker to identify the siblings from the controls.

  20. Localized abnormalities in the cingulum bundle in patients with schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor tractography study

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    Thomas J. Whitford

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum bundle (CB connects gray matter structures of the limbic system and as such has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. There is growing evidence to suggest that the CB is actually comprised of a conglomeration of discrete sub-connections. The present study aimed to use Diffusion Tensor tractography to subdivide the CB into its constituent sub-connections, and to investigate the structural integrity of these sub-connections in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Diffusion Tensor Imaging scans were acquired from 24 patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and 26 matched healthy controls. Deterministic tractography was used in conjunction with FreeSurfer-based regions-of-interest to subdivide the CB into 5 sub-connections (I1 to I5. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited subnormal levels of FA in two cingulum sub-connections, specifically the fibers connecting the rostral and caudal anterior cingulate gyrus (I1 and the fibers connecting the isthmus of the cingulate with the parahippocampal cortex (I4. Furthermore, while FA in the I1 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' positive symptoms (specifically hallucinations and delusions, FA in the I4 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' negative symptoms (specifically affective flattening and anhedonia/asociality. These results support the notion that the CB is a conglomeration of structurally interconnected yet functionally distinct sub-connections, of which only a subset are abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, while acknowledging the fact that the present study only investigated the CB, these results suggest that the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may have distinct neurobiological underpinnings.

  1. Simultaneous resting-state functional MRI and electroencephalography recordings of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji; Fukuta, Mayuko; Inami, Rie; Arai, Heii; Inoue, Reiichi; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    It remains unclear how functional connectivity (FC) may be related to specific cognitive domains in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we used simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording in patients with schizophrenia, to evaluate FC within and outside the default mode network (DMN). Our study population included 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants. From all participants, we acquired rsfMRI data, and simultaneously recorded EEG data using an MR-compatible amplifier. We analyzed the rsfMRI-EEG data, and used the CONN toolbox to calculate the FC between regions of interest. We also performed between-group comparisons of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography-based intracortical lagged coherence for each EEG frequency band. FC within the DMN, as measured by rsfMRI and EEG, did not significantly differ between groups. Analysis of rsfMRI data showed that FC between the right posterior inferior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex was stronger among patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants. Analysis of FC within the DMN using rsfMRI and EEG data revealed no significant differences between patients with schizophrenia and control participants. However, rsfMRI data revealed over-modulated FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and right posterior inferior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants, suggesting that the patients had altered FC, with higher correlations across nodes within and outside of the DMN. Further studies using simultaneous rsfMRI and EEG are required to determine whether altered FC within the DMN is associated with schizophrenia. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Studying social cognition in patients with schizophrenia and patients with frontotemporal dementia: theory of mind and the perception of sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Mary H; Aretouli, Eleni; Bozikas, Vassilis P; Giannakou, Maria; Ioannidis, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    We investigated social cognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with frontotemporal dementia in order to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved in the breakdown of these skills in psychiatric and neurological patients. Our tasks included videotaped scenarios of social interactions depicting sincere, sarcastic and paradoxical remarks, as well as lies. We found impaired performance of the schizophrenia group on all theory of mind conditions despite their intact understanding of sincere statements. In contrast, the FTD group performed poorly only when they had to rely on paralinguistic cues indicating sarcasm or lies, and not on paradoxical remarks or sarcasm when given additional verbal cues. Our findings suggest that, while current deficits in social and interpersonal functioning in patients with FTD may reflect a decrement in previously acquired skills, similar deficits in patients with schizophrenia may reflect an altogether inadequately learned process.

  3. Studying Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia and Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia: Theory of Mind and the Perception of Sarcasm

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    Mary H. Kosmidis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated social cognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with frontotemporal dementia in order to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved in the breakdown of these skills in psychiatric and neurological patients. Our tasks included videotaped scenarios of social interactions depicting sincere, sarcastic and paradoxical remarks, as well as lies. We found impaired performance of the schizophrenia group on all theory of mind conditions despite their intact understanding of sincere statements. In contrast, the FTD group performed poorly only when they had to rely on paralinguistic cues indicating sarcasm or lies, and not on paradoxical remarks or sarcasm when given additional verbal cues. Our findings suggest that, while current deficits in social and interpersonal functioning in patients with FTD may reflect a decrement in previously acquired skills, similar deficits in patients with schizophrenia may reflect an altogether inadequately learned process.

  4. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation.

  5. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

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    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  6. One patient with Sjogren’s syndrome presenting schizophrenia-like symptoms

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    Lin CE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ching-En Lin1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital, Buddhist Medical Foundation, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2School of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Comorbid depression in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome has been reported frequently, while comorbid psychosis in subjects with Sjogren’s syndrome has rarely been reported. Here we report a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with schizophrenia-like symptoms such as persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations in contrast to her previous psychiatric presentations, which only included depression and anxiety. Keywords: mental illness, psychosis, Sjogren’s syndrome, schizophrenia

  7. Attenuation of beta and gamma oscillations in schizophrenia spectrum patients following hand posture perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Mørup, Morten; Thalbitzer, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    spectrum traits would involve proprioceptive information processing and this has recently been supported by the finding of diminished latency of early proprioceptive evoked potentials in a sample of chronic schizophrenia patients. The proprioceptive stimulus used previously, and presently, consisted...... of an abrupt increase of weight on a hand-held load. Eighteen first-time admitted schizophrenia spectrum patients and 18 healthy matched comparison subjects were included. Proprioceptive evoked potentials were recorded as 64-channels EEG for 120 trials in two runs differing in sequence. Contra-lateral evoked...

  8. Metacognition and general functioning in patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal behavior

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    Bo, Sune; Kongerslev, Mickey; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Metacognitive difficulties have been linked to social dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, research examining the role of metacognition in the social functioning of patients with a history of violence and criminality is very limited. This research is especially important for this group given...... their relatively poor prognosis and their risk to reoffend, as well as the promising benefits of integrating metacognitive approaches in psychosocial treatments. In this study, the association between metacognition and global social functioning was examined in 79 patients with schizophrenia with a criminal...

  9. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

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    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced. Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  10. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

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    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  11. Inflammation in Patients with Schizophrenia: the Therapeutic Benefits of Risperidone Plus Add-On Dextromethorphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I-Hui; Chen, Po-See; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to the etiology and progression of schizophrenia. Molecules that initiate inflammation, such as virus- and toxin-induced cytokines, are implicated in neuronal degeneration and schizophrenia-like behavior. Using therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic effects may be beneficial for treating schizophrenia. Methods One hundred healthy controls and 95 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia were tested in this double-blind study. Their PANSS scores, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-α and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured before and after pharmacological treatment. Results Pretreatment, plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, but plasma BDNF levels were significantly lower. Patients were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (Risp) only or with Risp+add-on dextromethorphan (DM). PANSS scores and plasma IL-1β levels significantly decreased, but plasma TNF-α and BDNF levels significantly increased after 11 weeks of Risp treatment. Patients in the Risp+DM group showed a greater and earlier reduction of symptoms than did those in the Risp-only group. Moreover, Risp+DM treatment attenuated Risp-induced plasma increases in TNF-α. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia had a high level of peripheral inflammation and a low level of peripheral BDNF. Long-term Risp treatment attenuated inflammation and potentiated the neurotrophic function but also produced a certain degree of toxicity. Risp+DM was more beneficial and less toxic than Risp-only treatment. PMID:22730040

  12. Inflammation in patients with schizophrenia: the therapeutic benefits of risperidone plus add-on dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I-Hui; Chen, Po-See; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation contributes to the etiology and progression of schizophrenia. Molecules that initiate inflammation, such as virus- and toxin-induced cytokines, are implicated in neuronal degeneration and schizophrenia-like behavior. Using therapeutic agents with anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic effects may be beneficial for treating schizophrenia. One hundred healthy controls and 95 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia were tested in this double-blind study. Their PANSS scores, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were measured before and after pharmacological treatment. Pretreatment, plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls, but plasma BDNF levels were significantly lower. Patients were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (Risp) only or with Risp+ dextromethorphan (DM). PANSS scores and plasma IL-1β levels significantly decreased, but plasma TNF-α and BDNF levels significantly increased after 11 weeks of Risp treatment. Patients in the Risp+ DM group showed a greater and earlier reduction of symptoms than did those in the Risp-only group. Moreover, Risp+ DM treatment attenuated Risp-induced plasma increases in TNF-α. Patients with schizophrenia had a high level of peripheral inflammation and a low level of peripheral BDNF. Long-term Risp treatment attenuated inflammation and potentiated the neurotrophic function but also produced a certain degree of toxicity. Risp+ DM was more beneficial and less toxic than Risp-only treatment. Protocol Record: HR-93-50; NCT01189006; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  13. Self-images and related autobiographical memories in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Berna, Fabrice; Conway, Martin A; Rathbone, Clare J; Vidailhet, Pierre; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness, which affects sense of identity. While the ability to have a coherent vision of the self (i.e., self-images) relies partly on its reciprocal relationships with autobiographical memories, little is known about how memories ground "self-images" in schizophrenia. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls were asked to give six autobiographical memories related to four self-statements they considered essential for defining their identity. Results showed that patients' self-images were more passive than those of controls. Autobiographical memories underlying self-images were less thematically linked to these self-images in patients. We also found evidence of a weakened sense of self and a deficient organization of autobiographical memories grounding the self in schizophrenia. These abnormalities may account for the poor cohesiveness of the self in schizophrenia.

  14. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  15. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

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    Kyosuke Uno

    Full Text Available The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia.

  16. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS. Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers.

  17. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence strain", "emotional strain", "uncertainty", and "self-criticism" domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence", and "emotional strain" domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the "uncertainty", "self-criticism", and "emotional strain" domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging reliably differentiates patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers.

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    Ardekani, Babak A; Tabesh, Ali; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain are able to reliably differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers. DTI and high resolution structural magnetic resonance scans were acquired in 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FA and MD maps were estimated from the DTI data and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute standard stereotactic space. Individuals were divided randomly into two groups of 50, a training set, and a test set, each comprising 25 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. A pattern classifier was designed using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on the training set of images to categorize individuals in the test set as either patients or healthy volunteers. Using the FA maps, the classifier correctly identified 94% of the cases in the test set (96% sensitivity and 92% specificity). The classifier achieved 98% accuracy (96% sensitivity and 100% specificity) when using the MD maps as inputs to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy volunteers in the test dataset. Utilizing FA and MD data in combination did not significantly alter the accuracy (96% sensitivity and specificity). Patterns of water self-diffusion in the brain as estimated by DTI can be used in conjunction with automated pattern recognition algorithms to reliably distinguish between patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects.

  19. Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

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    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Muckli, Lars; de Millas, Walter; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-07-30

    Dysfunctional prediction in sensory processing has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism in the development of delusions in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that while the perception of apparent motion can mask visual events along the illusory motion trace, such motion masking is reduced when events are spatio-temporally compatible with the illusion, and, therefore, predictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specific detection advantage for predictable target stimuli on the apparent motion trace is reduced in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our data show that, although target detection along the illusory motion trace is generally impaired, both patients and healthy control participants detect predictable targets more often than unpredictable targets. Patients had a stronger motion masking effect when compared to controls. However, patients showed the same advantage in the detection of predictable targets as healthy control subjects. Our findings reveal stronger motion masking but intact prediction of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and suggest that the sensory prediction mechanism underlying apparent motion is not impaired in paranoid schizophrenia.

  20. Influence of olanzapine on QT variability and complexity measures of heart rate in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Koschke, Mandy; Berger, Sandy; Schulz, Steffen; Tancer, Manuel; Voss, Andreas; Yeragani, Vikram K

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that untreated patients with acute schizophrenia present with reduced heart rate variability and complexity as well as increased QT variability. This autonomic dysregulation might contribute to increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the additional effects of newer antipsychotics on autonomic dysfunction have not been investigated, applying these new cardiac parameters to gain information about the regulation at sinus node level as well as the susceptibility to arrhythmias. We have investigated 15 patients with acute schizophrenia before and after established olanzapine treatment and compared them with matched controls. New nonlinear parameters (approximate entropy, compression entropy, fractal dimension) of heart rate variability and also the QT-variability index were calculated. In accordance with previous results, we have observed reduced complexity of heart rate regulation in untreated patients. Furthermore, the QT-variability index was significantly increased in unmedicated patients, indicating increased repolarization lability. Reduction of the heart rate regulation complexity after olanzapine treatment was seen, as measured by compression entropy of heart rate. No change in QT variability was observed after treatment. This study shows that unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia experience autonomic dysfunction. Olanzapine treatment seems to have very little additional impact in regard to the QT variability. However, the decrease in heart rate complexity after olanzapine treatment suggests decreased cardiac vagal function, which may increase the risk for cardiac mortality. Further studies are warranted to gain more insight into cardiac regulation in schizophrenia and the effect of novel antipsychotics.

  1. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and a history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars K; Nausheen, Bina; Hart, Deborah; Kingdon, David

    2013-03-01

    The movement disorders acute dystonia, akathisia, Parkinsonian symptoms and tardive dyskinesia [extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs)] are recognized adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. Previous studies have indicated that substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia can worsen EPS. This study therefore investigated the relationship between drug and alcohol use and EPS in a group of patients with schizophrenia. Seventy patients with schizophrenia assessed for drug and alcohol use, global functioning, EPS and suicidality. Chlorpromazine equivalents were correlated to levels of EPS and substance abuse. Current EPS were found in 65% of the sample despite three-quarters of the patients receiving second-generation antipsychotics. An even higher level of patients, 87%, was found to have a history of EPS. A long history of schizophrenia independently predicted presence of any EPS, particularly akathisia, controlling for history of substance abuse which was a non-significant predictor. History or current use of alcohol or drug abuse did not predict EPS, except for alcohol abuse at the time of diagnosis which was associated with current akathisia. Length of illness was correlated with EPS, whereas suicidality was not linked to akathisia. Neither chlorpromazine equivalent antipsychotic dose nor whether the patient received first-generation or second-generation antipsychotic medication was significantly associated with EPS or substance abuse. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Social alienation in schizophrenia patients: association with insula responsiveness to facial expressions of disgust.

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    Christian Lindner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Among the functional neuroimaging studies on emotional face processing in schizophrenia, few have used paradigms with facial expressions of disgust. In this study, we investigated whether schizophrenia patients show less insula activation to macro-expressions (overt, clearly visible expressions and micro-expressions (covert, very brief expressions of disgust than healthy controls. Furthermore, departing from the assumption that disgust faces signal social rejection, we examined whether perceptual sensitivity to disgust is related to social alienation in patients and controls. We hypothesized that high insula responsiveness to facial disgust predicts social alienation. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure insula activation in 36 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls. During scanning, subjects passively viewed covert and overt presentations of disgust and neutral faces. To measure social alienation, a social loneliness scale and an agreeableness scale were administered. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients exhibited reduced insula activation in response to covert facial expressions of disgust. With respect to macro-expressions of disgust, no between-group differences emerged. In patients, insula responsiveness to covert faces of disgust was positively correlated with social loneliness. Furthermore, patients' insula responsiveness to covert and overt faces of disgust was negatively correlated with agreeableness. In controls, insula responsiveness to covert expressions of disgust correlated negatively with agreeableness. DISCUSSION: Schizophrenia patients show reduced insula responsiveness to micro-expressions but not macro-expressions of disgust compared to healthy controls. In patients, low agreeableness was associated with stronger insula response to micro- and macro-expressions of disgust. Patients with a strong tendency to feel uncomfortable with social interactions appear to be characterized by a

  3. A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Insight in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients in Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kanradi, Haridas; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20) were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD) was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. Results: About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude) increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Conclusions: Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups. PMID:27335515

  4. The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, single-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Chang, Shih-Chin; Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chung, Min-Huey; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of group assertiveness training on assertiveness, social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication among patients with chronic schizophrenia. Only limited studies highlighted the effectiveness of group assertiveness training among inpatients with schizophrenia. Given the lack of group assertiveness training among patients with schizophrenia, further development of programmes focusing on facilitating assertiveness, self-confidence and social skills among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia is needed. This study used a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group design. This study employed a prospective, randomized, parallel-group design. Seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving 12 sessions of assertiveness training, or a supportive control group. Data collection took place for the period of June 2009-July 2010. Among patients with chronic schizophrenia, assertiveness, levels of social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication significantly improved immediately after the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group. The results of a generalized estimating equation (GEE) indicated that: (1) assertiveness significantly improved from pre- to postintervention and was maintained until the follow-up; (2) anxiety regarding social interactions significantly decreased after assertiveness training; and (3) satisfaction with interpersonal communication slightly improved after the 12-session intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Assertivenss training is a non-invasive and inexpensive therapy that appears to improve assertiveness, social anxiety and interpersonal communication among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. These findings may provide a reference guide to clinical nurses for developing assertiveness-training protocols. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A Cross-sectional, comparative study of insight in schizophrenia and bipolar patients in remission

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    Arul Saravanan Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20 were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. Results: About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Conclusions: Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups.

  6. In Vivo Measurement of GABA Transmission in Healthy Subjects and Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W. Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y.; Prasad, Konasale M.; Mason, N. Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A.; Narendran, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. Method The binding of [11C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [11C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). Results [11C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [11C] flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. Conclusions This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition. PMID:26133962

  7. The MAOA and COMT Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Schizophrenia Committed Homicide

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    V.A. Soldatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have indicated that aggression and homicide are more frequent among people with schizophrenia than in the general population. There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia involves a dysbalance between subcortical and cortical dopaminergic systems. The major pathways for catecholamine degradation are oxidative deamination through the action of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA and by methylation through the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Activity of both enzymes is encoded by the corresponding genes—MAOA and COMT. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and the risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The study included 50 Caucasian male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (PS. All patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of 26 PS patients who have committed homicide; Group 2 consisted of 24 PS patients who did not have a history of socially violent behavior. The control group comprised 23 apparently healthy Caucasian men of the same age. All patients underwent clinical-psychopathological and clinical-anamnestic examinations. Molecular genetic studies were performed in the Shared Research Facility Center "High Technologies" at SFedU. Results: Our study revealed no direct correlation between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, we detected an association between high-activity gene variants, viz., the MAOA-4R allele and the COMT-158Met/158Met genotype, and the schizoid and unstable premorbid accentuation in patients who had committed murder, whereas the schizoid and unstable accentuation correlated with homicide behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion: The obtained findings suggest that genetic variation affects the homicidal behavior indirectly, through the various types of premorbid accentuation and

  8. Comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia in an adolescent patient

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    Mu-Hong Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy suffered from hypersomnia, fragmented nighttime sleep, and cataplexy since age 10 years, and then developed prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., auditory and visual hallucination, hallucinatory behavior, delusions of reference, and misidentification that occurred persistently during the wakeful and consciously clear period when he was aged 12 years. The child underwent additional medical evaluation and testing, and comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia was diagnosed. The child's psychotic symptoms and narcolepsy improved significantly upon treatment with methylphenidate 30 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg. In this case, the child's symptomology of narcolepsy and schizophrenia and the dilemma of the use of antipsychotics and psychostimulants are representative examples of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in adolescent psychiatry.

  9. Glucoregulation in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated by first generation antipsychotics

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    Marić Nađa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schizophrenia patients are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. The metabolic complications in patients are associated with several risk factors: family history of DM, lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, physical inactivity, but also with antipsychotic medication. In literature, most publications have been focused on the effects of the second generation antipsychotics (SGA on glucose metabolism. However, less attention has been paid to abnormality in glucoregulation, patients with schizophrenia treated with the first generation antipsychotics (FGA. Objective The present study evaluated glucose metabolism in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated with FGA. METHOD The cross-sectional study included 18 patients (FGA treated and 20 healthy controls with neither group differences in sex distribution, age, nor in BMI. Inclusion criteria were normal BMI (20-25 kg/m2. The glucose levels, insulin levels and growth hormone levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between groups. Groups differed in OGTT glucose and insulin peak and area under curve (AUC, level of significance p<0.05 (patients vs. controls: glucose peak 8.3±0.4 vs.6.9±0.5 mmol/l, glucose AUC 758±28 vs. 640±36 mU/l/120 min; insulin peak in patients 92.7±15.6 mU/l; insulin AUC 6060±1016 mU/l/120 min, insulin peak in controls 47.9±6.5 mU/l; insulin AUC 2597±256 mU/l/120 min. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia, although with normal body mass index, are at high risk of abnormal glucose regulation. Not only SGA increase the risk of impaired glucoregulation and metabolic syndrome, but this may also be due to FGA or schizophrenia per se. .

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas

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    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Pedersen, Ida Hageman

    2011-01-01

    -26 sessions; maintenance ECT (M-ECT) was given to 18 patients for up to 12 years. Initial indications for ECT included psychosis (n = 28), pronounced affective symptoms (n = 28), delirious states (n = 20), and M-ECT (n = 3). Most patients experienced excellent/good outcomes (n = 66), but others experienced...... moderate (n = 8) or poor (n = 5) outcomes. No factors were identified that predicted treatment responses in individual patients. ECT proved to be effective in a population of patients that were severely ill with treatment-refractory schizophrenia. This does not imply that the patients were cured from...... schizophrenia. Rather, it reflects the degree of relief from psychosis and disruptive behaviour, as described in the patient charts. The treatment was often offered to patients after considerable disease durations....

  11. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  12. Irony and proverb comprehension in schizophrenia: do female patients "dislike" ironic remarks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M; Langohr, Karin; Mutschler, Dorothee E; Wild, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r = -0.51) and proverb (r = 0.56) comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  13. Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peggy Bosch; Janina Waberg; Maurits van den Noort; Heike Staudte; Sabina Lim; Jos Egger

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence.Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enroled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syndrome scale, and the pittsburgh sleep quality index were used to assess symptom severity and quality of sleep, and sleep log data were used to measure treatment adherence.Results: The preliminary results showed no signiifcant relationship between symptom severity and treatment adherence or between quality of sleep and treatment adherence in patients with depression. However, a signiifcant positive relationship was found between negative symptoms and treatment adherence and a signiifcant negative relationship between quality of sleep and treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia.Conclusion: The present exploratory study revealed a positive relationship between symptom severity and treatment adherence and a negative relationship between quality of sleep and treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia, but no signiifcant relationships in patients with depression were found. Future studies are needed in order to gain a better understanding of possible risk factors related to treatment non-adherence.

  14. Attention in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Deficit in inhibitory control and positive symptoms

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    Flavia S. Galaverna

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Attention is a central mechanism controlling information processing, activating and inhibiting processes, and forming a complex system including diferent networks in specific areas of the brain¹. To correctly assess the role of attention in schizophrenia it is necessary to discriminate its different attentional components, which may by selectively altered. Attention span, focused attention, selective attention, sustained attention and inhibitory response, were assessed in patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy matched controls. Methods: The study included 32 patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and 32 healthy subjects. The groups were matched in age, sex, and level of education. Symptom severity (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology was assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS. Attentional components were measured by Forward Digit Span, Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test and Picture Completion. Results: Schizophrenic patients exhibited lower attentional scores in all tests compared to the control group. Inhibitory control and sustained attention were the most affected traits in schizophrenic patients. An inverse correlation was observed between inhibitory control and delusions and disorganized thinking. No significant correlations were observed between negative symptoms and attentional performance. Conclusions: The pattern of results obtained in this paper evidences the role of an inhibitory control deficit in patients with chronic schizophrenia that could also be involved in other attentional and cognitive failures, and also be connected to positive symptoms.

  15. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  16. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

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    Holubova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Radovan Hruby,3 Klara Latalova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Milos Slepecky,4 Terezia Gubova2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Private Psychiatric Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Subjects and methods: A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma.Results: Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping

  17. Stability of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenia: a 6-year follow-up study of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies and is re......Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies...... and is regarded as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, reports on the stability of PPI over a longer period of time are lacking, both for patients with schizophrenia and for healthy subjects. The current study examined 25 initially drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy matched...

  18. A validation of wrist actigraphy against polysomnography in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

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    Baandrup L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1,2 Poul Jørgen Jennum3 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, 2Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Mental Health Services – Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Center for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark Purpose: Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Actigraphy has been established as a generally reliable method to examine these disturbances across varying time spans, but the validity against polysomnography (PSG is not well investigated for this population. We validated wrist-worn actigraphy against PSG in a population of chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Patients and methods: From a clinical trial, we derived data from 37 patients with schizophrenia and five patients with bipolar disorder who were examined with one-night PSG and concomitant actigraphy. The following sleep variables were compared between the two methods: total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, number of awakenings, and time awake after sleep onset. The degree of consistency between the two methods was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots. Subgroup analyses included splitting the analyses according to sex, diagnosis, and duration of wakefulness after sleep onset. PSG was considered the gold standard. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient was high for total sleep time, moderate for the number of awakenings, and low or zero for the other examined sleep variables. These findings were reproduced in the subgroup analyses that compared men and women, as well as patients with bipolar versus schizophrenia spectrum disorders. When excluding

  19. Emotion recognition in pictures of facial affect: Is there a difference between forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia?

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    Wiebke Wolfkühler

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Abundant research has demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing the emotional content in facial expressions. However, there is a paucity of studies on emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients with a history of violent behavior compared to patients without a criminal record. Methods: Emotion recognition skills were examined in thirty-three forensic patients with schizophrenia. In addition, executive function and psychopathology was assessed. Results were compared to a group of 38 schizophrenia patients in regular psychiatric care and to a healthy control group. Results: Both patient groups performed more poorly on almost all tasks compared to controls. However, in the forensic group the recognition of the expression of disgust was preserved. When the excitement factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was co-varied out, forensic patients outperformed the non-forensic patient group on emotion recognition across modalities. Conclusions: The superior recognition of disgust could be uniquely associated with delinquent behavior.

  20. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with depression in patients with schizophrenia

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    Suttajit S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To identify the point prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on an updated definition derived from the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 was used to measure depressive symptoms in 80 patients with schizophrenia. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression for the association between each depressive symptom and metabolic syndrome.Results: The point prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria were 37% and 35%, respectively. The risk of having metabolic syndrome significantly increased in those who were widowed or separated, or had longer duration of illness. Central obesity was the metabolic feature with the highest odds ratios for metabolic syndrome at 19.3. Three out of 17 items of HDRS subscales were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, including depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation with the odds ratios of 3.0, 3.4, and 3.6, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia was higher than the overall rate but was slightly lower than in the general population in the USA. Central obesity, measured by waist circumference, was found to be highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Waist circumference and screening

  1. Cerebral spectroscopic and oxidative stress studies in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously violently offended

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    Puri Basant K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to bring together all the results of in vivo studies of ethane excretion and cerebral spectroscopy in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously seriously violently offended in order to determine the extent to which they shed light on the degree to which the membrane phospholipid hypothesis and the actions of free radicals and other reactive species are associated with cerebral pathophysiological mechanisms in this group of patients. Methods The patients investigated were inpatients from a medium secure unit with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia. There was no history of alcohol dependency or any other comorbid psychoactive substance misuse disorder. Expert psychiatric opinion, accepted in court, was that all these patients had violently offended directly as a result of schizophrenia prior to admission. These offences consisted of homicide, attempted murder or wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. Excreted ethane was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (m/z = 30. 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were obtained at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T using an image-selected in vivo spectroscopy sequence (TR = 10 s; 64 signal averages localized on a 70 × 70 × 70 mm3 voxel. Results Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, in the patient group the mean alveolar ethane level was higher (p p p Conclusion Our results are not necessarily inconsistent with the membrane phospholipid hypothesis, given that the patients studied suffered predominantly from positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is increased cerebral mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients with schizophrenia who have dangerously and seriously violently offended, with an associated increase in oxygen flux and subsequent electron 'leakage' from the electron transport chain leading to the formation of superoxide radicals and other

  2. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  3. Dorsal striatal volumes in never-treated patients with first-episode schizophrenia before and during acute treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsley, Robin; Asmal, Laila; du Plessis, Stéfan; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Kidd, Martin; Carr, Jonathan; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of pre-and post-treatment striatal volume in schizophrenia have reported conflicting results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed dorsal striatal (caudate and putamen) volumes bilaterally in 22 never-treated, non-substance-abusing patients with first-episode schizophrenia or schiz

  4. Acute nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking but not in smoking schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quisenaerts, C.; Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Boer, P. de; Timmers, M.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients are characterized by severe social impairments. Recently, social cognition has been put forward as an important mediator in schizophrenia between the often-reported neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome and is thus an important target for treatments. Nicotine has been

  5. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

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    Hasan Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  6. The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ugurlu, Görkem Karakas; Albayrak, Yakup; Arslan, Murat; Caykoylu, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Despite comorbid depression being relatively common even in subjects with schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge, there is, to date, no report in the literature specifically and detailed examining the cognitive and clinical insight in subjects with schizophrenia and a comorbid depressive syndrome. Hence, in this study, we sought to compare the cognitive and clinical insight in our subjects with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid depressive syndrome. We found that participants in the depressive group scored significantly higher on self-reflectiveness and the reflectiveness-certainty (R-C) index scores than those in the nondepressive group. There was no significant difference among groups on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and clinical insight scores assessed by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. In addition, self-reflectiveness scores significantly correlated with depression, observed depression, hopelessness, and suicidality subscores of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with comorbid depression may contribute to develop more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patient outcome. However, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of exacerbating a sense of hopelessness and suicide risk during the interventions that improve cognitive insight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resveratrol supplementation did not improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia: results from a randomized clinical trial

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    KARINE ZORTEA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related with neuroprotective action but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind controlled trial (NCT 02062190, in which 19 men with diagnosis of schizophrenia, aged 18 to 65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplement group (200mg or placebo group (200mg, with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. Results: There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility and psychopathology severity after 1-month of resveratrol supplementation (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have shown that 1-month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Short form of the WAIS-III for use with patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyler, C R; Gold, J M; Iannone, V N; Buchanan, R W

    2000-12-15

    The recent publication of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), the most widely used standard test of intelligence, requires the development of a new short form for use with patients with schizophrenia for many clinical and research purposes. We used regression analyses of complete WAIS-III data on 41 outpatients with schizophrenia and 41 education-, and age-matched healthy subjects to determine the best combination of subtests to use as a short form. Excluding three subtests that are time-consuming to administer, and requiring that the solution includes one subtest from each of the four WAIS index scores, the combination that most fully accounted for the variance in full-scale IQ (FSIQ) for both participants with schizophrenia (R(2)=0.90) and healthy controls (R(2)=0.86) included the information, block design, arithmetic, and digit symbol subtests. When the restrictions regarding which subtests could enter were relaxed, the best four-subtest solution included information, block design, comprehension, and similarities. Although the latter explained 95% of the variance in FSIQ for schizophrenia participants and 90% of the variance for healthy controls, it consistently overestimated FSIQ for the schizophrenia group. We recommend the four-factor short form for use in future research and clinical practice in which a quick, accurate IQ estimate is desired.

  9. Plasma metabonomics study of first-Episode schizophrenia treated with olanzapine in female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ying; Zhang, Lei; He, Shen; Wen, Hui; Yu, Yi-Min; Cao, Chun-Hua; Li, Hua-Fang

    2016-03-23

    Schizophrenia is a persistent chronic mental illness with an unknown pathogenic mechanism; no empirical laboratory-based tests are available to support the diagnosis of schizophrenia or to identify biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine. For this study, 15 female first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy female volunteers were recruited. Tests for blood glucose and lipids were conducted at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine. UPLC-MS based metabonomic analysis was performed on both case and control groups to identify biomarkers of schizophrenia at baseline and to explore which biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine after a 4-week treatment. Compared with the control group, the case group showed significant changes in plasma metabolites. Thirteen distinct metabolites were identified. Among all the therapeutically effective cases, levels of these metabolites appeared to shift towards the normal trend; 8 of the identified 13 metabolites changed dramatically. The metabolites that we found are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia.

  10. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hasan; Mohammadzadeh, Serwa; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Pakseresht, Siroos; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV) may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide. Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR) was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group. Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic. Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  11. Social cognition in schizophrenia: similarities and differences of emotional perception from patients with focal frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Ueda, Keita; Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Takuji; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Murai, Toshiya

    2009-06-01

    The structural and functional abnormalities of the frontal lobes, the region implicated in social information processing, have been suspected to underlie social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, multiple structures, including the limbic/paralimbic areas that are also important for social cognition, have been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which the frontal lobe dysfunction accounts for social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia by comparing with patients who have focal frontal lobe injuries. Social cognitive abilities, focusing on affective aspects, were examined by an emotion intensity recognition task, which is sensitive to the amygdala function, and the emotion attribution tasks, which rely mainly on the frontal lobe function. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired on the emotion intensity recognition task as well as on the emotion attribution tasks as compared with healthy subjects. By contrast, the frontal lobe-damaged group was defective in the emotion attribution tasks but not in the emotion intensity recognition task. Our results indicated that social cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia can be accounted for partly by their frontal lobe pathology. Other aspects of social cognitive impairments could also be associated with the extra-frontal pathology, such as the amygdala.

  12. Schizophrenia patients' and psychiatrists' perspectives on ethical aspects of symptom re-emergence during psychopharmacological research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Nguyen, Khanh P; Geppert, Cynthia M A; Rogers, Melinda K; Roberts, Brian B

    2003-12-01

    Study designs involving medication-free intervals have become the subject of controversy in the current dialogue on the ethics of serious mental-illness research. Schizophrenia patients ( n=59; response rate 75%; 48% inpatients) and psychiatrists ( n=70; response rate 83%) responded to ten questions about a hypothetical scenario in which a schizophrenia study participant experienced the re-emergence of serious symptoms during the "wash-out" phase of a psychopharmacological trial. Patients provided their personal views, and psychiatrists gave their personal views and made predictions as to how schizophrenia patients in general would respond. Schizophrenia patients and psychiatrists judged the hypothetical protocol as moderately harmful. Both expressed relatively low likelihood of willingness to participate in the study, given this potential outcome. Schizophrenia patients and psychiatrists found the decision fairly easy. Psychiatrists underestimated the level of harm and overestimated the difficulty of the decision as perceived by schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia patients acknowledged that the offer of money and request by their doctor or family would increase the likelihood of their participation, and psychiatrists accurately predicted these responses. In hypothetical decisions about the symptomatic study participant, 38% of patients and 39% of psychiatrists said they would allow him to leave the hospital. A majority of both groups (63% and 52%, respectively) indicated that medication should be given despite the study participant's objection. Psychiatrists incorrectly predicted this response, expecting instead that most schizophrenia patients would support the discharge request and few would support involuntary administration of medication. Patients and psychiatrists offered similar reasons for participation decisions but differed in their strategies for handling the situation. These findings suggest potential strengths of decisionally capable schizophrenia

  13. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  14. Prescribing pattern of antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia in a tertiary care hospital

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    H. K. Sushma

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Schizophrenia is mostly seen in males, middle age group and unemployed people. The present study showed that combination therapy is preferred for the treatment of Schizophrenia. Despite several side-effects, typical antipsychotics, especially trifluoperazine was the most commonly used drug, followed by chlorpromazine either alone or in combination. Among atypical antipsychotics, risperidone was commonly used followed by quetiapine and asenapine. Most of the patients received trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic drug along with antipsychotics to reduce extra pyramidal side-effects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 134-138

  15. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen;

    2015-01-01

    and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio showed no correlations with oxidative stress markers, medication load, or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. CONCLUSIONS: Schizophrenia and treatment with AAP was not associated with increased levels of plasma ADMA or the L-arginine:ADMA ratio. Furthermore, plasma......BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase, and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio are markers of endothelial dysfunction that predict mortality and adverse outcome...... in a range of cardiovascular disorders. Increased ADMA levels may also lead to increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that ADMA and the L-arginine:ADMA ratio are increased in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAP), and that the ADMA and the L-arginine: ADMA...

  16. Hippocampal Damage and Atrophy Secondary to Status Epilepticus in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisao, Elaine Keiko; Cristaldo, Nathalia Raquel; da Silva Braga, Aline Marques; Cunha, Paulina Rodrigues; Yamashita, Seizo; Betting, Luiz Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was admitted with respiratory tract infection, compromised conscience and generalized tonic–clonic seizures. His medical history included schizophrenia diagnosis, for which he had been being treated since he was 27 years old. EEG disclosed non-convulsive status epilepticus. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquired 3 days later showed increased left hippocampal volume with hyperintensity on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. After being treated with antibiotics and antiepileptic medications, the patient’s condition improved. A follow-up MRI showed reduction of the left hippocampus. The relationship between epilepsy and schizophrenia is not yet clear. This case illustrates this interaction. Hippocampal atrophy may have been caused by environmental aggression in the present patient with schizophrenia, perhaps in association with a predisposing genotype. PMID:28220103

  17. Association of metabolic syndrome and inflammation with neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Dassa, Daniel; Boucekine, Mohamed; Fernandez, Jessica; Vaillant, Florence; Padovani, Romain; Auquier, Pascal; Lancon, Christophe

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation with neurocognition in schizophrenia. In this cross-sectional study, we included patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We collected socio-demographic information, clinical characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and neurocognition measures. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine variables that are potentially associated with neurocognition. The analyses were repeated using MetS as a dichotomised variable (inflammation was not associated with cognitive impairment. In conclusion, our findings suggest that MetS, alcohol use and non-smoking status are associated with cognitive impairment. These findings may support complementary therapeutic approaches in cognitive remediation that lessen the severity of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of life and clinical characteristics in a nonselected sample of patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara R; Vestergaard, Claus H; Hjorth, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QOL). Aims: To examine QOL in these patients and the relation between QOL and illness duration, adjusted daily doses (ADDs) of antipsychotics, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and smoking. Methods: In this naturalis......Background: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QOL). Aims: To examine QOL in these patients and the relation between QOL and illness duration, adjusted daily doses (ADDs) of antipsychotics, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and smoking. Methods......: In this naturalistic, cross-sectional study, 82 patients were interviewed about smoking habits. Patients completed a QOL questionnaire (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref) consisting of physical, psychological, social and environmental domains and had height, weight and waist circumference measured...

  19. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Catherine, Faget-Agius; Boyer, Laurent; Wirsich, Jonathan; Jonathan, Wirsich; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Jean-Philippe, Ranjeva; Richieri, Raphaelle; Raphaelle, Richieri; Soulier, Elisabeth; Elisabeth, Soulier; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Sylviane, Confort-Gouny; Auquier, Pascal; Pascal, Auquier; Guye, Maxime; Maxime, Guye; Lançon, Christophe; Christophe, Lançon

    2015-12-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had grey matter (GM) decreased MTR values in the temporal lobe (BA21, BA37 and BA38), the bilateral insula, the occipital lobe (BA17, BA18 and BA19) and the cerebellum. Patients with impaired QoL had lower GM MTR values relative to patients with preserved QoL in the bilateral temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the secondary visual cortex (BA18), the vermis and the cerebellum. Significant correlations between MTR values and QoL scores (p schizophrenia is related to the microstructural changes in an extensive network, suggesting that QoL is a bio-psychosocial marker.

  20. Diminishing striatal activation across adolescent development during reward anticipation in offspring of schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Matthijs; de Leeuw, Max; Pouwels, Ruby; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Kahn, René S; Hillegers, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with impaired fronto-striatal functioning. Similar deficits are observed in unaffected siblings of patients, indicating that these deficits are linked to a familial risk for the disorder. Fronto-striatal deficits may arise during adolescence

  1. Fearful faces in schizophrenia - The relationship between patient characteristics and facial affect recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, Mascha; van Dijke, Annemiek; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Pijpers, Wietske; Kahn, Rene S.

    2007-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has often been associated with deficits in facial affect recognition, it is debated whether the recognition of specific emotions is affected and if these facial affect-processing deficits are related to symptomatology or other patient characteristics. The purpose of the presen

  2. Dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: relationships with childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingo; Fisher, Helen L; Aderhold, Volkmar; Huber, Barbara; Hoffmann-Langer, Liv; Golks, Dietmar; Karow, Anne; Ross, Colin; Read, John; Harfst, Timo

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to examine the stability of dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders as well as relationships between psychotic symptoms, childhood trauma, and dissociation. One hundred forty-five patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (72% schizophrenia, 67% men) were examined at admission to inpatient treatment and 3 weeks later using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociative symptoms significantly decreased over time (mean, 19.2 vs 14.1; P dissociative symptoms at admission was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale (F(inc)(3,64) = 3.66, P = .017), whereas childhood sexual abuse best predicted dissociation when patients were stabilized (F(inc)(10,80) = 2.00, P = .044). Dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are related to childhood trauma. Dissociation seems to be state dependent in this diagnostic group. Moreover, diagnostic interviews, in addition to the Dissociative Experiences Scale, should be considered to avoid measurement artifacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of a Relapse Prevention Program on Insight, Empowerment and Treatment Adherence in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jaewon; Kim, Sungjae

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a relapse prevention program (RPP) and examine the effects of the RPP on insight, empowerment, and treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 54 inpatients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia (experimental group: 26, control group: 28). The study was carried out from February 7, 2012 to February 6, 2013. Over a 10-day period prior to discharge each participant in the experimental group received three one-hour sessions of RPP a one-to-one patient-nurse interaction. Data were collected using Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), Empowerment Scale, and Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ) and analyzed using PASW 18.0 with chi-square test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and ANCOVA. The experimental group had a significant increase in insight and treatment adherence compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in empowerment between the two groups. Findings indicate that the RPP for patients with schizophrenia was effective in improving insight and treatment adherence. A longitudinal study is needed to confirm the persistence of these effects of RPP in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Ritanserin as add-on medication to neuroleptic therapy for patients with chronic or subchronic schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, JA; Vahlne, JO; Post, P; Heck, AH; Daubenton, F; Olbrich, R

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ritanserin, a potent 5HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist, used as an add-on medication to neuroleptic treatmentin patients with schizophrenia, was compared with that of placebo, in an international, double-blind, parallel-group study. Previously established neuroleptic therapy was maintaine

  5. Blood Biomarkers Predict the Cognitive Effects of Aripiprazole in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Hori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites—homovanillic acid (HVA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG—, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, number of hospitalizations, and MHPG levels were associated with verbal memory and learning. Total hospitalization period and MHPG levels were associated with working memory. Age at first hospitalization and education were associated with motor speed. The number of hospital admissions, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative subscale scores (PANSS-N, MHPG levels, BDNF levels, and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS scores were associated with verbal fluency. Homovanillic acid and MHPG levels, duration of illness, and PANSS-N scores were associated with attention and processing speed. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and MHPG levels were associated with executive function. These results suggest that treatment of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive dysfunction may be improved in patients treated with aripiprazole by controlling for these contributing factors.

  6. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their siblings: symptoms, side effects and mechanical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the (ge

  7. Deficits in reinforcement learning but no link to apathy in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Bossert, Magdalena; Westermann, Celina; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N; Weisbrod, Matthias; Kaiser, Stefan

    2017-01-10

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been linked to selective reinforcement learning deficits in the context of gains combined with intact loss-avoidance learning. Fundamental mechanisms of reinforcement learning and choice are prediction error signaling and the precise representation of reward value for future decisions. It is unclear which of these mechanisms contribute to the impairments in learning from positive outcomes observed in schizophrenia. A recent study suggested that patients with severe apathy symptoms show deficits in the representation of expected value. Considering the fundamental relevance for the understanding of these symptoms, we aimed to assess the stability of these findings across studies. Sixty-four patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy control participants performed a probabilistic reward learning task. They had to associate stimuli with gain or loss-avoidance. In a transfer phase participants indicated valuation of the previously learned stimuli by choosing among them. Patients demonstrated an overall impairment in learning compared to healthy controls. No effects of apathy symptoms on task indices were observed. However, patients with schizophrenia learned better in the context of loss-avoidance than in the context of gain. Earlier findings were thus partially replicated. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic link between negative symptoms and reinforcement learning.

  8. [Neurophysiological Features of Perception of Emotional Stimuli in Health and in Patients with Paranoid Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A Yu; Strelets, V B

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional disorders, as far as is known, are the main syndromes of schizophrenia. Disorders of these functions are mainly determined by the clinical picture, as well as by psychophysiological correlates. The purpose of our study was to identify some psychophysiological factors which cause perceptual and emotional disturbances in patients with schizophrenia. These disorders of mental functions form the first rank (top) syndrome in patients with schizophrenia [1]. The studied patients had acute psychosis with a predominance of paranoid hallucinatory syndrome and did not receive antipsychotic therapy; i.e., the disturbances of sensory perception were most pronounced. The analysis of early component P100 and intermediate one N170 of event related potentials (ERPs) in the control group showed an increased level of excitation in response to emotionally threatening stimuli; the amplitude increased and the latency decreased in all leads. In contrast the analysis of components P100 and N170 in the group of patients with schizophrenia showed the increased latency and decreased amplitude. The obtained data provide evidence of pathological inhibition in the passive perception of emotionally significant stimuli.

  9. The influence of marital status on the social dysfunction of schizophrenia patients in community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-jie Li

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.

  10. Methylation patterns in whole blood correlate with symptoms in Schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Liu (Jingyu); J. Chen (Ji); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); E. Walton (Esther); T.J.H. White (Tonya); N. Perrone-Bizzozero (Nora); J. Bustillo; J. Turner (Jessica); V.D. Calhoun (Vince)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDNA methylation, one of the main epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression, appears to be involved in the development of schizophrenia (SZ). In this study, we investigated 7562 DNA methylation markers in blood from 98 SZ patients and 108 healthy controls. A linear regression

  11. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of the HIT programme in patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, AD; TenVergert, EM; Groen, H; Jenner, JA; Nienhuis, FJ; van de Willige, G; Wiersma, D

    Objective: To examine the cost-effectiveness of Hallucination focused Integrative Treatment (HIT) in patients with schizophrenia and a history of persistent auditory hallucinations. Method: Costs, in and outside the health care sector, and outcomes were registered prospectively during a period of 18

  13. Investigating relationships between cortical thickness and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari; Lawyer, Glenn; Nyman, Håkan; Jönsson, Erik G; Haukvik, Unn K; Saetre, Peter; Bjerkan, Petr S; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Agartz, Ingrid

    2010-05-30

    Relationships between prefrontal and temporal lobe grey matter volumes as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive test results have been reported in schizophrenia. This investigation aimed to localize brain regions where cortical thickness and neurocognitive performance were related, and investigate if such relationships might differ in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were characterized by neurocognitive testing and by brain cortical thickness maps. Putative cortical thickness/cognitive score relationships were investigated with contrast analyses of general linear models for the combined sample. Regions in which relationships were present were further investigated for diagnostic interaction. In the combined sample, significant positive relationships were found between frontal, temporal and occipital regions and tests for verbal IQ, verbal learning and executive functions. Diagnostic interaction was found for the relationships between verbal IQ and the right temporo-occipital junction and the left middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, the significant relationships between cortical thickness and neurocognitive performances were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The relationships were similar in patients and controls, except for the right temporo-occipital and left occipital cortical areas, indicating a disrupted structure-function relationship in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy control subjects.

  14. The association between HTR2C gene polymorphisms and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Franke, B.; Beek, A.A. van der; Arends, J.; Wilmink, F.W.; Scheffer, H.; Egberts, A.C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The use of antipsychotics is associated with metabolic side effects, which put patients with schizophrenia or related disorders at risk for cardiovascular morbidity. The high interindividual variability in antipsychotic-induced metabolic abnormalities suggests that genetic makeup is a possible deter

  15. Inefficient preparatory fMRI-BOLD network activations predict working memory dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBaenninger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally coherent networks (TCNs assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 & load 5 in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN, dorsal attention network (dAN, left and right working memory networks (WMNs – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta.In healthy controls, there was a load dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal-midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task.Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback targeting pre-states could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  16. Emotion processing and theory of mind in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Villarreal, Mirta; Jáuregui, Ignacio O; Chiodi, Araceli; Castro, Mariana N; Fahrer, Rodolfo D; Leiguarda, Ramón C; Chu, Elvina M; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that social cognition is affected in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent social cognition deficits are shared by unaffected first-degree relatives, and the nature of the relationship between performance in different paradigms of social cognition. 20 Schizophrenia patients (7 females, 31+/-10 years), 20 healthy age- and gender-matched individuals, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives of the schizophrenia patients (11 females, 50+/-20 years), and 20 healthy individuals matched for age and gender were recruited. Patients showed deficits in the detection of social Faux Pas (0.80+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.94+/-0.09, p=0.025) and the correct identification of Theory of Mind stories (0.71+/-0.13 vs. controls: 0.82+/-0.12, p=0.038). Relatives performed poorly in the Faces Test (0.83+/-0.14 vs. controls: 0.9+/-0.08, p=0.048), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (0.59+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.71+/-0.14, p=0.046) and the detection of social Faux Pas (0.8+/-0.2 vs. controls: 0.93+/-0.09, p=0.024). Abnormalities were independent of age, years of education, and general cognitive performance in patients and their relatives. Performance in an Emotion Processing task (Faces Test) was correlated with performance in theory of mind tests in healthy individuals and relatives of patients with schizophrenia only. These results suggest that schizophrenia patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives display similar but nonidentical patterns of social cognition processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  18. The prevalence and risk factors of stroke in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying Liang,1 Jian Huang,1 Jingbin Tian,2 Yuanyuan Cao,2 Guoling Zhang,2 Chungang Wang,2 Ying Cao,2 Jianrong Li2 1National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 2Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the stroke risk and risk factors in patients with chronic schizophrenia.Patients and methods: This study was a large-sample, cross-sectional survey. A total of 363 patients with chronic schizophrenia were selected from the Changping Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Beijing, in August 2014. The patients were divided into either stroke group or control group based on the presence of stroke. Clinical evaluation included positive and negative syndrome scale assessment and a detailed questionnaire to collect the general information and disease-related conditions.Results: The prevalence of stroke was 16.5% (60 cases. Stroke and control groups showed a significant difference in age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, negative factor score in positive and negative syndrome scale, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis showed that a number of factors are significantly related to stroke, including age, sex, smoking, combined medication, doses, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure.Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke is relatively higher in Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia. Chronic schizophrenia patients are more likely to suffer from stroke; meanwhile, a number of risk factors were identified, including old age, female sex, smoking history, combined medication with a variety of drugs, high doses, obesity, and high blood pressure. Keywords: schizophrenia, stroke, risk, risk factors

  19. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  20. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  2. Increased density of DISC1-immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells in fronto-parietal white matter of patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Jauch, Esther; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Profound white matter abnormalities have repeatedly been described in schizophrenia, which involve the altered expression of numerous oligodendrocyte-associated genes. Transcripts of the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene, a key susceptibility factor in schizophrenia, have recently been shown to be expressed by oligodendroglial cells and to negatively regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation. To learn more about the putative role(s) of oligodendroglia-associated DISC1 in schizophrenia, we analyzed the density of DISC1-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes in the fronto-parietal white matter in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Compared with controls (N = 12) and cases with undifferentiated/residual schizophrenia (N = 6), there was a significantly increased density of DISC1-expressing glial cells in paranoid schizophrenia (N = 12), which unlikely resulted from neuroleptic treatment. Pathophysiologically, over-expression of DISC1 protein(s) in white matter oligodendrocytes might add to the reduced levels of two myelin markers, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and myelin basic protein in schizophrenia. Moreover, it might significantly contribute to cell cycle abnormalities as well as to deficits in oligodendroglial cell differentiation and maturation found in schizophrenia.

  3. Decreased 16:0/20:4-phosphatidylinositol level in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Junya; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Kunii, Yasuto; Sugiura, Yuki; Yuki, Dai; Wada, Akira; Hino, Mizuki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Waki, Michihiko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Sakon; Sato, Shinji; Sasaki, Takehiko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia includes phospholipid abnormalities. Phospholipids are bioactive substances essential for brain function. To analyze differences in the quantity and types of phospholipids present in the brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, we performed a global analysis of phospholipids in multiple brain samples using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). We found significantly decreased 16:0/20:4-phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the brains from patients with schizophrenia in the LC-ESI/MS/MS, and that the 16:0/20:4-PI in grey matter was most prominently diminished according to the IMS experiments. Previous reports investigating PI pathology of schizophrenia did not identify differences in the sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acyl chains. This study is the first to clear the fatty acid composition of PI in brains from patients with schizophrenia. Alteration in the characteristic fatty acid composition of PI may also affect neuronal function, and could play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although further studies are necessary to understand the role of reduced 16:0/20:4-PI levels within the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of schizophrenia, our results provide insight into the development of a novel therapy for the clinical treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:28332626

  4. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

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    Natasha Kate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  5. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  6. Age-associated differences in cognitive performance in older patients with schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Czaja, Sara J; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    There are varying results regarding the conjoint influence of aging and schizophrenia on cognitive abilities. Previous studies have been limited by restricted age ranges among schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy control samples as well as small numbers of control participants. To quantify the association between age and cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and psychiatrically healthy older adult controls and to determine if age-associated changes in cognitive performance were different in the two groups. People with schizophrenia (n = 226) and psychiatrically healthy individuals (n = 834) ranging in age from 40 to older than 80 years were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tests. To directly compare the impact of age on cognitive performance, age was also regressed on performance in the two samples. The performance of psychiatrically healthy adults age 70 and older was superior to the performance of the youngest patients with schizophrenia (age 40-49) years on measures of working and episodic memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. Regression analyses indicated that age effects on cognition were significantly greater for schizophrenia patients on measures of verbal learning and speed of processing. Within both the schizophrenia group, and psychiatrically healthy adults, the greatest age-related differences in performance seemed to occur for individuals aged more than 70 years. In this cross-sectional study, the present findings underscore the fact that schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment across all ages and that older schizophrenia patients experience relatively greater age associated differences in cognitive functioning than healthy individuals. These findings have wide-ranging implications regarding the ability of older patients with schizophrenia to function independently and for the development of treatment strategies.

  7. The Relationship between Symptom Severity and Low Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Doğan Bulut, Süheyla; Bulut, Serdar; Görkem Atalan, Dicle; Berkol, Tonguç; Gürçay, Eda; Türker, Türker; Aydemir, Çiğdem

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, the relationship between schizophrenia and environmental factors has come into prominence. This study investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia by comparing vitamin D levels between patients with schizophrenia and a healthy control group. Methods The study included 80 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 74 age- and sex-matched controls. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) were used to evaluate symptom severity. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of all subjects both patients and healthy controls were analyzed in relation to measurements of symptom severity. Results There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, sex, or physical activity. Their mean 25OHD levels were also similar (23.46±13.98ng/mL for the patient group and 23.69±9.61ng/mL for the control group). But when patients with schizophrenia were grouped based on their vitamin D levels, the results indicated a statistically significant differences between their vitamin D levels and their total SANS, affective flattening, and total SAPS, bizarre behavior and positive formal thought disorder scores (p = 0.019, p = 0.004, p = 0.015, p = 0.009 and p = 0.019, respectively). There is a negative correlation between 25OHD levels and SANS total points (r = -0.232, p = 0.038); a negative correlation for attention points (r = -0.227, p = 0.044) and negative correlation with positive formal thoughts (r = -0.257, p = 0.021). Conclusion The results of this study show a relationship between lower levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms, along with increased severity of symptoms at lower levels of vitamin D, suggesting that treatment for schizophrenia should include assessment of patients’ vitamin D levels. We recommend that patients with schizophrenia should be assessed with

  8. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia

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    Ünsal C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Mustafa Oran,2 Hande Oktay Tureli,3 Seref Alpsoy,4 Sema Yesilyurt,5 Mehtap Arslan,6 Birol Topcu,7 Osman Karakaya,8 Erhan Kurt6 1Department of Psychiatry, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Biostatistics, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 8Department of Social Service, Yalova University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova, Turkey Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with early mortality compared with the nonschizophrenic population. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in asymptomatic periods in patients with schizophrenia would enhance their quality of life and reduce mortality. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and ankle brachial index (ABI measurement are known to be beneficial methods of detecting subclinical cardiovascular diseases and of risk stratification. The present study investigated carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ABI and echocardiographic parameters measured via conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with a control group. Methods: The present case-control study included 116 patients with schizophrenia and 88 healthy patients. Participants with any current comorbid psychiatric disorder, current or lifetime neurological and medical problems, current coronary artery disease, diabetes

  9. Neurological soft signs might be endophenotype candidates for patients with deficit syndrome schizophrenia

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    Albayarak Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yakup Albayrak,1 Esra Soydaş Akyol,2 Murat Beyazyüz,1 Saliha Baykal,1 Murat Kuloglu31Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TurkeyBackground: Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling, disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. The nature of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, and unsuccessful efforts to subtype this disorder have been made. Deficit syndrome schizophrenia (DS is a clinical diagnosis that has not been placed in main diagnostic manuals. In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare neurological soft signs (NSS in DS patients, non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS patients, and healthy controls (HCs. We suggest that NSS might be an endophenotype candidate for DS patients.Methods: Sixty-six patients with schizophrenia and 30 HCs were enrolled in accordance with our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients were sub-typed as DS (n=24 and NDS (n=42 according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical variables and total scores and subscores on the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs (PANESS. Following the comparison, a regression analysis was performed for predictability of total PANESS score and its subscales in the diagnosis of DS and NDS.Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, and smoking status. The results of our study indicated that the total PANESS score was significantly higher in the DS group compared to the NDS and HC groups, and all PANESS subscales were significantly higher in the DS group than in the HC group. The diagnosis of DS was predicted significantly by total PANESS score (P<0.001, odds ratio =9.48, 95% confidence interval: 0.00–4.56; the synergy, graphesthesia, stereognosis, motor tasks, and ability to

  10. Blood Levels of Monoamine Precursors and Smoking in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Ashwin Jacob Mathai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and exerts a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Smoking has complex interactions with monoamine metabolism through the ability of cigarette smoke to suppress Type 1 T helper cell (Th1 type immunity, the immunophenotype that is implicated in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH dysfunction and tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO. Nicotine also induces tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH expression, leading to increased synthesis of catecholamines. Furthermore, there is evidence for PAH dysfunction in schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare the plasma levels of selected monoamine precursors and their metabolites in smokers vs non-smokers in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. We measured plasma phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and kynurenine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and calculated phenylalanine: tyrosine (Phe: Tyr and kynurenine: tryptophan (Kyn: Trp ratios in 920 patients with schizophrenia. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to compare these endpoints between 3 groups of patients with schizophrenia; 1 current smokers, 2 past smokers and 3 non-smokers. There were significant differences among the three groups with regards to tyrosine levels [F(2,789=3.77, p=0.02], with current smokers having lower tyrosine levels when compared to non-smokers (p=0.02. Kynurenine levels and Kyn :Trp ratio were different among the 3 groups [F (2,738=3.17, p=0.04, F(2,738=3.61, p=0.03] with current smokers having lower kynurenine levels (p=0.04 and higher Kyn: Trp ratio (p=0.02 when compared to past smokers. These findings need to be replicated with protocols that include healthy controls to further elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of altered tyrosine and kynurenine levels in smokers. Results do suggest potential molecular links between schizophrenia and smoking

  11. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

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    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  12. Association between unmet needs and clinical status in patients with first episode of schizophrenia in Chile

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    Natalia eJorquera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving needs in several matters that are often not covered. A need is defined as a gap between the ideal state and the current state of a patient about a specific topic. Aim: To describe needs in patients with first episode of schizophrenia at the start of treatment, and to describe associated clinical factors. Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional design. Patients were over fifteen years old, with first episode schizophrenia, and admitted to treatment in the public health system from six district in two cities of Chile, between 2005 and 2006. Sociodemographic data, clinical evaluations of current psychosis based on the PANSS, and the time of untreated psychosis were obtained. A clinical interview, was carried out followed by the Camberwell Assessment of Need. Results: 29 patients were evaluated, 79.3% male, mean age 21.9 years old. The areas with more needs reported were; psychotic symptoms with 65.5% of sample, 21.1% of which reported it unmet; and daytime activities, where 44.8% of patients reported a need, 61.54% of them as unmet. The percentage of unmet needs correlated with PANSS score (r= 0.55; p=0.003, and with time of positive symptoms prior to diagnosis (r= 0.416; p=0.03. Discussion: Needs assessment in schizophrenia is necessary. It may affect its clinical course, be relevant in its management and help monitor recovery. Defining the main needs in people with first episode schizophrenia and associated factors allows for a better design of treatment strategies in order to obtain better therapeutic results and recovery.

  13. Assessment of white matter abnormalities in paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liqian; Chen, Zhuangfei; Deng, Wei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Huang, Chaohua; Jiang, Lijun; Wang, Yingcheng; Wang, Qiang; Collier, David A; Gong, Qiyong; Li, Tao

    2011-12-30

    White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, but the empirical evidence about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders is still limited. This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania. For this purpose, DTI was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=25) and psychotic bipolar mania (n=18) who had been treated with standard pharmacotherapy for fewer than 5 days at the time of study, as well as in normal controls (n=30). The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis. The results show that reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiata (PCR) in patients with psychotic bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiata and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). A direct comparison between the two patient groups found no significant differences in any regions, and none of the findings were associated with illness duration. Correlation analysis indicated that FA values showed a significant negative correlation with positive symptom scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the left frontal-parietal lobe in the paranoid schizophrenia. It was concluded that common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology in the two disorders and might be related to shared risk factors for the two disorders.

  14. Socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan.

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    Sado, Junya; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Noma, Norio; Saito, Makiko; Azuma, Hitoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Yuri

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine epidemiologically socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan. This was a cross-sectional study from a single psychiatric hospital. Study patients were adults aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized with schizophrenia one or more times between January 2013 and December 2014. From electronic medical records or health insurance claims, we extracted schizophrenia patients with an F2 code according to ICD-10, and assessed the association of various factors with diabetes mellitus among these patients in a multivariable analysis. During the 2-year period, there were 1899 patients hospitalized with a psychiatric disorder one or more times. Of them, a total of 770 adults with schizophrenia (285 men and 485 women) were eligible for our analysis. The standardized prevalence ratio of diabetes mellitus was 2.0 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5] among men and 3.0 (95 % CI 2.5-3.6) among women in this hospital. There were no socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among men. Among women, factors such as a 730-day hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.82: 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.52-9.64], and a medical protection/compulsory/discrimination hospitalization (adjusted OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99) were associated with diabetes mellitus. Compared with women living alone, those who were unmarried and lived together with someone had a significantly lower adjusted OR (0.41, 95 % CI 0.21-0.81). Socio-environmental factors such as length of hospitalization, type of hospitalization, and marital status and living arrangement were associated with diabetes mellitus among hospitalized women with schizophrenia.

  15. Free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, A; Gurak, K; Maura, J; Martinez de Andino, A; Weintraub, M J; Mejia, M

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Some research suggests that holding a free will perspective may offer mental health and physical health benefits. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study is the first to examine links between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Study results suggest that helping people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) may assist them in improving their experiences and better managing their symptoms. Introduction Some research indicates that having a strong sense that one possesses free will may be associated with better psychological and physical health. This study is the first to examine the relationship between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method Thirty-two participants were interviewed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale to assess symptom severity and the Free Will Subscale of the Free Will and Determinism Scale to assess free will perceptions. Results As hypothesized, a negative association was found between free will perceptions and total symptom severity, though it appears that this was mainly accounted for by positive symptoms. A content analysis was also conducted to qualitatively examine how patients conceptualize the construct of free will and its role in coping with their own mental illness. Discussion Study results suggest that holding a free will perspective may mitigate psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thus, psychiatric nurses and other mental health clinicians may improve current treatments for schizophrenia by helping patients recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) to stressful life events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nicotine enhances but does not normalize visual sustained attention and the associated brain network in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L Elliot; Schroeder, Matthew; Ross, Thomas J; Buchholz, Brittany; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Wonodi, Ikwunga; Thaker, Gunvant K; Stein, Elliot A

    2011-03-01

    Sustained attention abnormality in schizophrenia is usually refractory to available treatment. Nicotine can transiently improve sustained attention in schizophrenia patients, although its neural mechanisms are unknown. Understanding the neural basis of this effect may lead to new treatment strategies for this cognitive deficit. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy comparison smokers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, randomized functional magnetic resonance imaging study comparing nicotine vs placebo patch on sustained attention, using the rapid visual information-processing task. Schizophrenia patients had impaired visual sustained attention accuracy and processing speed (all P's attention network compared with healthy comparison subjects. Nicotine administration enhanced accuracy and processing speed compared with placebo (all P's ≤.006), with no drug × diagnosis interactions. However, schizophrenia patients' task performance remained impaired during the nicotine condition, even when compared with healthy comparison subjects in the placebo condition (all P's ≤.01). Nicotine exerted no significant reversal of the impaired attention network associated with schizophrenia. Activations in brain regions associated with nicotine-induced behavioral improvement were not significantly different between patients and comparison subjects. Thus, nicotine transiently enhanced sustained attention similarly in schizophrenia patients and in healthy comparison smokers. The neural mechanisms for this nicotinic effect in schizophrenia appear similar to those for healthy comparison subjects. However, nicotine, at least in a single sustained dose, does not normalize impaired sustained attention and its associated brain network in schizophrenia. These findings provide guidance for developing new treatment strategies for the sustained attention deficit in schizophrenia.

  17. Satisfaction with quality of life varies with temperament types of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael; Farkas, Herman; Gibel, Anatoly

    2003-10-01

    We sought to explore the relationships of three temperament factors with domain-specific subjective quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia. Ninety patients with schizophrenia were evaluated using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale, the Distress Scale for Adverse Symptoms, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire, the Insight Self-Report Scale, and standardized questionnaires for self-reported emotional distress and stress process-related variables. Predictors of domain-specific QOL were identified using multiple regression techniques. Temperament factors explain 6% to 16% of variability in QOL domain scores among patients with schizophrenia after controlling for the remaining variables (emotional distress, social support, self-esteem, avoidance coping, age, side effects, and depression). We found that higher levels of novelty seeking are associated with better general QOL, physical health, and more positive subjective feelings, whereas higher levels of reward dependence are related to better satisfaction from social relationships. Higher levels of harm avoidance are associated with poorer satisfaction with general activities, and medication. Thus, temperament factors, as assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, substantially influence satisfaction with life quality in schizophrenia. Novelty seeking, reward dependence, and harm avoidance are associated with different domains of QOL.

  18. Basic visual dysfunction allows classification of patients with schizophrenia with exceptional accuracy.

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    González-Hernández, J A; Pita-Alcorta, C; Padrón, A; Finalé, A; Galán, L; Martínez, E; Díaz-Comas, L; Samper-González, J A; Lencer, R; Marot, M

    2014-10-01

    Basic visual dysfunctions are commonly reported in schizophrenia; however their value as diagnostic tools remains uncertain. This study reports a novel electrophysiological approach using checkerboard visual evoked potentials (VEP). Sources of spectral resolution VEP-components C1, P1 and N1 were estimated by LORETA, and the band-effects (BSE) on these estimated sources were explored in each subject. BSEs were Z-transformed for each component and relationships with clinical variables were assessed. Clinical effects were evaluated by ROC-curves and predictive values. Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 55 healthy controls participated in the study. For each of the 48 patients, the three VEP components were localized to both dorsal and ventral brain areas and also deviated from a normal distribution. P1 and N1 deviations were independent of treatment, illness chronicity or gender. Results from LORETA also suggest that deficits in thalamus, posterior cingulum, precuneus, superior parietal and medial occipitotemporal areas were associated with symptom severity. While positive symptoms were more strongly related to sensory processing deficits (P1), negative symptoms were more strongly related to perceptual processing dysfunction (N1). Clinical validation revealed positive and negative predictive values for correctly classifying SZ of 100% and 77%, respectively. Classification in an additional independent sample of 30 SZ corroborated these results. In summary, this novel approach revealed basic visual dysfunctions in all patients with schizophrenia, suggesting these visual dysfunctions represent a promising candidate as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  19. Changes in event-related potentials in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zezhi; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Liu, Na; Huang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; He, Leiying; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Chen, Fazhan; Wang, Jijun; Lu, Zheng

    2017-01-17

    This study aimed to explore the characteristics of event-related potentials induced by facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and in their siblings. In this case-control study, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 26 siblings, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. They completed facial emotion recognition tasks from the Ekman Standard Faces Database as an induction for evoked potentials. Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel electroencephalography system. Average evoked potential waveforms were computed from epochs for each stimulus type. The amplitudes and latency of the event-related potentials for P100 (positive potential 100 ms after stimulus onset), N170 (negative potential 170 ms after stimulus onset), and N250 (fronto-central peak) were investigated at O1, O2, P7, and P8 electrode locations. There were significant differences between the groups for P100 amplitude (F = 11.526, P emotion (disgust vs. happiness vs. fear) (F = 1722.467, P emotion intensity (low vs. moderate vs. high) (F = 1737.169, P emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. P100 may be a characteristic index of schizophrenia.

  20. An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia: A population-based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Foldager, Leslie; Røge, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. Method: Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history......Background: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present...... of clozapine treatment. Results: In a study population corresponding to 60,062 person-years from 5328 individuals with schizophrenia of which 1223 (23%) received at least one clozapine prescription, birth in the autumn (September – November) was associated with clozapine treatment (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.07 – 1...

  1. Association between the high-dose use of benzodiazepines and rehospitalization in patients with schizophrenia: a 2-year naturalistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Yukika; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Ono, Kotaro; Futenma, Kunihiro; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Murakoshi, Akiko; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background High-dose use of benzodiazepines (BZPs) reportedly causes adverse effects on cognitive function and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. However, effects of BZPs on the clinical course of schizophrenia have not been clarified. This study was set out to investigate the association between BZPs and rehospitalization of patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this retrospective study, patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from Tokyo Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and February 2012 were eligible as subjects. One hundred and eight patients who continued treatment for >2 years after hospital discharge were included in this study. Clinical characteristics, doses of prescribed medication such as BZPs and antipsychotics, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores at discharge were investigated. The primary outcome was rehospitalization of patients for any reason. Results In a total of 108 subjects with schizophrenia, 44 subjects (40.7%) experienced rehospitalization during the 2-year study period. A multivariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model revealed that low educational history (hazard ratio =2.43, P=0.032), younger onset age of schizophrenia (hazard ratio =2.10, P=0.021), and higher diazepam-equivalent dose (hazard ratio =6.53, P=0.011) were significantly associated with the time to rehospitalization after hospital discharge. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that high-dose use of BZPs at discharge in patients with schizophrenia might be associated with a shorter time to rehospitalization. PMID:28008260

  2. Precentral and inferior prefrontal hypoactivation during facial emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

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    Watanuki, Toshio; Matsuo, Koji; Egashira, Kazuteru; Nakashima, Mami; Harada, Kenichiro; Nakano, Masayuki; Matsubara, Toshio; Takahashi, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormal processing of emotional face recognition, the neural substrates underlying this process remain unclear. We previously showed abnormal fronto-temporal function during facial expression of emotions, and cognitive inhibition in patients with schizophrenia using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The aim of the current study was to use fNIRS to identify which brain regions involved in recognizing emotional faces are impaired in patients with schizophrenia, and to determine the neural substrates underlying the response to emotional facial expressions per se, and to facial expressions with cognitive inhibition. We recruited 19 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls, statistically matched on age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Brain function was measured by fNIRS during emotional face assessment and face identification tasks. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower activation of the right precentral and inferior frontal areas during the emotional face task compared to controls. Further, patients with schizophrenia were slower and less accurate in completing tasks compared to healthy participants. Decreasing performance was associated with increasing severity of the disease. Our present and prior studies suggest that the impaired behavioral performance in schizophrenia is associated with different mechanisms for processing emotional facial expressions versus facial expressions combined with cognitive inhibition.

  3. [Patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, S; Schiffer, B; Seifert, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the development of the number of patients with schizophrenia in detention (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia and the characterization of these patients. Patients with schizophrenia are examined, by using a standardized questionnaire answered by the attending psychiatrist or psychologist (n = 531). During the last 12 years the number of patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals has increased three times, whereas the number of patients with other diagnoses heightened only twofold. The patients with schizophrenia showed high rates of psychiatric comorbidities (substance disorders 73.9 %, personality disorders 17.2 %), previous inpatient treatments (78.3 % with a mean of 7.5 stays) and previous convictions (63.4 %). Almost half of these convictions (46.6 %) were violent offences (e. g. assault, homicide). Possible explanations for this development are discussed.

  4. Effort-Based Reinforcement Processing and Functional Connectivity Underlying Amotivation in Medicated Patients with Depression and Schizophrenia.

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    Park, Il Ho; Lee, Boung Chul; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Joong Il; Koo, Min-Seung

    2017-04-19

    Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway. We found that integrated reward and effort values of low effort-positive reinforcement and high effort-negative reinforcement were behaviorally anticipated and represented in the putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex activities. Patients with schizophrenia and depression did not show anticipation-related and work-related reaction time reductions, respectively. Greater amotivation severity correlated with smaller work-related putamen activity changes according to reward type in schizophrenia and effort level in depression. Patients with schizophrenia showed feedback-related putamen hyperactivity of low effort compared with healthy controls and depressed patients. The strength of medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity predicted work-related reaction time reduction of high effort negative reinforcement in healthy controls and amotivation severity in both patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. Patients with depression showed deficient medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity compared with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. These results indicate that amotivation in depression and schizophrenia involves different pathophysiology in the prefrontal-striatal circuitry.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amotivation is present in both depression and schizophrenia

  5. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  6. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  7. Adherence predicts symptomatic and psychosocial remission in schizophrenia: Naturalistic study of patient integration in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Herrera, Berta; García Dorado, Marta

    Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia attended in daily practice is an understudied aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between symptomatic and psychosocial remission and adherence to treatment in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study assessed symptomatic and psychosocial remission and community integration of 1,787 outpatients with schizophrenia attended in Spanish mental health services. Adherence to antipsychotic medication in the previous year was categorized as≥80% vs.<80%. Symptomatic remission was achieved in 28.5% of patients, and psychosocial remission in 26.1%. A total of 60.5% of patients were classified as adherent to antipsychotic treatment and 41% as adherent to non-pharmacological treatment. During the index visit, treatment was changed in 28.4% of patients, in 31.1% of them because of low adherence (8.8% of the total population). Adherent patients showed higher percentages of symptomatic and psychosocial remission than non-adherent patients (30.5 vs. 25.4%, P<.05; and 32 vs. 17%, P<.001, respectively). Only 3.5% of the patients showed an adequate level of community integration, which was also higher among adherent patients (73.0 vs. 60.1%, P<.05). Adherence to antipsychotic medication was associated with symptomatic and psychosocial remission as well as with community integration. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia: a self-reported questionnaire survey.

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    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustin J; Fortea, Maria I; Salorio, Pilar; Gallego-Gomez, Juana I; Sánchez-Bautista, Sonia; Balanza, Serafin

    2012-06-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia and the influence of these habits on the degree of obesity. The study was developed in a sample of 159 patients, who were given a self-reported questionnaire, to ascertain the influence of socio-familiar aspects, pharmacological treatment, and dietary habits. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) were also taken. Patients with schizophrenia presented unhealthy dietary habits, as indicated by the finding that 51% of the patients took no longer than 15 min to eat, 40.8% did not eat fruit daily, and 63.1% did not eat fish. Women were three times more likely to be obese than men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.91, P = 0.021). Patients classified as having unhealthy dietary habits have a 2.33-fold higher risk of obesity than patients with good dietary habits (OR = 2.33, P = 0.034). In summary, this paper highlights the fact that patients with schizophrenia have a detrimental dietary pattern that is associated with an increase in BMI and WC, with the consequent development of obesity and related metabolic alterations, regardless of the pharmacological treatment being followed. Future research directions will include exploring the need for nutritional education programmes to improve the dietary habits of such patients.

  9. The neural basis of a deficit in abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Joon Jo, Hang; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-10-30

    Abnormal abstract thinking is a major cause of social dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about its neural basis. In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristic abstract thinking-related brain responses in patients using a task reflecting social situations. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while 16 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed a theme-identification task, in which various emotional pictures depicting social situations were presented. Compared with healthy controls, the patients showed significantly decreased activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices during theme identification. Activity in these two regions correlated well in the controls, but not in patients. Instead, the patients exhibited a close correlation between activity in both sides of the frontopolar cortex, and a positive correlation between the right orbitofrontal cortex activity and degrees of theme identification. Reduced activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices and the underlying aberrant connectivity may be implicated in the patients' deficits in abstract thinking. These newly identified features of the neural basis of abnormal abstract thinking are important as they have implications for the impaired social behavior of patients with schizophrenia during real-life situations.

  10. Reduced fertility in patients' families is consistent with the sexual selection model of schizophrenia and schizotypy.

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    Marco Del Giudice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder marked by an evolutionarily puzzling combination of high heritability, reduced reproductive success, and a remarkably stable prevalence. Recently, it has been proposed that sexual selection may be crucially involved in the evolution of schizophrenia. In the sexual selection model (SSM of schizophrenia and schizotypy, schizophrenia represents the negative extreme of a sexually selected indicator of genetic fitness and condition. Schizotypal personality traits are hypothesized to increase the sensitivity of the fitness indicator, thus conferring mating advantages on high-fitness individuals but increasing the risk of schizophrenia in low-fitness individuals; the advantages of successful schzotypy would be mediated by enhanced courtship-related traits such as verbal creativity. Thus, schizotypy-increasing alleles would be maintained by sexual selection, and could be selectively neutral or even beneficial, at least in some populations. However, most empirical studies find that the reduction in fertility experienced by schizophrenic patients is not compensated for by increased fertility in their unaffected relatives. This finding has been interpreted as indicating strong negative selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles, and providing evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy. METHODOLOGY: A simple mathematical model is presented, showing that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients can coexist with selective neutrality of schizotypy-increasing alleles, or even with positive selection on schizotypy in the general population. If the SSM is correct, studies of patients' families can be expected to underestimate the true fertility associated with schizotypy. SIGNIFICANCE: This paper formally demonstrates that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients does not constitute evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles. Futhermore, it suggests

  11. Efficacy, tolerability and cost effectiveness of zotepine versus olanzapine in patients of acute schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kothari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a functional psychosis with severe personality changes and thought disorders without cerebral damage. No reports are available in literature regarding efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotic drug zotepine over olanzapine a preferred drug worldwide for the treatment of schizophrenia. Therefore, present study is undertaken to evaluate efficacy, tolerability and cost effectiveness of zotepine over olanzapine in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Methods: A prospective, randomized, single blind, parallel, 6 weeks clinical study was conducted on a total of 112 patients, of schizophrenia attending psychiatry outpatient department at G. R. Medical College, Gwalior, India randomized into two groups (56 in each. Patients received either olanzapine (10-20mg or zotepine (75-150mg per day for a period of 6 week. Efficacy was measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale whereas tolerability was measured by dropout rate and frequency of adverse effects. Cost effectiveness was calculated in terms of cost incurred for improvement at the end of treatment period. Results: Both the drugs showed significant (P.0.05. Olanzapine showed significantly better (P0.05 between the two groups. Incidence of akathisia and drop out (16% and 23% with zotepine were significant (P<0.05 as compared to olanzapine (2% and 11% respectively. Conclusions: Though the efficacy of both the drugs is comparable, olanzapine appears to have better tolerability and cost effectiveness than zotepine in patients of schizophrenia. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 577-582

  12. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, scanned with single-photon emission computerized tomography using the dopamine D2/3 receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, and scanned with MRI. After 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (n=13) or zuclopenthixol (n=9), 22 patients were reexamined. Blockade of extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors was correlated with decreased attentional focus (r = -0.615, P=.003) and planning time (r = -0.436, P=.048). Moreover, baseline frontal dopamine D2/3 binding potential and positive symptom reduction correlated positively (D2/3 receptor binding potential left frontal cortex rho = 0.56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association between severity of cognitive disturbances and a poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. Additionally, the findings support associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential at baseline and the effect of antipsychotic treatment on positive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Health care resource use and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China

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    Wu, Jing; He, Xiaoning; Liu, Li; Ye, Wenyu; Montgomery, William; Xue, Haibo; McCombs, Jeffery S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Information concerning the treatment costs of schizophrenia is scarce in People’s Republic of China. The aims of this study were to quantify health care resource utilization and to estimate the direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods Data were obtained from the Tianjin Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) database. Adult patients with ≥1 diagnosis of schizophrenia and 12-month continuous enrollment after the first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2008 and 2009 were included. Both schizophrenia-related, psychiatric-related, and all-cause related resource utilization and direct medical costs were estimated. Results A total of 2,125 patients were included with a mean age of 52.3 years, and 50.7% of the patients were female. The annual mean all-cause costs were $2,863 per patient with psychiatric-related and schizophrenia-related costs accounting for 84.1% and 62.0% respectively. The schizophrenia-related costs for hospitalized patients were eleven times greater than that of patients who were not hospitalized. For schizophrenia-related health services, 60.8% of patients experienced at least one hospitalization with a mean (median) length of stay of 112.1 (71) days and a mean cost of $1,904 per admission; 59.0% of patients experienced at least one outpatient visit with a mean (median) number of visits of 6.2 (4) and a mean cost of $42 per visit during the 12-month follow-up period. Non-medication treatment costs were the most important element (45.7%) of schizophrenia-related costs, followed by laboratory and diagnostic costs (19.9%), medication costs (15.4%), and bed fees (13.3%). Conclusion The cos