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Sample records for twenty normal male

  1. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  2. Sonographic Dimensions of Normal Kidney in Korean Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeon Kyeong

    1996-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the sonographic dimensions of normal kidney in Korean male and to investigate their correlation with age, height, and weight. The ultrasound examinations were performed in 532healthy Korean male from July 1993 to December 1993. We measured the length, the width, and the thickness of both kidneys and those of both central echogenic area. Then renal shape index (RSI), renal volume (RV), volume of central (CEV) echogenic area, and renal parenchymal volume (RPV) were calculated from these measurements. The mean RV of the right kidney was 129.30 ± 30.20 cm 3 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and that of the left kidney was 137.06± 29.73 cm 3 . Meanwhile the mean renal length of right kidney was 10.42 ± 0.61 cm and that of the left kidney was 10.63 ± 0.62 cm being distributed more compactly near mean value than the RV. Therefore the renal length could be more useful than RV in discrimination of abnormally increased or decreased kidney. While renal width, thickness and RV were increased with age, CEV showed no corresponding change. Therefore, the increase in RV could be attributed to the increase in RPV. Meanwhile the RSI was decreased with age. The renal length, renal thickness,thickness of central echogenic area, RV, CEV, and RPV showed strong correlation with weight. The renal length and the length of central echogenic area showed good correlation with height

  3. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy ... science and technology (U.S. Bureau of the Census ... strategies that can be applied to preserve function with ..... Intelligent Technology for an.

  4. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  5. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  6. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  7. Longitudinal genetic analysis of brain volumes in normal elderly male twins

    OpenAIRE

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hardin, Jill; DeCarli, Charles; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Reed, Terry; Wolf, Philip A.; Swan, Gary E.; Carmelli, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in brain volumes measured at two time points in normal elderly males from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. The MRI scans were conducted four years apart on 33 monozygotic and 33 dizygotic male twin pairs, aged 68 to 77 years when first scanned. Volumetric measures of total brain and total cerebrospinal fluid were significantly heritable at baseline (over 70%). For both v...

  8. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  9. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  10. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  11. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2016-01-01

    of 27 chemicals administered orally to juvenile male rats for three months could leave a pathophysiological footprint. The mixture contained metals, perfluorinated compounds, PCB, dioxins, pesticides, heterocyclic amines, phthalate, PAHs and others, with a combined dose of 0.16 (Low dose), 0.47 (Mid...

  12. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptors in the normal male and female canine urinary tract and prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, H.; Barrack, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    We have used the monoclonal estrogen receptor (ER) antibody H222Sp gamma to localize ER by immunocytochemistry in frozen sections of the normal canine urinary tract of both sexes and of the normal prostate of the male. Striking regional heterogeneity of ER location was observed. In the urinary tract, specific ER staining was confined to nuclei of the transitional epithelium (mucosa) and subjacent stroma (submucosa) of the prostatic urethra in the male dog and of the proximal urethra in the female dog. In both sexes there was a gradient of ER staining intensity along these urethral segments. In the male, ER staining intensity was highest in the region of the verumontanum. The pattern and intensity of staining were similar in the male prostatic urethra and female proximal urethra, indicating a similar concentration of ER in these tissues, which have the same embryological origin. No specific staining was found in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or distal urethra of either sex. In the normal prostate, specific immunocytochemical ER staining was confined to nuclei of the prostatic stroma and prostatic ductal epithelium. Specific staining intensity appeared to be higher in the periurethral region of the prostate than in the periphery. No specific staining was found in the acinar epithelium of the prostate. Based on overall staining intensity there appeared to be a higher concentration of ER in the urethra than in the prostate. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]estradiol binding confirmed a similar ER content in the urethra of male and female dogs and a higher ER content in the prostatic urethra than in the prostate itself (P less than 0.001)

  14. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  15. Effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; MacGregor, H; Cassidy, G; Tinney, R; Pompei, F

    1995-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers. Open study utilizing normal volunteers. University research laboratory. Fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers, ranging in age from 19 to 35 yrs, who were not receiving medications. The study was done and the samples of venous blood and shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site were obtained at a convenient time for each volunteer. Skin temperature was changed from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C and blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein of each volunteer. The effect of local skin temperature ranging from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C on bleeding time was evaluated in 38 normal volunteers (19 male and 19 female). Skin temperature was maintained at +20 degrees to +38 degrees C by cooling or warming the forearm. At each temperature, measurements were made of complete blood count, bleeding time, and thromboxane B2 concentrations in shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site and in serum and plasma isolated from blood collected from the antecubital vein. Clotting time studies were measured in 16 normal volunteers (eight male and eight female) at temperatures ranging from +22 degrees to +37 degrees C. At +32 degrees C, the bleeding time was longer and hematocrit was lower in female than in male volunteers. However, at local skin temperatures of < +32 degrees C, both the males and females exhibited significantly increased bleeding times, which were associated with a reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2. Each 1 degree C decrease in temperature was associated with a 15% decrease in the shed blood thromboxane B2 concentration. Clotting times were three times longer at +22 degrees C than at +37 degrees C. Each 1 degree C reduction in the temperature of the clotted blood was associated with a 15% reduction in the serum thromboxane B2 concentration. Our data indicate that during surgical procedures, it

  16. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

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    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  17. Cardiointegram: detection of coronary artery disease in males with chest pain and a normal resting electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichholz, L.E.; Steinmetz, M.Y.; Escher, D.; Herman, M.V.; Naimi, S.; Mahony, D.V.; Ellestad, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a non-invasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage vs. time format by a series of integrations. This multicenter study compares the results of the cardiointegram with coronary arteriography in 140 male patients with chest pain and a normal resting electrocardiogram. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of Leads I, II, V4, V5 and V6 and called abnormal if greater than or equal to four of ten complexes were abnormal, i.e., fell outside of a previously determined template of normality. The sensitivity was 73% and specificity was 78% for the diagnosis of occlusive coronary artery disease. When greater than or equal to five of ten abnormal complexes were used as the cut-off for an abnormal test and ''equivocal'' results (four of ten abnormal, n = 18) were excluded from analysis there was a sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 88%. Thirty-seven of 38 patients (97%) with an abnormal cardiointegram and a positive exercise stress test had coronary artery disease. Thus, the cardiointegram appears to be a useful non-invasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease in males with chest pain and a normal resting electrocardiogram in whom the diagnosis of coronary artery disease is being considered

  18. Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2005-09-08

    It is well known that estradiol derived from neural aromatization of testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of the male brain and the display of sexual behaviors in adulthood. It was recently found that male aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) deficient in estradiol due to a mutation in the aromatase gene have general deficits in coital behavior and are sexually less motivated. We wondered whether these behavioral deficits of ArKO males could be related to changes in activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology. ArKO and wild type (WT) males were subjected to open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST), after being exposed or not to chronic mild stress (CMS). CMS was used to evaluate the impact of chronic stressful procedures and to unveil possible differences between genotypes. There was no effect of genotype on OF, EPM and FST behavioral parameters. WT and ArKO mice exposed to CMS or not exhibited the same behavioral profile during these three types of tests. However, all CMS-exposed mice (ArKO and WT) spent less time in the center of the EPM. Additionally, floating duration measured in the FST increased between two tests in both WT and ArKO mice, though that increase was less prominent in mice previously subjected to CMS than in controls. Therefore, both ArKO and WT males displayed the same behavior and had the same response to CMS however CMS exposure slightly modified the behavior displayed by mice of both genotypes in the FST and EPM paradigms. These results show that ArKO males display normal levels of activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology and thus their deficits in sexual behavior are specific in nature and do not result indirectly from other behavioral changes.

  19. Dimensions of the prostatic and membranous urethra in normal male dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes

  20. Potential influence of the phthalates on normal liver function and cardiometabolic risk in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Nataša; Milić, Nataša; Živanović Bosić, Dragana; Bajkin, Ivana; Perčić, Ivanka; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Medić Stojanoska, Milica

    2017-12-13

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, massively used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics, which may impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, obesity, and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the liver function and cardiometabolic risk factors in males. In this research, 102 male participants (51 normal weight and 51 overweight/obese) were enrolled and examined for phthalate metabolites exposure in urine samples after 12 h of fasting. MEP was found in 28.43% (29/102) volunteers, while MEHP was detected among 20.59% (21/102) participants. Statistically significant increment in transaminase serum levels was observed in MEP-positive normal weight subgroup. Linear correlation was obtained between MEP concentration in urine samples and triglyceride (TG) serum levels (r 2  = 0.33; p adiposity index (VAI) (r 2  = 0.41; p HDL) ratio (r 2  = 0.40, p body mass index (p = 0.03) compared to MEHP-negative participants. Urine MEHP concentrations were negatively correlated with HDL serum levels (r 2  = 0.31; p correlated with increased TG and decreased HDL cholesterol serum levels and associated with indicators of cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance as LAP and VAI.

  1. STUDY OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN LINGULA AND MANDIBULAR OCCLUSAL PLANE IN IRANIAN MALES WITH NORMAL OCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GHOREYSHIAN

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pain and the need for controlling it is a determinant factor in dental treatment procedures. One of the most common methods of local anesthesia in mandibular area is infra alveolar nerve block which has failure rate of 5% to 15%. The purpose of this study was to locate the optimal needle entrance point in order to achieve a fast, deep and durable anesthesia with minimal anesthetic consumption. Methods. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 38 cadavers of Iranian males with approximate age of more than 17 years. old. They had normal occlusion and at least 2 molars in each quadrant of the mandible if a sample was edentulous in one quadrant of the mandible or in the opposite jaw; or when a severe tilt in mandi bular dentition was present and in the case of mandibular or condylar fracture, the sample was excluded from the study. Distance between lingual and occlusal plane was measured by a device with two parallel plates. The precision of the measurment was 1mm. Data was analysed by the use of SPSS software. Results. On the right side, the average distance between lingual and occlusal plane was 2.4 ± 4.4 (Mean ± SD and on the left side, was 2:r.4.4 which there was no significant difference between right and left sides (P value=0.9. Discussion. In this study the human body is used and the best point for entrance of the needle for inferior alveolar nerve block technique is located at 8mm above the occlusal plane. At this point the anesthetic solution will be evacuated in the nearest position to the inferior alveolar never.

  2. Study of genetic variation at the level of DNA between normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males (phthorimaea operculella, zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilized males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 μg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  3. Study Of Genetic Variation At The Level Of DNA Between Normal And Steriled Potato Tuber Moth Males (Phthorimaea operculella, Zeller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammouneh, H.; Makee, H.; Idris, E.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of current study was to determine the genetic variation at the level of DNA between the normal and sterilized potato tuber moth males. The required mating experiments were carried out to obtain partially sterilize males at 150 Gy and their offspring. Some biological factors of these males were estimated and compared to their unirradiated siblings. To acquire good quality and quantity of DNA for the AFLP technique, several methods were undertaken to isolate DNA of potato tuber moth male from different developmental stages especially from adult stage. However, a method called Modified M5 was used. By Modified M5, which required phenol for the isolation of DNA, in some samples 8 to 12 Mg were obtained from one insect with 95-100% purity. In our study, AFLP technique was used to analyze the DNA samples of irradiated and unirradiated males from required mating. The result analysis showed that there was a clear genetic variability between examined individuals. However, the relationship between unirradiated F1 and F2 males was stronger than that between irradiated males. Thus, our result demonstrates that the AFLP could be efficiently utilized for studying genetic variation between insect species or between individuals of the same line which have biological differences induced by several factors such as irradiation. Moreover, this technique could enhance the effectiveness of sterile insect technique by using the AFLP in the monitoring system of released insects. (author)

  4. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  5. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  6. Sex-role identification of normal adolescent males and females as related to school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, R A; Curry, J F

    1983-12-01

    The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.

  7. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  8. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  9. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, E.B.; McInnis, D.O.; Lance, D.R.; Carvalho, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  10. Chromosomal translocation in a mongoloid male child and his normal mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Beçak

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a translocation 21/13-15 is related in 46 chromosomes, karyotypes of a mongoloid male child (Down's syndrome. The abnormal chromosome was transmitted by the mother of the patient. The possible deficiency of translocated chromosome 21 and the possible origin of the anomaly in the family was discussed and the presence of a markedly large Y chromosome in the karyotypes of the patient as in those of his father was also noted.

  11. Effect Of Extensive Use Of Garlic In Feed On Normal And Irradiated Stressed Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty mature male albino rats were used in the present study to evaluate the effect of using crude garlic for one month on general heath condition and to compare between garlic intakes pre and post-irradiated stressed rats.Fresh minced cloves (8-10) of garlic were added to the rat diet twice per day for 30 days in garlic group and for 7 and 15 days prior to and after 4 Gy irradiation in pre and post-irradiated garlic groups, respectively. The results denoted that the extensive use of garlic in food improved the general condition in non-stressed rats while in irradiated stressed rats, the immediate intake of garlic after radiation was more efficient in ameliorating the undesirable radiation effects, where some biochemical and hematological parameters were examined in pre and post-garlic intake such as Hb, RBCs, platelets, T 3 , testosterone and insulin.

  12. Determination of haemolymph volume of irradiated and normal males and females of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Kloft, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The haemolymph volume of Tenebrio molitor L. adults was determined by a radioisotope dilution technique. Two myl (14)C-inulin were injected into the haemolymph with a micro-syringe. After sufficient time for through mixing, the labelled haemolymph was collected individually under separation of sexes. Total haemolymph was calculated by a conventional formula for radioisotope dilution. The mean haemolymph volume of normal newly emerged males was 61.1+-14.2 myl and remained constant between day 2 (61.2 +-2.1) and day 3 (55.6+-9.2) after emergence. In comparison newly emerged females had a volume of 53.5+-2.3 myl which increased to 69.4+-11.7 myl day 2 resp. 64.0+-16.7 myl by day 3. The haemolymph volume of X-irradiated (5000 R) males remains almost constant. However in case of irradiated females the haemolymph volume also remains constant in contrast to unirradiated individuals

  13. Organelle Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Help to Distinguish Carpelloid Stamen and Normal Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Sources in Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinshuai; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Lili; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2015-01-01

    We previously discovered carpelloid stamens when breeding cytoplasmic male sterile lines in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). In this study, hybrids and multiple backcrosses were produced from different cytoplasmic male sterile carpelloid stamen sources and maintainer lines. Carpelloid stamens caused dysplasia of the flower structure and led to hooked or coiled siliques with poor seed setting, which were inherited in a maternal fashion. Using four distinct carpelloid stamens and twelve distinct normal stamens from cytoplasmic male sterile sources and one maintainer, we used 21 mitochondrial simple sequence repeat (mtSSR) primers and 32 chloroplast SSR primers to identify a mitochondrial marker, mtSSR2, that can differentiate between the cytoplasm of carpelloid and normal stamens. Thereafter, mtSSR2 was used to identify another 34 broccoli accessions, with an accuracy rate of 100%. Analysis of the polymorphic sequences revealed that the mtSSR2 open reading frame of carpelloid stamen sterile sources had a deletion of 51 bases (encoding 18 amino acids) compared with normal stamen materials. The open reading frame is located in the coding region of orf125 and orf108 of the mitochondrial genomes in Brassica crops and had the highest similarity with Raphanus sativus and Brassica carinata. The current study has not only identified a useful molecular marker to detect the cytoplasm of carpelloid stamens during broccoli breeding, but it also provides evidence that the mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited and provides a basis for studying the effect of the cytoplasm on flower organ development in plants. PMID:26407159

  14. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  15. The central masturbation fantasy in heterosexual males across the life cycle: masturbation fantasies across the normality-pathology spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2012-10-01

    Moses Laufer described the central masturbation fantasy as an essentially adolescent phenomenon that leads to the final sexual organization. In this paper the central masturbation fantasy, formulated during the preoedipal and oedipal years, consolidated in adolescence, and in a process of continuous evolution across the life cycle, is considered an essential concept for understanding sexuality in heterosexual males. Sex and aggression, as posited in Freud's dual theory of the drives, are core components of all masturbation fantasies, across the diagnostic spectrum, from the most normal/neurotic to the most criminally bizarre. Clinical examples illustrate both points. The tendency among clinicians, particularly clinical associates, to avoid analyzing all aspects of masturbation is discussed.

  16. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  17. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (ptherapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  18. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  19. Two apparent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in normal XY males: G6PD Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, J T; Hall, K; Csepreghy, M; Lilly, M; Berkow, R; Scott, C W

    1988-03-01

    A six-year-old black boy who had transient hemolysis after a viral infection was found to have mildly decreased red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity (1.25 IU/g hemoglobin). Two G6PD bands, both slightly faster than normal G6PD B, were seen on electrophoresis in both the propositus as well as in his maternal grandfather. This is an unexpected finding, since the G6PD gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome that is subject to X-chromosome inactivation, and available evidence indicates that it is present as a single functional copy in the human genome. The obvious possibility of duplication of the X chromosome was eliminated by cytogenetic analysis with G-banding. G6PD duplication is unlikely, since peripheral blood granulocytes, platelets, and lymphocytes; cultured skin and bone marrow fibroblasts; and Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated lymphocytes yielded only a single electrophoretic band with mobility identical to the slower band seen in crude red blood cell hemolysate. Study of partially purified red blood cell hemolysate G6PD also yielded a single band with identical mobility. Kinetic studies of the enzyme in the propositus and in three generations of his family identified a unique, previously unpublished G6PD mutant that is herein designated G6PD Alabama. Red blood cells were separated by density gradient into a reticulocyte-enriched, an intermediate, and a dense, older portion. Two distinct enzyme bands were identified on electrophoresis of hemolysate from the reticulocyte-enriched portion, but not from the other two portions. It is postulated that two transcriptional products of the mutant G6PD gene exist; one with a short half-life and detectable only in young red blood cells, and another with a longer half-life present in all cells. The existence of two distinct mutant genes in the genome or a unique post-translational form of the mutant G6PD detected only in reticulocytes cannot be excluded.

  20. The Comparison of Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Forward and Backward Walking among Professional Male Karatekas with Genu Varum and Normal Knees

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Sadeghi; Siavash Shirvanipour; Raghad Mimar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare vertical ground reaction force during forward and backward walking among the male professional Karatekas with genu varum and normal knee. Methods: 20 professional male Karates (in genu varum and normal groups) participated in this semi-experimental study. The vertical ground reaction force was measured using force plate system during forward and backward walking utilizing 250 Hz frequency. Mixed ANOVA test was run to analyze the obtained ...

  1. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  2. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka

    2002-01-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with 15 O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO 2 between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO 2 of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO 2 between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO 2 of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the normal group in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital

  3. Pedagogic culture and school manuals. The experience of the Normal School for male teachers in Campobasso (1872-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Miceli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution places itself within a renewed study cycle with the purpose to illustrate a new line of research aimed at investigating on the inner aspects of school life: the teaching function, the practices used for transferring a set of knowledge on school subjects, as well as educational and behavioral models. In particular, the focus lies on the analysis of pedagogy textbooks used in the Normal School for male of Campobasso. The choice of those books was influenced by factors such as the ongoing pedagogical/cultural changes, the conditions of the schoolbook market, the development of distribution channels and the evolution of the schoolbook-related policies in the 2nd half of XIX century. This kind of analysis allows a better understanding of the degree of establishment and diffusion of the renewal that School underwent from the end of the XIX century. How to reference this article Miceli, V. (2015. Cultura pedagogica e manualistica scolastica. L’esperienza della Scuola Normale maschile di Campobasso (1872-1898. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 231-252. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.012

  4. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  5. Myocardial infarction during anaphylaxis in a young healthy male with normal coronary arteries- is epinephrine the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamali, W D; Herath, H M M T B; Kulathunga, Aruna

    2017-09-04

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal medical emergency. Myocardial injury or infarction in the setting of an anaphylaxis can be due the anaphylaxis itself, when it is known as Kounis syndrome or it can also be due to the effect of epinephrine treatment. Epinephrine is considered as the cornerstone in management of anaphylaxis. Myocardial infarction secondary to therapeutic doses of adrenaline is a rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The mechanism of myocardial injury was considered to be due to coronary vasospasm secondary to epinephrine as the coronary angiograms were normal on these occasions. A 21-year- old previously healthy male got admitted to the local hospital with an urticarial rash and difficulty in breathing, one hour after ingestion of prawns for which he was known to be allergic. He was treated with 0.5 ml of intramuscular adrenaline (1:1000) which was administered to the lateral side of the thigh, following which he developed palpitations and tightening type central chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST segment depressions in leads III, aVF and V1 to V5 and he was transferred to a tertiary care hospital. The second electrocardiogram, done 2 h later, showed resolution of ST segment depressions but new T inversions in leads I and aVL. Troponin I was elevated with a titer of 2.15 ng/ml. He was treated with sublingual GTN in the emergency treatment unit and the symptoms resolved. Transthoracic 2D echocardiogram and stress testing with treadmill was normal and CT coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries. Here we present a case of a young healthy adult with no significant risk factors for coronary artery disease who developed myocardial infarction following intramuscular administration of therapeutic dose of adrenalin for an anaphylactic reaction. The postulated mechanism is most likely an alpha receptor mediated coronary vascular spasm. However the use of adrenaline in the setting of life

  6. Binding of host-selective toxin analogs to mitochondria from normal and Texas male sterile cytoplasm maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzen, K.A.; Daly, J.M.; Knoche, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium-labeled toxin analogs were prepared by reduction with NaB 3 H 4 of either the toxin from Helminthosporium maydis race T or a toxin component from Phyllosticta maydis. These reduced analogs had high radiochemical specific activities, high biological activities, and plant specificities identical to the native toxins. A filtration assay was developed to test the binding of these labeled analogs to isolated mitochondria. Binding was not energy dependent nor was there measurable matrical uptake. The analogs were shown to be lipophilic, a characteristic which gave rise to considerable nondisplaceable binding. Under conditions limiting nondisplaceable binding, the displaceable binding was shown to be linear with respect to toxin concentration and unsaturable. No significant differences were observed in the binding characteristics between the mitochondria from normal and male-sterile (Texas) cytoplasm maize. The findings suggest that, at physiologically relevant concentrations, these toxin analogs permeate the membranes of susceptible and resistant mitochondria alike. The lack of demonstrable specific binding does not rule out the involvement of a classical receptor site but does indicate that other kinds of molecular interactions may be involved in the mechanisms for toxicity and specificity

  7. Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, A.P.; Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population; a 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter

  8. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  9. An Autosomal Factor from Drosophila Arizonae Restores Normal Spermatogenesis in Drosophila Mojavensis Males Carrying the D. Arizonae Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazidis, A. C.; Galanopoulos, V. K.; Zouros, E.

    1993-01-01

    Males of Drosophila mojavensis whose Y chromosome is replaced by the Y chromosome of the sibling species Drosophila arizonae are sterile. It is shown that genetic material from the fourth chromosome of D. arizonae is necessary and sufficient, in single dose, to restore fertility in these males. In introgression and mapping experiments this material segregates as a single Mendelian factor (sperm motility factor, SMF). Light and electron microscopy studies of spermatogenesis in D. mojavensis males whose Y chromosome is replaced by introgression with the Y chromosome of D. arizonae (these males are symbolized as mojY(a)) revealed postmeiotic abnormalities all of which are restored when the SMF of D. arizonae is co-introgressed (these males are symbolized as mojY(a)SMF(a)). The number of mature sperm per bundle in mojY(a)SMF(a) is slightly less than in pure D. mojavensis and is even smaller in males whose fertility is rescued by introgression of the entire fourth chromosome of D. arizonae. These observations establish an interspecific incompatibility between the Y chromosome and an autosomal factor (or more than one tightly linked factors) that can be useful for the study of the evolution of male hybrid sterility in Drosophila and the genetic control of spermatogenesis. PMID:8514139

  10. Enhanced proliferation of transfused marrow and reversal of normal growth inhibition of female marrow in male hosts 2 months after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Mulcahy, K.; Tjio, J.H.; Raveche, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that 0.5 to 1 million marrow cells suffice to rescue (though not necessarily fully restore) lethally irradiated mice, while even 40 million cells result only in minimal seeding in isogeneic, nonirradiated mice. It was originally suggested that the results imply the existence of special proliferative sites which are filled in the nonirradiated animal, but are emptied by high doses of irradiation. In 1982 the authors demonstrated the feasibility of establishing substantial numbers of donor cells in normal, non-irradiated hosts. After four daily transfusions of 50 million marrow cells, 20-40% of the host's marrow consisted of cells of donor origin. The present paper reports the marked enhancement of the proliferation of transfused marrow cells in mice exposed to sublethal doses of irradiation of 300-900 R. Two months later, when the peripheral blood counts of the irradiated animals had returned to normal, transfusion of 100 million cells resulted in donor cell percentages of 55-100% in the peripheral blood and marrow. The authors previously found that male donor cells proliferated as readily in female as in male hosts, while female donor cells proliferated to a comparable degree only in female hosts. In the present study, male animals that had been exposed to 600-900 R 2 months earlier sustained proliferation of male and female donor cells equally well

  11. Studies on the ecology of insects sterilized artificially (gamma radiation), 8. Experimental analysis of the sexual competitiveness between normal males of the oriental fruit fly and males sterilized by the /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoku, M; Tsukuda, R [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1974-09-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation of 7 KR from /sup 137/Cs on the oriental fruit fly pupae two days before emerging did not significantly reduce the percentage of emergence and longevity of adult flies. However, highly sterile adults (more than 98.9%) were found in those combinations, S..gamma.. x N/sup -/, N..gamma.. x S/sup -/ and S..gamma.. x S/sup -/. The result of observation of sperm activity in spermathecae of females mated with sterilized males showed that the sterility is caused by dominant lethalities. The sexual competitiveness between S..gamma.. and N..gamma.. has been examined in experiments of S..gamma.. x N..gamma.. x N/sup -/. (1) The data suggest that the sterility percentage concerning with egg hatchability is proportional to the rate of sterilized males replaced for normal males when that is expressed with a multiple of the ratio of normal males to normal females. Seven such straight lines thus obtained made us possible to find the theoretical expectation of sterility percentage. (2) Relationship between the percent egg hatch observed (y), or that estimated theoretically (Y), and logarithm of ratio, S..gamma../N..gamma.. (x) was showed to be two straight regression equations, y=18.413-11.952 (x - 1.295) and Y=11.890-15.462 (x - 1.295). Ratio of regression coefficients of the equations was 0.772. (3) Correlations between the sterility percentage and ratio, S..gamma../N..gamma.., showed in three convex curves under three degrees of competitiveness (0.265, 0.576 and 1.001). When both the values of S..gamma../N..gamma.. in the mating experiments and the sterility percentages are given, it is possible to obtain degrees of competitiveness using the curves.

  12. Analysis of semen parameters in male referrals: impact of reference limits, stratification by fertility categories, predictors of change, and comparison of normal semen parameters in subfertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen; Li, Jianbo; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    To [1] determine the impact of semen reference limits on referrals for male fertility evaluations, [2] analyze the stratification of subjects based on published "normal" thresholds, [3] analyze the odds of changing fertility categories during serial tests and thereby the potential impact of inherent variability of semen parameters on referrals, and [4] determine variable(s) predictive of change. Retrospective chart review. Academic referral center for male fertility. New encounters in a male fertility clinic over a 5-year period that straddles the publication of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 reference values. None. Demographic and clinical variables, semen values, and fertility categories as follows: BE (below WHO 2010 criteria), BTWN (above WHO 2010 but below WHO 1999 criteria), and N (above WHO 1999 criteria). A total of 82.3% of initial semen tests were categorized as BE, and the predominance of this category was unchanged by publication of the WHO 2010 criteria. Men with initial semen analysis categorized as BTWN or N represented 16.2% and 1.5% of the referral population, respectively. Subjects initially categorized as BTWN were more likely to change fertility categories, and overwhelmingly this migration was downward. Analysis of normal individual semen parameters revealed statistically worse mean concentration and motility when at least one other parameter fell below the WHO 2010 criteria. Men with semen results above reference criteria are underrepresented, indicating that reference limits influence referral patterns for male fertility evaluations. Normal mean concentration and motility were lower in men with at least one other individual semen parameter below the 2010 criteria, suggesting global dysfunction in spermatogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  15. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2009-04-21

    According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual

  17. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus General obesity with normal WC in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, S.M.; Iftikhar, R.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index >25kg/m/sup 2/ and waist circumference >90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure >140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2 %) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n=191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Conclusion: Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index. (author)

  18. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (Ptomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  19. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of growth-related traits and gene expression profiles between the offspring of neomale (XX) and normal male (XY) rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocmarek, Andrea L; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2015-04-01

    All-female lines of fish are created by crossing sex reversed (XX genotype) males with normal females. All-female lines avoid the deleterious phenotypic effects that are typical of precocious maturation in males. To determine whether all-female and mixed sex populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) differ in performance, we compared the growth and gene expression profiles in progeny groups produced by crossing a XX male and a XY male to the same five females. Body weight and length were measured in the resulting all-female (XX) and mixed sex (XX/XY) offspring groups. Microarray experiments with liver and white muscle were used to determine if the gene expression profiles of large and small XX offspring differ from those in large and small XX/XY offspring. We detected no significant differences in body length and weight between offspring groups but XX offspring were significantly less variable in the value of these traits. A large number of upregulated genes were shared between the large XX and large XX/XY offspring; the small XX and small XX/XY offspring also shared similar expression profiles. No GO category differences were seen in the liver or between the large XX and large XX/XY offspring in the muscle. The greatest differences between the small XX and small XX/XY offspring were in the genes assigned to the "small molecule metabolic process" and "cellular metabolic process" GO level 3 categories. Similarly, genes within these categories as well as the category "macromolecule metabolic process" were more highly expressed in small compared to large XX fish.

  1. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  2. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  3. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  4. Effects of acute exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic and non-cholinergic targets in normal and high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakala, Sandeep; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ross, Matthew K; Howell, George E

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States with 36.5% of adults being classified as obese. Compared to normal individuals, obese individuals have noted pathophysiological alterations which may alter the toxicokinetics of xenobiotics and therefore alter their toxicities. However, the effects of obesity on the toxicity of many widely utilized pesticides has not been established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine if the obese phenotype altered the toxicity of the most widely used organophosphate (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPS). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed normal or high-fat diet for 4weeks and administered a single dose of vehicle or CPS (2.0mg/kg; oral gavage) to assess cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase activities) and non-cholinergic (carboxylesterase and endocannabinoid hydrolysis) endpoints. Exposure to CPS significantly decreased red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, but not brain AChE activity, in both diet groups. Further, CPS exposure decreased hepatic carboxylesterase activity and hepatic hydrolysis of a major endocannabinoid, anandamide, in a diet-dependent manner with high-fat diet fed animals being more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition. These in vivo studies were corroborated by in vitro studies using rat primary hepatocytes, which demonstrated that fatty acid amide hydrolase and CES activities were more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition than 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity. These data demonstrate hepatic CES and FAAH activities in high-fat diet fed mice were more potently inhibited than those in normal diet fed mice following CPS exposure, which suggests that the obese phenotype may exacerbate some of the non-cholinergic effects of CPS exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chapter Twenty Three

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    as symbols of purity, spirituality and impeccability whose performative presence in the arena is on account of the involvement of the eldest queen who hails from Iloro quarters of Owo. This participation is a mark of condescension and favour towards the other sex. In the same male isolation of feminist caste, Egungun ...

  6. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  7. Twenty years of JHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, Daniele; Bonora, Loriano

    2017-01-01

    On July 1st of twenty years ago we launched the first issue of JHEP. It was a real challenge to try the adventure of a scientific journal thought and managed by scientists, independent of private or institutional publishers. The idea was that physicists who were performing the work, writing the papers, and refereeing those of their peers, could also edit them in an electronic format. Thus, at a limited cost which could be handled by academic or scientific institutions, giving open access to the published information, and avoiding the heavy burden at that time placed on our libraries. In order to avoid the failure that - as we well remember was predicted to us by publishing companies and institutions, we needed the active support of the scientific community. A support in collaborating to the scrutiny of papers and scientific policies but, mainly, in sending to us their good papers. We contacted in that sense several of our most active and renowned colleagues, restricting of course to our high energy physics field. We received many enthusiastic responses as can be specifically seen from the papers that appear in the first issues of the journal, as well as the respected names listed in the advisory and in the editorial boards featuring in the opening page of the first issue of JHEP attached to this letter. We were optimists, but perhaps not as much as to foresee the success of the journal, which, in his first 20 years, turned out to be one of the most (if not the most) prestigious one in our field. Success for which --- as first project chairman and executive editor - we must essentially thank the scientific community who supported JHEP by considering it ''their journal'', as was our intention from the start. In this occasion we would like to recall the important contribution of Marco Fabbrichesi who designed the software on which the journal is based, and the technical personnel who implemented it and made it work. It is our pleasure to mention

  8. Intrastriatal administration of botulinum neurotoxin A normalizes striatal D2 R binding and reduces striatal D1 R binding in male hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Franziska; Oskamp, Angela; Lang, Markus; Hawlitschka, Alexander; Zilles, Karl; Wree, Andreas; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) has been shown to improve disease-specific motor behavior in a rat model of Parkinson disease (PD). Since the dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia fundamentally contributes to motor function, we investigated the impact of BoNT-A on striatal dopamine receptor expression using in vitro and in vivo imaging techniques (positron emission tomography and quantitative autoradiography, respectively). Seventeen male Wistar rats were unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and assigned to two treatment groups 7 weeks later: 10 rats were treated ipsilaterally with an intrastriatal injection of 1 ng BoNT-A, while the others received vehicle (n = 7). All animals were tested for asymmetric motor behavior (apomorphine-induced rotations and forelimb usage) and for striatal expression of dopamine receptors and transporters (D 1 R, D 2 R, and DAT). The striatal D 2 R availability was also quantified longitudinally (1.5, 3, and 5 months after intervention) in 5 animals per treatment group. The 6-OHDA lesion alone induced a unilateral PD-like phenotype and a 13% increase of striatal D 2 R. BoNT-A treatment reduced the asymmetry in both apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and D 2 R expression, with the latter returning to normal values 5 months after intervention. D 1 R expression was significantly reduced, while DAT concentrations showed no alteration. Independent of the treatment, higher interhemispheric symmetry in raclopride binding to D 2 R was generally associated with reduced forelimb akinesia. Our findings indicate that striatal BoNT-A treatment diminishes motor impairment and induces changes in D 1 and D 2 binding site density in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Leptin Intake at Physiological Doses Throughout Lactation in Male Wistar Rats Normalizes the Decreased Density of Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Fibers in the Stomach Caused by Mild Gestational Calorie Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Szostaczuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational under nutrition in rats has been shown to decrease expression of sympathetic innervation markers in peripheral tissues of offspring, including the stomach. This has been linked to lower gastric secretion and decreased circulating levels of ghrelin. Considering the critical role of leptin intake during lactation in preventing obesity and reversing adverse developmental programming effects, we aimed to find out whether leptin supplementation may reverse the above mentioned alterations caused by mild gestational calorie restriction.Methods: Three groups of male rats were studied at a juvenile age (25 days old and during adulthood (3 and 6 months old: the offspring of ad libitum fed dams (controls, the offspring of dams that were diet restricted (20% from days 1 to 12 of gestation (CR, and CR rats supplemented with a daily oral dose of leptin (equivalent to 5 times the average amount they could receive each day from maternal milk throughout lactation (CR-Leptin. The density of TyrOH-immunoreactive (TyrOH+ fibers and the levels of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrOH—used as potential markers of functional sympathetic innervation—were measured in stomach. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were also determined.Results: Twenty five-day-old CR rats, but not CR-Leptin rats, displayed lower density of TyrOH+ fibers (−46% and TyrOH levels (−47% in stomach compared to controls. Alterations in CR animals were mitigated at 6 months of age, and differences were not significant. Adult CR-Leptin animals showed higher plasma ghrelin levels than CR animals, particularly at 3 months (+16%, and a lower leptin/ghrelin ratio (−28 and −37% at 3 and 6 months, respectively.Conclusion: Leptin intake during lactation is able to reverse the alterations in the density of TyrOH+ fibers in the stomach and normalize the increased leptin/ghrelin ratio linked to a mild gestational calorie restriction in rats, supporting the relevance of leptin as an

  10. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  11. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and 'normal' brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrations in the frontal lobe were determined for twenty six Alzheimer (15 male, 11 female) and twenty six 'normal' (8 male, 18 female) brain tissue samples. In the parietal lobe ten Alzheimer (2 male, 8 female) and ten 'normal' (8 male, 2 female) samples were taken along with ten Alzheimer (4 male, 6 female) and ten 'normal' (6 male, 4 female) from the occipital lobe. For the frontal lobe trace element concentrations were determined using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis while in parietal and occipital regions instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used. Additionally eighteen Alzheimer (9 male, 9 female) and eighteen age matched 'normal' (8 male, 10 female) living subjects were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu). The rCMRGlu of 36 regions of the brain was investigated including frontal, occipital and parietal lobes as in the trace element study. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the trace element and glucose metabolism data to discover which variables in the resulting dendrograms displayed the most significant separation between Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. (author)

  12. Simultaneous breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in a male patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and a normal serum alpha-fetoprotein level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Kao

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an excision of the left breast mass were performed. The breast mass was pathologically confirmed to be infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified and with predominantly cystic degeneration. The patient received chemotherapy with tamoxifen for the breast cancer, and transarterial chemoembolization for the HCC. Concomitant breast cancer and HCC in a male patient were rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we have discussed the possible relationship of these two disease entities.

  13. DNA-content in isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of progeny from normal and irradiated males of Tetranychus urticae (Acari Tetranychidoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The lC DNA-content of isolated nuclei of postembryonic stages of Tetranychus urticae stained with the classic and a modified Schiff's reagent was cytophotometrically estimated as 0.1 pg, a low value in animals. For many tissues of this arrhenotokus species the ploidy ratio between males and females is 1:2, indicating the absence of sex-related differences in ploidy. In addition, DNA measurements were performed to evaluate irradiation-experiments, starting with X-irradiation of mature sperm in males with doses known from previous work to induce chromosomal fragments that are subject to loss and missegregation in the embryonic mitotic stages of the female progeny despite the presumed holokinetic nature of the chromosomes. The DNA-content of the nuclei of the surviving postembryonic preadult stages did not indicate the occurrence of nuclei with in-between male/female values, ruling out loss and missegregation of fragments as important factors in postembryonic lethality. Abnormally low DNA-values in some adult females could be attributed to development of embryos before oviposition caused by radiation-induced effects. (orig.) [de

  14. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  15. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  16. Serum levels at moment of breeding of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and progesterone in Saanen goats females during normal and induced heat and testosterone in 12 Saanen goats males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Nereu C.; Vulcano, Luiz C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Oba, Eunice

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the level of triiodothyronine(T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ) and progesterone in the serum of females Saanen goats. The progesterone levels were: 0.59 and 0.79 ng/μl considering breeding during normal and induced heat respectively. The T 3 values were: 192.8 and 251.32 ng/dl while T 4 values were: 36.38 and 31.68 ng/dl in the same condition above. The average testosterone level at the moment of breeding in the serum of 12 males was 1.38 pg/ml. (author)

  17. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  18. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  19. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  20. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Czuba, Zenon P. [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Horak, Stanisław [I-st Chair and Clin. Dept. of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  1. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  2. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.

    2006-01-01

    studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...

  3. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  4. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  5. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  6. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  7. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  8. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed.

  9. The Twenty Statement Test in Teacher Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aypay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe teacher characteristics using Twenty Statements Test (TST. Study group includes a total of thirty-five individuals, including teachers, guidance and counselors and research assistants. The study used a qualitative approach on teacher identity. TST is one of the qualitative methods that were used to determine individual self-conceptualization. Study group were requested to write twenty statements that describe themselves responding to the question “Who I am?” in a free format. The findings indicated that teachers were overwhelmingly in group c (reflective. No differences were found in terms of gender and profession. Only few significant differences have been found based on marital status. The utility of TST in teacher training and development was discussed

  10. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  11. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  12. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  13. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  15. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  16. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal

  19. The next twenty years - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of an institution is an appropriate time to look back and to ask what has been achieved. It is also an appropriate time to look ahead and to ask what should be the mission for the future. How can the strengths of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) be best utilized, what new opportunities should be seized upon, and what challenges should the IAEA be prepared to meet in the next twenty years? Forward planning is a very necessary activity in today's world. There are so many demands on national or institutional resources that careful analysis of options is necessary to establish priorities and ultimately to provide for implementation. But such planning must be done carefully with full appreciation for the validity and sensitivity of the input assumptions and data. Furthermore, today's plan, while setting goals and directions, cannot be so inflexible that it cannot be responsive to ever-changing political, economic and technical constraints or opportunities. Thus in looking ahead, the plan must contain provisions for flexibility to provide for further modifications in the light of ever-changing knowledge, attitudes, and world conditions. The experience of the past five years in the energy field, and especially in nuclear energy, underscores this need. In looking ahead for the next twenty years, we are attempting to describe the International Atomic Energy Agency and its role through the twentieth century. In doing so, we are automatically laying the base for the Agency's work going into the twenty-first century. In short, we are trying to visualize a programme that can serve the coming generation and, in doing so, creating a base from which the needs of the succeeding generation can be met. This is a large order and the crystal ball is less than clear. (author)

  20. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  1. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  2. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  3. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  4. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Bzdusek, Karl [Philips Healthcare, Fitchburg, Wisconsin (United States); Brink, Carsten [Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Eriksen, Jesper Grau [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Hansen, Olfred [Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Jensen, Helle Anita [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Vanhauten, Hubertus A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Cao, Jeffrey Q.; McBrayne, Gail [London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); Patel, Salil H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Cannon, Donald M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin—Madison (United States); Hardcastle, Nicholas [Department of Physical Science, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Tomé, Wolfgang A. [Montefiore Medical Center and Institute of Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guckenberg, Matthias [University of Würzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Würzburg (Germany); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). Methods and Materials: CT images of 125 treated patients (32 head and neck [HN], 40 thorax, 23 liver, and 30 prostate) in 7 independent institutions were autosegmented using SPICE and computational times were recorded. The number of structures autocontoured were 25 for the HN, 7 for the thorax, 3 for the liver, and 6 for the male pelvis regions. Using the clinical contours as reference, autocontours of 22 selected structures were quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and Mean Slice-wise Hausdorff Distance (MSHD). All 40 autocontours were evaluated by a radiation oncologist from the institution that treated the patients. Results: The mean computational times to autosegment all the structures using SPICE were 3.1 to 11.1 minutes per patient. For the HN region, the mean DSC was >0.70 for all evaluated structures, and the MSHD ranged from 3.2 to 10.0 mm. For the thorax region, the mean DSC was 0.95 for the lungs and 0.90 for the heart, and the MSHD ranged from 2.8 to 12.8 mm. For the liver region, the mean DSC was >0.92 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 5.2 to 15.9 mm. For the male pelvis region, the mean DSC was >0.76 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 4.8 to 10.5 mm. Out of the 40 autocontoured structures reviews by experts, 25 were scored useful as autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 90% of the patients and 33 were scored useful autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 80% of the patients. Conclusions: Compared with manual contouring, autosegmentation using SPICE for the HN, thorax, liver, and male pelvis regions is efficient and shows significant promise for clinical utility.

  5. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Hansen, Olfred; Jensen, Helle Anita; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Vanhauten, Hubertus A.M.; Cao, Jeffrey Q.; McBrayne, Gail; Patel, Salil H.; Cannon, Donald M.; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Guckenberg, Matthias; Parikh, Parag J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). Methods and Materials: CT images of 125 treated patients (32 head and neck [HN], 40 thorax, 23 liver, and 30 prostate) in 7 independent institutions were autosegmented using SPICE and computational times were recorded. The number of structures autocontoured were 25 for the HN, 7 for the thorax, 3 for the liver, and 6 for the male pelvis regions. Using the clinical contours as reference, autocontours of 22 selected structures were quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and Mean Slice-wise Hausdorff Distance (MSHD). All 40 autocontours were evaluated by a radiation oncologist from the institution that treated the patients. Results: The mean computational times to autosegment all the structures using SPICE were 3.1 to 11.1 minutes per patient. For the HN region, the mean DSC was >0.70 for all evaluated structures, and the MSHD ranged from 3.2 to 10.0 mm. For the thorax region, the mean DSC was 0.95 for the lungs and 0.90 for the heart, and the MSHD ranged from 2.8 to 12.8 mm. For the liver region, the mean DSC was >0.92 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 5.2 to 15.9 mm. For the male pelvis region, the mean DSC was >0.76 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 4.8 to 10.5 mm. Out of the 40 autocontoured structures reviews by experts, 25 were scored useful as autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 90% of the patients and 33 were scored useful autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 80% of the patients. Conclusions: Compared with manual contouring, autosegmentation using SPICE for the HN, thorax, liver, and male pelvis regions is efficient and shows significant promise for clinical utility

  6. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  7. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, pjoint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  9. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  10. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  11. [Performance of normal young adults in two temporal resolution tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Elena; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Tedesco, Maria Lucy Fraga; Baran, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes. to compare the performance of normal Brazilian adults in two temporal resolution tests: the Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN) and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), and to analyze potential differences of performance in these two tests. twenty-five college students with normal hearing (11 males and 14 females) and no history of educational, neurological and/or language problems, underwent the GIN and RGDT at 40dB SL. statistically significant gender effects for both tests were found, with female participants showing poorer performance on both temporal processing tests. In addition, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the GIN and RGDT revealed significant differences in the threshold measures derived for these two tests. In general, significantly better gap detection thresholds were observed for both male and female participants on the GIN test when compared to the results obtained for the RGDT. male participants presented better performances on both RGDT and GIN, when compared to the females. There were no differences in performance between right and left ears on the GIN test. Participants of the present investigation, males and females, performed better on the GIN when compared to the RGDT. The GIN presented advantages over the RGDT, not only in terms of clinical validity and sensibility, but also in terms of application and scoring.

  12. Roentgenographic studies of Korean adults profile with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    A roentgraphic cephalometric study was made on the soft and hard tissue profile of Korean adults. The subject consisted of 52 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Twenty one landmarks were plotted and two oriented lines named SnH line and SnV line were drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms. The means and the standard deviations from the subjects were calculated in each measuring category and the means were compared with those of male and female samples. The results were obtained as follow: 1. In depth and height, individual variations and sex differences of the lower facial profile were larger than the upper face. 2. The sex differences of upper facial profile were larger in height than depth. 3. The individual variations and sex differences of the top of nose were the smallest in all measuring points. 4. The thickness of the soft tissue of upper face and upper lip in male sample were larger than those of female, but the same matter were not found in mental region.

  13. Gonadal function in males with autoimmune Addison's disease and autoantibodies to steroidogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, M; Bonanni, G; Masiero, S; Faggian, D; Chen, S; Furmaniak, J; Rees Smith, B; Perniola, R; Radetti, G; Garelli, S; Chiarelli, S; Albergoni, M P; Plebani, M; Betterle, C

    2014-06-01

    Steroidogenic enzyme autoantibodies (SEAbs) are frequently present and are markers of autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) in females with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). The prevalence and significance of SEAbs in males with AAD have not yet been defined. We studied the prevalence of SEAbs in a large cohort of males with AAD and assessed the relationship between SEAbs positivity and testicular function. A total of 154 males with AAD (mean age 34 years) were studied. SEAbs included autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells (StCA), detected by immunofluorescence, and steroid 17α-hydroxylase (17α-OHAbs) and side chain cleavage enzyme (SCCAbs) measured by immunoprecipitation assays. Gonadal function was evaluated by measuring follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B (I-B). Twenty-six males, 10 SEAbs((+)) and 16 SEAbs((-)), were followed-up for a mean period of 7·6 years to assess the behaviour of SEAbs and testicular function. SEAbs were found in 24·7% of males with AAD, with the highest frequency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1). The levels of reproductive hormones in 30 SEAbs((+)) males were in the normal range according to age and were not significantly different compared to 55 SEAbs((-)) males (P > 0·05). During follow-up, both SEAbs((+)) and SEAbs((-)) patients maintained normal testicular function. SEAbs were found with high frequency in males with AAD; however, they were not associated with testicular failure. This study suggests that the diagnostic value of SEAbs in males with AAD differs compared to females, and this may be related to the immunoprivileged status of the testis. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  14. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  15. Lycopene and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  16. Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Gonococcal Urethritis in Males by Rosoxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Tiwari

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight male patients with acute gonococcal, urethritis were treated, with rosoxacin 300 mg capsule, (Eradacil as a single- dose oral therapy. Twenty six patients were cured, while two patients did not improve. Four patients developed post-gonococcal urethritis (PGU.

  17. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  18. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  19. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  1. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  2. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  3. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  4. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  5. Circadian rhythm in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Andreas; Ulander, Martin; Lundin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) takes place in structures close to the cerebral ventricular system. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), situated close to the third ventricle, is involved in circadian rhythm. Diurnal disturbances are well-known in demented patients. The cognitive decline in iNPH is potentially reversible after a shunt operation. Diurnal rhythm has never been studied in iNPH. We hypothesize that there is a disturbance of circadian rhythm in iNPH-patients and the aim was to study any changes of the diurnal rhythm (mesor and circadian period) as well as any changes of the diurnal amplitude and acrophase of the activity in iNPH-patients before and after a shunt operation. Twenty consecutive iNPH-patients fulfilling the criteria of the American iNPH-guidelines, 9 males and 11 females, mean age 73 (49-81) years were included. The patients underwent a pre-operative clinical work-up including 10m walk time (w10mt) steps (w10ms), TUG-time (TUGt) and steps (TUGs) and for cognitive function an MMSE score was measured. In order to receive circadian rhythm data actigraphic recordings were performed using the SenseWear 2 (BodyMedia Inc Pittsburgh, PA, USA) actigraph. Cosinor analyses of accelerometry data were performed in "R" using non-linear regression with Levenburg- Marquardt estimation. Pre- and post-operative data regarding mesor, amplitude and circadian period were compared using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for paired data. Twenty patients were evaluated before and three month post-operatively. Motor function (w10mt, w10ms, TUGt, TUGs) was significantly improved while MMSE was not significantly changed. Actigraphic measurements (mesor, amplitude and circadian period) showed no significant changes after shunt operation. This is the first systematic study of circadian rhythm in iNPH-patients. We found no significant changes in circadian rhythm after shunt surgery. The conceptual idea of diurnal rhythm changes in hydrocephalus is

  6. Endometriosis in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E

    1985-07-01

    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F

    2015-11-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic ... and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not ... The mean life expectancy has.

  9. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  10. Cytotoxic potentials of thiocyanate administration on the liver of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence this study was performed to elucidate the consequence(s)of thiocyanate administration on the liver of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult male wistar rats with an average weight of 234.5g were used. The rats were grouped into four (A, B, C & D) with five animals in each group. Group A represented the control and ...

  11. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    been causally attributed to military deployment. Certain functional symptoms of GWS occur during the latent phase of a future reexperiencing syndrome, latent phase which is the locus of nonspecific symptoms. The psychotraumatised subject does not express himself spontaneously and waits to be invited to do so: if the social context does not allow this expression, the suffering can remain lodged in a few parts of the body. How can the inexpressible part of the trauma be recounted, particularly if the social context does not allow it? For civil society, calling into question "the somatic word" of veterans is difficult: why were they sent to face these hardships? What could we learn from these soldiers we do not wish to listen to: the horror of the war, the aggressive impulse of men, and the confrontation with death? Another obstacle to this reflection is the reference to stress as a prevalent aetiopathogenic model of the psychological trauma. A model like this, considering that PTSD is a normal reaction to an abnormal situation, finally discredits the subject and society and disempowers them by freezing them in a passive status of victim. However, as GWS affects approximately a quarter of subjects deployed, it is not very likely that all these symptoms are caused by a psychotraumatic reaction. Many veterans suffering from GWS have themselves rejected the diagnosis of PTSD, arguing that they do not suffer repetition nightmares. What the veterans rightly tell us here is that the notions of stress and trauma cannot strictly be superimposed. A subject may have been intensely stressed without ever establishing traumatic flashbacks and likewise; a psychological trauma can be experienced without stress and without fear but in a moment of terror. This clarification is in line with the first criterion of the DSM-IV-TR which necessarily integrates the objective and subjective dimensions as determinants of PTSD. Yet, scientific studies relating to GWS are struggling to establish

  12. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  13. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  14. [Male sexuality in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnab, L; Schrader, A J; Schrader, M; Zengerling, F

    2012-10-01

    Male sexuality in the elderly is an important issue with a growing relevance. In contrast to the assumption of an asexual state when becoming older, recent representative surveys show that the majority of men maintain sexual desires and fantasies into old age. Sexual activity primarily depends on the availability of a partner and on maintaining intimacy and sexuality in the face of changes in the sexual response cycle and increasing comorbidity. This review aims to clarify the normal aging process, the sexual behavior of aging males and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction.

  15. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  16. Difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke JIAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite during the wound healing. Methods Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8, normal frostbite group (n=8, and high-altitude group (n=8. The normal frostbite group rats were frozen to produce mid-degree frostbite models by controlling the freezing time with liquid nitrogen penetration equipment. The high-altitude frostbite group rats were acclimated to a hypoxic and low-pressure environment for 1 week, and then the high-altitude frostbite models were constructed by the same way with liquid nitrogen penetration apparatus. On days 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23 after modeling, the recovery situation of blood circulation of each group was observed with contrast ultrasonography by injecting SonoVue micro-bubble into rats' tail. Finally, the micro-bubble concentration (MC was calculated to confirm the blood circulation recovery with software Image Pro. Results At different time points, the wound area of the high-altitude frostbite group was bigger than that of the normal frostbite group, and the MC of control group was always about (27±0.2×109/ml. On day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23, the MC was significantly lower in the high-altitude frostbite group than in the control group and normal frostbite group (P<0.05. The MC of normal frostbite group was significantly lower than that of the control group on day 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 (P<0.05. In addition, no obvious difference in MC was found between normal group and control group on the 23th day (P<0.05. Conclusion The blood microcirculation recovery after high-altitude frostbite is significantly slower than the normal frostbite. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.13

  17. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A

    2007-01-01

    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  18. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  19. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  20. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Ryan T.; Ohl, Dana A.; Sigman, Mark; Smith, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Current means of evaluation of male factor infertility remains routine semen analysis including seminal volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. However, approximately 15% of patients with male factor infertility have a normal semen analysis and a definitive diagnosis of male infertility often cannot be m...

  1. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  2. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  3. Karyotype analysis of a male exhibiting Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, B.; Hicks, M.F. (David Lipscomb Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

    Patau's Syndrome is caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome 13. It is characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, cleft palate, and retarded growth. Most fetuses expressing Patau's Syndrome spontaneously abort, and those that are born usually die before one year. Both Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia are defects found in patients with Patau's at levels higher than those in the general population. An otherwise asymptomatic male expressing only Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia has a female sibling whose son expressed Patau's syndrome. Twenty percent of patients with Patau's show a translocation of part of chromosome 13 to another D chromosome. If a translocation were the cause of the expression of Patau's in this family, it is possible that the normal male inherited a balanced translocation and the Patau's male received an unbalanced translocation. A karyotype analysis of the non-Patau's male was done to determine if such a translocation were present.

  4. Effects of Dual Monitor Computer Work Versus Laptop Work on Cervical Muscular and Proprioceptive Characteristics of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias Zuniga, Amanda M; Côté, Julie N

    2017-06-01

    The effects of performing a 90-minute computer task with a laptop versus a dual monitor desktop workstation were investigated in healthy young male and female adults. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are common among computer (especially female) users. Laptops have surpassed desktop computer sales, and working with multiple monitors has also become popular. However, few studies have provided objective evidence on how they affect the musculoskeletal system in both genders. Twenty-seven healthy participants (mean age = 24.6 years; 13 males) completed a 90-minute computer task while using a laptop or dual monitor (DualMon) desktop. Electromyography (EMG) from eight upper body muscles and visual strain were measured throughout the task. Neck proprioception was tested before and after the computer task using a head-repositioning test. EMG amplitude (root mean square [RMS]), variability (coefficients of variation [CV]), and normalized mutual information (NMI) were computed. Visual strain ( p computer workstation designs.

  5. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Eckersten

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48 years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44 years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 60.3, 729, LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14, and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15. Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6, −11.6. There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  6. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  7. The twenty-eight lodges (xiu 宿)

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Daniel Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The twenty-eight lodges (xiu 宿). Named and numbered in the central circle, the twenty-eight lodges, represent uneven orange-segment-like divisions of the celestial sphere running from pole to pole through the ‘guide stars’ (juxing 距星) at/near the western extremity of the constellations after which they are named. In the inner circle are the modern identifications of those guide stars. In the outer circle are the equatorial lodge widths in contemporary use in du 度 / days, where the number of d...

  8. Building On Builder: The Persistent Icarus Syndrome at Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    mission of the United States Air Force is to "fly, fight, and win…in air, space and cyberspace"--as an intergral member of the Joint team that...Scenarios: A Military Futurist Explores War in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Bantam Books Trade Paperbacksl, 2009), 17. 33 Carl H. Builder

  9. Management of twenty patients with neck trauma in Khartoum ENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck trauma is a great surgical challenge, because there are multi organ and systems involved. Objective: To study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of twenty patients presented to Khartoum ENT Hospital with neck trauma. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in Khartoum ENT ...

  10. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  11. Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth General Assembly Beijing 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Preface; 1. Inaugural ceremony; 2. Twenty-eighth General Assembly business sessions; 3. Closing ceremony; 4. Resolutions; 5. Report of Executive Committee, 2009-2012; 6. Reports on Division, Commission, and Working Group meetings; 7. Statutes, bye-laws, and working rules; 8. New members admitted at the General Assembly; 9. Divisions and their Commissions.

  12. Twenty Years of French "Didactique" Viewed from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    One cannot begin considering the topic of this colloquium without asking, why twenty years? Why not two hundred? Two hundred years ago, Silvestre Franois Lacroix was about to be named chief officer of the Commission Executive de L'Instruction Publique. Out of that experience, together with his long career in instruction, especially as professor of…

  13. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  14. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  15. Investigating the Twenty Year Lag in the Vocational Rehabilitation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitt, Julian

    In the rehabilitation workshop there is insufficient attention to job development oriented to the current and future needs of industry. Many types of work which were done in vocational workshops in contract from industrial firms are now done by automation. Semiskilled labor is thus in diminished demand. There is a twenty year lag in the industrial…

  16. SEAPOWER: A GUIDE FOR THE TWENTY- FIRST CENTURY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    $154,37 (amazon.com hardback). With the publication of Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides ...

  17. Summary record of the twenty-seventh meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1990-01-01

    The topics presented and discussed at the twenty-seventh international meeting of the Nuclear Data Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency are summarized. Relations with other committees and reports of data centers are analyzed. Problems concerning nuclear model codes are underlined. National evaluation efforts on data library and data file are reported. Reports from several laboratories and subcommittees are summarized

  18. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  19. Etiological Diagnosis of Undervirilized Male / XY Disorder of Sex Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, I.; Ibrahim, M.; Parkash, A.; Lone, S. W.; Khan, Y. N.; Raza, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do clinical, hormonal and chromosomal analysis in undervirilized male / XY disorder of sex development and to make presumptive etiological diagnosis according to the new Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) classification system. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Unit at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2012. Methodology: Patients of suspected XY DSD / undervirilized male visiting endocrine clinic were enrolled in the study. Criteria suggested XY DSD include overt genital ambiguity, apparent female/male genitalia with inguinal/labial mass, apparent male genitalia with unilateral or bilateral non-palpable testes, micropenis and isolated hypospadias or with undescended testis. The older children who had delayed puberty were also evaluated with respect to DSD. As a part of evaluation of XY DSD, abdominopelvic ultrasound, karyotype, hormone measurement (testosterone, FSH, LH), FISH analysis with SRY probing, genitogram, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy and HCG stimulation test were performed. Frequencies and percentages applied on categorical data whereas mean, median, standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. Results: A total of 187 patients met the criteria of XY DSD. Age ranged from 1 month to 15 years, 55 (29.4%) presented in infancy, 104 (55.6%) between 1 and 10 years and 28 (15%) older than 10 years. Twenty five (13.4%) were raised as female and 162 as (86.6%) male. The main complaints were ambiguous genitalia, unilateral cryptorchidism, bilateral cryptorchidism, micropenis, delayed puberty, hypospadias, female like genitalia with gonads, inguinal mass. The karyotype was 46 XY in 183 (97.9%), 46 XX in 2 (1.1%), 47 XXY in 1 (0.5%), 45 X/46 XY in 1 (0.5%) patient. HCG stimulation test showed low testosterone response in 43 (23 %), high testosterone response in 62 (33.2%), partial testosterone response in 32 (17.1%) and normal testosterone response in 50 (26

  20. MR imaging in the assessment of the thoracolumbar spine in elite male gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Svard, L.; Hellstrom, M.; Jakobsson, B.; Peterson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gymnasts training on elite level from childhood to adulthood might do serious damage to the motion segments in the thoracolumbar spine. This paper reports on twenty-five elite gymnasts (age range, 18-29 years) investigated with 0.5-T MR imaging and compared with 17 aged-matched normal males. A significantly higher number of changes in configuration of the vertebrae, apophyseal changes, end plate nodes, degenerated disks, and disk bulging in the thoracolumbar spine were found among the gymnasts. The number of degenerated disks among the gymnasts were comparable to that found at the age group of 65. Disk degeneration and change of configuration of the vertebrae were also found to correlate significantly with symptoms of back pain

  1. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century.

  2. Effect of chronic glomerulonephritis on the semen quality and cytokines in the semen of infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huina; Ying, Yingfen; Chen, Yilu; Lu, Xiaosheng; Huang, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    The effects of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) on semen quality and cytokine levels in the semen of infertile males remain undetermined. Fifty-eight semen samples from normal males and CGN males with and without infertility, respectively, were analyzed. Semen volume, semen pH, sperm density, percentage of forward movement of sperm, sperm activate rate, sperm survival rate, and rate of normal sperm morphology of infertility males with CGN were significantly lower than those of CGN males without infertility and normal males (Psemen quality and might result in male infertility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  4. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  5. Self catheterization - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  6. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  8. Schizophrenia-The spirit possessed 23 year old male from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a twenty-three year old rural Ghanaian male suffering from schizophrenia and presenting as “possessed by spirits” is reported. Treatment, and outcome by physical means with chlorpromazine; and implications for further research are discussed.

  9. A Case of Male Goltz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia, a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported.

  10. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  11. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  12. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  13. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  14. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  15. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  16. Twenty five years of clusters -- from Bochum to Strasbourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the area of clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions over the past twenty-five years are reviewed. The viewpoint is that the nucleus is an assembly of clusters. The question is whether clusters actually exist in the nucleus. Although there is abundant evidence for this in light nuclei, the situation for more complex clusters in heavier nuclei is much worse. Differential cross sections for scattering of alpha particles and heavy ions are shown

  17. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  18. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...5d. PROJECT NUMBER Colonel John K. Jones 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  19. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    OpenAIRE

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2014-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the h...

  20. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  2. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, G R; van Roijen, J H; Pierik, F H; Vreeburg, J T M; Weber, R F A

    2003-03-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dysfunction may cause severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal spermatogenesis. However, information on spermatogenesis in oligozoospermic men is lacking, since testicular biopsy is not routinely performed. Men with a sperm concentration of scoring method. A testicular biopsy was performed in 78 men with severe oligozoospermia. The medical history showed male accessory gland infection in 12.8%, previous hernia repair in 14.1% and a history of cryptorchidism in 12.8%. A normal or slightly disturbed spermatogenesis (Johnsen score >8) was present in 39/78 (50%) of the men. Hernia repair occurred more often in men with normal spermatogenesis. A varicocele was predominantly seen in men with a disturbed spermatogenesis. FSH was significantly lower ( Preproductive tract is a frequent cause of severe oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular volume and a normal FSH. In other cases, an epididymal dysfunction might explain the oligozoospermia in men with a normal testicular biopsy score.

  3. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  4. Open Adoption Placement by Birth Mothers in Their Twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutter, Lynn B

    The purpose of this study was to summarize birth mothers' descriptions of unplanned pregnancy experienced in their twenties and how open adoption influenced their lives. Naturalistic inquiry was used with purposive sampling from one agency and telephone interviews of women who experienced unplanned pregnancy in their twenties and relinquishment through open adoption. Recorded, transcribed, and deidentified interviews were analyzed for qualitative themes. Fifteen participants judiciously weighed the open adoption decision. Over half parented other children prior to placement. Most knew they could not have parented this child due to life stressors. Placement was a hard decision, but ongoing contact with birth child and adoptive family was valued. Open adoption processes made them stronger by being happy that their child experienced family life with greater opportunities than birth mothers could offer at the time. Summarized themes used the acronym COMMITTED: C-care deeply about what is best for the child, O-ongoing open adoption: good and hard, M-meeting together regularly, M-moving on in personal growth, accomplishments, and milestones, I-independence from previous stressors or crises, T-transitions, T-therapeutic support, E-emotions, D-depression giving way to deepened strength and personal direction. Open adoption is reinforced as a positive resolution of unintended pregnancy for birth mothers in their twenties.

  5. Effects of exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss magnetic field on reproductive traits in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field ELF-MF (50 Hz/1 Gauss on male fertility were studied in rats. Twenty eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, 2 experimental groups exposed to magnetic field for 21 days and 2 control groups (sham exposed. The first exposed group was sacrificed at the end of the exposure period, and the second exposed group was kept for extra 48 days post exposure to assess the delayed effects of exposure. Significant decrease in the testes weights, sperm motility, sperm count, normal sperms and live sperms was detected in the exposed groups compared to control. Serum testosterone concentrations were significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and then these changes were corrected after 48 days post exposure. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and α-tocopherol concentration were significantly decreased after 21 days of exposure, while the later became non-significant after 48 days post exposure. L-ascorbate concentration was significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and returned to normal 48 days post exposure. Histopathological examination of the testis from the exposed rats showed a disruption in its architecture with an increase in Leydig cell number and activity, whereas 48 days post exposure, the testicular germ cell layers increased with presence of high apoptotic rates. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss MF is biologically toxic to the testicular functions with oxidative stress on spermatogenesis that subsequently may affect male fertility and his sexual efficiency.

  6. Sperm transfer of gamma irradiated male fruit fly Dacus zonatus (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangapichaikul, M.; Sutantawong, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sperm transfer of male fruit flies, Dacus zonatus (Saunders) emerged from 8-day-old pupae irradiated at 80 Gray were determined from amount of sperm in female spermatheca. The results showed that the amount of sperms of 10, 15 and 30-day-old sterilized males were not significant difference from normal males (P>0.05). However, the sperms of 20 and 25-day-old sterilized males were less numerous than these normal males (P<0.05)

  7. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  8. Exercise tolerance test in patients presenting with chest pain and normal electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To report the prevalence of abnormal exercise tolerance test (ETT) responses and to assess the risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population referred for the evaluation of chest pain with a normal baseline electrocardiogram (ECG). Design: A prospective study. The study was conducted at the National Institute of cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan between 1st January 2000 and 31 December 2000. Subjects and Methods: One thousand one hundred and twenty-seven consecutive adult patients presenting in the outpatient department (OPD) with history of chest pain and having a normal baseline ECG were the subjects of the study after excluding patients with indeterminate or inconclusive test response. All these subjects underwent ETT and were screened for risk factor for IHD. Results: Of the patients studied 56.6% had abnormal ETT response. Male to female ratio of all patients was 4.85:1 Overall mean age was 50.3 +- 8.8 years. 65.9% of diabetic patients had ETT Suggestive of silent myocardial ischemia (p=0.012). Age > 50 year (p= <0.0001), male sex (p=0.015), diabetes mellitus (p=0.0033) and positive family history of IHD (p=0.0014) were the risk factor found in patient with abnormal ETT response. Conclusion: Age of more than 50 years, male gender, diabetes mellitus and positive family history of IHD are the significant risk factors for the development of ischemic heart disease in our population. Silent myocardial ischemic is common in diabetics. (author)

  9. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  10. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  11. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  12. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  13. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  14. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  15. [Male contraception and its perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch, J

    1982-11-01

    Doctors specializing in male contraception are aware of the very real difficulties hindering the development of an effective method in this field. Others believe that the reason this type of contraception is lagging behind is male chauvinism or a certain fear that men have of losing their virility along with their fertilizing capacity. Since available methods of contraception (condom, vasectomy) have low levels of acceptability and reversibility, research has proceeded along other avenues. 1) Gossypol reduces the number and motility of spermatozoa but its general side effects are not exceptional. 2) Restraining hormonal action (progrestogens, LH-RH agonists) also reduce testicular function and for this reason, require simultaneous administration of androgens. Thus far this has not been resolved; azoospermia is not obtained in every case and when it is, it does not necessarily last. 3) A method involving the epididymis, with a view to preventing spermatozoa from acquiring their normal motility and fertilizing capacity by affecting protein and enzyme synthesis, is also being studied. Perhaps, as has been suggested by the Bicetre Hospital research team, we should be content with methods applicable to certain categories of men. Male contraception would then develop step by step rather than by huge bounds as female contraception. full text

  16. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  17. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future

  18. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  19. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  20. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  1. Over Twenty Years Of Experience In ITU TRIGA MARK-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Hasbi

    2008-01-01

    I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor, rated at 250 kW steady-state and 1200 MW pulsing power is the only research and training reactor owned and operated by a university in Turkey. Reactor has been operating since March 11, 1979; therefore the reactor has been operating successfully for more than twenty years. Over the twenty years of operation: - The tangential beam tube was equipped with a neutron radiography facility, which consists of a divergent collimator and exposure room; - A computerized data acquisition system was designed and installed such that all parameters of the reactor, which are observed from the console, could be monitored both in normal and pulse operations; - An electrical power calibration system was built for the thermal power calibration of the reactor; - Publications related with I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor are listed in Appendix; - Two majors undesired shutdown occurred; - The I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor is still in operation at the moment. (authors)

  2. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.; St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein; Laarman, G.J.; Lelbach, S.; Cramer, M.J.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Wall, E.E. van der; Zwinderman, A.H.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy was tested in two patient populations representing alternative standards for cardiac normality: group I comprised 18 male uncatherized patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 41 patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Group I patients were younger, they achieved a higher rate-pressure product than group II patients; all had normal findings by phisical examination and electrocardiography at rest and exercise. Group II patients comprised 21 females, 11 patients showed abnormal electrocardiography at rest, and five patients showed ischemic ST depression during exercise. Twelve patients had sign of minimal CAD. Twelve patients revealed abnormal visual and quantitative thallium findings, three of these patients had minimal CAD. Profiles of uptake and washout of thallium-201 were derived from both patient groups, and compared with normal limits developed by Maddahi et al. Furthermore, low likelihood and angiographically normal patients may differ substantially, and both sets of normal patients should be considered when establishing criteria of abnormality in exercise thallium imaging. When commercial software containing normal limits for quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging is used in clinical practice, it is mandatory to compare these with normal limits of uptake and washout of thallium-201, derived from the less heterogeneous group of low-likelihood subjects, which should be used in selecting a normal population to define normality. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs; 1 tab

  3. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  4. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  5. Male mating biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  6. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  7. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  8. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  9. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  10. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  11. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  12. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  13. α-Lipoic Acid Mitigates Arsenic-Induced Hematological Abnormalities in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA against such hematological disorders. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g were grouped and accordingly group I (control received the normal diet, group II (treated was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day whereas group III (supplemented received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day as oral supplement. Hematological profile, plasma oxidant/antioxidant status, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results: Arsenic exposure caused reduction of erythrocyte (P=0.021, leucocyte (P<0.001, and hemoglobin (P=0.031 associated with echinocytic transformation as evidenced by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The other significantly altered parameters include increased mean corpuscular volume (P=0.041 and lymphocytopenia (P<0.001 with insignificant neutropenia and eosinophilia. Altered serum oxidative balance as evidenced by decreased TAS (P<0.001 and increased TOS (P<0.001 with OSI (P<0.001 was also noted. The dietary supplementation of ALA has a beneficial effect against the observed (P<0.05 arsenic toxicities. It brings about the protection by restoring the hematological redox and inflammatory status near normal in treated rats. Arsenic-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes was also partially attenuated by ALA supplementation. Conclusion: It is concluded that arsenicosis is associated with hematological alterations and ALA co-supplementation can partially alleviate these changes in an experimental male rat model.

  14. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  15. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  16. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  17. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  18. Male Body Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  19. A study on the development of normal mandible in children by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yiming; Qiu Weiliu; Shen Guofang; Tang Yousheng; Tian Weijia; Wang Hui; Feng Guowei; Pu Mingfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the developmental characters of the normal mandible in growing children. Methods: Twenty growing children undergoing skeletal scintigraphic study for isolated bone disease other than bones of the head and neck at hospital and turned out with normal results finally were studied. The 99 Tc m -MDP uptakes in the mandibular condyle, ramus, body and the fourth lumbar vertebra in these cases were quantitated and a ratio of the uptake in the three mandibular regions to that in the fourth lumbar vertebra was obtained. Results: The analysis results showed that the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratios of the three mandibular regions decreased in linear fashion with age increasing and leveled off after age of 20. The regression equations are: the mandibular condyle, Y-circumflex = -0.052 2X + 1.792 8; the mandibular ramus, Y-circumflex = -0.015 1X + 0.766 7; the mandibular body, Y-circumflex = -0.014 2X + 0.741 0. There was no significant difference of the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratio between the two sides of the mandible and between the male and female. Conclusion: The results suggest that the ideal time to undergo orthognathic surgery should be at the age of 20 or so if the circumstance of the deformity is not quite clear

  20. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  1. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  2. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Hall, Alex

    2018-05-01

    Mediterranean climate regimes are particularly susceptible to rapid shifts between drought and flood—of which, California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012 and 2016 to extreme wetness during the 2016-2017 winter provides a dramatic example. Projected future changes in such dry-to-wet events, however, remain inadequately quantified, which we investigate here using the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble of climate model simulations. Anthropogenic forcing is found to yield large twenty-first-century increases in the frequency of wet extremes, including a more than threefold increase in sub-seasonal events comparable to California's `Great Flood of 1862'. Smaller but statistically robust increases in dry extremes are also apparent. As a consequence, a 25% to 100% increase in extreme dry-to-wet precipitation events is projected, despite only modest changes in mean precipitation. Such hydrological cycle intensification would seriously challenge California's existing water storage, conveyance and flood control infrastructure.

  4. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  5. Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 2, presents papers on severe accident research

  6. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  8. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  9. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  10. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  11. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  12. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  13. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  14. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  15. Neuroendocrine mechanisms and the aetiology of male and female homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCulloch, M J; Waddington, J L

    1981-10-01

    Theories on the classification and aetiology of male homosexuality are reviewed, particularly recent hypotheses on the role of prenatal hormonal influences on brain sexual differentiation and subsequent sexual object choice in the male. Female as well as male brain sexual differentiation may be hormonally determined, and so primary homosexuality in both sexes may be due to abnormalities in foetal exposure to hormones, leading first to physical mis-differentiation and later to homosexual behaviour in genetically and phenotypically normal men and women.

  16. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  17. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  18. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term Effects of Dexamethasone on Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jalogoden Gouyandeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The adverse effect of chemical drugs such as dexamethasone as anti-inflammatory -steroidal drugs on different body systems and infertility and reproductive efficiency is of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of dexamethasone on the reproductive system in male rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, fifty matured male mice were divided into five groups including control, placebo and three treatment groups. Control group had no injections, placebo group only received normal saline and treatments groups received dexamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg which was injected in peritoneum every other day for a period of twenty days. Their Testosterone was measured by ELISA and testes were dissected for histological examination. The data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: Significant increases were shown in FSH level in all three groups treated with dexamethasone. LH in treatment group of 0.1 mg/kg decreased, but at dose of 1 mg/kg increased significantly.Testosterone levels in a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.05. However, testis weight, the rate of testicular germ cells, primary spermatocytes, epididymal sperm and fertility significantly increased in all three groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had a negative effect on reproduction therefore, the use of this medication at different doses and time periods considers the possible complications beforehand. Keywords: .

  20. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2 was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4 were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL. Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Ghamdi, Habibah B.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29094044

  2. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  3. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falana, Benedict; Adeleke, Opeyemi; Orenolu, Mulikat; Osinubi, Abraham; Oyewopo, Adeoye

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of D-ribose and L-cysteine on aluminum-induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total number of thirty-five (35) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (AD). Group A (comprised five (5) rats) was designated the Control Group that received Physiological Saline; while groups B, C, and D (comprised ten (10) rats) were given 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of body weight of aluminum chloride respectively for 39 days. At day 40, the aluminum-treated groups were subdivided into sub-groups (B1, C1, D1) comprising of five (5) rats each, and 30 mg/kg body weight of Riboceine were administered for twenty (20) days. Groups B, C and D remained on the normal dosage of aluminum chloride for three more weeks (59 days). Andrological parameters (Sperm count, motility, morphology and testosterone) in the aluminum-treated Groups B and C showed no significant difference in their mean values when compared with their control counterparts, whereas there was a significant reduction in the andrological parameters in Group D rats when compared with the Control animals. Histoarchitecture of the testes "stain with H&E" of Group A, B and C rats appeared normal while Group D rats showed testicular damages with several abnormal seminiferous tubules with incomplete maturation of germinal cell layers and absence of spermatozoa in their lumen; Leydig cells appear hyperplastic. Group B1, C1 and D1 andrological and histological parameters appeared normal. Riboceine treatment significantly attenuates aluminum-induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley in rats.

  4. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  5. Improvement in social function and health-related quality of life after shunt surgery for idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Hellström, Per; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the impact of shunt surgery on the activity, participation, autonomy, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) as well as the effect on caregiver burden. Thirty-seven patients (median age 70 years, range 50-89 years) with iNPH were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Symptoms and signs were assessed by the iNPH scale, activities of daily living (ADL) with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), autonomy and participation with Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA), and caregiver burden with the Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS). HRQOL was evaluated with the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group-5 Dimension health survey). Twenty-four patients (65%) improved clinically (iNPH scale score) and 31 (86%) improved their HRQOL after surgery, almost to the same level as found in the normal population. The patients became more independent in physical and cognitive activities, and participation and autonomy improved. The caregiver burden was decreased among caregivers to male patients but remained unchanged on the overall group level. After shunt surgery, patients with iNPH showed improvement in most aspects of social life, they became more independent, and their quality of life returned to nearly normal.

  6. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  7. The Summit of «Group of Twenty» – 2016: geopolitical assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the geopolitical assessments of the results of the Summit of «Group of Twenty», which took place in Hangzhou from 4 till 5 September, 2016. The main idea of this event was the development of  innovation, healthy, coherent and inclusive economy. Moreover, important for the geopolitical consolidation of efforts of member countries in the context of further development of the world economy was making such documents as: Contours of the innovative growth of «Group of Twenty», Action plan of «Group of Twenty» in connection with a new industrial revolution, Hangzhou action plan, which set out a strategy for overall and confident growth and also initiative of «Group of twenty» in development and cooperation in the field of digital economy. Important thing is that analysis of the Summit’s results for world regions is important from a geopolitical point of view. We can predict that in the future geopolitical dialogue between the EU and the US in the economy will become more vital for both sides, and will enable to contribute to the implementation of more global challenges of the global economy. We should mention that Summit of «Group of Twenty» largely determined the prospects of global economic processes and build a new world economic order with the introduction of innovative approaches and elements of the digital economy. Activity on the functioning of the global economy should be based on the collective efforts of all participants and take into account all the realities on the international stage. No less important is that the Summit proved the presence of leading geopolitical centers that affect not only the balance of power in the world, but also the further development of key economic processes. Each of these centers sees its future not only the global economy but the global system as a whole as well as its geopolitical influence in certain regions and countries. On the one hand, as for the development of

  8. Twenty years of RERTR in Russia: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangelsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The Russian RERTR Program started approximately 20 years ago. The USSR always supported principles and goals of the policy of nonproliferation and at the end of 70's the Soviet Government decided to create such national program. Twenty years is the sufficient time to estimate preliminary results of the realization of the program and its prospects on the future. After the first successes of the program, when the enrichment of uranium in fuel elements for foreign supplies was reduced from 80 % to 36 %, the realization of the program was suspended in connection with financial difficulties. But in the beginning of the 90's the Program has received a new pulse connected to the inclusion of Russian scientists and engineers in the international Program. Now basic directions in development of new kinds of fuel are development of works on fuel on a basis dioxide of uranium and development of fuel on a basis of U-Mo alloy. In the future to basic goals of the program the problem of the management of the spent nuclear fuel should be added. The management of HEU at the final stage of a fuel cycle becomes an important objective of the program, since the basic amount of HEU is concentrated in storage of SNF. (author)

  9. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK)

  10. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  11. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  12. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  13. Accelerators for the twenty-first century - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Modern synchrotrons and storage rings are based upon the electrical technology of the 1900s boosted by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration now seems to be approaching its practical limit. It is high time that we seek a new physical acceleration mechanism to provide the higher energies and luminosities needed to continue particle physics beyond the machines now on the stocks. Twenty years is a short time in which to invent, develop, and construct such a device. Without it, high-energy physics may well come to an end. Particle physicists and astrophysicists are invited to join accelerator specialists in the hunt for this new principle. This report analyses the present limitations of colliders and explores some of the directions in which one might look to find a new principle. Chapters cover proton colliders, electron-positron colliders, linear colliders, and two-beam accelerators; transverse fields, wake-field and beat-wave accelerators, ferroelectric crystals, and acceleration in astrophysics. (orig.)

  14. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William

    2014-04-01

    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  15. Twenty years of environmental opposition in the electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molocchi, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to provide a framework for analysing social opposition In Italy against the construction and management of electric power plants (nuclear and thermoelectric) and big electricity power lines in the past twenty years. First The author provide a history of social environmental opposition in the electric sector. This is followed by a typology of reason for opposition in terms of risk perception, which has been applied to about forty cases of social opposition against electric plants. This study an original experimental methodology which could also yield useful results when applied to other complex social phenomena. In the third phase of the study the author analyse the various roles of the social and institutional actors involved in the opposition, and the obstacles to future consensus building. The most interesting result of the study is the not only social but political nature opposition. This factor necessitates integration of the traditional individual risk perception approach with an approach which analyses political and social action of NGO's

  16. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes).

  17. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Makee, H.

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on fertility of potato tuber moth males and study of inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saour, G; Makee, H [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1996-01-01

    Newly emerged adult males (0-18 h) potato tuber moth (PTM) phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were irradiated with various doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 5 to 45 krad. Sterility in order of 91% was induced when males were irradiated with a dose of 45 Krad. Longevity of male PTM was not affected by the application of irradiation, while mating ability and frequency of mating of the males irradiated with 25, 35 and 45 Krad were decreased. The mean number of eggs laid by females mated with males irradiated at 35 and 45 Krad was lower than the control. When males PTM were irradiated with high doses their competitiveness values were reduced, while the competitiveness was increased when the sex ratio of irradiated males to normal males was increased, specially with ration 1 : 10 : 1 (Normal male: Irradiated males: Normal female). Application of 15 Krad dose permitted, the ability to obtain a desired level of male sterility with acceptable reduction in its competitiveness. The inherited sterility phenomena in partially sterile males irradiated with 10-15 and 20 Krad was studied. Sterility in F1 progeny was higher than that in their irradiated male parents. The sex ratio of F1 progeny was distorted in favour of the males. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs.

  20. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  1. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. Imperfect chemical female mimicry in males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, S.; D'Ettorre, P.; Drijfhout, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    in the nest. In the first 5 days of their life, winged males perform a chemical female mimicry that protects them against attack and even makes them sexually attractive to ergatoid males. When older, the chemical profile of winged males no longer matches that of virgin females; nevertheless, they are still...... and the tolerated males from several normal colonies revealed that normal old males are still performing some chemical mimicry to the virgin queens, though less perfect than in their young ages. The anomalous attacked winged males, on the other hand, had a very different odour to the females. Our study thus...... exemplifies that the analysis of rare malfunctioning can add valuable insight on functioning under normal conditions and allows the conclusion that older winged males from normal colonies of the ant C. obscurior are guarded through an imperfect chemical female mimicry, still close enough to protect against...

  3. Perceptions & Attitudes of Male Homosexuals from Differing Socio-Cultural & Audiological Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Daniel B.

    This study examined four male homosexual, sociocultural groups: normal-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with hearing-impaired parents, and hard-of-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents. Differences with regard to self-perception, identity, and attitudes were…

  4. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99m Tc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18 F, 85m Kr, 24 Na, 82 Br, 64 Zn, 125 I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  5. Crisis? What Crisis? The Normality of the Current Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The 2005–8 food crisis was a shock to political elites, but in some respects the situation was normal. Food policies are failing to respond adequately to the squeeze on land, people, health and environment. Strong evidence of systems failure and stress, termed here New Fundamentals, ought to reframe twenty-first century food politics and effort. Yet so far, international discourse is too often narrow and technical. The paper suggests that 2005–8 reinforced how the dominant twentieth century p...

  6. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  7. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  8. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  9. TRICHOMONAS URETHRITIS IN MALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Ector

    1955-01-01

    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  10. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  11. CT measurement of normal pericardial thickness in adults on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Woo; Park, Chan Sup; Jeon, Yong Sun; Bae, In Young; Choi, Sung Gyu; Koo, Jin Hoe; Chung, Won Kyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, using computed tomography, the normal thickness of the pericardium in adults. Materials and Methods: CT scans of 50 patients, including sections through the level of the heart, were reviewed. Patients were excluded if there were any suspicions of pericardial abnormality such as infectious or neoplastic diseases. Twenty-four of the 50 were men and 26 were women; their mean age was 47.0(range,18-76) years. We measured pericardial thickness at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle, and also compared pericardial thickness in terms of age and sex. Results: In all patients, the pericardium was observed in the right ventricular region; in 41 (82%) at the interventricular septum; and in 41 (82%) along the left ventricle. The mean thickness of normal pericardium at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricle was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm, 1.8 mm ± 0.4 mm, and 1.7 mm ± 0.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and age group (p > 0.63, ANOVA test). Mean pericardial thickness was 1.9 mm ± 0.6 mm in males and 1.7 mm ± 0.4 mm in females; thus, no statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and sex (p >0.29, Student's t-test). Conclusion: The pericardium was best visualized in sections through the right ventricle.The mean thickness of normal pericardium was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm and pericardial thickness did not differ according to age or sex

  12. Normal thyroid function values in Ethiopians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassie, Emnetu; Abdulkadir, Jemal

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid function values were determined in 56 healthy nongoitrous adult Ethiopians. The mean triiodothyronine (T3) values for 20 males and 36 females were 1.42+-0.32 nmol/L and 1.51+-0.25 nmol/L, and thyroxine (T4) values were 119 22 nmol/L and 116+21 nmol/L respectively. The mean thyrotropin (TSH) values for males and females were identical at 1.86+-0.94 mu/L. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) at 2 hours was 8.6+-4.4% in males and 11.3+-4.3% in females, and at 24 hours 31.7+-11.7% and 38.9+-11.1% respectively. The difference between males and females were significant at both 2 and 24 hours (P<0.05). The ranges for the 3 hormones derived from the mean 2SD values are close to these supplied with the kits but the Ethiopian RAIU values are higher than the values currently applicable in developed countries, probably indicative of the lower level of dietary iodine available to the population here. The values obtained in this study are offered to serve as normal reference for the interpretation of thyroid function results in Ethiopian patients. A strategy for the rational utilization of the available in vitro tests is suggested

  13. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  14. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 μg/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported.

  15. Glycosaminoglycan-sac formation in vitro. Interactions between normal and malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of monolayer normal human or normal rat cells with suspension Walker rat tumor cells was demonstrated cytologically, during a cocultivation period of thirty days. At ten days, Walker rat tumor cells were interiorized in the cytoplasm of the normal monolayer host cells. At twenty days, degeneration of the interiorized tumor cells followed by mucification led to glycosaminoglycan-sac formation. At thirty days, tumor nodules and protease (a,- c...

  16. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  17. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  18. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  19. Imperfect chemical female mimicry in males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Sledge, Matthew F.; Turillazzi, Stefano; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-11-01

    Winged and wingless males coexist in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. Wingless (“ergatoid”) males never leave their maternal colony and fight remorselessly among each other for the access to emerging females. The peaceful winged males disperse after about 10 days, but beforehand also mate in the nest. In the first 5 days of their life, winged males perform a chemical female mimicry that protects them against attack and even makes them sexually attractive to ergatoid males. When older, the chemical profile of winged males no longer matches that of virgin females; nevertheless, they are still tolerated, which so far has been puzzling. Contrasting this general pattern, we have identified a single aberrant colony in which all winged males were attacked and killed by the ergatoid males. A comparative analysis of the morphology and chemical profile of these untypical attacked winged males and the tolerated males from several normal colonies revealed that normal old males are still performing some chemical mimicry to the virgin queens, though less perfect than in their young ages. The anomalous attacked winged males, on the other hand, had a very different odour to the females. Our study thus exemplifies that the analysis of rare malfunctioning can add valuable insight on functioning under normal conditions and allows the conclusion that older winged males from normal colonies of the ant C. obscurior are guarded through an imperfect chemical female mimicry, still close enough to protect against attacks by the wingless fighters yet dissimilar enough not to elicit their sexual interest.

  20. Amyloid beta precursor protein regulates male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Ho; Bonthius, Paul J; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Bekiranov, Stefan; Rissman, Emilie F

    2010-07-28

    Sexual behavior is variable between individuals, ranging from celibacy to sexual addictions. Within normal populations of individual men, ranging from young to middle aged, testosterone levels do not correlate with libido. To study the genetic mechanisms that contribute to individual differences in male sexual behavior, we used hybrid B6D2F1 male mice, which are a cross between two common inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). Unlike most laboratory rodent species in which male sexual behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids, sexual behavior in a large proportion of these hybrid male mice after castration is independent of gonadal steroid hormones and their receptors; thus, we have the ability to discover novel genes involved in this behavior. Gene expression arrays, validation of gene candidates, and transgenic mice that overexpress one of the genes of interest were used to reveal genes involved in maintenance of male sexual behavior. Several genes related to neuroprotection and neurodegeneration were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of males that continued to mate after castration. Male mice overexpressing the human form of one of these candidate genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), displayed enhanced sexual behavior before castration and maintained sexual activity for a longer duration after castration compared with controls. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected relationship between APP and male sexual behavior. We speculate that declining APP during normal aging in males may contribute to the loss of sexual function.

  1. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from...... a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  2. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-10-01

    The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In

  3. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  4. Male breast pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  5. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  6. Normal Doppler velocimetry of renal vasculature in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cibele F; Chammas, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Renal diseases are common in older cats. Decreased renal blood flow may be the first sign of dysfunction and can be evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. But previous studies suggest that the resistive index (RI) has a low sensitivity for detecting renal disease. Doppler waveforms of renal and intrarenal arteries demonstrate decreased blood flow before there are any changes in the RI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal Doppler flowmetrics parameters of renal arteries (RAs), interlobar arteries (IAs) and abdominal aorta (AO) in adult healthy, Persian cats. Twenty-five Persian cats (13 females and 12 males with mean age of 30 months and an age range 12-60 months) with normal clinical examinations and biochemical tests and normal systemic blood pressure were given B-mode ultrasonographies in order to exclude all nephropathies, including polycystic kidney disease. All measurements were performed on both kidneys. Both kidneys (n=50) were examined by color mapping of the renal vasculature. Pulsed Doppler was used to examine both RAs, the IAs at cranial, middle and caudal sites, and the AO. The RI was calculated for all of the vessels. Early systolic acceleration (ESA) of RA and IA was obtained with Doppler spectral analysis. Furthermore, the ratio indices between RA/AO, and IA/RA velocities were calculated. The mean values of peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the diameter for AO were 53.17±13.46 cm/s and 0.38±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean RA diameter for all 50 kidneys was 0.15±0.02 cm. Considering the velocimetric values in both RAs, the mean PSV and RI that were obtained were 41.17±9.40 cm/s and 0.54±0.07. The RA had a mean ESA of 1.12±1.14 m/s(2) and the calculated upper limit of the reference value was 3.40 m/s(2). The mean renal-aortic ratio was 0.828±0.296. The IA showed PSV and RI values of 32.16±9.33 cm/s and 0.52±0.06, respectively. The mean ESA of all IAs was 0.73±0.61 m/s(2). The calculated upper limit of the reference value was 2.0m

  7. Measurement of normal intracranial artery diameter using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Go, Joong Seok; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of normal intracranial artery diameter according to sex and age, using three-dimensional reconstruction rotational angiography. One hundred and twenty-five adults with normal intracranial arteries who underwent 3D rotational angiography (n=177) were included in this study. The arterial diameter was measured at four sites of the internal carotid artery (cavernous, paraophthalmic, supraclinoid, and distal), that of the middle cerebral artery at two (proximal and distal), and that of the anterior cerebral artery at one (middle). For each sex and age group (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥ 60 years), the mean diameter of the artery at these seven sites was calculated, and differences analysed. In addition, the middle cerebral artery diameter was compared between a younger group (<50 years) and an older group (≥ 50 years). The mean diameter at each site for each sex was as follows: male (mean±SD): 4.61±0.69, 3.96±0.60, 3.48±0.45, 3.61±0.50, 2.44±0.32, 2.44±0.37, 1.81±0.32; female : 4.29±0.57, 3.83±0.56, 3.37±0.56, 3.52±0.48, 2.32±0.37, 2.30±0.36, 1.76±0.34. For those in their 40s, the diameter at five sites (all four sites of the internal cerebral artery and a distal middle cerebral artery) was significantly greater in males than in females. For other age groups, however, the difference between the sexes was absent, or was significant at only one (cavernous internal cerebral artery for those in their 30s) or two (proximal and distal middle cerebral artery was 2.59±0.35 mm in males and 2.38±0.37 mm in females. For the distal middle cerebral artery, the corresponding figures were 2.63±0.43 and 2.39±0.35 mm, respectively. For both sexes, the differences between the two age groups were significant. For those in their 40, the normal diameter of the intracranial artery at most arterial sites was significantly greater in males than in females. The normal diameter of the middle cerebral artery was significantly greater or tended to

  8. Myelopathy: Retrospective Evaluation of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Erdal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myelopathy is used to describe any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. Determining the etiology is important for detecting emergency situations and treating the cause. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for myelopathy between January 2014 and January 2015 in our hospital. The clinical and laboratory findings of the patients and their response to treatment were assessed. Results: Of the 28 patients, 16 were male and 12 were female, the mean age was 48 years (range, 22-77 years. The most common initial symptoms were sensorial deficits and motor weakness. Demyelinating diseases were the most common diseases and multiple sclerosis was the most frequent etiology among demiyelinating diseases. Cervical spinal cord was the most frequent region involved in myelopathy episodes which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging on T2W images. We observed clinical improvement in 15 of the 20 patients who were treated with corticosteroids. In addition, vitamin B12 treatment led to clinical improvement in two patients who were diagnosed as having subacute combined degeneration. Conclusion: The diagnosis and etiology of myelopathy and identification of rare conditions that require emergency surgery or interventional treatments are of utmost importance

  9. Cost in medical education: one hundred and twenty years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the BMJ in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons can be gleaned from the paper about the cost and other aspects of nineteenth century medical education. Cost is viewed almost exclusively from the domain of the male gender. Cost is viewed not just from the perspective of a young man but of a young gentleman. There is a strong implication that medicine is a club and that you have to have money to join the club and then to take part in the club's activities. Cost affects choice of medical school and selection into schools. The paper places great emphasis on the importance of passing exams at their first sitting and progressing through each year in a timely manner-mainly to save costs. The subject of cost is viewed from the perspective of the payer-at this time students and their families. The paper encourages the reader to reflect on what has and has not changed in this field since 1893. Modern medical education is still expensive; its expense deters students; and we have only started to think about how to control costs or how to ensure value. Too much of the cost of medical education continues to burden students and their families.

  10. Travel to, and use of, twenty-one Michigan trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Grost, Lisa; Harvey, Christina; Mantinan, Karah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined trail use among 857 trail users on 21 trails in Michigan from 2008 to 2011 using a valid and reliable intercept survey. Most of the 857 participants traveled to the trail from their home (92.6%), lived within 15 min of the trails (74.8%), and used active transport to travel to the trails 69.7%. The odds of active transport to the trails were greater among those who had not graduated high school (OR=3.49; 95% CI=1.02, 11.99) and high school graduates (OR=7.432; 95% CI=2.02, 27.30) compared to college graduates. Whites and adults also had greater odds of active transport than non-Whites (OR=3.160, 95% CI: 1.65, 6.05), and older adults (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.54). The majority of respondents (89.7%) reported using trails for recreational purposes. A significantly greater proportion of females (73.3%) compared to males (64.7%) reported using the trail with others. The findings from this study might enable health and parks and recreation professionals to better promote physical activity on trails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Male Body Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  12. Gender-disturbed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S B

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  13. Normal stress Sestamibi study: why re inject?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.A.; Hughes, T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used for risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A normal MPI study predicts an annual cardiac event rate of 99 Tc m -Sestamibi (MIBI), omitting the rest study when the post-stress study is interpreted as normal. The safety of this approach has not been validated, all published reports utilising both rest and stress images to interpret a study as 'normal'. Between 1/1/98 and 30/8/98, 489 patients (patients) were referred to our department for stress MPI. Of these, 237 were interpreted as normal on the basis of their post-stress study, and did not undergo a rest study. 12 month clinical follow-up was available in 184 (78%) of these patients, representing the study group (82 males, 102 females; mean age 61±12 years). 156 of these patients were referred for assessment of chest pain, three for dyspnoea, six for abnormal ECGs, and 19 for pre-operative evaluation. At one year of follow-up, there were no myocardial infarcts or admissions for unstable angina, and no cardiac deaths. Three patients died of non-cardiac causes. Seven patients underwent coronary angiography: five were normal, one had a single 50% stenosis, and one had an 80% vein graft stenosis which was subsequently angioplastied. In conclusion, a normal stress MIBI image predicts an excellent prognosis and negates the need for a rest reinjection study, thus reducing patient camera time and radiation exposure, improving departmental throughput, and minimising public health expenditure. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  15. [Cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hali, Fouzia; Khadir, Khadija; Idhammou, Wassima; Bensardi, Fatima-Zahra; Lefriyekh, Mohamed-Rachid; Benider, Abdelatif; Zamiati, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2011-11-01

    The appearance of skin symptoms in male breast is the main reason for consultation in our context. The aim of this study is to describe the various cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer through a series of cases collected in a dermatology department. A retrospective study was conducted in the dermatology department at the CHU Ibn Rochd January 1988 to December 2009. All cases of male breast cancer initially diagnosed in dermatology were included. The various epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic data were collected from medical records. Twenty cases were collected. The mean age was 61.25 years. Skin invasion by tumor was found in all patients, and it was the reason for consultation. It was a cutaneous involvement at the nipple and areola (17 cases) and at the periareolar skin (three cases). The clinical appearance of skin involvement was vegetative type in 12 cases, infiltrating with nipple retraction in five cases and nodule with skin change in three cases. The average period of consultation was 25 months. The axillary lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients and distant metastases in eight patients. The cutaneous metastases outside breast were noted in six patients. The histological types were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 15 cases (75%), papillary carcinoma in two cases (10%) and non-specific carcinoma in three cases (15%). The treatment was surgery in 14 patients and consisted of radical mastectomy with complete axillary nodal dissection according to Patey. Complementary therapies, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, were indicated in 14 patients. Our single-center study with dermatological recruitment illustrates the frequency and variety of skin disease in male breast cancer and demonstrates that they are still the main reason for consultation in our context. Better information for public and practitioners would allow earlier diagnosis and a more favourable prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy – how many subjects do you need?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    ) for male, NC for female, attenuation‐corrected images (AC) for male and AC for female subjects. 126 male and 205 female subjects were included. The normal database was created by alternatingly computing the mean of all normal subjects and normalizing the subjects with respect to this mean, until...... convergence. Coefficients of variation (CV) were created for increasing number of included patients in the four different normal stress databases. Normal stress databases with ...Commercial normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) commonly consist of 30–40 individuals. The aim of the study was to determine how many subjects are needed. Four normal stress databases were developed using patients who underwent 99mTc MPS: non‐corrected images (NC...

  17. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  18. The Overrepresentation of African-American Males in Special Education and the Effects on Self Esteem Based on Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, DeJuan Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In this twenty-first century there is a disproportionate amount of African American males in special education in the U.S. This is a factor happening day by day affecting the achievement gap between Black and White students, especially males. The purpose of this study is to point out factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African…

  19. Dirt on My Record: Rethinking Disciplinary Practices in an All-Black, All-Male Alternative Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'Ilah Suad; Ross, Kihana Miraya; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; Givens, Jarvis; Bryant, Jalessa N.

    2013-01-01

    In this empirical study, the authors draw on classroom observations and interviews with twenty-three Black male ninth graders in an urban district to focus on the nature of disciplinary practices in an all-Black, all-male manhood development class. While scholars have identified the "discipline gap" as a salient aspect of the experience…

  20. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  1. Microwave heating for male contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  2. Three times twenty by twenty-twenty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    Under the German presidency, the European Council adopted a program of climate protection and energy policy on March 9, 2007. It contains these 3 objectives: (1) By 2020, greenhouse gas emissions in the EU will be reduced by at least 20 percent from their 1990 level. (2) The share of renewable energies in primary energy consumption in the EU will be raised to 20 percent by 2020. (3) To enhance energy efficiency, energy consumption in the EU is to be reduced by 20 percent relative to the forecasts for 2020. The reason given by the European Council for the ambitious energy efficiency goal is its conviction that, in addition to the considerable increase in renewables, a major improvement in energy efficiency will enhance the security of energy supply, attenuate the forecast rise in energy prices, and diminish greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear power is mentioned only in passing and as a topic for national decisionmaking, which is absolutely unsatisfactory in the light of what nuclear power currently is, and could go on, contributing to the security of supply, the climate protection, and reasonably priced electricity supply. On the whole, the package of energy and environmental policy measures devised by the European Council may be termed ambitious. (orig.)

  3. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  4. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  5. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  6. Imaging of male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario

    2003-01-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  7. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  8. Imaging of male urethra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of Outcomes for Normal Saline and an Antiseptic Solution for Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Oliver, Noah; Garwood, Caitlin; Evans, Karen K; Steinberg, John S; Lavery, Larry A

    2015-11-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is an adjunctive treatment that uses periodic instillation of a solution and negative pressure for a wide diversity of wounds. A variety of solutions have been reported, with topical antiseptics as the most frequently chosen option. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of normal saline versus an antiseptic solution for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds. This was a prospective, randomized, effectiveness study comparing 0.9% normal saline versus 0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine for the adjunctive treatment of infected wounds that required hospital admission and operative débridement. One hundred twenty-three patients were eligible, with 100 patients randomized for the intention-to-treat analysis and 83 patients for the per-protocol analysis. The surrogate outcomes measured were number of operative visits, length of hospital stay, time to final surgical procedure, proportion of closed or covered wounds, and proportion of wounds that remained closed or covered at the 30-day follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic profiles in the two cohorts except for a larger proportion of male patients (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the surrogate outcomes with the exception of the time to final surgical procedure favoring normal saline (p = 0.038). The authors' results suggest that 0.9% normal saline may be as effective as an antiseptic (0.1% polyhexanide plus 0.1% betaine) for negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation for the adjunctive inpatient management of infected wounds. Therapeutic, II.

  10. Twenty Years of Research on Cytokine-Induced Sickness Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the

  11. Male obesity and semen quality: Any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obose Rufus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men. Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2: normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2. The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology. Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4% while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%. Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2% were overweight and 44 (21.4% were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese (p=0.813. Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.

  12. Normalization reduces intersubject variability in cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Mark J; Herrmann, Barbara S; Guinan, John J; Rauch, Steven D

    2014-09-01

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are used to assess saccular and inferior vestibular nerve function. Normalization of the VEMP waveform has been proposed to reduce the variability in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials by correcting for muscle activation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that normalization of the raw cervical VEMP waveform causes a significant decrease in the intersubject variability. Prospective cohort study. Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. Twenty healthy subjects were used in this study. All subjects underwent cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing using short tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 Hz. Both intersubject and intrasubject variability was assessed. Variability between raw and normalized peak-to-peak amplitudes was compared using the coefficient of variation. Intrasubject variability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and interaural asymmetry ratio. cVEMPs were present in most ears. Highest peak-to-peak amplitudes were recorded at 750 Hz. Normalization did not alter cVEMP tuning characteristics. Normalization of the cVEMP response caused a significant reduction in intersubject variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude. No significant change was seen in the intrasubject variability. Normalization significantly reduces cVEMP intersubject variability in healthy subjects without altering cVEMP characteristics. By reducing cVEMP amplitude variation due to nonsaccular, muscle-related factors, cVEMP normalization is expected to improve the ability to distinguish between healthy and pathologic responses in the clinical application of cVEMP testing.

  13. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  15. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  17. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  19. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  20. Radiography of the male breast in gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, T.J.; Maekaeraeinen, H.P.; Kallioinen, M.J.; Kiviniemi, H.O.; Salmela, P.I. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Pathology, Surgery, and Internal Medicine)

    1992-03-01

    In order to investigate the role of imaging methods in the evaluation of the male breast we reviewed the mammograms and ultrasonograms (US) performed in 40 men with breast enlargement or pain. The patients, whose breasts were examined by either mammography or US or both, ranged in age from 14 to 83 years. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia in 35 patients, lipomas in one, abscess or sequelae to abscess in 2, and normal in 2. In gynecomastia the subareolar density was of varying shape and size or showed a diffuse pattern of heterogeneous density occupying the whole breast on mammography, and a retromammillar hypoechoic focus, a diffuse heterogeneous area, or a combination of these was observed at US. Mammography is recommended for the evaluation of the male breast if the differential diagnosis between gynecomastia and fatty enlargement is not clinically evident, and in all cases of unilateral breast symptoms. US is a complementary method to mammography. (orig.).

  1. Radiography of the male breast in gynecomastia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, T.J.; Maekaeraeinen, H.P.; Kallioinen, M.J.; Kiviniemi, H.O.; Salmela, P.I.

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of imaging methods in the evaluation of the male breast we reviewed the mammograms and ultrasonograms (US) performed in 40 men with breast enlargement or pain. The patients, whose breasts were examined by either mammography or US or both, ranged in age from 14 to 83 years. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia in 35 patients, lipomas in one, abscess or sequelae to abscess in 2, and normal in 2. In gynecomastia the subareolar density was of varying shape and size or showed a diffuse pattern of heterogeneous density occupying the whole breast on mammography, and a retromammillar hypoechoic focus, a diffuse heterogeneous area, or a combination of these was observed at US. Mammography is recommended for the evaluation of the male breast if the differential diagnosis between gynecomastia and fatty enlargement is not clinically evident, and in all cases of unilateral breast symptoms. US is a complementary method to mammography. (orig.)

  2. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  3. Facilitation of tear fluid secretion by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the increase in tear fluid volume induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, comparative study. Twenty healthy adults (17 males and 3 females; mean age, 38.8 years) underwent topical instillation of 2 ophthalmic solutions, artificial tears in 1 eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the fellow eye, in a masked manner. The radius of curvature of the central lower tear meniscus was measured at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after instillation by use of reflective meniscometry, and subjects' self-evaluated symptoms of wetness and stinging using a visual analog scale. Changes after instillation in the radius of curvature from baseline (artificial tear group vs diquafosol group; mean ± standard error of the mean) were as follows: at 5 minutes, -0.008 ± 0.012 vs 0.045 ± 0.013; at 10 minutes, 0.001 ± 0.014 vs 0.057 ± 0.016; at 15 minutes, -0.012 ± 0.014 vs 0.037 ± 0.019; at 30 minutes, -0.010 ± 0.016 vs 0.030 ± 0.025; and at 60 minutes, -0.029 ± 0.012 vs -0.020 ± 0.012. The diquafosol group showed significantly greater values from 5 to 30 minutes after instillation. Of the 40 eyes, 13 showed abnormal tear film breakup time (≤5 seconds). The diquafosol group had significantly more wetness at 15 minutes after instillation than did the artificial tear group. Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases tear fluid on the ocular surface for up to 30 minutes in normal human eyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  5. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  6. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  7. Guidelines to Design Engineering Education in the Twenty-First Century for Supporting Innovative Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills…

  8. Twenty-One at TREC-7: ad-hoc and cross-language track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-7. The Twenty-One group participated in the ad-hoc and the cross-language track and made the following accomplishments: We developed a new weighting algorithm, which outperforms the popular Cornell version of BM25 on the ad-hoc

  9. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  10. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  11. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  12. Contribution of Bacterial Infection to Male Infertility in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is disagreement as to the influence of certain microbial infection on male infertility and such agents are ignored. The incidence of these microbial agents in seminal fluid isolates is on the increase. This study therefore evaluates the prevalence of male factor infertility and contribution of microbial infection to male infertility in Kano, northern Nigeria. Seminal fluid analysis in five hundred males who were investigated for infertility was evaluated using the 5th generation SQ AII C-P sperm quality analyzer and the Neubaeur counting chamber. The result indicates that 58.2% had sperm density less than twenty million per millilitre. The oligospermic subjects (sperm density 2-19 millions/ml were 27.6%, severe oligospermic (sperm density less than 2 million 13.2% and azoospermia, 17.4%. Asthenospermia (motility less than 50% decrease from 44.8% in oligospermia to 24.0% in severe oligospermia. Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50% also deteriorated from 46.3% to 35.4% in oligospermic and severe oligospermic males respectively. Seminal fluid infection increases with decreasing sperm density, motility and morphology. The prevalence of abnormal sperm indices and bacterial infection is high and Staphylococcus aureus infection should be treated and no longer ignored in the management of male factor infertility.

  13. Male-pattern alopecia and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J L; Halim, M M; Meyrick, G; Jeans, W D; Murphy, D

    1979-05-01

    Cutaneous processes which are thought to be influenced by androgenic stimulation include the development of male-pattern alopecia, terminal hair distribution, sebum excretion rate, maximal sweat secretion rate and skin thickness. We measured these indices in forty-eight normal men, together with muscle, fat and bone thickness and plasma testosterone. There was a significant correlation between hair density on the forearm, leg and chest, but no other significant correlations were found. We conclude that bald men are no more 'masculine' than those with good scalp hair growth, if masculinity is defined in terms of end-organ response to androgenic stimulation.

  14. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  15. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  16. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  17. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    for the entire IVF registration period (1994-2012), separate analyses were performed for men identified from the first (1994-2005) and second (2006-2012) IVF registration period owing to heterogeneity in the reporting of male factor infertility in these two time periods, because the reason for male factor...... infertility was not available from the first register. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Male factor infertility was identified from the variable 'yes' or 'no' from the first IVF register and through a diagnosis code (e.g. oligospermia, azoospermia) from the second IVF register. The reference group...... was men with male factor infertility (='no') and those with normal semen quality or sterilized men. Of the included men, 18 499 (46.8%) had male factor infertility and 21 017 (53.2%) made up the reference group. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 651 (1.6%) diabetes cases were identified...

  19. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.; Barlow, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  20. Current correlations in superconductor - normal metal mesoscopic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignon, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Thanks to the experimental progress in miniaturization and cryogenics over the last twenty years, it is now possible to build sufficiently small electric circuits where the wave like nature of electron becomes significant. In such electric circuit transport properties like current and noise are modified. It corresponds to the mesoscopic scale. Moreover, connecting a mesoscopic circuit to a superconductor enhances the effects due to interference between electrons since a superconductor is a macroscopic source of coherent electrons pairs: the Cooper pairs. In this thesis, we study current correlations in mesoscopic normal metal - superconductor structures. First, the energy dependence of current noise in a normal metal - superconductor tunnel junction is analysed taking into account weak disorder and interactions. We show that if the normal metal is out of equilibrium, current and noise become independent. Next, we consider the case of a superconductor connected to two normal metals by tunnel junctions. We show that it is possible to change the sign of current crossed correlation by tuning the voltages and that it can be used to probe the size of the Cooper pairs. Lastly, using Usadel's quasi-classic theory, we study the energy dependence of noise in a normal metal - normal metal - superconductor double junction. We show that barrier's transparencies modifies significantly both current and noise. (author) [fr

  1. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  2. Speech Respiratory Measures in Spastic Cerebral Palsied and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research is designed to determine speech respiratory measures in spastic cerebral palsied children versus normal ones, to be used as an applicable tool in speech therapy plans.  Materials & Methods: Via a comparative cross-sectional study (case–control, and through a directive goal oriented sampling in case and convenience approach for controls twenty spastic cerebral palsied and twenty control ones with age (5-12 years old and sex (F=20, M=20 were matched and identified. All possible inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered by thorough past medical, clinical and para clinical such as chest X-ray and Complete Blood Counts reviews to rule out any possible pulmonary and/or systemic disorders. Their speech respiratory indices were determined by Respirometer (ST 1-dysphonia, made and normalized by Glasgow University. Obtained data were analyzed by independent T test. Results: There were significant differences between cases and control groups for "mean tidal volume", "phonatory volume" and "vital capacity" at a=0/05 values and these values in patients were less (34% than normal children (P<0/001. Conclusion: Measures obtained are highly crucial for speech therapist in any speech therapy primary rehabilitative plans for spactic cerebral palsied children.

  3. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  4. Effect of gamma-radiated males on egg production in Acarus siro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlendak, E.; Boczek, J.; Bruce, W.; Davis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Mating of unirradiated Acarus siro L. females with normal and gamma irradiated males was studied. Females usually laid eggs throughout their life span if they were mated at least once a week with normal males. Females paired with treated males contained spermatophores but did not lay any eggs. Previously mated fertile females of A. siro subsequently mated with irradiated, sterilized males ceased egg-laying during the next 1-2 weeks. There was no significant difference when compared to the untreated control in the number of eggs laid when females were mated for one week with irradiated males and then with normal males. Weekly alternation of mating with irradiated and normal males reduced significantly the number of eggs laid by the females and significantly reduced their longevity. Because this mite species mates many times during its life span, it is doubtful that it could be eradicated solely by the introduction of sterile males into a natural population. However, the presence of such males would decrease the number of eggs laid by normal females and it would lead to the decrease in the number of offspring in the next generation

  5. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  6. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  7. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  8. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  9. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2   on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.

     

    Methods

    Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.

     

    Results

    The results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001  and

    p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats  revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.

     

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.

  10. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  11. The normal function of a speciation gene, Odysseus, and its hybrid sterility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sha; Ting, Chau-Ti; Wu, Chung-I

    2004-07-02

    To understand how postmating isolation is connected to the normal process of species divergence and why hybrid male sterility is often the first sign of speciation, we analyzed the Odysseus (OdsH) gene of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila. We carried out expression analysis, transgenic study, and gene knockout. The combined evidence suggests that the sterility phenotype represents a novel manifestation of the gene function rather than the reduction or loss of the normal one. The gene knockout experiment identified the normal function of OdsH as a modest enhancement of sperm production in young males. The implication of a weak effect of OdsH on the normal phenotype but a strong influence on hybrid male sterility is discussed in light of Haldane's rule of postmating isolation.

  12. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  13. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  14. Fractal Dimension Of CT Images Of Normal Parotid Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    This study was to investigate the age and sex differences of the fractal dimension of the normal parotid glands in the digitized CT images. The six groups, which were composed of 42 men and women from 20's, 40's and 60's and over were picked. Each group contained seven people of the same sex. The normal parotid CT images were digitized, and their fractal dimensions were calculated using Scion Image PC program. The mean of fractal dimensions in males was 1.7292 (+/-0.0588) and 1.6329 (+/-0.0425) in females. The mean of fractal dimensions in young males was 1.7617, 1.7328 in middle males, and 1.6933 in old males. The mean of fractal dimensions in young females was 1.6318, 1.6365 in middle females, and 1.6303 in old females. There was no statistical difference in fractal dimension between left and right parotid gland of the same subject (p>0.05). Fractal dimensions in male were decreased in older group (p 0.05). The fractal dimension of parotid glands in the digitized CT images will be useful to evaluate the age and sex differences.

  15. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  17. Between male variation in semen characteristics and preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was collected daily from one or two pairs of males using the dummy female method, each pair being replicated twice. Spermatozoa viability in neat semen, SPS, SPD and DMEM was assessed using nigrosin-eosin staining and the proportions of live normal, live abnormal and dead sperm were determined. Semen ...

  18. Effects of noise exposure on young adults with normal audiograms I: Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Guest, Hannah; Munro, Kevin J; Kluk, Karolina; Léger, Agnès; Hall, Deborah A; Heinz, Michael G; Plack, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy has been demonstrated in numerous rodent studies. In these animal models, the disorder is characterized by a reduction in amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to high-level stimuli, whereas the response at threshold is unaffected. The aim of the present study was to determine if this disorder is prevalent in young adult humans with normal audiometric hearing. One hundred and twenty six participants (75 females) aged 18-36 were tested. Participants had a wide range of lifetime noise exposures as estimated by a structured interview. Audiometric thresholds did not differ across noise exposures up to 8 kHz, although 16-kHz audiometric thresholds were elevated with increasing noise exposure for females but not for males. ABRs were measured in response to high-pass (1.5 kHz) filtered clicks of 80 and 100 dB peSPL. Frequency-following responses (FFRs) were measured to 80 dB SPL pure tones from 240 to 285 Hz, and to 80 dB SPL 4 kHz pure tones amplitude modulated at frequencies from 240 to 285 Hz (transposed tones). The bandwidth of the ABR stimuli and the carrier frequency of the transposed tones were chosen to target the 3-6 kHz characteristic frequency region which is usually associated with noise damage in humans. The results indicate no relation between noise exposure and the amplitude of the ABR. In particular, wave I of the ABR did not decrease with increasing noise exposure as predicted. ABR wave V latency increased with increasing noise exposure for the 80 dB peSPL click. High carrier-frequency (envelope) FFR signal-to-noise ratios decreased as a function of noise exposure in males but not females. However, these correlations were not significant after the effects of age were controlled. The results suggest either that noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy is not a significant problem in young, audiometrically normal adults, or that the ABR and FFR are relatively insensitive to this disorder in

  19. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  20. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  1. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  2. Cardiac myxoma: diagnostic approach, surgical treatment and follow-up. A twenty years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, J; Milicić, D; Alfirević, I; Anić, D; Baudoin, Z; Bulat, C; Corić, V; Dadić, D; Husar, J; Ivanćan, V; Korda, Z; Letica, D; Predrijevac, M; Ugljen, R; Vućemilo, I

    1996-12-01

    At the University Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in Zagreb, Croatia, we treated 81 patients with primary intracardiac myxoma, in a period from January 1975 to December 1994. There were 55 female and 26 male pts, in age from 1 month to 80 years, mean 46+/-15 years. Clinical manifestations varied from no symptoms and very poor or no clinical signs to various manifestations of chronic or acute congestive heart failure, syncope and arrhythmias with or without systemic findings such as high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anaemia, leucocytosis, elevated gamma globulin, thrombocytopenia or low grade fever, as well as cerebrovascular accidents due to tumour embolization. Cardiac symptoms were predominant in 54 pts (66.6%) and cerebrovascular in 20 pts (24.7%). Seven pts (8.6%) were symptomless and discovered accidentally, mostly regarding on an unexplained heart murmur. In almost all the patients preoperative diagnosis of intracardiac myxoma was sufficiently established by echocardiography. The tumour was located in the left atrium in 62 pts (76.5%) and in the right atrium in 19 pts (23.5%). Delay from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis was 6 months in average (range 10 days to 25 months). The average waiting for the operation was 9 days (range from 1 to 60 days). The echocardiographic diagnosis was confirmed during intraoperative examination followed by histological analysis. All pts underwent excision of myxoma using cardiopulmonary bypass with core and topical hypothermia and cold crystaloid cardioplegia. According to the additional preoperative and intraoperative findings, in 6 pts sinchronous mitral valve reconstruction, in 3 pts artificial mitral valve implantation and in 2 pts atrial wall reconstruction was performed. There was no perioperative mortality. After the operation, we could not evaluate all the patients long enough, mostly because of some paramedical circumstancies, such as war, migrations, etc. Twenty two pts undevent evaluation for at least 5

  3. Therapeutic effects of diaphragmatic plication for acquired unilateral non-malignant diaphragm paralysis in twenty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagheri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acquired paralysis of the diaphragm is a condition caused by trauma, surgical injuries, (lung cancer surgery, esophageal surgery, cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery, and is sometimes of an unknown etiology. It can lead to dyspnea and can affect ventilatory function and patients activity. Diaphragmatic plication is a treatment method which decreases inconsistent function of diaphragm. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of diaphragmatic plication in patients with acquired unilateral non-malignant diaphragmatic paralysis. Methods: From 1991 to 2011, 20 patients with acquired unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis who underwent surgery enrolled in our study in Ghaem Hospital Mashhad University of Medical Science. Patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, BMI, clinical symptoms, dyspnea score (DS, etiology of paralysis, diagnostic methods, respiratory function tests and complication of surgery. Some tests including dyspnea score were carried out again six months after surgery. We evaluated patients with SPSS version 11.5 and Paired t-test or nonparametric equivalent. Results: Twenty patients enrolled in our study. 14 were male and 6 were female. The mean age was 58 years and the average time interval between diagnosis to surgical treatment was 38.3 months. Acquired diaphragmatic paralysis was mostly caused by trauma (in 11 patients and almost occurred on the left side (in 15 patients. Diagnostic methods included chest x-ray, CT scan, ultrasonography and sniff. Test prior to surgery the average FVC was 41.4±7 percent and the average FEV1 was 52.4±6 percent and after surgery they were 80.1±8.6 percent and 74.4±1 percent respectively. The average increase in FEV1 and FVC 63.4±4, 61.1±7.8. Performing surgery also leads to a noticeable improvement in dyspnea score in our study. Conclusion: In patients with acquired unilateral non-malignant diaphragm paralysis diaphragmatic plication is highly recommended due to the

  4. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    manipulation of their natural resource blessing from God, the crude oil, ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of pollution. This ..... 70) This is very simple and straightforward demands that can easily be ...

  5. Male recombination in Brazilian populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2016-07-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986).

  6. The causes of genetic male sterility in 3 soybaen lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaihayo, P R; Gumisiriza, G

    1978-11-01

    The cause of male sterility in 3 soybean lines, TGM 103-1, N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4 was studied. In TGM 103-1, which was both male and female sterile, two different abnormalities were associated with sterility. Precocious movement of a few chromosomes at the metaphase I stage resulted into the production of non-functional pollen while cells which underwent apparent normal meiotic division had disintergration of the tapetal cell wall immediately after the free microspore stage leading to the starvation and subsequent death of the developing microspores. In lines N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4, both of which were partially sterile, male sterility resulted from a failure of cytokinesis after the telophase II stage. Meiosis proceeded normally but the 4 microspores after telophase II failed to separate into pollen grains and degenerated thereafter.

  7. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  8. Guidelines to design engineering education in the twenty-first century for supporting innovative product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in life, career, and citizenship. The purpose of this paper is to understand how twenty-first century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in engineering education finalised to innovative product development by using additive manufacturing (AM). The study designs a learning model by which to achieve effective AM education to address the requirements of twenty-first century and to offer students the occasion to experiment with STEM (Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts. The study is conducted using the quality function deployment (QFD) methodology.

  9. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  10. 76 FR 72240 - Twenty-Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: Aeronautical Information and Meteorological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special... Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 206..., 2011 FRAC OSED [[Page 72241

  11. Book Review: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Author: Osita C. Eze and Amadu Sesay. Publisher: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2010, xvi + 397pp, Tables, Index. ISBN: 978-002-102-7 ...

  12. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  13. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented

  14. A study of the normal interpedicular distance of the spine in Korean teenagers (Estimation of normal range by roentgenographic measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Uk

    1979-01-01

    The radiological measurement of the interpedicular disease using a routine antero-posterior view of the spine gives important clinical criteria in evaluation of the intraspinal tumor and stenosis of the spinal canal, and aids for diagnosis of the lesions. In 1934 Elsberg and Dyke reported values of interpedicular distance as determined on roentgenograms for spine of white adult, and in 1968 Song prepared normal values of interpedicular distance for Korean adult. The present investigation was undertaken to provide normal interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers. The author observed the antero-posterior films of the spine of 200 normal teenagers which were composed of 100 male and 100 female. The normal values of the interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers were obtained, as well as 90% tolerance range for clinical use. In this statistical analysis, there were noted significant differences between male and female, and each age groups. It was observed that average male measurement were consistently larger than female by about 1 mm and the growth of the spinal canal appeared to be continued.

  15. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  16. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  17. China's iGeneration - Cinema and Moving Image Culture for the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Matthew D.; Wagner, Keith B.; Yu, Tianqui; Vulpiani, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture. This innovative collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture features contributions from an international community of scholars, critics, and practitioners. Taken together, their perspectives make a compelling case that the past decade has witnessed a radical transformation of conventional notions of cinema. Following China's accession to the WTO in 2001, personal ...

  18. Nuclear power in the twenty-first century - An assessment (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power was one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century, and it continues to play an important role in twenty-first century discussions about the future energy mix, climate change, innovation, proliferation, geopolitics, and many other crucial policy topics. This paper addresses some key issues around the emergence of nuclear power in the twentieth century and perspectives going forward in the twenty-first, including questions of economics and competitiveness, the str...

  19. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  20. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  1. Sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis in males of the parthenogenetic gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Reptilia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Beate; von Düring, Monika U G

    2008-01-01

    Obligately parthenogenetic lizards usually are all-female populations of hybrids producing diploid oocytes by premeiotic endomitosis and quasi-normal meiosis. In an all-female strain of the gekkonid lizard Lepidodactylus lugubris several phenotypic males arose spontaneously. The sexual characteristics of these males were studied using light and electron microscopy and compared with normal males of the bisexual genus Lygodactylus. Emphasis was layed on morphology of seminiferous tubules, occurrence of spermatogenic stages and ultrastructure of spermatozoa. The phenotypic males possessed preanal pores filled with secretions and a sexual nephric segment which were exactly the same as in normal, reproductively active males. In the testes, density and morphology of non-spermatogenic cell types, the Leydig and Sertoli cells, indicate a normal production of testicular testosterone and a normal function of the blood-testis barrier, respectively. Both in the normal and the phenotypic males, all meiotic cell types of spermatogenesis can be recognised in the seminiferous tubules and are apparently identical, indicating a normal meiosis without impairment in the phenotypic males. In contrast, the differentiation process of spermatids is markedly disturbed in the phenotypic males of L. lugubris. In the normal male, spermiogenesis results in mature spermatids and spermatozoa with small elongated nuclei, an acrosomal complex, and a flagellar tail possessing one axoneme. Spermatozoa fill both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens. In the phenotypic male, spermiogenesis results in seemingly normal spermatids and in spermatozoa with large, non-elongated, deformed nuclei and/or irregular tails possessing more than one axoneme. Both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of the ductus epididymidis and the ductus deferens contain relatively few spermatozoa. We suggest that the phenotypic males inherited the

  2. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(AB), maintainer S/sub 1/(C-S/sub 1/) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 1/s(D-S/sub 1/, E-S/sub 1/) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 2/(D-S/sub 2/) are produced. In the case that D-S/sub 2/ seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F/sub 1/(DE) should be produced from D-S/sub 1/ x E-S/sub 1/. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCD) or hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCDE) are for practical use.

  3. Childhood adiposity trajectories are associated with late adolescent blood pressure: birth to twenty cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Munthali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood pressure in childhood is a risk factor for adult hypertension which is a global health problem. Excess adiposity in childhood creates a predisposition to develop adult hypertension. Our aim was to explore distinct sex-specific adiposity trajectories from childhood to late adolescence and examined their association with blood pressure. Methods Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling (LCGMM on longitudinal data was used to derive sex-specific and distinct body mass index (BMI: kg/m2 trajectories. We studied 1824 black children (boys = 877, girls = 947 from the Birth to Twenty (Bt20 cohort from Soweto, South Africa, and obtained BMI measures at ages 5 through 18 years. Participants with at least two age-point BMI measures, were included in the analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, chi-square test, multivariate linear and standard logistic regressions were used to test study characteristics and different associations. Results We identified three (3 and four (4 distinct BMI trajectories in boys and girls, respectively. The overall prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP was 34.9 % (39.4 % in boys and 30.38 % in girls. Boys and girls in the early onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to have higher BP values in late adolescence. Compared to those in the normal weight BMI trajectory, girls in early onset obesity trajectories had an increased risk of elevated BP with odds ratio (OR of 2.18 (95 % confidence interval 1.31 to 4.20 and 1.95 (1.01 to 3.77. We also observed the weak association for boys in early onset overweight trajectory, (p-value = 0.18 and odds ratio of 2.39 (0.67 to 8.57 Conclusions Distinct weight trajectories are observed in black South African children from as early as 5 years. Early onset adiposity trajectories are associated with elevated BP in both boys and girls. It is important to consider individual patterns of early-life BMI development, so that

  4. Roentgenographic evaluation of the profiles for young male and female

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The author has studied on the profiles on Korean young male and female by the cephalometric roentgenograms, and the subjects consisted of 104 persons with normal occlusion, and the measurements were done on the soft and hard structures. The mean and standard deviations in the subjects were calculated and compared between male and female. The author has obtained the following results: 1. In the linear measurement, male was longer than female in most measuring points. 2. Compared with the angulation of soft tissue, there were no differences between both sexes. 3. In the skeletal patterns, there were some differences between male and female, but there was a similarity to the facial profile. 4. The individual variations on the cephalometric profiles on the subjects were recognized, especially, in the lower facial part.

  5. Experimental studies on the sterile male technique of spodoptera litura (F. ) by the gamma radiation from /sup 137/Cs, 3. Experiments of the mating competitiveness between moths irradiated as pupae and unirradiated ones in the field cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukuda, R; Kiyoku, M [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1973-10-01

    Experiments of the mating competitiveness between the substerilized tobacco cutworms and the normal ones were carried out in a field cage (200 x 120 x 180 cm/plot). Pupae of seven days old reared on an artificial medium during the larval stage irradiated with 12 kR of the gamma rays to substerilize. The normal adults were cultured using leaves of cabbages. Cabbages and soybeans were planted in the purpose of egg laying for adult females mated with males in the cage. Substerilized males only or both substerilized males and females were combined with normal males and females. The mating behavior, longevity, egg deposition, percentage of egg hatch and spermatophore in a receptaculum seminis were investigated. When more than ten substerilized and one normal males were exposed to one female, or more than fourteen substerilized and two normal males were combined two normal females, the substerilized males showed high competitiveness with normal males for virgin females. When both five substerilized males and females placed together with one pair of normal male and female in the cage, or each ten substerilized males and females with each two normals, these substerilized males showed full competitiveness. In addition, it was found that offspring obtained from the combination between substerilized males and normal females were sterile.

  6. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  7. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  9. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  10. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  11. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  12. The Effects of the Air Cast Sports Stirrup on Postural Sway in Normal Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PAI Paula Sammarone, MA, ATC Date Rangos School of Health Sciences I Director, Athletic Training Duquesne University I Pittsburgh, PA I...sprain occurs, tearing of the ligaments also occur, which results in de- afferentization of the articular nerves (20). 1 Several treatment modalities...intermediate ranges. Articular nerve fibers have lower tensile strength than collagen fibers (21). Since most inversion injuries of the ankle result in some

  13. Limited value of interlaced ECG-gated radiography in the presence of a normal chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.T.; Ravin, C.E.; Handel, D.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with normal posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs, who were undergoing cardiac catheterization because of symptoms strongly suggesting coronary artery disease, also had posteroanterior and lateral interlaced electrocardiogram-gated radiographs made. In 14 patients, the interlaced radiography system underestimated (suggested hypokinesia) the wall motion, which was normal on cardiac catheterization. In two cases the system overestimated the wall motion, in two others it both under- and overestimated the motion, and in only nine cases was the correlation correct. These data suggest that the technique is of limited application, particularly in cases in which the routine chest radiographs are normal

  14. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  16. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  17. Unidirectional hybrid male sterility from crosses between species A and species B of the taxon Anopheles (Cellia) culicifacies Giles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S J

    1981-02-01

    Crosses between species A females and species B males of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies give F1 males with undeveloped testes, reduced vasa deferentia, and apparently normal accessory glands. F1 males from the reciprocal cross, and F1 hybrid females from both reciprocal crosses are fertile, though their fertility is less than that of either parental species

  18. Sterility and mating competitiveness of male ceratitis capitata as affected by gamma radiation and di methane insecticide. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakid, A M; Fadel, A M; El-Akhdar, E A [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Helmy, N M [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Benha, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of pupal gamma-irradiation (50, 70, 90 Gy), or adult treatment with dimethoate insecticide (0.93 ppm) on the male sterility and mating competitiveness of the medfly, ceratitis capitata (Wied.) were studied. Results indicated that treatment of the adult medfly with dimethoate had no clear effect on male fertility whether this male mated with treated or normal females. However, gamma irradiation drastically decreased hatch ability of eggs laid by normal or treated (dimethoate) females, when mated with irradiated males all gamma doses. This reduction in egg hatch ability increased increased with increasing gamma dose. Irradiated females did not lay eggs at any of the gamma doses used. At all mating combinations, the male mating competitiveness was decreased especially when irradiated males were confined with treated males for mating with normal or treated females. Results are indicated and discussed in the text. 4 figs.

  19. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  20. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  1. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Sub; Kim, Jong Chul; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Wol

    1997-01-01

    To measure the mean size of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal Korean children, using MR imaging. Our subjects were 166 children (male : female=100 : 66) aged under 15 whose findings on MR imaging and neurologic examination were normal. Using midsagittal T1-weighted imaging, we measured the length of the brain and corpus callosum, the height of the latter, and the thickness of its genu body, transitional zone and splenium. The measurements were statistically analysed according to age and sex. Brain length and the size of the various portions of the corpus callosum tended to increase relatively rapidly during the first three years of life, but the rate of growth tended to decrease according to age. The mean lenght of the brain and corpus callosum and the mean thickness of the splenium of the corpus callosum did not differ according to sex. The mean thickness of the genu, body and transitional zone of the corpus callosum was greater in males than in females. The ratio of the length of the corpus callosum to the anteroposterior diameter of the brain was significantly greater in females than in males (alpha=0.05). Using MR imaging, we measured the mean sizes of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal children;these values may provide a useful basis for determing changes occurring in its structure

  4. Assessment of Polyscias fruticosa (L. Harm (Araliaceae leaf extract on male fertility in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX BOYE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polyscias fruticosa is used widely as food, disease remedy and as an ornamental across Afro-Asian countries. For instance, P. fruticosa is used traditionally as an anti-asthma, anti-tussive, and a muco-suppressant herbal remedy for asthmatics in Ghana. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological basis of the ethnobotanical uses of P. fruticosa, however, its effect on the reproductive system remains completely unknown. Aim of study: This study assessed effects of Polyscias fruticosa leaf extract (PFE on male fertility and toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: after crude preparation of PFE, it was subjected to qualitative phytochemical, thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Effect of PFE was assessed on male fertility and toxicity by using healthy adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to: normal saline (5 ml/kg po, n = 5, Clomiphene Citrate (50 mg/kg po; n = 5 and PFE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg po; n = 5 respectively groups and treated for 21 days. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and male fertility parameters (left testis weight, relative testis weight, caudal epididymal weight, caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and assessment of male sex hormones and testicular histology were assessed. Results: There were no significant changes in bodyweight, weight of left testis, weights of right and left caudal epididymides between treatments groups (PFE and clomiphene citrate and control. Caudal epididymal sperm count increased in PFE (100 and 500 mg/kg-treated rats relative to control. Sperm motility relatively increased in PFE-treated rats compared to control. Sperm abnormality decreased in PFE-treated rats; especially in PFE (100 mg/kg group compared to control. Serum testosterone levels decreased inversely with serum luteinizing hormone (LH levels in PFE-treated rats compared to control. There were minimal

  5. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  7. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  8. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  9. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a healthy lifestyle, including healthy eating and regular physical activity, to help promote better mental health. Many effective treatments are available for depression. So don't try to tough out male ...

  10. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  11. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  12. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  13. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...

  14. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  15. Semigroups of data normalization functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable centering and scaling are functions that are typically used in data normalization. Various properties of centering and scaling functions are presented. It is shown that if we use two centering functions (or scaling functions) successively, the result depends on the order in which the

  16. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  17. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  18. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  19. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  20. Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Deodbar

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen examination with special reference to semen analysis and culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum was carried out in 50 male infertile patients in the age group of 25 to 40 years, attending a private infertility clinic. Isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 14 (28% patients and the abnormalities in count and motility of spermatozoa suggest that ureaplasmas may play a role in human male infertility.

  1. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  2. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  3. Temporal and spectral properties of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion: a comparison between normal subjects and nutcracker esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifan, A; Jiang, Y; Mittal, R K

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of esophageal pain in patients with nutcracker esophagus (NE) and other esophageal motor disorders is not known. Our recent study shows that baseline esophageal mucosal perfusion, measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, is lower in NE patients compared to controls. The goal of our current study was to perform a more detailed analysis of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion (EMBP) waveform of NE patients and controls to determine the optimal EMBP biomarkers that combined with suitable statistical learning models produce robust discrimination between the two groups. Laser Doppler recordings of 10 normal subjects (mean age 43 ± 15 years, 8 males) and 10 patients (mean age 47 ± 5.5 years., 8 males) with NE were analyzed. Time and frequency domain features were extracted from the first twenty-minute recordings of the EMBP waveforms, statistically ranked according to four independent evaluation criterions, and analyzed using two statistical learning models, namely, logistic regression (LR) and support vector machines (SVM). The top three ranked predictors between the two groups were the 0.5 and 0.75 perfusion quantile values followed by the surface of the EMBP power spectrum in the frequency domain. ROC curve ranking produced a cross-validated AUC (area under the curve) of 0.93 for SVM and 0.90 for LR. We show that as a group NE patients have lower perfusion values compared to controls, however, there is an overlap between the two groups, suggesting that not all NE patients suffer from low mucosal perfusion levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phenotype Manifestations of Polysomy X At Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Ćatović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter Syndrome is the most frequent form of male hypogonadism. It is an endocrine disorder based on sex chromosome aneuploidy. Infertility and gynaecomastia are the two most common symptoms that lead to diagnosis. Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome is made by karyotyping. Over 20 years period (1985-2004 124 patients have been sent to “Center for Human Genetics” of Faculty of Medicine in Sarajevo from different medical centres within Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with diagnosis suspecta Klinefelter syndrome, azoospermia, sterilitas primaria and hypogonadism for cytogenetic evaluation. Normal karyotype was found in 99 (79,8% subjects, and karyotype was changed in 25 (20,2% subjects. Polysomy X was found in 14 (11,3% examinees. Polysomy X was expressed at the age of sexual maturity in the majority of the cases. Our results suggest that indication for chromosomal evaluation needs to be established at a very young age.

  5. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  6. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law

  7. A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Smits, Roel; van Hout, Roeland

    2004-11-01

    An evaluation of vowel normalization procedures for the purpose of studying language variation is presented. The procedures were compared on how effectively they (a) preserve phonemic information, (b) preserve information about the talker's regional background (or sociolinguistic information), and (c) minimize anatomical/physiological variation in acoustic representations of vowels. Recordings were made for 80 female talkers and 80 male talkers of Dutch. These talkers were stratified according to their gender and regional background. The normalization procedures were applied to measurements of the fundamental frequency and the first three formant frequencies for a large set of vowel tokens. The normalization procedures were evaluated through statistical pattern analysis. The results show that normalization procedures that use information across multiple vowels (``vowel-extrinsic'' information) to normalize a single vowel token performed better than those that include only information contained in the vowel token itself (``vowel-intrinsic'' information). Furthermore, the results show that normalization procedures that operate on individual formants performed better than those that use information across multiple formants (e.g., ``formant-extrinsic'' F2-F1). .

  8. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  9. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  10. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  11. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  12. The Normal Value of Tibial Tubercle Trochlear Groove Distance in Patients With Normal Knee Examinations Using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sobhanardekani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Patellar instability is a multifactorial common knee pathology that has a high recurrence rate, and the symptoms continue and ultimately predispose the patient to chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG is very important in the assessment of patellofemoral joint instability. The purpose of this study was to report the normal value of TTTG in males and females in different age groups and to assess the reliability of MRI in measuring TTTG. All patients presenting with knee pain and normal examinations of the knee joint, with a normal MRI report, referring to Shahid Sadoughi hospital of Yazd, Iran, from April 2014 to September 2014, were included in the study. MR images were studied once by two radiologists and for the second time by one radiologist. Mean value of TTTG was reported for males and females and in three age groups. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was calculated. A total of 98 patients were eligible to evaluate during 6 months (68 male and 30 female. Mean TTTG was 10.9±2.5 mm in total, which was 10.8±2.8 mm and 11.3±2.3 mm in males and females, respectively (P>0.05. Mean TTTG in males ≤30 years, 30-50 years and, ≥51-year-old were 10.8±2.6 mm, 10.8±2.7 mm, and 10.8±2.6 mm, respectively; that was 12.1±3.4 mm, 11.4±1.9 mm, and 10.5±1.7 mm in females ≤30 years, 31-50 years and, ≥51-year-old, respectively (95% CI. The coefficient of variation was <10% for both intra- and interobserver analysis. The results of the present study showed no significant difference in TTTG value between males and females in different age groups. In addition, it demonstrated that MRI is a reliable method in assessment of TTTG and identified normal value for TTTG at 10.9±2.5 mm.

  13. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  14. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  15. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  16. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  17. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  18. Male density affects large-male advantage in the golden silk spider, Nephila clavipes

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. Rittschof

    2010-01-01

    Across a variety of animal taxa, the outcome of male--male contests depends on male body size; winners are usually the larger males or the males with bigger weapons. However, high male density can either increase or reverse large-male advantage because density changes the frequency and intensity of male--male interactions. In the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes, large males have a competitive advantage in male--male contests. However, this species shows more than 2-fold variation in ma...

  19. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Rory

    2015-03-19

    The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of 'normal' sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media's construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy. The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1) biological accounts of male sexuality; (2) phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3) the melodramatic penis. Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body.

  20. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  1. Fast-food consumption among 17-year-olds in the Birth to Twenty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Assessment of fast-food consumption in urban black adolescents. Design: The current research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Subjects attending the Birth to Twenty (Bt20) research facility at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg between September 2007 and May ...

  2. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  3. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  4. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... equipment distribution program for people who are deaf-blind. In addition, the law will fill accessibility... Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town Hall Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA...

  5. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  6. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  7. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  8. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  9. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ..., Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-12460... Welcome, Introductions & Administrative Remarks Review and Approve Summary of the Twenty-first Meeting... Next Meeting Any Other Business Adjourn Attendance is open to the interested public but limited to...

  10. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Washington, DC, on March 28, 2013. Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group... Introductions Review Meeting Agenda Review/Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update... for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards Other Business Adjourn...

  11. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  12. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  13. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  14. TPACK Updated to Measure Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko; Kukkonen, Jari; Kontkanen, Sini; Lambert, Matthew C.; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills have attracted significant attention in recent years. Students of today and the future are expected to have the skills necessary for collaborating, problem solving, creative and innovative thinking, and the ability to take advantage of information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Teachers must be…

  15. The «Group of Twenty», IMF and EU and Reforming of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy J. Il'in

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of reforming the global financial system and world economic organizations since the foundation of the International Monetary Fund at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 to present time. Special attention is given to results of cooperation of the IMF and the "Group of Twenty"in the context of the world financial crisis 2008-2009. This article mentions the key benchmarks of the historical development of world economy: foundation of the Bretton Woods financial system, rejection of the gold standard at the Jamaica Conference, transition to the floating exchange rates, the wave of crises in the 1990-s, the world financial crisis of 2008-2009. The process of evolution of the IMF within the framework of these global events is considered here. The cooperation of EU, IMF and "Group of Twenty" is considered. The reforms of the IMF and their results are analyzed. The policy of the IMF at different historical stages of its evolution is estimated. As well as it results, the article also deals with the formation and development of the "Group of Twenty". The increasing role of the "Group of Twenty" in the global economic governance and reforming the IMF is considered. Especially is marked the necessity of the further reforms of the IMF and increasing of participation of the "G-20" in the world economic and politic system.

  16. Vesico-vaginal fistula repair: experience with first twenty-three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesico-vaginal fistula repair: experience with first twenty-three patients seen at a tertiary hospital in north-central Nigeria. Stephen D. Ngwan, Bassey E. Edem, Ajen S. Anzaku, Barnabas A. Eke, Mohammed A. Shittu, Solomon A. Obekpa ...

  17. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  18. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  19. Improving the temporal transposability of lumped hydrological models on twenty diversified U.S. watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seiller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Twenty diversified U.S. watersheds. Study focus: Identifying optimal parameter sets for hydrological modeling on a specific catchment remains an important challenge for numerous applied and research projects. This is particularly the case when working under contrasted climate conditions that question the temporal transposability of the parameters. Methodologies exist, mainly based on Differential Split Sample Tests, to examine this concern. This work assesses the improved temporal transposability of a multimodel implementation, based on twenty dissimilar lumped conceptual structures and on twenty U.S. watersheds, over the performance of the individual models. New hydrological insights for the region: Individual and collective temporal transposabilities are analyzed and compared on the twenty studied watersheds. Results show that individual models performances on contrasted climate conditions are very dissimilar depending on test period and watershed, without the possibility to identify a best solution in all circumstances. They also confirm that performance and robustness are clearly enhanced using an ensemble of rainfall-runoff models instead of individual ones. The use of (calibrated weight averaged multimodels further improves temporal transposability over simple averaged ensemble, in most instances, confirming added-value of this approach but also the need to evaluate how individual models compensate each other errors. Keywords: Rainfall-runoff modeling, Multimodel approach, Differential Split Sample Test, Deterministic combination, Outputs averaging

  20. Twenty Years of Australian Educational Computing: A Call for Modern Traditionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on twenty or more years of development and research in educational computing. It argues that the emphasis on exploiting the technology in the service of contemporary ideas about learning held by many of the early workers has been lost to a focus on the technology itself and its capabilities. In schools this has led to an…

  1. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  2. Leadership for Twenty-First-Century Schools and Student Achievement: Lessons Learned from Three Exemplary Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and expectations,…

  3. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes: A Revolution in Material Science for the Twenty-First Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Abd. W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explain the preparation procedures of single walled carbon nano tubes using arc discharge technique. The optimum conditions of carbon nano tubes synthesis are given. It should be pointed out that this sort of materials would be the twenty-first century materials

  4. Twenty First Century Education: Transformative Education for Sustainability and Responsible Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many ministries of education focus on twenty-first century education but unless they are looking at this topic through a sustainability lens, they will be missing some of its most important elements. The usual emphasis on developing skills for employability in the current global economy begs the question whether the global economy is itself…

  5. The conundrum of religious schools in twenty-first-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Merry examines in detail the continued - and curious - popularity of religious schools in an otherwise ‘secular’ twenty-first century Europe. To do this he considers a number of motivations underwriting the decision to place one's child in a religious school and delineates what are

  6. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  7. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  8. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  9. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  10. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  11. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Chris

    2012-01-01

    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

  12. An analysis of players\\' performances in the first cricket Twenty20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show how batting and bowling performance measures for one-day internationals can be adapted for use in Twenty20 matches, specifically in the case of a very small number of matches played. These measures are then used to give rankings of the batsmen and bowlers who performed best in ...

  13. Affective and cognitive determinants of intention to consume twenty foods that contribute to fat intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Burema, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework to study beliefs and attitudes towards twenty foods that contribute to fat intake in a Netherlands smaple population. Subjects between 18 and 75 years of age (n = 419, response rate 23€filled out a self-administered

  14. The clinical application and nursing experience of adjustable shunt valve in treatment for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Li-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To introduce the application of adjustable shunt valve in treatment for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods Twenty-four patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus implanted adjustable shunt valve underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery and nursing care. Results After operation, cerebrospinal pressure was regulated for 0-6 (1.88 ± 1.52 times. Clinical symptoms were improved, especially in gait disturbance. Conclusion Treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus with adjustable shunt valve can alleviate symptoms of hydrocephalus. It is especially suitable for patients with short course and secondary normal hydrocephalus patients.

  15. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  16. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  18. Presence of muscle dysmorphia symptomology among male weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Schlundt, David; Langenbucher, James; Chung, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    Limited research exists on muscle dysmorphia (MD) in men and in nonclinical populations. The current study evaluated types of body image disturbance among 237 male weightlifters. Latent class analysis of 8 measures of body image disturbance revealed 5 independent types of respondents: Dysmorphic, Muscle Concerned, Fat Concerned, Normal Behavioral, and Normal. One-way analysis of variance of independent measures of body image disturbance and associated psychopathology confirmed significant differences between groups. The Dysmorphic group reported a pattern of body image disturbance consistent with MD by displaying a high overall level of body image disturbance, symptoms of associated psychopathology, steroid use, and appearance-controlling behavior. Findings generally supported classifying MD as a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder and an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Implications for studying body image disturbance in male weightlifters, and further evaluation of the MD diagnostic criteria are discussed.

  19. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  20. 46,XX male disorder of sexual development:a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    The main factor influencing sex determination of an embryo is the sex-determining region Y (SRY), a master regulatory gene located on the Y chromosome. The presence of SRY causes the bipotential gonad to differentiate into a testis. However, some individuals carry a Y chromosome but are phenotypically female (46,XY females) or have a female karyotype but are phenotypically male (46,XX males). 46, XX male is rare (1:20 000 in newborn males), and SRY positivity is responsible for this condition in approximately 90% of these subjects. External genitalia of 46,XX SRY-positive males appear as normal male external genitalia, and such cases are diagnosed when they present with small testes and/or infertility after puberty. Herein, we report an adolescent who presented with low testicular volume and who was diagnosed as a 46,XX male. SRY positivity was demonstrated in the patient by fluorescence in situ hybridization method.

  1. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John I

    2006-01-01

    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being.

  2. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  3. Male contraception: history and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. XX males SRY negative: a confirmed cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Giorda, Roberto; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Della Mina, Erika; Forlino, Antonella; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2011-10-01

    SOX9 is a widely expressed transcription factor playing several relevant functions during development and essential for testes differentiation. It is considered to be the direct target gene of the protein encoded by SRY and its overexpression in an XX murine gonad can lead to male development in the absence of Sry. Recently, a family was reported with a 178 kb duplication in the gene desert region ending about 500 kb upstream of SOX9 in which 46,XY duplicated persons were completely normal and fertile whereas the 46,XX ones were males who came to clinical attention because of infertility. We report a family with two azoospermic brothers, both 46,XX, SRY negative, having a 96 kb triplication 500 kb upstream of SOX9. Both subjects have been analyzed trough oligonucleotide array-CGH and the triplication was confirmed and characterised through qPCR, defining the minimal region of amplification upstream of SOX9 associated with 46,XX infertile males, SRY negative. Our results confirm that even in absence of SRY, complete male differentiation may occur, possibly driven by overexpression of SOX9 in the gonadal ridge, as a consequence of the amplification of a gene desert region. We hypothesize that this region contains gonadal specific long-range regulation elements whose alteration may impair the normal sex development. Our data show that normal XX males, with alteration in copy number or, possibly, in the critical sequence upstream to SOX9 are a new category of infertility inherited in a dominant way with expression limited to the XX background.

  5. Pituitary gonodal axis in fertile and infertile human males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Mahmoud, K.Z.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays of serum PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol were performed in normal fertile subjects and infertile patients. The findings in the fertile group suggest that prolactin in human males has a role in steroidogenesis. Oligospermic and azospermic patients revealed hormonal patterns which were significantly higher than in the fertile group. Hyperprolactinemia was found in most cases of both infertile groups indicating that PRL has a significant role. (author)

  6. The Cholesterol Lowering Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali Root Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasak G Faisal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty-six mature male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. A group of 18 rats were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, after which their lipid profile was compared to the control group, who were kept on a normal diet. The rats were then further divided into three groups, the Cf group that continued to feed on a high fat and cholesterol diet only, and group A and group B who continued on a high fat diet with the addition of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4 week period, the rat's lipid profiles were analysed again. Results: Group A and B showed significant total cholesterol reduction when compared to the Cf group, 140 ± 7.23, 139.63 ± 7.95, 192.14 ± 8.96 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.001. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio in group A was 5 however there was a sharp increase in group B to a high-risk level of 9.2 indicating a significant drop in HDL levels. The LDL level increased significantly in both group A and B compared to the Cf group. Conclusions: Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract is effective in lowering total cholesterol, however the dose needs to be adjusted to prevent an excessive decrease in HDL levels.

  7. Hypotensive effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Amelinda, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    For many years, Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb are used empirically in Indonesian traditional medicine to treat hypertension. This study was conducted to investigate the hypotensive effect of Averrhoa carambola L leaves, Mimusops elengi Linn leaves, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb extract (Jamu Antiatherosclerosis) in hypertensive induced rats. The effect of aqueous extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis on diastolic and systolic blood pressure was determined in sodium chloride induced rats. Twenty-four male rats weighted 160-200 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 4 rats. The groups are consisting of normal control (without treatment), positive control (induced and given captopril 1.35 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), negative control (induced and standard feed), dosage controls (induced and given the extract of jamu antiatherosclerosis) each group with 3 different doses. The composition is dose I (13.2 mg / 200 g body weight of rats), dose II (26.4 mg / 200 g body weight of rats ml) and dose III (52.8 mg / 200 g body weight of rats). Blood pressure were measured via non-invasive blood pressure. The blood pressure was decreased in all dose. However, dose III has the highest blood pressure reducing effect that is 29.42 mmHg or 25.14% for diastolic blood pressure and 34.58 mmHg or 22.03% for systolic blood pressure. This performance equals to 91.15% and 93.56% of captopril activity in decreasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The aqueous extract has blood pressure lowering property that can be used as antihypertension herbal medicine.

  8. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; El-Kady, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  9. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  10. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  11. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  12. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  13. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  14. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus (inap CMS) with Carpelloid Stamens via Protoplast Fusion with Chinese Woad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Aifan; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-01-01

    A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments. The pistils of inap CMS displayed normal morphology and good seed-set after pollinated by B. napus . Histological sections showed that the developmental alteration of the stamens initiated at the stage of stamen primordium differentiation. AFLP analysis of the nuclear genomic composition with 23 pairs of selective primers detected no woad DNA bands in inap CMS. Twenty out of 25 mitochondrial genes originated from I. indigotica , except for cox2-2 which was the recombinant between cox2 from woad and cox2-2 from rapeseed. The novel cox2-2 was transcribed in flower buds of inap CMS weakly and comparatively with the fertile B. napus addition line Me harboring one particular woad chromosome. The restorers of other autoplasmic and alloplasmic CMS systems in rapeseed failed to restore the fertility of inap CMS and the screening of B. napus wide resources found no fertility restoration variety, showing its distinct origin and the related mechanism of sterility. The reasons for the mitochondrial rearrangements and the breeding of the restorer for the novel CMS system were discussed.

  16. Blood pressure levels in male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima......-media thickness (CIMT), and fasting blood samples were evaluated. The clinical study was combined with a genetic-epidemiological study to replicate the association between blood pressure and CD300LG Arg82Cys in 2,637 men and 3,249 women. RESULTS: CT-carriers had a higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure...

  17. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence.

  18. Age-related changes in brain perfusion of normal subjects detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Karger, H.; Chisin, R.; Bonne, O.; Gorfine, M.; Lerer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous functional imaging data generally show impairment in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age. Conflicting data, however, concerning age-related changes in regional CBF (rCBF) have been reported. We examined the relative rCBF in a sample of healthy subjects of various ages, to define and localize any age-related CBF reduction. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (17 male, 10 female; mean age 49 ± 15, range 26-71, median 47 years) were studied by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. The younger age group consisted of subjects below, the older group above 47 years of age, respectively. Analysis was performed by applying three preformed templates, each containing delineated regions of interest (ROIs), to three transaxial brain slices at approximately 4, 6, and 7 cm above the orbitomeatal line (OML). The average number of counts for each ROI was normalized to mean uptake of the cerebellum and of the whole brain slice. Globally, 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake ratio normalized to cerebellum was significantly decreased in older subjects, affecting both hemispheres. A slight left-to-right asymmetry was observed in HMPAO uptake of the whole study group. It did not, however, change with age. Regionally, both cortical and subcortical structures of older subjects were involved: uptake ratio to cerebellum was significantly lower (after correction for multiple testing) in the left basal ganglia and in the left superior temporal, right frontal and bilateral occipital cortices at 4 cm above the OML. At 6 cm above the OML, reduced uptake ratios were identified in the left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. At 7 cm, reduced uptake was detected in the right frontal and left occipital cortices. Most of these differences were reduced when uptake was normalized to whole slice, whereas an increase in uptake ratios was observed in the cingulate cortex of the elderly. An inverse correlation between age and HMPAO uptake ratios normalized to cerebellum was observed in a number of brain regions. These

  19. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  20. 'Being a Chameleon': labour processes of male nurses performing bodywork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Murray J

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study examining the labour processes of male nurses in the conduct of bodywork, and is part of a broader study of social practices that configure masculinity through the lives of male nurses. Bodywork is defined as the direct work on others' bodies, and involves interactions of bodies and the control of emotions. As the body is an arena in which social practice occurs then bodywork is a form of social engagement. Bodywork is inextricably intertwined with gender where bodywork is socially structured and culturally accepted as women's work. Life history method was used in this study. Twenty-one life stories from male registered nurses were gathered in 2003-2004 using semi-structured interviews. Each life story underwent structural analysis, using a four-dimension structural model of gender relations. The ability of male nurses to do bodywork and provide care is dependent on the way they 'do' gender, that is, they have to be perceived to be performing the masculine identity that best represents the individual patient's ideology of what it is to be a man, which is set in a particular location and time. In addition, they have to counter the representations of the male nurse, whether it is homosexual, paedophile or heterosexual deviant. Respondents develop labour processes and workplace strategies to overcome the effects of gender stereotypes that may hinder their nursing work. Nursing procedures, policies and texts should reflect the complexity and multiplicity in the conduct of bodywork in nursing and refrain from representing essentialist ways (reinforcing nursing as feminine) of doing nursing.