WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty normal male

  1. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  2. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  3. [Metabolic differences between males and females and between normal and obese subjects during total fast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschke, H; Girard, J; Stahl, M

    1976-06-01

    In 24 normal and 24 obese subjects of both sexes circulating substrates (blood sugar, free fatty acids, ketone bodies) and hormones (insulin, growth hormone, pancreatic glucagon) were determined during 6 days of total fast. In normals the blood sugar fell to lower levels than in the obese. Plasma free fatty acids and ketone concentrations rose faster in normal than in obese subjects, and faster in females than in males. Plasma insulin concentrations declined to a greater extent in obese than in normal subjects. In all groups studied a significant increase of the pancreatic glucagon level within 1-3 days of fasting was observed, however, its rise occurred faster in normal females than in males. Growth hormone (GH) rose significantly in normal males but not in obese males. Following high overnight fasting values in some normal females showed no significant increase in GH levels but significantly higher GH values than obese females after 1-6 days of fasting. After summarizing starvation-induced metabolic changes common to all study groups the respective differences found between males and females and between normal and obese subjects are discussed.

  4. [Low stature in males with normal phenotype and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Orejas, E; Golmayo Gaztelu, L; Núñez Estevez, M; San Román Cos-Gayón, M A; Alonso Blanco, M; Barrio Castellanos, R

    2008-02-01

    There is wide variation in the clinical expression of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Ninety percent of prenatally diagnosed boys have normal male phenotype at birth, while those diagnosed postnatally show a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from Turner syndrome, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and male pseudohermaphroditism to apparent normality. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, endocrinologic and histologic findings in three boys with an apparently normal male phenotype and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism who were diagnosed postnatally because of their short stature. With the exception of one patient with Turner stigmata, no other abnormal features were found. No correlation between the proportion of 45,X/46,XY cell lines in blood, gonads and phenotype was found. Both prenatally and postnatally diagnosed boys with normal male phenotype must be followed-up because they can develop late-onset abnormalities, such as dysgenetic testes leading to infertility or neoplastic transformation, and short stature, which could be improved with growth hormone therapy.

  5. Soybean isoflavones alter parvalbumin in hippocampus of mid-aged normal female, ovariectomized female, and normal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Koo HWANG; Moo Ho WON; Yoon-bok LEE; Ki-yeon YOO; Tae-cheon KANG; Soon Sung LIM; Sang Moo KIM; Heon-soo SOHN; Woo-jung KIM; Hyun Kyung SHIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effect of soybean isoflavones on changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in normal female, ovariectomized (OVX) female and normal male rats. Methods: Ten-month-old rats were assigned to one of 9 groups (n=7 in each group) based on body weight using arandomized complete-block design. The groups were: control diet-treated females,OVX females, and males; 0.3 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males; and 1.2 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males. The PV immunostaining was conducted by using the standard avidin-biotin complex method. Results: PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the groups after isoflavone treatment were significantly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus, but not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the control diet OVX females were similar to those in the control diet, and were greater than those in the control diet normal females. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the isoflavone-treated groups decreased dose-dependently after isoflavone treatment. Conclusion: Long-term administration of isoflavones may induce a reduction of PV in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus. The reduction of PV in these regions suggests that the long-term administration of isoflavones may cause a change in calcium homeostasis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus.

  6. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  7. Strategy for reliable prenatal detection of normal male carriers of the fragile X syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); W.H. Deelen (Wouter); C.S. Verma (Chandra); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome identifying full mutations has been described. Here we report on a case of a prenatal test concerning a normal male carrier of the fragile X syndrome. Southern blot analysis of the fragile X gene resulted in the identification of a premutation in

  8. Normal Values of Metatarsal Parabola Arch in Male and Female Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Domínguez-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not any method to measure metatarsal protrusion in the whole metatarsal. The aim of this research is to know the normal metatarsal parabola in male and female feet. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between metatarsals I and II was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola and applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet, 72 female feet and 97 male feet. Authors measured all metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II. The results obtained show a female metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II of +1.27% for metatarsal I, -3.36% for metatarsal III, -8.34% for metatarsal IV, and -15.54% for metatarsal V. Data obtained for male metatarsal parabola were +0.5% for metatarsal I, -3.77 for metatarsal III, -9.57 for metatarsal IV, and -17.05 for metatarsal V. Differences between both metatarsal parabola were significant.

  9. Normal values of metatarsal parabola arch in male and female feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera-Martinez, Pedro V; Castillo-López, José Manuel; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    There is not any method to measure metatarsal protrusion in the whole metatarsal. The aim of this research is to know the normal metatarsal parabola in male and female feet. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between metatarsals I and II was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola and applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet, 72 female feet and 97 male feet. Authors measured all metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II. The results obtained show a female metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II of +1.27% for metatarsal I, -3.36% for metatarsal III, -8.34% for metatarsal IV, and -15.54% for metatarsal V. Data obtained for male metatarsal parabola were +0.5% for metatarsal I, -3.77 for metatarsal III, -9.57 for metatarsal IV, and -17.05 for metatarsal V. Differences between both metatarsal parabola were significant.

  10. Twenty-eight-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of nano-sized lanthanum oxide in male sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seo-Ho; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Kim, Yong-Soon; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-04-01

    Although the use of lanthanum has increased in field of high-tech industry worldwide, potential adverse effects to human health and to the environment are largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of nano-sized lanthanum oxide (La2 O3 ) following repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed nose-only to nano-sized La2 O3 for 28 days (5 days/week) at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.5, and 10 mg/m(3) . In the experimental period, we evaluated treatment-related changes including clinical signs, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology findings. We also analyzed lanthanum distribution in the major organs and in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues. Lanthanum level was highest in lung tissues and showed a dose-dependent relation. Alveolar proteinosis was observed in all treatment groups and was accompanied by an increase in lung weight; moreover, lung inflammation was observed in the 2.5 mg/m(3) and higher dose groups and was accompanied by an increase in white blood cells. In the BALF, total cell counts including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly in all treatment groups. Furthermore, these changes tended to deteriorate in the 10 mg/m(3) group at the end of the recovery period. In the present experimental conditions, we found that the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of nano-sized La2 O3 was 0.5 mg/m(3) in male rats, and the target organ was the lung. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1226-1240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  12. Male fertility and apoptosis in normal spermatogenesis are regulated by vacuolar-ATPase isoform a2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Agrawal, Varkha; Katara, Gajendra K; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Chaouat, Gerard; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2015-11-01

    The a2 isoform of vacuolar-ATPase (ATP6V0A2, referred to as a2V) is required for normal spermatogenesis and maturation of sperm. Treatment of male mice with anti-a2V disturbs the testicular cytokine/chemokine balance and leads to severe deficiencies of spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of a2V in male fertility and in the regulation of apoptotic pathways required for normal spermatogenesis in mice. To study the role of a2V single dose of anti-a2V monoclonal antibody or mouse IgG isotype (3μg/animal) was injected i.p. into males on alternate days for 10 days. The expression of sperm maturation-related molecules and pro-apoptotic molecules was measured by real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry in control and anti-a2V-treated testes. The caspase levels and their activity were measured by western blot and fluorometry. We found that the expression of the sperm maturation-related molecules SPAM1, ADAM1, and ADAM2 was significantly decreased in testes from anti-a2V-treated males. The expression of pro-apoptotic molecules (Bax, p53, and p21) and molecules involved in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP), which are crucial for normal spermatogenesis was significantly reduced in testes from anti-a2V-treated males compared with the control. The total ATP level was significantly lower in anti-a2V-treated testes. The data provide novel evidence showing that a2V can regulate the apoptotic pathways, an essential testicular feature, and is necessary for efficient spermatogenesis.

  13. Normal phenotype in conditional androgen receptor (AR) exon 3-floxed neomycin-negative male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Kesha; Clarke, Michele V; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Davey, Rachel A; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    Androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) acting via the androgen receptor (AR) are required for male sexual differentiation, and also regulate the development of many other tissues including muscle, fat and bone. We previously generated an AR(lox) mouse line with exon 3 of the AR gene targeted by loxP sites. The deletion of exon 3 is in-frame, so only the DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR are deleted, but non-DNA binding-dependent actions are retained. This line also contained an antibiotic resistance selection cassette, neomycin (neo) in intron 3, which was also flanked by loxP sites. Hemizygous AR(lox) male mice demonstrated a phenotype of hyperandrogenization, with increased mass of androgen-dependent tissues. We hypothesized that this hyperandrogenization was likely to be due to the presence of the neo cassette. In this study, we have generated an AR(lox) neo-negative mouse line, using the EIIa-cre deleter mouse line to remove the neo cassette. Hemizygous AR(lox) neo-negative male mice have a normal phenotype, with normal body mass and normal mass of androgen-dependent tissues including the testis, seminal vesicles, kidney, spleen, heart and retroperitoneal fat. This neo-negative exon 3-targeted mouse line is the only floxed AR mouse line available to study the DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR in a tissue-specific manner, and is suitable for investigation in all tissues. This study demonstrates the importance of removing the selection cassette, which can potentially alter the phenotype of floxed mouse lines even in the absence of detectable effects on target gene expression.

  14. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  15. Glottal airflow and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female speakers in soft, normal, and loud voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Perkell, J S

    1988-08-01

    Measurements on the inverse filtered airflow waveform (the "glottal waveform") and of estimated average transglottal pressure and glottal airflow were made from noninvasive recordings of productions of syllable sequences in soft, normal, and loud voice for 25 male and 20 female speakers. Statistical analyses showed that with change from normal to loud voice, both males and females produced loud voice with increased pressure, accompanied by increased ac flow and increased maximum airflow declination rate. With change from normal voice, soft voice was produced with decreased pressure, ac flow and maximum airflow declination rate, and increased dc and average flow. Within the loudness conditions, there was no significant male-female difference in air pressure. Several glottal waveform parameters separated males and females in normal and loud voice. The data indicate higher ac flow and higher maximum airflow declination rate for males. In soft voice, the male and female glottal waveforms were more alike, and there was no significant difference in maximum airflow declination rate. The dc flow did not differ significantly between males and females. Possible relevance to biomechanical differences and differences in voice source characteristics between males and females and across loudness conditions is discussed.

  16. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMIBMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMIBMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (pBMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  17. A survey of effects of gaseous and aerosol pollutants on pulmonary function of normal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, R W; Seal, E; House, D E; Green, J; Roger, L J; Raggio, L

    1983-01-01

    A total of 231 normal male human subjects were exposed for 4 hr to air, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide; to sulfuric acid, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate aerosols; or to mixtures of these gaseous and aerosol pollutants. Only one concentration of each pollutant was used. This study, therefore, represents a preliminary survey, intended to allow direct comparison of studies to plan future research. During exposure each subject had two 15-min exercise sessions on a treadmill at 4 mph and 10% grade. Environmental conditions were mildly stressful, i.e., temperature = 30 degrees C and relative humidity = 60%. A battery of 19 measurements of pulmonary function was performed just prior to exposure (air control); 2 hr into the exposure, following the first exercise session; 4 hr into the exposure, following the second exercise session; and 24 hr after exposure. Significant differences were noted in specific airway resistance (SRAW), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) and in related measurements in those experimental groups exposed to ozone or to ozone plus aerosols. None of the aerosols alone, nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide alone, or mixtures of nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide with aerosols produced significant effects. A distribution analysis of subject responsivity to ozone gave a normal distribution among subjects not exposed to ozone, and a distribution shifted to the right and skewed to the right among those exposed to ozone alone or in mixture, with no evidence of bimodal distribution of ozone sensitivity.

  18. The acute effects of twenty-four hours of sleep loss on the performance of national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumert, Peter A; Crum, Aaron J; Ernsting, Mark; Volek, Jeff S; Hollander, Daniel B; Haff, Erin E; Haff, G Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Currently, the degree to which sleep loss influences weightlifting performance is unknown. This study compared the effects of 24 hours of sleep loss on weightlifting performance and subjective ratings of psychological states pre-exercise and postexercise in national-caliber male collegiate weightlifters. Nine males performed a maximal weightlifting protocol following 24 hours of sleep loss and a night of normal sleep. The subjects participated in a randomized, counterbalanced design with each sleep condition separated by 7 days. Testosterone and cortisol levels were quantified prior to, immediately after, and 1 hour after the resistance training session. Additionally, profile of mood states and subjective sleepiness were evaluated at the same time points. The resistance training protocol consisted of several sets of snatches, clean and jerks, and front squats. Performance was evaluated as individual exercise volume load, training intensity and overall workout volume load, and training intensity. During each training session the maximum weight lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and front squat were noted. No significant differences were found for any of the performance variables. A significant decrease following the sleep condition was noted for cortisol concentration immediately after and 1 hour postexercise. Vigor, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, and sleepiness were all significantly altered by sleep loss. These data suggest that 24 hours of sleep loss has no adverse effects on weightlifting performance. If an athlete is in an acute period of sleep loss, as noticed by negative mood disturbances, it may be more beneficial to focus on the psychological (motivation) rather than the physiological aspect of the sport.

  19. Biomechanical study of plantar pressures during walking in male soccer players with increased vs. normal hip alpha angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Marco; Abraham, Christoph; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is accompanied by increased hip alpha angles, in particular in athletes with high impact sports. The aim of our study was to investigate the dynamic function of the foot during walking in male soccer players with increased versus normal alpha angles. Plantar pressures of 20 injury-free male soccer players were recorded during barefoot walking at 1.6 m/s. Ten subjects had bilaterally increased (>55°) (IA) and ten subjects normal (pressure-time-integrals (-29%; prelative loads (prelative loads are increased under the lateral midfoot (ppressure which indicates a compensatory mechanism of the foot during walking.

  20. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sowyan, Noorah S

    2009-01-15

    The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn't show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) obesity and also protect the liver

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with postnatal confirmation in a phenotypically normal male infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L Y; Kim, H J; Hausknecht, R; Hirschhorn, K

    1976-10-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome mosaicism has always been a diagnostic dilemma. In 21 reported cases of chromosomal mosaicism in cultured amniotic fluid cells, only two cases had cytogenetic confirmation of the mosaicism. All 21 pregnancies resulted in either phenotypically normal liveborns or grossly normal abortuses. We report a case of XO/XY mosaicism detected prenatally and confirmed postnatally in a grossly normal male infant. The indication for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was advanced maternal age (38 years). A diagnosis of XO/XY mosaicism was made from two separate culture flasks of amniotic fluid cells, with 45,X cells predominating (86.4%). The Y chromosome was of normal size but carried no fluorescent band. The parents were counseled and were advised that the phenotype of XO/XY mosaicism can range from relative normality to sexual maldevelopment. They decided to continue this pregnancy. The infant was born at term and was a grossly normal male with normal penis and descended, normal-sized testes. Leukocyte culture from the cord blood and a skin fibroblast culture confirmed the mosaicism of XO/XY. The father's Y chromosome was of identical size and carried a small fluorescent band. It appears that an altered Y chromosome may be predisposed to anaphase lag leading to mosaicism.

  2. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high

  3. Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and PRs were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In some tissues, ER alpha expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone-mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER alpha and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract.

  4. Dental Arch Form Analysis in Gujarati Males and Females having Normal Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Jagdishbhai Patel

    2012-01-01

    Results: As moving from anterior to posterior, both the arches diverge proportionally, except in second molar area where slight convergence toward midline was noted. Females had proportionally narrower arch dimensions than those for males. Five arch forms were determined according to relative deviations of various ratio combinations, and all subjects were classified for mandibular arch form by nonhierarchical stepwise method.

  5. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Samereh, E-mail: samere.g@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazirandeh, Ali, E-mail: paziran@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin, E-mail: behnamjameie@tums.ac.ir [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin, E-mail: khojasteh_n@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box 19395-1943, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  6. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingze Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN, proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters.

  7. Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with loneliness but not depression in cognitively normal elderly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Yang, Albert C; Hwang, Jen-Ping; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay; Yeh, Heng-Liang; Liu, Mu-En; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2012-07-11

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is involved in folate and homocysteine metabolism, and has been associated with geriatric disorders, including dementia and late-life depression. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the presence of depression and loneliness in cognitively normal male subjects. A total of 323 cognitively normal male subjects were included in this study (mean age=80.6; SD=5.3). Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) and loneliness by UCLA loneliness scales. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the between MTHFR genotype difference in depression and loneliness. Multiple regression was used to test the effect of MTHFR polymorphism on the loneliness, controlling for age, education, cognitive function, and depression. ANOVA showed a significant between-genotype difference in loneliness scores (P=0.015), and post hoc comparisons showed that subjects with C/C genotype had significantly higher loneliness ratings, compared to those with C/T or T/T genotype. Regression analysis indicated that the effect of MTHFR polymorphism on loneliness was independent of age, education, cognitive function, and depression. Our findings suggest that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be linked more to loneliness than depression in the cognitively normal elderly males, and may be implicated in the pathophysiology of late-life depression in relation to MTHFR genes.

  8. Chromosomal translocation in a mongoloid male child and his normal mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Beçak

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a translocation 21/13-15 is related in 46 chromosomes, karyotypes of a mongoloid male child (Down's syndrome. The abnormal chromosome was transmitted by the mother of the patient. The possible deficiency of translocated chromosome 21 and the possible origin of the anomaly in the family was discussed and the presence of a markedly large Y chromosome in the karyotypes of the patient as in those of his father was also noted.

  9. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  10. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  11. The central masturbation fantasy in heterosexual males across the life cycle: masturbation fantasies across the normality-pathology spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2012-10-01

    Moses Laufer described the central masturbation fantasy as an essentially adolescent phenomenon that leads to the final sexual organization. In this paper the central masturbation fantasy, formulated during the preoedipal and oedipal years, consolidated in adolescence, and in a process of continuous evolution across the life cycle, is considered an essential concept for understanding sexuality in heterosexual males. Sex and aggression, as posited in Freud's dual theory of the drives, are core components of all masturbation fantasies, across the diagnostic spectrum, from the most normal/neurotic to the most criminally bizarre. Clinical examples illustrate both points. The tendency among clinicians, particularly clinical associates, to avoid analyzing all aspects of masturbation is discussed.

  12. Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassaing Augustin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500 is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement. Methods We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39 affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy. Results A total of 12 patients (54.5% with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32% experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.

  13. Four-month test-retest reliability of the MMPI-2 with normal male clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, S H; Kurtz, J E; Houts, D C

    1996-10-01

    This investigation examined the test-retest coefficients and absolute score changes with the Basic, Supplementary, and Content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Participants were 111 active male clergy who were not receiving mental health services at the time of their participation and who completed the MMPI-2 on two occasions separated by 4 months. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance for the three groups of scales revealed nonsignificant changes in mean T scores. In general, the test-retest coefficients obtained were similar to those reported in the MMPI-2 manual by Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, and Kaemmer (1989) and by Spiro, Butcher, Levenson, Aldwin, and Bosse (1993). Increases or decreases of 3 to 6 T-score points were observed for the majority of the scales, and instances in which T-score changes exceeded 10 points were observed on every scale. In sum, the test-retest reliability of the majority of MMPI-2 scales, as represented in this nonclinical sample, appears acceptable and compares favorably with the original MMPI.

  14. Four-month enriched environment prevents myelinated fiber loss in the white matter during normal aging of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.

  15. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  16. Ultrastructure and morphometry of the urethral glands in normal, castrated, and testosterone-treated castrated male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M B; Ren, H P; Kepple, L; Parr, E L; Russell, L D

    1993-07-01

    Recent studies of the urethral glands in the male mouse and rat have suggested that they are testosterone-dependent glands that may be potential sites for secretory immunity in the male genital tract. In the present study we describe the ultrastructural features of these glands in normal mice and provide quantitative data on the sizes of the acinar cells and their organelles in sham-, oil-, and testosterone-treated castrated mice. Acinar cells in urethral glands from normal mice contain numerous secretory granules, prominent Golgi complexes, elongated mitochondria, and an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) with large and dilated cisternae, all of which are features characteristic of secretory cells. In some acinar cells the cisternae of the RER were filled with closely packed, unbranched, straight, tubular structures that were oriented parallel to one another, that radiated from aggregates of dense material, or that were randomly arranged. In other acinar cells the cisternae of the RER showed a network of branching and anastomosing vesicular-like structures whose limiting membranes were occasionally seen in continuity with the membranes of the RER. Secretory acini showed large, unbranched tubules in the acinar lumen. When cut at right angles the large tubules exhibited a distinct fuzzy outer coat with fine projections radiating outwards. The ultrastructure of the acinar cells and the presence of tubules in the lumen suggests that they are engaged in secretion of a tubular protein. Morphometric analysis of acinar cells in the urethral glands showed that the mean volumes of nuclei, cytoplasm, secretory granules, vacuoles, and mitochondria were significantly reduced in castrated mice in comparison to either normal or testosterone-treated castrated mice. This confirms earlier observations that the urethral glands are targets of testosterone.

  17. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  18. Pedagogic culture and school manuals. The experience of the Normal School for male teachers in Campobasso (1872-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Miceli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution places itself within a renewed study cycle with the purpose to illustrate a new line of research aimed at investigating on the inner aspects of school life: the teaching function, the practices used for transferring a set of knowledge on school subjects, as well as educational and behavioral models. In particular, the focus lies on the analysis of pedagogy textbooks used in the Normal School for male of Campobasso. The choice of those books was influenced by factors such as the ongoing pedagogical/cultural changes, the conditions of the schoolbook market, the development of distribution channels and the evolution of the schoolbook-related policies in the 2nd half of XIX century. This kind of analysis allows a better understanding of the degree of establishment and diffusion of the renewal that School underwent from the end of the XIX century. How to reference this article Miceli, V. (2015. Cultura pedagogica e manualistica scolastica. L’esperienza della Scuola Normale maschile di Campobasso (1872-1898. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(1, pp. 231-252. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.001.012

  19. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  20. Left ventricular filling pressure in male patients with type 2 diabetes and normal versus low total testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Matias; Gysel, Michael; Farias, Javier; Ferrer, Mariano; Lombardero, Martin; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a common complication of diabetes characterized by an elevation in left ventricular filling pressures (LVF) that often develops in the absence of clinical symptoms. Diastolic dysfunction in the setting of low total testosterone (LTT) occurs through changes in the regulation of peripheral hemodynamics. LTT is highly prevalent among individuals with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to compare LVF in male diabetic patients with no structural heart disease and normal serum testosterone levels vs. those with LTT. Type 2 diabetic patients were assessed using tissue Doppler imaging to evaluate LVF and other conventional parameters of diastolic function. The E/e' ratio was used to estimate LVF through the ratio of peak passive trans-mitral left ventricular inflow velocity to the peak passive inflow velocity at the lateral mitral annulus. Patients were assigned to one of two groups based upon their total testosterone levels. Group A consisted of low ( 3.5 ng/mL) testosterone levels. A total of 148 male patients were included: group A--47 (32%) patients; group B--101 (68%) patients, respectively. Mean age was 58 ± 5.8 years and mean time of diabetes evolution was 7 ± 3.1 years. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding age, duration of diabetes evolution, hypertension, weight, heart rate, body mass index, and echocardiographic parameters. The E/e' ratio for group A was 8.05 ± 1.9 vs. 6.1 ± 1.7 for group B (p < 0.0001). The E/A ratio was 0.94 ± 0.10 vs. 1.19 ± 0.12 (p = 0.01), deceleration time 242 ± 7.4 ms vs. 205 ± 9 ms (p = 0.026) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure 27 ± ± 2.2 mm Hg vs. 22 ± 1.7 mm Hg (p = 0.11). Patients with type 2 diabetes and LTT have a higher E/e' ratio demonstrating a pre-clinical increase in LVF when compared to similar patients with normal testosterone levels. This finding is independent of time of diabetes evolution, hypertension and other echocardiographic parameters.

  1. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  2. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors with ORG 34116 does not normalize stress-induced symptoms in male tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Marja; De Kloet, E Ronald; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-12-20

    Glucocorticoid receptors play an important role in the regulation of the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The present study investigated the effect of the specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 (a substituted 11,21 bisarylsteroid compound) in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) chronic psychosocial stress model, an established animal model for depressive disorders. Animals were stressed for 10 days before treatment with ORG 34116 started (25 mg/kg p.o. for 28 days). Stress induced a decrease in body weight, which just failed significance, whereas ORG 34116 did not affect body weight in stress and control animals. ORG 34116 enhanced the stress-induced increase in the concentration of urinary-free cortisol, although no differences between the different experimental groups existed during the last week of treatment. In stressed animals, ORG 34116 did not affect marking behavior, but decreased locomotor activity. Post mortem analysis of 5-HT(1A) receptors revealed a decreased affinity of 3[H]-8-OH-DPAT (3[H]-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin) binding sites in the hippocampus of animals treated with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 did not normalize the depressive-like symptoms in the psychosocial stress model of male tree shrews. This finding, however, does not exclude that specific central, neuroendocrine and behavioral features are affected by the compound.

  3. Expression of rat Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (Mrp2) in male and female rats during normal and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-induced postnatal ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Guo, Grace L; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2002-09-16

    The normal maturation of biliary organic anion excretion in newborn rats can be enhanced by microsomal enzyme-inducing chemical treatment, yet the mechanism for this phenomenon is not known. Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (Mrp2) is a biliary efflux transporter that is inducible by select microsomal enzyme-inducing chemicals. Thus, the aims of this study were to compare the normal and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-induced postnatal ontogeny of Mrp2 in male and female rats. Mrp2 protein increased in an age-dependent manner in both sexes between 0 and 90 days of age. At birth, Mrp2 protein in both male and female rats was the same, approximately 70% of adult levels. Mrp2 protein in both sexes reached maximal expression levels that were higher than adult levels (male: days 25-40; female: day 45), then decreased to adult levels, at which age Mrp2 protein expression in male and female rats was the same. Second, male and female rats of various ages were treated with PCN (75 mg/kg, ip) or corn oil for 4 days, after which livers were removed and analyzed for Mrp2 protein and mRNA expression. PCN accelerated the expression of Mrp2 protein in male and female rats as early as 10 days of age, whereas, PCN did not affect male and female Mrp2 mRNA ontogeny. These data suggest that PCN increased Mrp2 protein by a sex-independent posttranscriptional mechanism.

  4. Characterization of a prenatally assessed de novo supernumerary minute ring chromosome 20 in a phenotypically normal male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garas Antonios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneous group of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs presents serious counseling problems, especially if they are present de novo and diagnosed prenatally. The incidence has been estimated at 1 in 1000 prenatal samples. We present a case of mosaic sSMC diagnosed prenatally after amniocentesis. The sSMC was characterized by various molecular cytogenetic techniques and determined to be a r(20 chromosome. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a boy with minor phenotypic variants was born after 39 weeks of pregnancy. The case is compared with four other cases of prenatally detected r(20 mosaicism. Results Here we describe a 3 months old male child with normal pre- and postnatal development and with a de novo ring supernumerary marker chromosome in amniocytes cultures. Using new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques, three distinguishable sSMCs (cryptic mosaicism, all derived from chromosome 20, were observed, including ring and minute chromosomes. This heterogeneity was impossible to detect by the conventional G-banding technique or conventional FISH technique that were used before the application of new FISH techniques (subcentromere-specific multicolor-FISH [subcenM-FISH] and a probe, specific for the 20p12.2 band. The sSMC present in 25% of the cells was present as r(20(::p12.2~12.3->q11.1::5/r(20;20(::p12.1->q11.1::q11.1 >p12.1::2/min(20;20(:p12.1->q11.1::q11.1->p12.1:1. The final karyotype was 47,XY,+r(20[25%]/46,XY[75%]. Conclusion We emphasize the importance of application of molecular cytogenetics in a prenatally diagnostic laboratory and description of more cases to enable a better genetic counseling and risk evaluation.

  5. A gene necessary for normal male courtship, yellow, acts downstream of fruitless in the Drosophila melanogaster larval brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Mark David; Radovic, Anna; Wittkopp, Patricia J; Long, Anthony D

    2003-04-01

    The fruitless (fru) gene is a member of the Drosophila melanogaster somatic sex determination genetic pathway. Although it has been hypothesized that the primary function of fru is to regulate a genetic hierarchy specifying development of adult male courtship behavior, genes acting downstream of fru have not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate that the yellow (y) gene is genetically downstream of fru in the 3(rd)-instar larval brain. Yellow protein is present at elevated levels in neuroblasts, which also show expression of male-specific FRU proteins, compared to control neuroblasts without FRU. A location for y downstream of fru in a genetic pathway was experimentally demonstrated by analysis of fru mutants lacking transcription of zinc-finger DNA binding domains, and of animals with temporal, spatial, or sexual mis-expression of male-specific FRU. A subset of fru and y mutants is known to reduce levels of a specific behavioral component of the male courtship ritual, wing extension, and FRU and Yellow were detected in the general region of the brain whose maleness is necessary for development of that behavior. We therefore hypothesized that ectopic expression of Yellow in the 3(rd)-instar brain, in a y null background, would rescue low levels of wing extension and male competitive mating success, and this was found to be the case. Overall, these data suggest that y is a downstream member of the fru branch of the D. melanogaster sex determination hierarchy, where it plays a currently unknown role in the development of adult male wing extension during courtship.

  6. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  7. Effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine on neuroendocrine and behavioral responses in male schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-10-16

    Functional alterations in the central serotonergic system, including presynaptic and postsynaptic function, have been reported in schizophrenia. Recently, there have been conflicting reports that the increase in plasma cortisol or prolactin concentrations induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was significantly blunted in schizophrenic patients compared with normal volunteers. Studies of the behavioral effects of mCPP, a serotonin (5-HT) receptor partial agonist with high affinity for 5-HT1C binding sites, have also yielded conflicting results in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to examine plasma levels of prolactin and cortisol, body temperature, and behavioral responses to mCPP and placebo in a single-blind study in 25 schizophrenic and 15 normal men. No differences either between schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers or between paranoid and undifferentiated/residual subtypes of schizophrenia were found in mCPP-induced prolactin, cortisol, or temperature responses. Schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers reported significant increases in feeling calm and feeling strange of comparable magnitude following mCPP. No significant differences between normal volunteers and schizophrenic patients were found in post-mCPP behavioral ratings, such as anxiety, irritability, depression, restlessness, or arousal.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  9. Complex relationship between meiotic recombination frequency and autosomal synaptonemal complex length per cell in normal human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenzhen; Yang, Qingling; Ye, Nan; Wang, Liu; Li, Jianhua; Yu, Dexin; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-03-01

    Although the relationship between meiotic recombination frequency and synaptonemal complex (SC) length has been of interest for a long time, how recombination frequency is related to SC length has not been carefully explored. To address this question, we have measured the meiotic recombination frequency as represented by MLH1 foci in 889 pachytene spermatocytes and measured the length of 19,558 autosomal SCs from 10 human males. A complex relationship between the number of MLH1 foci and total autosomal SC length per cell was observed. A positive correlation with significant correlation coefficients between the two variables was found in eight of the ten donors examined, with three donors showing weak correlation, and five showing moderate correlation. Two donors who did not show any correlation between the two variables were identified for the first time. Moreover, most cells with similar total autosomal SC length showed very different numbers of MLH1 foci both between individuals and even within an individual, and vice versa. Our data provide the first evidence for a complex relationship between the recombination frequency and total length of autosomal SCs per cell in human males.

  10. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  11. Effect of the duration of fasting on myocardial fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images in normal males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, Masato; Yoshida, Katsuya; Niwayama, Hiroyuki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the duration of fasting on myocardial fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and distribution, 16 FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed in 7 normal volunteers under three different conditions: glucose loading, 6 h fasting and overnight fasting. In the glucose-loaded condition, all subjects had good image quality, and myocardial metabolic rates of glucose (MRGlc) were significantly higher than those in the other two conditions. In the 6 h and overnight fasting conditions, image qualities varied according to MRGlc. Although there were visually distinct regional differences with MRGlc ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 {mu}mol/min per g, these differences were not impressive by a quantitative analysis. The ranges of MRGlc in these two fasted conditions overlapped each other. There was a significant negative linear correlation between MRGlc and serum free fatty acid levels Thus, MRGlc and image quality in fasted normal subjects varied with the extent of the fed-to-starved transition under clinical fasting conditions (6 h to overnight), and this transition does not depend solely on the duration of fasting. These findings may explain the heterogeneity in FDG studies under fasting conditions. (author)

  12. The normal post-surgical anatomy of the male pelvis following radical prostatectomy as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Steven D.; Sohaib, S.A. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Imaging, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Thompson, Alan [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Surgery, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy have been documented in the radiology literature; however little has been written on the range of normal post-operative appearances. Common routes of surgical access for radical prostatectomy include retropubic and transperineal, although newer minimally invasive methods are gaining increasing acceptance. Specifically the range of appearances of the anastomotic site, the prostatic bed, the position of the bladder base, periurethral tissue, levator sling, rectum and residual seminal vesicles (if present) are demonstrated. A non-enhancing low signal nodule is frequently seen at the vesicourethral anastomosis or within the seminal vesicle remnant and usually represents fibrosis. Appearances following different surgical accesses do not differ tremendously, although the retropubic fat pad is reduced or absent following a retropubic approach. Anterior rectal-wall scarring may be present following a transperineal approach. Other post-surgical findings that may mimic disease include a lymphocoele and injected bladder-neck bulking agent. Many patients referred for MRI following radical prostatectomy will have a pathological study showing disease recurrence, although in non-pathological studies the radiological features can differ significantly. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the spectrum of normal post-surgical appearances so not to confuse these with locally recurrent disease. (orig.)

  13. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD).Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD.Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography.Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice (P loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus general obesity with normal WC in adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Iftikhar, Raheel; Khan, Amjad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index > 25kg/m2 and waist circumference > 90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure > 140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2%) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n = 191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index.

  15. Left ventricular pressure-volume relationships during normal growth and development in the adult rat--studies in 8- and 50-week-old male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M P; de Vries, W B; van der Leij, F R; van Oosterhout, M F M; Baan, J; van der Wall, E E; van Bel, F; Steendijk, P

    2005-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume relations provide relatively load-independent indexes of systolic and diastolic LV function, but few data are available on pressure-volume relations during growth and development in the normal adult heart. Furthermore, to quantify intrinsic ventricular function the indexes should be normalized for heart weight. However, in many studies the indexes are reported in absolute terms, or body weight-correction is used as a surrogate for heart weight-correction. We determined pressure-volume relations in young (8-week-old, n = 13) and middle-aged (50-week-old, n = 19) male Wistar rats in relation to their heart and body weights. The animals were anaesthetized and a 2F pressure-conductance catheter was introduced into the LV to measure pressure-volume relations. Heart and body weights were significantly higher in the 50-week-old rats, whereas the heart-to-body weight ratio was significantly lower (2.74 +/- 0.32 vs. 4.41 +/- 0.37 mg g(-1), P pressure-volume relation (E(ES)), the dP/dt(MAX) vs. end-diastolic volume relation (S-dP), and the preload recruitable stroke work relation (PRSW), normalized for heart weight, was slightly decreased in the 50-week-old rats (S-dP: -6%, P pressure-volume indexes showed improved systolic function and significantly depressed diastolic function. Intrinsic systolic function slightly decreases from the juvenile to the middle-aged period in normal male Wistar rats. Furthermore, correction of pressure-volume indexes for body weight is not an adequate surrogate for heart weight-correction in these animals.

  16. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha- reductase 2 deficiency Pseudohermafroditas masculinos por deficiência de 5alfa-redutase 2 apresentam densidade óssea normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria Frade Costa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.O tecido ósseo é um tecido andrógeno-dependente porém não está claro se a ação androgênica depende da testosterona ou da diidrotestosterona. Os pacientes portadores de deficiência de 5alfa-redutase tipo 2, constituem um modelo natural para avaliar o efeito isolado da testosterona sobre a massa óssea. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a densidade mineral óssea em quatro pacientes adultos portadores de pseudohermafroditismo masculino por deficiência da 5alfa-redutase tipo 2. RESULTADOS: Três pacientes apresentaram densidade mineral óssea normal na coluna lombar e fêmur e o quarto paciente apresentou osteopenia leve em coluna lombar. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com deficiência de diidrotestosterona apresentam densidade mineral óssea normal sugerindo que a diidrotestosterona não é o andrógeno que age sobre o osso.

  17. Intrinsic androgen-dependent gene expression patterns revealed by comparison of genital fibroblasts from normal males and individuals with complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweikert Hans-Udo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the molecular programs of normal and abnormal genital development, clear-cut definition of androgen-dependent gene expression patterns, without the influence of genotype (46, XX vs. 46, XY, is warranted. Previously, we have identified global gene expression profiles in genital-derived fibroblasts that differ between 46, XY males and 46, XY females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS due to inactivating mutations of the androgen receptor (AR. While these differences could be due to cell autonomous changes in gene expression induced by androgen programming, recent work suggests they could also be influenced by the location from which the fibroblasts were harvested (topology. To minimize the influence of topology, we compared gene expression patterns of fibroblasts derived from identical urogenital anlagen: the scrotum in normally virilized 46, XY males and the labia majora from completely feminized 46, XY individuals with CAIS. Results 612 transcripts representing 440 unique genes differed significantly in expression levels between scrotum and CAIS labia majora, suggesting the effects of androgen programming. While some genes coincided with those we had identified previously (TBX3, IGFBP5, EGFR, CSPG2, a significant number did not, implying that topology had influenced gene expression in our previous experiments. Supervised clustering of gene expression data derived from a large set of fibroblast cultures from individuals with partial AIS revealed that the new, topology controlled data set better classified the specimens. Conclusion Inactivating mutations of the AR, in themselves, appear to induce lasting changes in gene expression in cultured fibroblasts, independent of topology and genotype. Genes identified are likely to be relevant candidates to decipher androgen-dependent normal and abnormal genital development.

  18. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  19. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  20. A New Look at Genetic and Environmental Architecture on Lipids Using Non-Normal Structural Equation Modeling in Male Twins: The NHLBI Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Ozaki, Koken; Reed, Terry; Krasnow, Ruth E; Dai, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The percentage of variation explained for other lipids was 0% (A), 30% (D), 34% (C) and 37% (E) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); 30, 0, 31 and 39% for total cholesterol; and 0, 31, 12 and 57% for triglycerides. It was concluded that additive and dominant genetic factors simultaneously affected HDL-C concentrations but not other lipids. Common and unique environmental factors influenced concentrations of all lipids.

  1. Chapter Twenty Seven

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Adopting feminist theory as the implied theoretical framework which need not be ... usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most ... As a literary archetype, the image of the prostitute adopted by Ekwensi goes far ..... continuum of sexual exploitation and violence which begins with sexual assault or.

  2. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  3. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  4. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  5. Attitudes Among Male and Female University Professors, and other Categories of University Employees, to Working up to and Beyond Normal retirement age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kadefors

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in order to identify variables predicting the willingness of male and female university professors, and other employment categories, to work up to and beyond normal retirement age (65 years. Employees were asked by means of a questionnaire about their willingness to continue working to age 67, or to age 70, if they were given the chance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out (N = 3,019; 59.8% women and 40.2% men. The interest to continue working into old age was significantly higher in men than in women (p<0.01. Among independent variables, age, position, and work satisfaction predicted women’s as well as men’s interest to work to age 67 and 70, whereas among women perceived health predicted the willingness to work to age 67. Professors and lecturers were the categories showing the highest interest to work to age 70, compared to administrative and technical personnel; men showed significantly higher interest than women among lecturers and administrative personnel. The study emphasizes the effects of position and gender on willingness to continue working into old age, but identifies in addition also work satisfaction and age as significant predictors.

  6. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  7. Assessment of the reproductive toxicity of inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether in male mice with normal, low active and inactive ALDH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Ohtani, Katsumi; Suda, Megumi; Yanagiba, Yukie; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    No data are available regarding aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms related to the reproductive toxicity possibly caused by ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). In this study, two inhalation experiments were performed in Aldh2 knockout (KO), heterogeneous (HT) and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 male mice exposed to ETBE, and the data about general toxicity, testicular histopathology, sperm head numbers, sperm motility and sperm DNA damage were collected. The results showed that the 13-week exposure to 0, 500, 1,750 and 5,000 ppm ETBE significantly decreased sperm motility and increased levels of sperm DNA strand breaks and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in both WT and KO mice, the effects were found in 1,750 and 5,000 ppm groups of WT mice, and all of the three exposed groups of KO mice compared to the corresponding control; furthermore, ETBE also caused decrease in the relative weights of testes and epididymides, the slight atrophy of seminiferous tubules of testis and reduction in sperm numbers of KO mice exposed to ≥500 ppm. In the experiment of exposure to lower concentrations of ETBE (0, 50, 200 and 500 ppm) for 9 weeks, the remarkable effects of ETBE on sperm head numbers, sperm motility and sperm DNA damage were further observed in KO and HT mice exposed to 200 ppm ETBE, but not in WT mice. Our findings suggested that only exposure to high concentrations of ETBE might result in reproductive toxicity in mice with normal active ALDH2, while low active and inactive ALDH2 enzyme significantly enhanced the ETBE-induced reproductive toxicity in mice, even exposed to low concentrations of ETBE, mainly due to the accumulation of acetaldehyde as a primary metabolite of ETBE.

  8. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  9. Simultaneous breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in a male patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and a normal serum alpha-fetoprotein level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Kao

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an excision of the left breast mass were performed. The breast mass was pathologically confirmed to be infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified and with predominantly cystic degeneration. The patient received chemotherapy with tamoxifen for the breast cancer, and transarterial chemoembolization for the HCC. Concomitant breast cancer and HCC in a male patient were rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we have discussed the possible relationship of these two disease entities.

  10. Prebiotic administration normalizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and cortical 5-HT2A receptor and IL1-β levels in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Helene M; Couch, Yvonne; Stratford, Michael; Bannerman, David M; Tzortzis, George; Anthony, Daniel C; Burnet, Philip W J

    2016-02-01

    The manipulation of the enteric microbiota with specific prebiotics and probiotics, has been shown to reduce the host's inflammatory response, alter brain chemistry, and modulate anxiety behaviour in both rodents and humans. However, the neuro-immune and behavioural effects of prebiotics on sickness behaviour have not been explored. Here, adult male CD1 mice were fed with a specific mix of non-digestible galacto-oligosaccharides (Bimuno®, BGOS) for 3 weeks, before receiving a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces sickness behaviour and anxiety. Locomotor and marble burying activities were assessed 4h after LPS injection, and after 24h, anxiety in the light-dark box was assessed. Cytokine expression, and key components of the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamatergic system were evaluated in the frontal cortex to determine the impact of BGOS administration at a molecular level. BGOS-fed mice were less anxious in the light-dark box compared to controls 24h after the LPS injection. Elevated cortical IL-1β concentrations in control mice 28 h after LPS were not observed in BGOS-fed animals. This significant BGOS×LPS interaction was also observed for 5HT2A receptors, but not for 5HT1A receptors, 5HT, 5HIAA, NMDA receptor subunits, or other cytokines. The intake of BGOS did not influence LPS-mediated reductions in marble burying behaviour, and its effect on locomotor activity was equivocal. Together, our data show that the prebiotic BGOS has an anxiolytic effect, which may be related to the modulation of cortical IL-1β and 5-HT2A receptor expression. Our data suggest a potential role for prebiotics in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders where anxiety and neuroinflammation are prominent clinical features.

  11. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  12. Genital skin fibroblasts (GF) of patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome express higher insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -3 and -5 than GF of normally virilized males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesing, D; Elmlinger, M W; Schuett, B S; Weidemann, W; Romalo, G; Schweikert, H U; Spindler, K-D; Ranke, M B

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgens, estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I on IGF-II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -3 and -5 and mRNA in genital fibroblasts (GF) from patients with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS) and normally virilized males (C). Proteins were measured by specific RIA and Western ligand blot, and specific mRNA levels by RT-PCR normalized by GAPDH levels. Secretion of IGF-II was lowered in CAIS (pGF and by testosterone + IGF-I in C GF. Secretion of IGFBP-2 was higher (pGF and IGFBP-2 mRNA levels were increased by E2 in C GF (pGF. CAIS GF also secreted more IGFBP-3 (pGF (pGF, the availability of IGF-II in CAIS GF is apparently decreased by two facts: by the decreased expression and by increased expression of IGFBP-2, -3 and -5. Furthermore, E2 and IGF-I modulate the expression of IGF-II and IGFBP in GF. This may play a role in the failure to develop male external genitals in CAIS patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  14. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  15. Chlorophytum borivilianum root extract maintains near normal blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile levels and prevents oxidative stress in the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes.

  16. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  17. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  18. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  19. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Czuba, Zenon P. [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Horak, Stanisław [I-st Chair and Clin. Dept. of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  20. Assessment of the Scientific Validity, Reliability and Normalization of APS, AAS and MAC-R Tests for Spotting Vulnerable Individuals Exposed to Drug Abuse Among the Male High School Students in the City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Minooee

    2003-08-01

    2. Does the AAS scale aimed at identifying students that suffer from drug abuse enjoy reliability? and indirect observations. The statistical grouping of the research includes the admitted students and eventually 483 female and 53 male students in seven provinces constituted the statistical samples of the study. It was concluded that the separation plan is facing numerous problems at the current juncture. The relevant procedures and the manner of inter-organizational cooperation are not sufficient and the admission process has to undergo changes. Welfare facilities at the centers are not sufficient and keeping the students at the dorms for a long time will bring about many problems for them. Hence, the existence of a strong observation system as well as social workers are among the requisites for keeping up the implementation of the plan. Moreover, attention must be paid to other substitute methods so that the student would be able to study in his normal living environment and in this way reduce possible risks.

  1. A soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellhammer, Juliane; Vogt, Dominic; Franz, Nadin; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-07-31

    Supplementation with a phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) has been observed to normalize stress induced dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Prolonged stress first induces a hyper-activation of the HPAA, which then can be followed by a state of hypo-activation.The aim of this study was to examine effects of an oral supplementation with 400 mg PS & 400 mg PA (PAS 400) per day on the endocrine stress response (ACTH, saliva and serum cortisol) to a psychosocial stressor. A special focus was to analyze subgroups of low versus high chronically stressed subjects as well as to test efficacy of 200 mg PS & 200 mg PA (PAS 200). 75 healthy male volunteers were enrolled for this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, stratified by chronic stress level, and randomly allocated to one of three study arms (placebo, PAS 200 and PAS 400 per day, respectively). Study supplementation was administered for 42 days for each participant. Chronic stress was measured with the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS), and subgroups of high and low chronic stress were differentiated by median values as provided by the TICS authors. A six week period of supplementation was followed by an acute stress test (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST). Chronic stress levels and other baseline measures did not differ between treatment groups (all p>0.05). Acute stress was successfully induced by the TSST and resulted in a hyper-responsivity of the HPAA in chronically stressed subjects. Compared to placebo, a supplementation with a daily dose of PAS 400 was effective in normalizing the ACTH (p=0.010), salivary (p=0.043) and serum cortisol responses (p=0.035) to the TSST in chronically high but not in low stressed subjects (all p>0.05). Compared to placebo, supplementation with PAS 200 did not result in any significant differences in these variables (all p>0.05). There were no significant effects of supplementation with PAS on heart rate

  2. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-03-02

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

  3. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  4. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  5. Twenty-Channel Voice Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    programs and vocabulary. 0 Telephone Company (TELCO) Switched Lines - provides access to VRS using telephones. * Bell 407C Data Sets - Converts the Touch...from the twenty 407C units. 0 DLII-E - Asynchronous interface to the 11/34 unibus for the VOTRAX unit. * 20 Channel ADPCM Decoder - a specially designed

  6. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  7. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for comput

  8. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  9. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.;

    2006-01-01

    similarities; especially that entrepreneurship within universities has to be welcomed and facilitated top-down, but organically occurs and develops bottom-up. Implementing entrepreneurship at universities is thus about stimulating a culture of organic intrapreneurship and we provide practical recommendations...... studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...... by the interviewees was surveyed. We showed that the practices have been implemented only to various degrees and rather unsystematically. There are important differences among the universities, to some extent depending on the level of ambition that each university has regarding each practice. There are also important...

  10. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  11. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  12. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  13. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  14. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  15. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, pknee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  16. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  17. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  18. Medial accumbens lesions attenuate testosterone-dependent aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1989-10-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with testosterone-filled Silastic tubes appropriate for maintaining a normal average serum testosterone concentration. They were then given lesions of the medial accumbens nucleus or sham lesions. Twenty-four hours postoperatively each male was housed with a female. Beginning 7 days following pairing and continuing once each week for 4 weeks, each lesioned or sham-lesioned male was observed for aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder. On the day following each test of aggression toward an unfamiliar male, each lesioned and sham-lesioned male was assessed for defensiveness toward an experimenter. Rats with medial accumbens lesions displayed significantly less aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder during each of the weekly tests than did sham-lesioned animals. The attenuation was most pronounced in animals with lesions damaging the posterior part of the medial accumbens nucleus (also designated as anterior portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) in the region of the crossover of the anterior commissure. Although medial accumbens lesions are known to make individually housed rats hyperdefensive toward an experimenter, lesion-induced hyperdefensiveness was not observed in the pair-housed animals in the present experiment. It is argued that the medial accumbens/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis area is an important region in the anterior forebrain for the modulation of hormone-dependent aggression.

  19. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Bzdusek, Karl [Philips Healthcare, Fitchburg, Wisconsin (United States); Brink, Carsten [Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Laboratory of Radiation Physics, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Eriksen, Jesper Grau [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Hansen, Olfred [Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Jensen, Helle Anita [Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Vanhauten, Hubertus A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Cao, Jeffrey Q.; McBrayne, Gail [London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); Patel, Salil H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Cannon, Donald M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin—Madison (United States); Hardcastle, Nicholas [Department of Physical Science, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Tomé, Wolfgang A. [Montefiore Medical Center and Institute of Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guckenberg, Matthias [University of Würzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Würzburg (Germany); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). Methods and Materials: CT images of 125 treated patients (32 head and neck [HN], 40 thorax, 23 liver, and 30 prostate) in 7 independent institutions were autosegmented using SPICE and computational times were recorded. The number of structures autocontoured were 25 for the HN, 7 for the thorax, 3 for the liver, and 6 for the male pelvis regions. Using the clinical contours as reference, autocontours of 22 selected structures were quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and Mean Slice-wise Hausdorff Distance (MSHD). All 40 autocontours were evaluated by a radiation oncologist from the institution that treated the patients. Results: The mean computational times to autosegment all the structures using SPICE were 3.1 to 11.1 minutes per patient. For the HN region, the mean DSC was >0.70 for all evaluated structures, and the MSHD ranged from 3.2 to 10.0 mm. For the thorax region, the mean DSC was 0.95 for the lungs and 0.90 for the heart, and the MSHD ranged from 2.8 to 12.8 mm. For the liver region, the mean DSC was >0.92 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 5.2 to 15.9 mm. For the male pelvis region, the mean DSC was >0.76 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 4.8 to 10.5 mm. Out of the 40 autocontoured structures reviews by experts, 25 were scored useful as autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 90% of the patients and 33 were scored useful autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 80% of the patients. Conclusions: Compared with manual contouring, autosegmentation using SPICE for the HN, thorax, liver, and male pelvis regions is efficient and shows significant promise for clinical utility.

  20. Gonadal function in males with autoimmune Addison's disease and autoantibodies to steroidogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, M; Bonanni, G; Masiero, S; Faggian, D; Chen, S; Furmaniak, J; Rees Smith, B; Perniola, R; Radetti, G; Garelli, S; Chiarelli, S; Albergoni, M P; Plebani, M; Betterle, C

    2014-06-01

    Steroidogenic enzyme autoantibodies (SEAbs) are frequently present and are markers of autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) in females with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). The prevalence and significance of SEAbs in males with AAD have not yet been defined. We studied the prevalence of SEAbs in a large cohort of males with AAD and assessed the relationship between SEAbs positivity and testicular function. A total of 154 males with AAD (mean age 34 years) were studied. SEAbs included autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells (StCA), detected by immunofluorescence, and steroid 17α-hydroxylase (17α-OHAbs) and side chain cleavage enzyme (SCCAbs) measured by immunoprecipitation assays. Gonadal function was evaluated by measuring follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B (I-B). Twenty-six males, 10 SEAbs((+)) and 16 SEAbs((-)), were followed-up for a mean period of 7·6 years to assess the behaviour of SEAbs and testicular function. SEAbs were found in 24·7% of males with AAD, with the highest frequency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1). The levels of reproductive hormones in 30 SEAbs((+)) males were in the normal range according to age and were not significantly different compared to 55 SEAbs((-)) males (P > 0·05). During follow-up, both SEAbs((+)) and SEAbs((-)) patients maintained normal testicular function. SEAbs were found with high frequency in males with AAD; however, they were not associated with testicular failure. This study suggests that the diagnostic value of SEAbs in males with AAD differs compared to females, and this may be related to the immunoprivileged status of the testis. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Raman Spectroscopic Methods for Classification of Normal and Malignant Hypopharyngeal Tissues: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Pujary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal cancer is more common in males. The present study is aimed at exploration of potential of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classifying normal from a malignant laryngopharyngeal tissue. We have recorded Raman spectra of twenty tissues (aryepiglottic fold using an in-house built Raman setup. The spectral features of mean malignant spectrum suggests abundance proteins whereas spectral features of mean normal spectrum indicate redundancy of lipids. PCA was employed as discriminating algorithm. Both, unsupervised and supervised modes of analysis as well as match/mismatch “limit test” methodology yielded clear classification among tissue types. The findings of this study demonstrate the efficacy of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and malignant laryngopharyngeal tissues. A rigorous evaluation of the models with development of suitable fibreoptic probe may enable real-time Raman spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal cancers in future.

  2. Metabolic and Lifestyle Predictors of Ischemic Heart Disease and All-Cause Mortality Among Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Men: A 16-Year Follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Eyben, F.E. von

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify metabolic and lifestyle risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality (ACM) among normal weight, overweight, and obese men. Methods: This was a 16-year follow up of 2982 men 53 to 75 years without overt cardiovascular disease....... Main outcome: This was to determine mortality during 16 years of follow-up. Results: A total of 194 men (6.5%) died due to IHD and 1184 (39.8%) from all causes. All lifestyle factors and clinical/metabolic risk factors were associated with BMI, positively or negatively. Risk of IHD and ACM increased...... gradually from the normal weight (BMI 20.0-25.0) to higher BMI groups. With respect to IHD, compared to normal weight men, obese men (BMI = 30.0) had an age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of 1.67(1.04-2.68); adjusted for potential confounders HR was 0.99 (0.59-1.66); corresponding estimates for ACM...

  3. The Reliability of Electromyographic Normalization Methods for Cycling Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul John; Hebron, Jack; Brooks, Darrell; Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-06-27

    Electromyography (EMG) is normalized in relation to a reference maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) value. Different normalization techniques are available but the most reliable method for cycling movements is unknown. This study investigated the reliability of different normalization techniques for cycling analyses. Twenty-five male cyclists (age 24.13 ± 2.79 years, body height 176.22 ± 4.87 cm and body mass 67.23 ± 4.19 kg, BMI = 21.70 ± 2.60 kg·m-1) performed different normalization procedures on two occasions, within the same testing session. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were examined. Participants performed isometric normalizations (IMVC) using an isokinetic dynamometer. Five minutes of submaximal cycling (180 W) were also undertaken, allowing the mean (DMA) and peak (PDA) activation from each muscle to serve as reference values. Finally, a 10 s cycling sprint (MxDA) trial was undertaken and the highest activation from each muscle was used as the reference value. Differences between reference EMG amplitude, as a function of normalization technique and time, were examined using repeated measures ANOVAs. The test-retest reliability of each technique was also examined using linear regression, intraclass correlations and Cronbach's alpha. The results showed that EMG amplitude differed significantly between normalization techniques for all muscles, with the IMVC and MxDA methods demonstrating the highest amplitudes. The highest levels of reliability were observed for the PDA technique for all muscles; therefore, our results support the utilization of this method for cycling analyses.

  4. The Reliability of Electromyographic Normalization Methods for Cycling Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG is normalized in relation to a reference maximum voluntary contraction (MVC value. Different normalization techniques are available but the most reliable method for cycling movements is unknown. This study investigated the reliability of different normalization techniques for cycling analyses. Twenty-five male cyclists (age 24.13 ± 2.79 years, body height 176.22 ± 4.87 cm and body mass 67.23 ± 4.19 kg, BMI = 21.70 ± 2.60 kg·m−1 performed different normalization procedures on two occasions, within the same testing session. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were examined. Participants performed isometric normalizations (IMVC using an isokinetic dynamometer. Five minutes of submaximal cycling (180 W were also undertaken, allowing the mean (DMA and peak (PDA activation from each muscle to serve as reference values. Finally, a 10 s cycling sprint (MxDA trial was undertaken and the highest activation from each muscle was used as the reference value. Differences between reference EMG amplitude, as a function of normalization technique and time, were examined using repeated measures ANOVAs. The testretest reliability of each technique was also examined using linear regression, intraclass correlations and Cronbach’s alpha. The results showed that EMG amplitude differed significantly between normalization techniques for all muscles, with the IMVC and MxDA methods demonstrating the highest amplitudes. The highest levels of reliability were observed for the PDA technique for all muscles; therefore, our results support the utilization of this method for cycling analyses.

  5. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  6. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  7. Serum levels at moment of breeding of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and progesterone in Saanen goats females during normal and induced heat and testosterone in 12 Saanen goats males; Niveis sericos no momento da cobertura de triiodotironina (T{sub 3}), tiroxina(T{sub 4}), e progesterona em cabras da raca Saanen durante o cio normal e induzido, e de testosterona em 12 machos utilizados como reprodutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestes, Nereu C.; Vulcano, Luiz C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Oba, Eunice [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the level of triiodothyronine(T{sub 3}), thyroxine(T{sub 4}) and progesterone in the serum of females Saanen goats. The progesterone levels were: 0.59 and 0.79 ng/{mu}l considering breeding during normal and induced heat respectively. The T{sub 3} values were: 192.8 and 251.32 ng/dl while T{sub 4} values were: 36.38 and 31.68 ng/dl in the same condition above. The average testosterone level at the moment of breeding in the serum of 12 males was 1.38 pg/ml. (author). 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men wi...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  9. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  10. Lycopene and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  11. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  12. Twenty-year survivors of kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Traynor, C

    2012-12-01

    There have been few studies of patients with renal allografts functioning for more than 20 years. We sought to identify clinical factors associated with ultra long-term (>20 year) renal allograft survival and to describe the clinical features of these patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Irish Renal Transplant Database and included 1174 transplants in 1002 patients. There were 255 (21.74%) patients with graft function for 20 years or more. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (HR 1.01, CI 1.01-1.02), gender (male HR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45), acute rejection (HR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.45) and transplant type (living related donor vs. deceased donor) (HR 0.52, CI 0.40-0.66) as significantly associated with long-term graft loss. Median serum creatinine was 115 μmol\\/L. The 5-year graft survival in 20-year survivors was 74.7%. The mean age at death was 62.7 years (±10.6). The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease and malignancy. The two major causes of graft loss were death (with function) and interstitial fibrosis\\/tubular atrophy. Comorbidities included skin cancer (36.1%), coronary heart disease (17.3%) and other malignancies (14.5%). This study identifies factors associated with long-term allograft survival and a high rate of morbidity and early mortality in long-term transplant recipients.

  13. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  14. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus.

  15. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    2000-09-01

    A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy) is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there were no male preponderance. We observed wasting of the entire length of the lower limbs in six patients. There were nine cases with amyotrophy restricted to the leg and one with amyotrophy only in the thigh. In the upper limb in four cases the involvement was distal and in one patient the atrophy was proximal. The electromyographic features were suggestive of anterior horn disease not only in the affected limb but also, in some cases, in clinically uninvolved limb. Cervical or lumbar MRI was normal. MRI of the lower limb disclosed increased signal intensity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in one patient suggesting denervation.

  16. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  17. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  18. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy in males: is there an increased risk of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) after Bernese periacetabular osteotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, K; Balakumar, J; Domayer, S; Kim, Y J; Millis, M B

    2011-02-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a popular option for treating symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. We noted symptomatic impingement after PAO in several male patients. We therefore determined (1) the incidence of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in the male population; and (2) whether any factors were associated with the positive impingement signs after PAO in males. We retrospectively reviewed 38 males who underwent 46 periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) between 2000 and 2007. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with the focus on pre- and postoperative incidence of femoroacetabular impingement. Minimum followup was 12 months (average, 43 months; range, 12-90 months). We found a positive impingement sign in 19 of the 46 hips during the preoperative examination compared to 22 (47.8%) hips postoperatively. The ROM (flexion and internal rotation) decreased postoperatively compared to preoperatively. Radiographic parameters of coverage LCE-, ACE- and Tönnis angle improved into the normal range. Twenty hips had postoperative heterotopic ossification to varying degrees, mostly minor. WOMAC scores improved in the function and pain domains postoperatively. Despite normalization of coverage we found a high postoperative rate of clinical signs of FAI after PAO in males. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    been causally attributed to military deployment. Certain functional symptoms of GWS occur during the latent phase of a future reexperiencing syndrome, latent phase which is the locus of nonspecific symptoms. The psychotraumatised subject does not express himself spontaneously and waits to be invited to do so: if the social context does not allow this expression, the suffering can remain lodged in a few parts of the body. How can the inexpressible part of the trauma be recounted, particularly if the social context does not allow it? For civil society, calling into question "the somatic word" of veterans is difficult: why were they sent to face these hardships? What could we learn from these soldiers we do not wish to listen to: the horror of the war, the aggressive impulse of men, and the confrontation with death? Another obstacle to this reflection is the reference to stress as a prevalent aetiopathogenic model of the psychological trauma. A model like this, considering that PTSD is a normal reaction to an abnormal situation, finally discredits the subject and society and disempowers them by freezing them in a passive status of victim. However, as GWS affects approximately a quarter of subjects deployed, it is not very likely that all these symptoms are caused by a psychotraumatic reaction. Many veterans suffering from GWS have themselves rejected the diagnosis of PTSD, arguing that they do not suffer repetition nightmares. What the veterans rightly tell us here is that the notions of stress and trauma cannot strictly be superimposed. A subject may have been intensely stressed without ever establishing traumatic flashbacks and likewise; a psychological trauma can be experienced without stress and without fear but in a moment of terror. This clarification is in line with the first criterion of the DSM-IV-TR which necessarily integrates the objective and subjective dimensions as determinants of PTSD. Yet, scientific studies relating to GWS are struggling to establish

  20. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the da...

  1. Yangzhou’s Famous Twenty-fourth Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “LOOMING green moun-tains and runningstreams;grass does notwither and fall,though the autumnhas come to an end in the south.The bright moon arises overTwenty-fourth Bridge.Where doyou teach pure-jade Yangzhouwomen to play music on bambooflutes?”This poem by Du Mu(803-c.852),a famous poet of thelate Tang Dynasty,is well remem-bered today It made Yangzhou’sTwenty-fourth Bridge Known to la-ter generations.Of many ancientpoems about Twenty-fourth Bridge

  2. Flattened sella turcica and CT appearence of normal pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Ueno, I.; Miki, Y.; Fuchinoue, T.; Kobayashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    A flattened sella turcica, not previously reported, was found incidentally in a 21-year-old male. Various neuroradiological and hormonal examinations have proved it to be a normal varient. Subsequently a normal pituitary gland was shown by CT.

  3. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain ... About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal ...

  4. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  5. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    pollutant emissions on human driving the development of highly efficient low- health range from respiratory diseases (e.g., child- emission combustion...Systems (N. 101. Stein, S. E., Walker, J. A., Suryan, M. M., and Fahr , Peters and B. Rogg, eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, A., in Twenty-Third Symposium...M. M., and Fahr , A., and Kawano, H., Int. j. Chem. Kinet. 21:643-666 in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Com- (1989). bustion, The

  6. Subtotal obstruction of the male reproductive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, F.H.; Dohle, G.R.; Roijen, J.H. van; Vreeburg, J.T.M.; Weber, R.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral obstruction of the male reproductive tract is suspected in men with azoospermia, normal testicular volume and normal FSH. A testicular biopsy is required to differentiate between an obstruction and a testicular insufficiency. Unilateral or subtotal bilateral obstructions and epididymal dys

  7. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  8. Karyotype analysis of a male exhibiting Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, B.; Hicks, M.F. (David Lipscomb Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

    Patau's Syndrome is caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome 13. It is characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, cleft palate, and retarded growth. Most fetuses expressing Patau's Syndrome spontaneously abort, and those that are born usually die before one year. Both Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia are defects found in patients with Patau's at levels higher than those in the general population. An otherwise asymptomatic male expressing only Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia has a female sibling whose son expressed Patau's syndrome. Twenty percent of patients with Patau's show a translocation of part of chromosome 13 to another D chromosome. If a translocation were the cause of the expression of Patau's in this family, it is possible that the normal male inherited a balanced translocation and the Patau's male received an unbalanced translocation. A karyotype analysis of the non-Patau's male was done to determine if such a translocation were present.

  9. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  10. Bilateral male breast cancer with male potential hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Yasushi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.

  11. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke JIAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite during the wound healing. Methods Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8, normal frostbite group (n=8, and high-altitude group (n=8. The normal frostbite group rats were frozen to produce mid-degree frostbite models by controlling the freezing time with liquid nitrogen penetration equipment. The high-altitude frostbite group rats were acclimated to a hypoxic and low-pressure environment for 1 week, and then the high-altitude frostbite models were constructed by the same way with liquid nitrogen penetration apparatus. On days 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23 after modeling, the recovery situation of blood circulation of each group was observed with contrast ultrasonography by injecting SonoVue micro-bubble into rats' tail. Finally, the micro-bubble concentration (MC was calculated to confirm the blood circulation recovery with software Image Pro. Results At different time points, the wound area of the high-altitude frostbite group was bigger than that of the normal frostbite group, and the MC of control group was always about (27±0.2×109/ml. On day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23, the MC was significantly lower in the high-altitude frostbite group than in the control group and normal frostbite group (P<0.05. The MC of normal frostbite group was significantly lower than that of the control group on day 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 (P<0.05. In addition, no obvious difference in MC was found between normal group and control group on the 23th day (P<0.05. Conclusion The blood microcirculation recovery after high-altitude frostbite is significantly slower than the normal frostbite. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.13

  13. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Eckersten; Aleksander Giwercman; Anders Christensson

    2015-01-01

    Male reproductive function is impaired during end‑stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbance of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26–48) years, were analyzed for follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, sex hormone‑binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19–44) years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3, 729), LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14), and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15). Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6,−11.6). There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  14. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Eckersten

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48 years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44 years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 60.3, 729, LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14, and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15. Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6, −11.6. There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  15. Muscle dysfunction in male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A K; Katiyar, B C; Misra, S; Thacker, A K; Singh, N K

    1986-05-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive male patients with primary and secondary hypogonadism (14 each) were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically for muscle dysfunction. Although generalised muscle weakness was initially reported by only 9 patients, on direct questioning, it was recorded in 19. Objective weakness was found in 13 patients and it involved both the proximal and distal limb muscles. Quantitative electromyography showed evidence of myopathy in the proximal muscle in 25 patients, i.e., reduced MUP duration and amplitude with increased polyphasia in the deltoid and the gluteus maximus. There were no denervation potentials. None of the patients showed clinical neuropathy or NCV abnormalities. Thus, the profile of muscle involvement in hypogonadism closely simulates limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and other endocrine myopathies. The incidence of muscle involvement was higher in secondary hypogonadism. Diminished androgens in primary hypogonadism and diminished growth hormone in the secondary hypogonadism are probably responsible for the myopathy.

  16. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  17. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  18. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meymaneh Jafari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most common complaints, particularly among patients with normal or near normal low-frequency hearing, is that their voice sounds "hollow". This is associated with "Occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to comparison of occlusion effect in normal hearing subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing test. Materials and Method: Twenty volunteers with normal hearing (10 male, 10 female, with ages ranging from 18 – 24 years were enrolled in this study. First, audiometric Bing test was performed in frequencies of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Hz. Then in real ear measurement, subjects were instructed to vocalize /â/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Probe microphone was recorded the sound pressure in the ear canals. The degrees of occlusion effect unit were obtained for further analysis.Results: The means of occlusion effect were present in all subjects. There was no correlation between the results of audiometric Bing test and real-ear measurement. No significant difference was obtained between genders and monaural or binaural occlusion in real-ear measurement. But in audiometric Bing test, the difference between monaural or binaural occlusion was significant(p<0.05.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users, so the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe- microphone measures will assist in determination how much gain is enough, and where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  19. Differential Inequalities, Normality and Quasi-Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaojun; Pang, Xuecheng

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if D is a domain in C, alpha>1 and c>0, then the family F of functions meromorphic in D such that |f'(z)|/(1+|f(z)|^alpha)>c for every z in D is normalin D. For alpha=1, the same assumptions imply quasi-normality but not necessarily normality.

  20. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Combustion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, p. 81. 12. Ross, H. D., Miller, F. J., Schiller, D. N., and Sirig- nano , W...Mech. 48:547-591 (1971). 2. Lazaro , B. J. and Lasheras, J. C, Phys. Fluids 1:1035 (1989). 3. Kiger, K. T. and Lasheras, J. C, Twenty-Fifth Sympo

  1. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  2. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  3. Educators Guide to Free Filmstrips. Twenty-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Comp.; Diffor, John C., Comp.

    A total of 453 titles of filmstrips, slide sets, and sets of transparencies available free of charge to educators are listed in this guide. More than 20,000 separate frames are offered from 95 sources. Twenty of the filmstrips may be retained permanently by the borrower. The films cover topics in the fields of accident prevention, aerospace…

  4. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  5. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  6. Powering into the twenty-first century [Singapore Power Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century power industry, Singapore Power was incorporated as a commercial entity in October 1995. As the leading energy company in Singapore, SP continues to invest heavily in infrastructure development to improve its service efficiency and reliability, and to maintain its reputation as one of the world`s best power suppliers. (UK)

  7. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  8. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  9. Blended Instruction: The Roaring Twenties Meets Coursesites.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    The action research study described in this report outlines the design and implementation of a unit of blended instruction in a traditional high school English classroom. Twenty technical high school students in an 11th grade Honors English class engaged in a variety of internet-based activities in conjunction with traditional learning activities…

  10. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  11. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  12. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  13. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  14. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  15. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  16. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  17. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  18. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  19. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  20. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  1. 心功能正常的高龄男性患者血清N末端B型利钠肽升高对心房颤动危险的预测价值%Value of serum NT-proBNP elevation in predicting risk of atrial fibrillation in elderly male patients with normal heart function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍霞; 李娜; 李世军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of serum NT-proBNP elevation in predicting the risk of atrial fibrillation in elderly male patients with normal heart function. Methods One hundred and ninety-seven elderly male patients with normal heart function were randomly divided into non-at-rial fibrillation group(n = 166) and atrial fibrillation group(n = 31). Their left ventricular long axis cross-section and LVEF were measured by echocardiography. Their serum NT-proBNP level was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results The serum NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in atrial fibrillation group than in non-atrial fibrillation group (P 652. 9 ng/L.%目的 评价血清N末端B型利钠肽(NT-proBNP)水平对于预测心功能正常的高龄男性住院患者发生心房颤动(房颤)危险的价值.方法 随机选择住院的高龄男性患者197例,根据有无房颤分为无房颤组166例和房颤组31例.采用超声心动图检测胸骨旁左心室长轴切面,测量并计算LVE F;采用电化学发光免疫法测定血清NT proBNP水平.结果 房颤组较无房颤组NT-proBNP明显升高(P<0.05).Pearson相关性分析显示,NT-proBNP与心脏超声参数左心房内径、右心室内径、右心房内径和LVEF密切相关(P<0.01).ROC曲线分析显示,血清NT-proBNP预测患者房颤的ROC曲线下面积为0.754,根据Youden指数,诊断最佳界值为:血清NT proBNP=652.9 ng/L,特异性为71.5%,敏感性为74.1%.结论 高龄男性房颤患者血清NT-proBNP水平升高;血清NT-proBNP水平>652.9 ng/L时,在预测房颤发生危险中的价值较低,<652.9 ng/L时,对于预测房颤发生危险具有较高价值.

  2. Physical working capacity of male inhabitants from Upper Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudt, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerobic power tests were carried out on twenty male Bushnegroes, as part of a medical survey in two villages on the Upper Marowijn river in the interior of Surinam (South America). The subjects were submitted to a discontinuous series of increasing submaximal loads by means of a bicycle ergometer. H

  3. Imaging of male pelvic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Laura L; Scheinfeld, Meir H

    2012-11-01

    Prompt imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of male pelvic soft tissue trauma. Using appropriate imaging modalities, with optimization of contrast administration when appropriate, is essential for accurate diagnosis. Traumatic bladder rupture, either extraperitoneal or intraperitoneal, is diagnosed with high accuracy using computed tomography cystography. Suspicion of urethral injury warrants evaluation with retrograde urethrography to evaluate for the presence of injury and injury location. Early identification of laceration of the testicular tunica albuginea is essential. Understanding both normal penile anatomy and the imaging appearance of corpus rupture (as opposed to a hematoma) is imperative for proper diagnosis and management.

  4. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  5. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rules of engagement for force protection.19 NATO Foreign Ministers authorized the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to begin the next stage of...the mission on 9 December 2004. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It allowed the deployment of 300...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  6. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  7. About capital in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present three key facts about income and wealth inequality in the long run emerging from my book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, and seek to sharpen and refocus the discussion about those trends. In particular, I clarify the role played by r > g in my analysis of wealth inequality. I also discuss some of the implications for optimal taxation, and the relation between capital-income ratios and capital shares.

  8. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-15

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  9. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  11. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  12. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...

  13. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  14. Reference values for Schirmer tear tests I and II in clinically normal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbolova, Alexandra; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk

    2012-05-01

    To determine reference values for Schirmer tear tests I and II in clinically normal pigs. Twenty clinically normal Landrace pigs (10 males and females) without ocular abnormalities were used in this study. In all pigs, Schirmer tear tests (STT) I and II were performed by using a sterile Schirmer tear test standardized strip (Schirmer-Tränentest(®), Germany) placed in the lower conjunctival fornix for 1 min. For each test (STT I and STT II), no differences were observed between the right and left eyes (P ≥ 0.5). The mean ± SD STT I value was 15.6 ± 3.7 mm/min (range, 10-22 mm/min), while the mean STT II value was 12.4 ± 3.8 mm/minute (range, 5-18 mm/min). The mean STT II value was significantly lower than the STT I level (P STT I and II values (P = 0.52). The mean ± SD STT I/II values of 10 juvenile pigs were significantly lower than the mean ± SD STT I/II values of 10 adult pigs (P STT I/II in this species. Knowledge of normal STT reference values in pigs enables the clinician to evaluate corneal pathology and diagnose tear deficiency syndromes with greater accuracy. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  16. Comparative analysis of the morphology of chin X-ray cephalometry of Cantonese male and female with normal occlusion%广东地区正常男女颏部形态X线头影测量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良娇; 陈燕玲; 施婉娓; 胡昀; 张颖婕; 兰泽栋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chin morphology of Cantonese with normal occlusion, and to establish the cepha⁃lometric database of the chin morphology for providing reference data for clinical orthodontic treatment and surgical treat⁃ment of Chin. Methods The lateral cephalometrics radiographs of 44 untreated samples (20 men, 24 women) were taken in natural head position, centric oclusion and lip relaxed position. The chin characteristic variables were measured by Winceph 7.0 software three times by one orthodontists. Mean and standard deviations of measurements were determined for each gender. The t⁃test was used to compare the values between males and females. Results The obtained data were statistically analyzed and compared between male and female. There are sex difference in M⁃Me to MP/B⁃Me to MP and B′to Li⁃Pog′(mm). There is no sex difference in Chin curvature. Conclusion The normative data for the Southern Chi⁃nese should be uesd as a guide for diagnosis and treatment of chin deformities. The maxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist should consider the sex difference. Gender differences must be taken into consideration during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for the individual patient.%目的:研究广东地区正常人群颏部形态特征,建立颏部形态的X线头影测量数据库,为临床正畸治疗和颏部整形治疗提供数据参考。方法筛选广东地区正常样本44名(男性20名,女性24名),在自然头位、正中位及唇放松状态下拍摄头颅侧位片。应用Winceph 7.0头影测量软件进行定点测量反映颏部形态的角度测量指标、反映颏部硬组织的线距测量项目指标以及反映颏部软组织的线距测量项目等,并对男、女性别的数据进行统计分析。结果广东地区正常人群颏部形态的X线头影测量数据显示颏倾斜度、颏角均具有性别差异。男性的颏倾斜度和颏角均小于女性,差异具有统计学意义(P0

  17. Male factor infertility and ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herman Tournaye

    2012-01-01

    For years,the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience’ and not ‘evidence’ based.Although not evidence-based,current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART).Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed,ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility.According to the limited evidence available,intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be considered as a first-line treatment in a couple in which the female partner has a normal fertility status and at least 1x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation.If no pregnancy is achieved after 3-6 cycles of IUI,optimized in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be proposed.When less than 0.5x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after seminal fluid processing or sperm are recovered surgically from the testis or epididymis,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed.Although the outcome of no other ART has ever been scrutinized as much before,no large-scale ‘macroproblems’ have as yet been observed after ICSI.Yet,ICSI candidates should be rigorously screened before embarking on IVF or ICSI,and thoroughly informed of the limitations of our knowledge on the hereditary aspects of male infertility and the safety aspects of ART.

  18. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  19. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  20. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  1. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  2. Earth observations in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the achievements of earth observations from past space missions are described. Also discussed are the achievements to be anticipated from currently approved and planned earth observation missions. In looking forward to what the objectives of earth observations from space are expected to be in the future, together with what technology is expected to enable, what the earth observing program will look like during the first part of the twenty-first century is discussed. It is concluded that a key part of this program will be long-term observations holistically viewing the earth system.

  3. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  4. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals in their daily life, many of which are readily detectable in blood or urine. It remains uncertain if these chemicals can cause adverse health effects when present together at low doses. In this study we have tested whether a mixture...

  5. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan......BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  6. The Sexually Abused Child: A Comparison of Male and Female Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert; Pierce, Lois Hauck

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five substantiated cases of sexual abuse involving male children were compared with 180 substantiated cases involving female children. Significant differences between female and male victims were observed in family composition, perpetrator of the abuse, variables contributing to continuation of the abusive situation, and type of services…

  7. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Lolita Laree

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  8. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Lolita Laree

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  9. Normalization in econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.; Daniel F. Waggoner; Zha, Tao

    2004-01-01

    The issue of normalization arises whenever two different values for a vector of unknown parameters imply the identical economic model. A normalization does not just imply a rule for selecting which point, among equivalent ones, to call the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). It also governs the topography of the set of points that go into a small-sample confidence interval associated with that MLE. A poor normalization can lead to multimodal distributions, disjoint confidence intervals, and v...

  10. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  11. Association of pentraxin 3 with insulin resistance and glucose response following maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-mass individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2016-07-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a cardioprotective protein, has recently been shown to be associated with improved insulin resistance (IR) and glucose metabolism. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine whether or not increased plasma PTX3 following maximal aerobic exercise would differ between obese and normal-mass subjects, and its association with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glucose response. Twenty-five untrained obese (n = 13 [6 males and 7 females]) and normal-mass (n = 12 [5 males and 7 females]) subjects performed an acute bout of maximal aerobic exercise to assess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). At baseline, plasma PTX3 concentrations are decreased in obese compared with normal-mass subjects and are negatively associated with plasma insulin and HOMA-IR values. In response to maximal exercise, plasma PTX3 responses were similar in obese and normal-mass subjects while the intensity of plasma PTX3 response as indicated by area under the curve analysis (AUCi) was not associated with HOMA-IR or glucose AUCi. However, PTX3 AUCi was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels (relative VO2max). These findings suggest that PTX3 could serve as a biomarker for both metabolic health, as well as a measurement to monitor the effectiveness of exercise interventions in obesity.

  12. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  13. Normalizers of Irreducible Subfactors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roger R; Wiggins, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    We consider normalizers of an irreducible inclusion $N\\subseteq M$ of $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factors. In the infinite index setting an inclusion $uNu^*\\subseteq N$ can be strict, forcing us to also investigate the semigroup of one-sided normalizers. We relate these normalizers of $N$ in $M$ to projections in the basic construction and show that every trace one projection in the relative commutant $N'\\cap $ is of the form $u^*e_Nu$ for some unitary $u\\in M$ with $uNu^*\\subseteq N$. This enables us to identify the normalizers and the algebras they generate in several situations. In particular each normalizer of a tensor product of irreducible subfactors is a tensor product of normalizers modulo a unitary. We also examine normalizers of irreducible subfactors arising from subgroup--group inclusions $H\\subseteq G$. Here the normalizers are the normalizing group elements modulo a unitary from $L(H)$. We are also able to identify the finite trace $L(H)$-bimodules in $\\ell^2(G)$ as double cosets which are also finite union...

  14. Male Spine Motion During Coitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  15. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  16. the temperature dropped to normal When Rash Had appeared For 12 Hours:an atypical Case of Measles in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4℃) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6℃. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased signiifcantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) conifrmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Speciifc serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

  17. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  18. Unexplained Male infertility: diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hamada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  19. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  20. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  1. ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISON OF WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS AND NORMAL POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Uth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the anthropometry of sprinters and people belonging to the normal population. The height and body mass (BM distribution of sprinters (42 men and 44 women were statistically compared to the distributions of American and Danish normal populations. The main results showed that there was significantly less BM and height variability (measured as standard deviation among male sprinters than among the normal male population (US and Danish, while female sprinters showed less BM variability than the US and Danish normal female populations. On average the American normal population was shorter than the sprinters. There was no height difference between the sprinters and the Danish normal population. All female groups had similar height variability. Both male and female sprinters had lower body mass index (BMI than the normal populations. It is likely that there is no single optimal height for sprinters, but instead there is an optimum range that differs for males and females. This range in height appears to exclude people who are very tall or very short in stature. Sprinters are generally lighter in BM than normal populations. Also, the BM variation among sprinters is less than the variation among normal populations. These anthropometric characteristics typical of sprinters might be explained, in part, by the influence the anthropometric characteristics have on relative muscle strength and step length

  2. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  3. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  4. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  5. Twenty-first century power needs. Challenges, and supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Solar Energy Lab.

    1997-11-01

    The challenge of providing adequate power to enable world prosperity in the twenty-first century to continue was discussed. It was estimated that by 2050, a prosperous world of 10 billion people will require 60 TWt of thermal power. Conventional power systems will not be able to provide the needed energy because of limited fuels, contamination of the biosphere and costs. A viable, cost effective alternative will be solar energy that is captured in space and from facilities on the Moon, and that is imported to Earth by microwaves. Global electric power systems that use the Moon and deliver 1,000 TWe-Y of energy by 2070 was suggested as the most obvious alternative. Despite the huge initial cost of 20 to 100 trillion dollars, the long-term cost was said to be small compared to terrestrial and Earth-orbital options. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  7. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  8. Evaluation of Effect of Cannabis Smoking on the Hematological Properties of Selected Adult Male Students Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaichi E. O.; Omorodion, F. O

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of cannabis sativa smoking on some hematological characteristics on the male students consumers. Blood samples were collected in triplicates from twenty (10) randomly selected male voluntary marijuana smokers (test) and ten (10) voluntary male non-smokers (control) in Choba Community, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The parameters considered were body temperature, pulse rate, Red blood cells (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), er...

  9. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  10. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  11. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  12. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  13. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  14. Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, E; Freitas, S.; Fonseca, M.; Figueiredo, S; Rodrigues, C.

    2001-01-01

    Acta Med Port. 2001 Sep-Dec;14(5-6):511-4. [Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism] [Article in Portuguese] Proença E, Freitas S, Fonseca M, Figueiredo S, Rodrigues C. Serviço de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Hospital Maria Pia, Porto. Abstract Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism is the result of a defect of testis development that encompasses a large clinical heterogeneity. It is characterized by bilateral dysgenetic testis, absence of mullerian regression, ambiguous genitalia and/...

  15. Benign monomelic amyotrophy: a study of twenty-one cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos R. G.de Freitas; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A consecutive series of 21 patients with single limb atrophy (monomelic amyotrophy) is reported. Sixteen had lower limb atrophy and five had upper limb involvement. The median age of the onset was 20 years. Characteristic features were sporadic occurrence, wasting confined to one limb, insidious onset with slow progression, stabilizing in 1 to 4 years, and absence of pyramidal signs. All the patients with upper limb involvement were male, however in our cases with lower limb amyotrophy there ...

  16. [Rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas: twenty five case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Solé, Juan Javier; Luna, Paula Carolina; Mosquera, Tomás; Abad, María Eugenia

    2014-04-01

    Rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas are very rare vascular tumours, that are characterized for being completely developed at birth and for involuting in a short period of time after birth. We describe a case series of 25 patients with rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas. Twelve patients were male and 13 female; they were all born at term. Lesions were small in 17 cases and big in 8. No patient needed active intervention and all lesions showed a rapid initial involution.

  17. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora on sexual performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lert-Amornpat, T; Maketon, C; Fungfuang, W

    2017-03-10

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex.Baker or Krachidum (KP) has been used locally in medicine and food. It has been claimed that KP has aphrodisia properties; however, no scientific data in support of this function in diabetic model have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of KP on sexual behaviour and sperm parameter in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Diabetes was induced in twenty male rats by STZ and divided into four groups: diabetic control group, and 3 treatment groups where KP was dose at 140, 280 and 420 mg/kg orally once a day for 6 weeks. Five normal control rats were treated with vehicle. The body weight, blood glucose, food intake, epididymal sperm parameter, sexual behaviour and serum testosterone level were evaluated. The results showed that KP treatment has no effect on the body weight, blood glucose and food intake in diabetic rats. A significant increase in sperm density in diabetic rats was observed (p < .05) at highest dose of KP. Furthermore, KP treatment demonstrated a significant recovery of sexual behaviour and serum testosterone levels in diabetic rats. These results confirm that KP exhibits aphrodisiac properties that improve the sperm density, testosterone level and sexual performance of STZ-induced diabetic rats. © 2017 The Authors. Andrologia Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  19. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” ...

  2. Effects of feeding pistachio by-products silage on growth performance, serum metabolites and urine characteristics in Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M; Fazaeli, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated physiological effects of pistachio by-products silage (PBPS) substituted in Holstein male calves diets and its effects on the growth performance. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (4-5 months of age and 155.6 ± 13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets (n = 6); contained 0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of PBPS (DM basis) respectively. During a 6-month experiment, dry matter intake (DMI) and weight gain were recorded and blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results showed that mean DMI was not affected by different levels of PBPS in diets. But the calves fed 6% PBPS had the highest average daily gain (p  0.05) on pH, specific gravity, the number of white and red blood cells and epithelial cells count in urine. The animals did not show any symptom of illness or toxicity during the experimental period and all of the blood and urine parameters were in a normal range. It was concluded that substitution of PBPS up to 18% of the total diet that provide up to 18.2 g/kg DM total tannin had no adverse effects for Holstein male calves.

  3. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  4. [Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity test of N-(fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Y; Tsuda, M; Naito, K; Saitoh, M; Isama, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Momma, J; Kitajima, S; Kaniwa, M

    1995-01-01

    N-(Fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide (Fluor-folpet) has been widely used as an anti-mold and anti-bacterial agent. In this study, 28 days repeated-dose oral toxicity study of fluor-folpet was carried out in Slc:Wistar rats. An oral toxicity study for fluor-folpet, the twenty-eight days test, repeated-dose, oral administration, was performed as follows: Five week-old rats, male and female, 10 rats, each/group, were treated with intragastric administration of fluor-folpet with a dose of 0 (1% Sodium CMC, control), 20, 80 and 320 mg/kg, body weight. Recovery test, for 14 days after the last treatment, was examined for the control and the 320 mg/kg groups. The 320 mg/kg groups, both males and females, showed significantly reduced their body-weight gain compared with the control group. In the 320 mg/kg group, five out of 20 male rats and four out of 20 female rats died from dyspnea during the treatment period. In the female rats in the 320 mg/kg group, serum ChE level was decreased to 50% of control level and gamma-GT was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but these serum levels recovered after 14 days non-treatment period. No histopathological change, relating to the treatment, in liver was observed. Increased weight of the kidney and vacuolation in renal tubules were found in both sexes of 320 mg/kg group. Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stomach epithelium were observed at the dose more than 80 mg/kg in male, and more than 20 mg/kg in female. A supplemental study, repeated-dose, oral administration in rats carried out to examine the dyspnea revealed that severe acute toxic damages in epithelium of nasal cavity and meatus nasopharyngeus were induced by intragastric administration of fluor-folpet. Fluor-folpet is shown to be cytotoxic. In conclusion, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for fluor-folpet was not found under the experimental conditions employed in this repeated-dose toxicity study.

  5. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  6. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  7. Discovery of a male-biased mutant family and identification of a male-specific SCAR marker in gynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Wang; Huiling Mao; Jinxia Peng; Xiyin Li; Li Zhou; Jianfang Gui

    2009-01-01

    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a uniquely gynogenetic species with a minor ratio of males in natural habitats, but its male origin and sex determination mechanisms have been unknown. In this study, a male-biased mutant family was discovered from the gynogenetic gibel carp, and a male-specific SCAR marker was identified from the mutant family. Normal spermatogenesis was observed in the male testes by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Nearly identical AFLP profiles were observed between males and females, but a male-specific 86 bp AFLP fragment was screened by sex-pool bulked segregant analysis and individual screening. Based on the male-specific AFLP frag-ment, a total of 579 bp sequences were cloned by genome walking. Subsequently, a male-specific SCAR marker was designed, and the male-specific DNA fragment was confirmed to be steadily transmitted to the next generation and consistently detected only in males.

  8. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  9. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.P. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK).

  10. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  11. New Bachelards?: Reveries, Elements and Twenty-First Century Materialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an infusion of new ideas into material philosophy through the work of the so-called ‘new materialists’. Poignant examples appear within two recent books: the first, Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (2010, sets out to “enhance receptivity to the impersonal life that surrounds and infuses us” (2010: 4. The second, Elemental Philosophy by David Macauley (2010, advocates an anamnesis or recollection of the elements as imaginatively dynamic matter. Within his essays on the imagination of matter, Gaston Bachelard outlined an archetypal vision of the elements predicated upon the material imagination. He explored the manner in which the imagination inhabits the world, is triggered by the stimulus of material dynamism, and is formed from a co-constitution of subject and object. This article proposes that recent trends in materialist philosophy – as exemplified by the monographs of Bennett and Macauley – reinforce the ideas of Bachelard and take them in new directions. Bachelard provides us with a compelling argument for the rediscovery of material imagination, whereas New Materialism portrays a vision of matter filled with autonomous dynamism that lends itself to entering into a relationship with this imagination. Consequently, this article proposes that Gaston Bachelard has gained a new relevance as a result of contemporary trends in material philosophy, has taken on new possibilities through recent scholarship, and remains a force within the twenty-first century discursive landscape.

  12. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  13. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  14. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  15. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  16. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  17. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  18. Exploring cigarette use among male migrant workers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi; David Karatu; Sarafa Sanusi; Rebekah Pratt; Kolawole Okuyemi

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S). Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence) and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-tape...

  19. Normalized Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B; Cilibrasi, Rudi L; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string representation. Second, for names and abstract concepts, page count statistics from the World Wide Web can be used. These practical realizations of the normalized information distance can then be applied to machine learning tasks, expecially clustering, to perform feature-free and parameter-free data mining. This chapter discusses the theoretical foundations of the normalized information distance and both practical realizations. It presents numerous examples of successful real-world applications based on these distance measures, ranging from bioinformatics to music clustering to machine translation.

  20. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  1. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located ... zygote and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female ...

  2. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  3. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  4. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  5. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  6. Revision of Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 (Diptera: Chironomidae), with the description of twenty new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Mendes, Humberto Fonseca; Andersen, Trond

    2013-11-02

    The genus Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 is revised and twenty new species, Beardius abbadi sp. n., B. arawak sp. n., B. bizzoi sp. n., B. bucephalus sp. n., B. curticaudatus sp. n., B. dioi sp. n., B. hirtidorsum sp. n., B. krenak sp. n., B. kumadueni sp. n., B. longicaudatus sp. n., B. mileneae sp. n., B. nebularius sp. n., B. neusae sp. n., B. novoairensis sp. n., B. phoenix sp. n., B. sapiranga sp. n., B. tupinamba sp. n., B. vanessae sp. n., and B. yperoig sp. n. from Brazil and Beardius chapala sp. n. from Mexico are described and figured. Further, the female, pupa and larva of B. urupeatan Pinho, Mendes et Andersen and the female and larva of B. cristhinae Trivinho-Strixino et Siqueira are described, and new records of Brazilian species are provided. Emended diagnoses for all stages and sexes are given. The phylogeny of the genus is outlined and seven tentative species groups, the parcus group, the truncatus group, the tupinamba group, the triangulatus group, the bucephalus group, the xylophilus group, and the roquei group, are proposed. Keys to males, females, pupae and larvae are provided.

  7. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  8. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  9. Normals to a Parabola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  10. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  11. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  12. Normal modal preferential consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available of necessitation holds for the corresponding consequence relations, as one would expect it to. We present a representation result for this tightened framework, and investigate appropriate notions of entailment in this context|normal entailment, and a rational...

  13. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  14. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  15. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  16. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  17. Perceptions & Attitudes of Male Homosexuals from Differing Socio-Cultural & Audiological Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Daniel B.

    This study examined four male homosexual, sociocultural groups: normal-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with hearing-impaired parents, and hard-of-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents. Differences with regard to self-perception, identity, and attitudes were…

  18. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  19. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  20. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  1. Normal Order: Combinatorial Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, A I; Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, Allan I.; Duchamp, Gerard; Blasiak, Pawel; Horzela, Andrzej; Penson, Karol A.

    2004-01-01

    A conventional context for supersymmetric problems arises when we consider systems containing both boson and fermion operators. In this note we consider the normal ordering problem for a string of such operators. In the general case, upon which we touch briefly, this problem leads to combinatorial numbers, the so-called Rook numbers. Since we assume that the two species, bosons and fermions, commute, we subsequently restrict ourselves to consideration of a single species, single-mode boson monomials. This problem leads to elegant generalisations of well-known combinatorial numbers, specifically Bell and Stirling numbers. We explicitly give the generating functions for some classes of these numbers. In this note we concentrate on the combinatorial graph approach, showing how some important classical results of graph theory lead to transparent representations of the combinatorial numbers associated with the boson normal ordering problem.

  2. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D, and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}. If for every f ∈ F, f(z) = a =■ f (z) = a and f (z) = b =■ f (z) = b, then F is normal. We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk Δ = {|z| < 1} such that for every f ∈ F, f(z) = m + 1  f (z) = m + 1 and f (z) = 1  f (z) = 1 in Δ, where m is a given positive integer. This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu, Pang and Fang.

  3. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JianMing

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D,and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}.If for every f ∈ F,f(z)=a=>(z) = a and f'(z)=b=>f"(z)=b,then F is normal.We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk △= {|z|<1} such that for every f ∈F,f(z) =m+1f'(z) = m+1and f'(z)=1 f"(z) = 1 in △ A,where m is a given positive integer.This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu,Pang and Fang.

  4. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  5. Decadal potential predictability of twenty-first century climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, George J. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, PO Box 3065, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Decadal prediction of the coupled climate system is potentially possible given enough information and knowledge. Predictability will reside in both externally forced and in long timescale internally generated variability. The ''potential predictability'' investigated here is characterized by the fraction of the total variability accounted for by these two components in the presence of short-timescale unpredictable ''noise'' variability. Potential predictability is not a classical measure of predictability nor a measure of forecast skill but it does identify regions where long timescale variability is an appreciable fraction of the total and hence where prediction on these scale may be possible. A multi-model estimate of the potential predictability variance fraction (ppvf) as it evolves through the first part of the twenty-first century is obtained using simulation data from the CMIP3 archive. Two estimates of potential predictability are used which depend on the treatment of the forced component. The multi-decadal estimate considers the magnitude of the forced component as the change from the beginning of the century and so becomes largely a measure of climate change as the century progresses. The next-decade estimate considers the change in the forced component from the past decade and so is more pertinent to an actual forecast for the next decade. Long timescale internally generated variability provides additional potential predictability beyond that of the forced component. The ppvf may be expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and takes on values between 0 and 1. The largest values of the ppvf for temperature are found over tropical and mid-latitude oceans, with the exception of the equatorial Pacific, and some but not all tropical land areas. Overall the potential predictability for temperature generally declines with latitude and is relatively low over mid- to high-latitude land. Potential predictability for

  6. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  7. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  8. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  9. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  10. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  11. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  12. Adolescent male health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  13. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  14. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Twenty-two years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Tompkins, R K; Urrea, P T; Longmire, W P

    1979-01-01

    Seventy-four patients underwent operation for chronic pancreatitis during a 22 year period at UCLA Hospital. Follow-up data obtained for 60% of these patients an average of 3.2 years postoperation were analyzed by computer for statistically significant benefit between paired operation combinations and the variables of pain relief, stool habits, alcohol use, readmission for pancreatitis, and narcotic use. The combined group of total and cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy proved more effective with respect to pain relief and readmission (p less than 0.05) than the group that had pseudocyst drainage. The comparison of groups that underwent resection or ductal drainage showed no statistical differences for the above variables. Regardless of type of operation, if the patient had evidence of pancreatic calcifications and had abstained from alcohol postoperatively, the likelihood of a return to normal activity was more favorable (p less than 0.05). PMID:485605

  15. Male Osteoporosis in Our Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Kocaoğlu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is encountered as an important problem in clinical medicine in the recent years. Our purpose was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD of vertebrae (L2-L4 and femur (neck and Wards distributed according to age groups in males who applied to physical therapy and rehabilitation and osteoporosis units. Age, height, weight of the patients were measured. Patients with diseases causing secondary osteoporosis were excluded. Lomber vertebral and femoral scores of 110 patients between ages of 22-87 were measured with Lunar DPX 6956 (DEXA. They were classified as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic based on WHO criteria. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of lomber t scores were 55.6% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 40% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 18.2% and 27.3% in patients between 40-49 years, 26.3% and 36.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 40.9% and 27.3% in patients 60-69 years, 33.3% and 23.3% in patients 70-79 years, 14.3% and 14.3% in patients between 80-89 years respectively. Rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis on the basis of femur t scores were 11.1% and 11.1% in patients between 20-29 years, 30% and 10% in patients between 30-39 years, 36.4% and 18.2% in patients between 40-49 years, 63.2% and 15.8% in patients between 50-59 years, 54.5% and 31.8% in patients between 60-69 years, 46.9% and 25% in patients between 70-79 years, 28.6% and 28.6% in patients between 80-89 years. As a conclusion of our study we want to draw attention to age at which a decrease in the bone mineral density of male patients starts, and we suggest that neccessary precautions must be taken.

  16. Recombination in the pseudoautosomal region in a 47,XYY male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R H; Shi, Q; Field, L L

    2001-08-01

    Males with a 47,XYY karyotype generally have chromosomally normal children, despite the high theoretical risk of aneuploidy. Studies of sperm karyotypes or FISH analysis of sperm have demonstrated that the majority of sperm are chromosomally normal in 47,XYY men. There have been a number of meiotic studies of XYY males attempting to determine whether the additional Y chromosome is eliminated during spermatogenesis, with conflicting results regarding the pairing of the sex chromosomes and the presence of an additional Y. We analyzed recombination in the pseudoautosomal region of the XY bivalent to determine whether this is perturbed in a 47,XYY male. A recombination frequency similar to normal 46,XY men would indicate normal pairing within the XY bivalent, whereas a significantly altered frequency would suggest other types of pairing such as a YY bivalent or an XYY trivalent. Two DNA markers, STS/STS pseudogene and DXYS15, were typed in sperm from a heterozygous 47,XYY male. Individual sperm (23,X or Y) were isolated into PCR tubes using a FACStarPlus flow cytometer. Hemi-nested PCR analysis of the two DNA markers was performed to determine the frequency of recombination. A total of 108 sperm was typed with a 38% recombination frequency between the two DNA markers. This is very similar to the frequency of 38.3% that we have observed in 329 sperm from a normal 46,XY male. Thus our results suggest that XY pairing and recombination occur normally in this 47,XYY male. This could occur by the production of an XY bivalent and Y univalent (which is then lost in most cells) or by loss of the additional Y chromosome in some primitive germ cells or spermatogonia and a proliferative advantage of the normal XY cells.

  17. Neuromyotonia: Clinical profile of twenty cases from northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagariya Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We are presenting 20 cases of the intriguing clinico-electromyographic entity, now considered a potassium channel disorder, Neuromyotonia. Our experience with the clinical manifestations, underlying abnormalities and response to various therapies is documented. Materials and Methods: Patients with diffuse pain or undulating muscle movements, with or without stiffness were sent for electromyographic and further studies. Patients with "neuromyotonic discharges" were included after exclusion of hypocalcaemia. Results: Our cases included 19 males and one female of age group 15 to 52 years, the majority being between 30 to 45 years. Undulating movements were seen in 19, of which two had focal twitching. Muscle stiffness was a complaint in five; pain was the chief presenting complaint of 19, which started in the calf in all. Irritability, insomnia and a peculiar worried pinched face were present in 12 patients. CSF was abnormal with mildly raised protein in eight. Curiously, 11 of these patients had taken ayurvedic treatment for various complaints in the preceding one month. Bell′s palsy was associated in four, peripheral neuropathy in two and residual poliomyelitis in two. Electromyographic evidence of spontaneous activity in the form of "neuromyotonic discharges" was seen in all. Antibodies to voltage gated potassium channels was tested in one patient and was positive (titer was 1028 pM. Membrane stabilizers (e.g., phenytoin sodium in our experience did not provide adequate rapid relief; we tried high-dose intravenous Methylprednisolone in 19 with significant amelioration of complaints. One patient was offered intravenous immunoglobulin, to which he responded. Conclusions: Neuromyotonia is a heterogeneous condition and can present in varied ways including diffuse nonspecific pain. This uncommon condition is potentially treatable and can be picked up with high index of suspicion.

  18. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Projection of male fantasies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2013-01-01

    -war period. Advocates of women's athletics interpreted competitive sports as perfect tools for women's conquest of male territory, whereas supporters of female gymnastics considered athletics to be an antidote to the health-promoting and graceful essence of femininity. Agnete Bertram was one of Lindhard......-1949) laid the foundation for the birth of exercise physiology in Scandinavia. In addition to his basic-level studies of physiology, Lindhard also became deeply involved in developing a theory of gymnastics that would bring a wide range of Danish gymnastics traditions onto a surer theoretical footing...

  1. [Urethrocele in males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Carriage for long time of urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinic, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrography confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrorrhaphy in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and sheet quality.

  2. The Twenty-Five Year Lick Planet Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Spronck, Julien F P

    2013-01-01

    The Lick planet search program began in 1987 when the first spectrum of $\\tau$ Ceti was taken with an iodine cell and the Hamilton Spectrograph. Upgrades to the instrument improved the Doppler precision from about 10 m/s in 1992 to about 3 m/s in 1995. The project detected dozens of exoplanets with orbital periods ranging from a few days to several years. The Lick survey identified the first planet in an eccentric orbit (70 Virginis) and the first multi-planet system around a normal main sequence star (Upsilon Andromedae). These discoveries advanced our understanding of planet formation and orbital migration. Data from this project helped to quantify a correlation between host star metallicity and the occurrence rate of gas giant planets. The program also served as a test bed for innovation with testing of a tip-tilt system at the coud{\\'e} focus and fiber scrambler designs to stabilize illumination of the spectrometer optics. The Lick planet search with the Hamilton spectrograph effectively ended when a heat...

  3. Anatomical Variations of the Circle of Willis in Males and Females on 3D MR Angiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawther A. Hafez, Nahla M. Afifi, Fardous Z. Saudi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present work was to study the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis as regard its component vessels and their average diameters in a sample of adult Egyptians and to detect any sex-related differences in these variations. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty adult patients were observed (60 males and 60 females. They all had problems unrelated to any ischemic or vascular diseases, so they were considered as healthy control, concerning the morphology of the circle of Willis. In addition, ten cadavers' brains were obtained from the Anatomy department, Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams University for examination of the circle of Willis and for detection of any variations. Results: The anatomical variations of the anterior part, posterior part and completeness of the circle were inspected. Also, the diameters of all component vessels were assessed. The results indicated that, the anterior part of the circle was completed in 70% males and 75% females of the study sample. No statistically significant difference was detected between sexes. The most common variant of the anterior part was the single anterior communicating artery followed by the hypoplastic or absent anterior communicating artery. The posterior part of the circle was completed in 44% males and 58% females. The most common variant was the bilateral posterior communicating arteries, followed by the unilateral posterior communicating artery. An entirely complete circle was found only in 45% of the entire population; and it was higher in the females than the in males. The vessels diameters were smaller in the females than in the males, except for the diameter of the posterior communicating artery. Cadavers' examination revealed six cases with complete circle, 3 cases of unilateral fetal posterior communicating and one case of absent posterior communicating artery. Conclusion: The present study showed the amazing great variability of the anatomy of

  4. Effects of Cow's Milk on Reproduction in ICR Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-XIA MA; NAOYUKI EBINE; KAZUO AOKI; MASAHIRO KUSUNOKI; JUNICHI MISUMI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Methods Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Results Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Conclusion Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  5. Abnormal expression of centrosome protein (centrin) in spermatozoa of male human infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To study the relations between male infertility and centrosome protein (centrin) and the functions of centrin in spermatogenesis, the matured spermatozoa of 10 normal male people and 18 male infertility patients were stained by immunofluorescence labeling antibody against centrin. The results showed that two fluorescence signal dots appeared in the normal male spermatozoa and were located at the base of flagellum. They are proximal centriole and distal centriole. However, in some spermatozoa of the male infertility, centrin protein was located abnormally at the base of flagellum and its staining signals were spread, the normal proximal and distal centrioles were confused and could not be recognized separately. These results suggest that abnormality of centrosome protein may be related to male infertility. This discovery may be used as a marker of abnormal sperm and male infertility.

  6. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  7. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  8. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  9. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  10. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L; Zalilah, M S; Phan, Y Y; Ang, M; Maznah, B; Norimah, A K

    2009-03-01

    Body image concerns are common among adolescents as they undergo rapid physical growth and body shape changes. Having a distorted body image is a risk factor for the development of disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate body image concerns among Malaysian male and female adolescents aged 11-15 years. A total of 2,050 adolescents (1,043 males and 1,007 females) with a mean age of 13.1 +/- 0.8 years from secondary schools in Kedah and Pulau Pinang were included in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic data and body image indicators. The majority (87 percent) of the adolescents were concerned with their body shape. While the majority of underweight, normal weight and overweight male and female subjects perceived their body weight status correctly according to their body mass index (BMI), a noteworthy proportion in each category misjudged their body weight. About 35.4 percent of the males and 20.5 percent of the females in the underweight category perceived themselves as having a normal weight, while 29.4 percent and 26.7 percent of the overweight males and females respectively also perceived that they had a normal weight. A higher proportion of the females (20 percent) than males (9 percent) with a normal BMI perceived themselves as fat. Most of the male (78-83 percent) and female subjects (69-74 percent) in all the BMI categories desired to be taller than their current height. An appreciable proportion of both the males (41.9 percent) and females (38.2 percent) preferred to remain thin, or even to be thinner (23.7 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females). Females had a significantly higher mean body dissatisfaction score than males, indicating their preference for a slimmer body shape. More males (49.1 percent) preferred a larger body size while more females (58.3 percent) idealised a smaller body size. Compared to normal weight and underweight subjects, overweight males and females

  11. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy ...

  12. Revisiting the Process of Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    1999-01-01

    Defines normalization and deviations in child development. Discusses the three different levels in the normalization process. Asserts that guiding the process of normalization should drive the practice of Montessori education. Concludes that whenever there are brief episodes of normalization, the true nature of the child shows itself. (JS)

  13. Normal Doppler velocimetry of renal vasculature in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cibele F; Chammas, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Renal diseases are common in older cats. Decreased renal blood flow may be the first sign of dysfunction and can be evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. But previous studies suggest that the resistive index (RI) has a low sensitivity for detecting renal disease. Doppler waveforms of renal and intrarenal arteries demonstrate decreased blood flow before there are any changes in the RI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal Doppler flowmetrics parameters of renal arteries (RAs), interlobar arteries (IAs) and abdominal aorta (AO) in adult healthy, Persian cats. Twenty-five Persian cats (13 females and 12 males with mean age of 30 months and an age range 12-60 months) with normal clinical examinations and biochemical tests and normal systemic blood pressure were given B-mode ultrasonographies in order to exclude all nephropathies, including polycystic kidney disease. All measurements were performed on both kidneys. Both kidneys (n=50) were examined by color mapping of the renal vasculature. Pulsed Doppler was used to examine both RAs, the IAs at cranial, middle and caudal sites, and the AO. The RI was calculated for all of the vessels. Early systolic acceleration (ESA) of RA and IA was obtained with Doppler spectral analysis. Furthermore, the ratio indices between RA/AO, and IA/RA velocities were calculated. The mean values of peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the diameter for AO were 53.17±13.46 cm/s and 0.38±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean RA diameter for all 50 kidneys was 0.15±0.02 cm. Considering the velocimetric values in both RAs, the mean PSV and RI that were obtained were 41.17±9.40 cm/s and 0.54±0.07. The RA had a mean ESA of 1.12±1.14 m/s(2) and the calculated upper limit of the reference value was 3.40 m/s(2). The mean renal-aortic ratio was 0.828±0.296. The IA showed PSV and RI values of 32.16±9.33 cm/s and 0.52±0.06, respectively. The mean ESA of all IAs was 0.73±0.61 m/s(2). The calculated upper limit of the reference value was 2.0m

  14. Protective effect of pomegranate flower extract against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Ferdos; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Noori-Diziche, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Mansouri, Azam; Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Shirdavani, Soheila; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gentamicin (GM) as an antibiotic is used in clinic. However, its administration is limited by side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Herbal extracts could be used in therapeutic approaches. Objectives: The present study was planned to investigate whether pomegranate flower extract (PFE) could ameliorate GM-induced renal toxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 respectively received PFE 25 and 50 mg/kg fo...

  15. Surgical treatment of pelvic sarcoma in children: outcomes for twenty six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Muayad; Womer, Richard B; Dormans, John P

    2017-07-27

    Pelvic sarcoma is uncommon in children and challenging to treat. This study examined different surgical approaches to treat pelvic sarcoma with the aim of assessing the oncologic, and functional outcomes. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent surgery for pelvic sarcoma at our institution from 1992 to 2010. The functional status of the patients was examined after a minimum follow-up of two years. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. Nineteen (73%) patients were male and seven (27%) were female. Mean age at presentation was 12.0 ± 3.9 years. Nineteen patients had Ewing sarcoma (73%), five had osteosarcoma (19%), one had chondrosarcoma (4%) and one had rhabdomyosarcoma (4%). Iliac wing resection with no reconstruction was done in three patients. Reconstruction with free fibular graft A-frame was performed in four patients, saddle endoproshtesis in five patients, iliac autoclave in one patient, and internal hemipelvectomy in nine patients. Hindquarter amputation was performed in five patients. Median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 2.6-16 years). Nineteen patients were alive (73%); of those, 13 were known to be without disease, three were with disease and three did not have known tumor status. Six patients were reported deceased, three had osteosarcoma and three had Ewing sarcoma. Function was assessed in 17 patients; 64% were asymptomatic and ambulatory and 36% were symptomatic and ambulatory. Salvage reconstruction for pelvic sarcoma can be performed through various procedures on the extent of necessary bony resection. Survival rate and functional outcomes were promising in the performed study.

  16. Normal transmitting boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖振鹏

    1996-01-01

    The multi-transmitting formula (MTF) governed by a single artificial speed is analytically developed into a generalized MTF governed by a few artificial speeds to improve its capacity in simultaneous simulation of several one-way waves propagating at different speeds.The generalized MTF is then discretized and further generalized using the space extrapolation to improve its accuracies in numerical simulation of transient waves at large angles of incidence.The above two successive generalizitions of MTF based on the notion of normal transmission lead to a compact formula of local non-reflecting boundary condition.The formula not only provides a general representation of the major schemes of existing local boundary conditions but can be used to generate new schemes,which combine advantages of different schemes.

  17. Evaluating the Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a little table-free C function that evaluates the normal distribution with absolute error less than 8 x 10 -16 . A small extension provides relative error near the limit available in double precision: 14 to 16 digits, the limits determined mainly by the computer's ability to evaluate exp(-t for large t. Results are compared with those provided by calls to erf or erfc functions, the best of which compare favorably, others do not, and all appear to be much more complicated than need be to get either absolute accuracy less than 10-15 or relative accuracy to the exp(-limited 14 to 16 digits. Also provided: A short history of the error function erf and its intended use, as well as, in the "browse files" attachment, various erf or erfc versions used for comparison.

  18. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  19. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E

    2015-01-01

    .... The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  20. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-05-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.

  1. Relationship between eating-behavior disorders and psychological parameters in male first-year physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Treuvelot, Patrick; Toumi, Hechmi

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the eating attitudes test, the bar-on emotional intelligence questionnaire, the coping inventory stress scale, and the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors' university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The bar-on EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention.

  2. The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid O. Abulnaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study focused on testing the hypolipidemic activity of two doses of barley bran on hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats weighing 180–200 gm were divided into four groups. The first group (G1 was the negative control, the second group (G2 was the positive control group fed 2% cholesterol in the diet, and rats of the third and the fourth groups were fed 2% cholesterol and were cosupplemented with 5% and 10% barley bran, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic rats of (G2 showed an increase in lipid profile, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, whereas kidney function, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin total protein, and total bilirubin were not significantly affected compared with the negative control group in G1. Moreover, histology of heart, liver, and kidney of G2 rats showed histopathological changes compared with the negative control. Administration of the two doses of barley bran in G3 and G4 to the hypercholesterolemic rats ameliorated the level of lipids, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney tissues nearly restored the normal state as in G1.

  3. Aging in the vestibular nuclear complex of the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): anatomic and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Suárez, C; Navarro, A; Díaz, C; Alvarez, J C; González del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of senescence on the vestibular nuclear complex twenty brainstems from male golden hamsters between 3 and 27 months-old were used and the possible variations in the number of neurons, neuronal morphology and nuclear volume were studied. The neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida and Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors was used to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution and a regression analysis was done to decide if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The results of the present study are relevant only for male animals and the effect of senescence could be different in female vestibular nuclear complex. Aging affects the volume of the superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, as well as the nuclear neuronal diameter of the medial vestibular nucleus, but no significant neuronal loss has been appreciated in vestibular nuclear complex related with age. During the aging process we have observed that the distribution of neurons within the vestibular nuclei of the golden hamster does not show important changes and most of their morphometric parameters do not vary significantly.

  4. [Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R; Badui, E; Narvaez, M G; Hurtado, R

    1986-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 36 cases of myocardial Infarction (MI) with normal coronary arteries, which had been obtained from a total of 538 patients with MI admitted to our Hospital in the last 3 years. All patients had coronary angiogram and left ventriculogram. The following data was reviewed: age, sex, coronary risk factors, clinical picture, short and long term follow up. The angiography findings were correlated. The average age of the patients was 42 years, 75% were male and 25% female. The 36 cases represent 7% of the total MI. Cigarette smoking was the only important risk factor. MI was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 94% of the cases. The ejection fraction was normal in 94%; 27.6% presented some complication during the acute event. In the long term follow; up to 88% of the patients are asymptomatic. The physiopathologic mechanisms are analyzed.

  5. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  6. Treatment results in males with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakisch, B. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Stoeger, H. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Poschauko, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Samonigg, H. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Bauernhofer, T. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Pojer, E. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Leitner, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Stuecklschweiger, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Peichl, K.H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, F. [Dept. of Statistics and Documentation, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria)

    1995-08-01

    Because cancer of the male breast is rare knowledge about its biology and behavior is essentially due to a compilation of pooled experiences. Hence, a continued report of cases appears to be important. Therefore a retrospective review of patients suffering from male breast cancer was carried out. Twenty-four evaluable cases were analyzed. Eight patients (1 patient with bilateral Stage I carcinoma was included) were in Stage I, 7 in Stage II, 2 in Stage IIIa, 4 in Stage IIIb, and 3 in Stage IV. Of 23 patients who were treated with mastectomy, 22 had modified radical mastectomy and postoperative irradiation to the chest wall as well as to the peripheral lymphatic areas in most cases. One patient underwent radical mastectomy. Another patient had an excision biopsy only, followed by irradiation. One of 24 patients received tamoxifen; another received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone (CMF) regimen in an adjuvant setting. Local recurrence developed in one of 23 (4%) patients treated with mastectomy and radiation therapy to the chest wall and peripheral lymphatics. Four (17%) patients developed distant metastases. The 5-year overall survival (Kaplan-Maier) was 90% for the entire group, 100% for patients in Stage I-III disease, and 60% in Stage IV disease (P = < 0.005). As observed in former reports the stage of disease at initial presentation seems to be a parameter that significantly contributes to survival in male breast cancer patients. To what extent improved local control by adequate local therapy, such as surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, may improve overall survival remains to be discussed. (orig.)

  7. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  8. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  9. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  10. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  11. Normal labour: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D

    2000-02-01

    Midwives practice within the normal childbirth paradigm. It is argued that midwives failure to define normality has allowed increasing technicalization and medicalization of the normal physiological process of birth because doctors so closely define abnormality. A concept analysis model is used to clarify what is meant by the term 'normal labour'; the emphasis being on understanding what normal labour is as it applies to midwifery practice today. This analysis highlights the importance of movement and the sequential nature of normal labour, and reveals how this is implicit within the other uses of both the words normal and labour. The final definition of normal labour offered is intended to be complimentary to existing medical determinants of progress of normal labour, because as the body of the text stresses, medical knowledge is fundamentally enmeshed in midwifery care.

  12. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male ... sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations ... fructose, glucose, erlose, melezitose) , amino acids, .... was measured using a meter rule.

  13. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  14. Human placental lactogen (hPL) deficiency in a normal pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    A case of human placental lactogen (hPL) deficiency together with normal oestriol levels associated with a normal pregnancy in a woman in her second pregnancy is reported. The woman gave birth to a healthy male infant. The placenta was normal. Extremely low hPL levels may be compatible with the delivery of a healthy infant.

  15. Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

  16. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  17. Normal and pathological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, B J; Rosof, L S

    2001-01-01

    The psychoanalytic literature on altruism is sparse, although much has been written on this topic from a sociobiological perspective. Freud (1917) first described the concept in "Libido Theory and Narcissism." In 1946 Anna Freud coined the term "altruistic surrender" to describe the psychodynamics of altruistic behavior in a group of inhibited individuals who were neurotically driven to do good for others. The usefulness and clinical applicability of this formulation, in conjunction with the frequent coexistence of masochism and altruism, encouraged psychoanalysts to regard all forms of altruism as having masochistic underpinnings. Since then, there has been a conflation of the two concepts in much of the analytic literature. This paper reexamines the psychoanalytic understanding of altruism and proposes an expansion of the concept to include a normal form. Five types of altruism are described: protoaltruism, generative altruism, conflicted altruism, pseudoaltruism, and psychotic altruism. Protoaltruism has biological roots and can be observed in animals. In humans, protoaltruism includes maternal and paternal nurturing and protectiveness. Generative altruism is the nonconflictual pleasure in fostering the success and/or welfare of another. Conflicted altruism is generative altruism that is drawn into conflict, but in which the pleasure and satisfaction of another (a proxy) is actually enjoyed. Pseudoaltruism originates in conflict and serves as a defensive cloak for underlying sadomasochism. Psychotic altruism is defined as the sometimes bizarre forms of caretaking behavior and associated self-denial seen in psychotic individuals, and often based on delusion. We consider Anna Freud's altruistic surrender to combine features of both conflict-laden altruism and pseudoaltruism. Two clinical illustrations are discussed.

  18. Surface normals and barycentric coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullineux Glen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal to a triangular parametric surface is investigated where the parameters used are barycentric coordinates. Formulae for the normal are obtained for non-rational and rational surfaces.

  19. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  20. PREVALENCE OF LATE POTENTIALS AND ARRHYTHMIAS IN NORMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUERSCHAPER, M; GONSKA, BD; BETHGE, KP

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study 79 symptom-free persons (41 females; 38 males) with an age range of 22-69 (mean 44) years were investigated by 48-h continuous ambulatory electrocardiography and by the signal-averaging ECG according to Simson's technique after having normal findings with echocardiography, sta

  1. EEG power spectral measurements comparing normal and "thatcherized" faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersenowies, Jorge; Marosi, Erzsebet; Cansino, Selene; Rodriguez, Mario

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we have made a broadband analysis to detect the electroencephalogram (EEG) frequencies that change selectively during the presentation of normal and "thatcherized" faces. Referential recordings to linked ears were obtained in 21 leads in 48 right-handed healthy male volunteers. Increase of delta power (1.75-3.91 Hz) was observed, related to the detection of distortion in faces at bifrontal and left temporoparietal cortex. The other bands had no contribution, when normal and modified faces were compared. These results support our hypothesis that a change in EEG power spectral may be related to discrimination between normal and thatcherized faces.

  2. Investigating the Overlap of Padua Inventory and Worry among Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shirinzadeh Dastgiri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n  The present study aimed to explore the relationship between worry and obsessive compulsive symptoms. We examined the correlations between the Padua Inventory (PI and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ to further explore the distinctiveness of the PI. "nMethod: Seventy-five subjects (n=40 male, n= 35 female were selected from Hafez Hospital (Iran for this study: the subjects included twenty-five patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, 25 with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and 25 normal participants. The PI and PSWQ were used in order to measure the obsessive beliefs and worry. "nResults: Results indicated a significant correlation between the PI scores and worry. The Results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the PI scores were able to differentiate OCD and GAD patients from normal people, however, it failed to differentiate between OCD and GAD patients. In addition, when the worry scores were controlled, the PI scores were able to differentiate between OCD and GAD patients . "nConclusion: The PI appears to be a useful measure for differentiating OCD patients and nonclinical OCD cases from normal people. However, its usefulness in differentiating between OCD patients and patients with anxiety disorder (GAD has not been supported by our findings.

  3. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  4. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  5. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  6. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Chan-Wei Jia; Yan-Min Ma; Li-Ying Zhou; Shu-Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that intect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia.Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed.A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 were HPV-pesitive (12.48%).Among 523 confirmed fertile males,only 35 were HPV-positive (6.70%),and two of them had multiple infections.Among 615 infertile males,107 were HPV-positive (17.4%),and 29 of them had multiple infections.Infertile males had a relatively high HPV infection rate compared with confirmed fertile males.Sperm progpessive motility (PR) and the normal morphology rate were significantly decreased in HPV-positive subjects.HPV-45,HPV-52,HPV-18,HPV-59 and HPV-16 infections were more frequently in infertile males.Hence,HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and rnorphology.HPV-45,HPV-52,HPV-18,HPV-59 and HPV-16 infection seems to be major risk factors.

  7. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  8. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-01-01

    . The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation....

  9. SEX RECOGNITION IN ZEBRA FINCH MALES RESULTS FROM EARLY EXPERIENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOS, DR

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated whether sexual imprinting plays a role in the recognition of the sex of conspecifics. Subjects were zebra finch males that had been raised with either normal pairs, white pairs or pairs of both morphs. They were tested for their preferences in six two-stimuli tests covering a

  10. Male fertility, obesity, and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Goulart Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Obesity has become a new worldwide health problem with significant impact not only on cardiovascular diseases but also on many other related disorders, highlighting infertility. Obesity may adversely affect male reproduction by endocrinologic, thermal, genetic, and sexual mechanisms. There is good evidence that obesity can be associated with reduced sperm concentrations, but studies about sperm motility, morphology, and DNA fragmentation have been less numerous and more conflicting. Although weight loss is the cornerstone of the treatment of obesity-related infertility, with promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles, bariatric surgery impact on male fertility is still unclear and until now there is not enough data to support the informed consent in this scenario. Physicians are encouraged to highlight possible positive and/or negative impacts concerning male capacity of fertilization when informing patients. A balanced judgment and a personalized case-by-case management with patient involvement in decisions are fundamental in this setting and indication of cryopreservation of semen samples should be considered in selected circumstances. Well-structured trials controlled for confounders including female factors and based on solid outcomes (ie, birth rates) must urgently come up to clarify this emerging scenario.

  11. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  12. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  13. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  14. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  15. Measuring Palatal Height in Normal Occlusion and Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarringhalam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the appearance of palatal height difference in orthodontic patients we decided to carry out this study.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine palatal height in persons with normal occlusion and different malocclusions (class I, II Div I and III and comp aring them with each other.Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional research, 240 subjects were selected. Sixty cases (30 girls and 30 boys with normal occlusion within 16-18 years old were selected inrandom cluster sampling from high schools in Mashhad. Examination technique was direct observation, lateral cephalometric radiography, impression and preparing study model for measuring. For every kind of malocclusion 60 young patients, 30 females and 30 males,within the range of 16-20 years old attended orthodontic treatment in private dental offices or Orthodontics Department of Mashhad Dental School .The examination technique was indirect observation, using lateral cephalometry selected of 5395 lateral cephalograms andrelated study models for measuring. Mean, min imum and maximum and height of the palate was initially determined and then normal occlusion was compared with every kind of malocclusion using SPSS statistical software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA andt-test (independent groups, and also Duncan test were used for comparison.Results: The ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between females in normal occlusion and different malocclusions (P=0.486. In boys the palatal height was significantly higher in class III males than class II and class Imalocclusions and the height of palate for normal boys is significantly higher than class I malocclusion (P<0.05. Comparison of other groups was not significantly different.In each group height of palate was significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001.Conclusion: From this research we concluded that palatal height is different in females and males

  16. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  17. Proceedings of the twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Twenty-first Workshop in Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, held at Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA, January 22-24, 1996. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions including: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling/hot-dry-rock, low enthalpy, fluid injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption, and well stimulation.

  18. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior.

  19. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  20. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The 1970s Nigeria witnessed oil boom which turns out to be a disaster to people ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of ..... that demand high intelligence, proper planning and long term preparation.

  1. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  2. Latino Males in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  3. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  4. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  5. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  6. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy.

  7. The Normal Color Vision Evaluated With FM 100-hue Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and twenty normal subjects (240 eyes) agedfrom 10 to 69 were tested with FM 100-hue test.They were divided into6 groups according to their age.It was shown that there were no statisti-cally significant difference in the total error score (TES) between the malesand females or between the right and left eyes,but there existed some rela-tionships between the TES and age.The total error score (TES) was thelowest in the 20-29 age group and increased gradually with aging.Theanalysis of the partial...

  8. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIMENSIONS OF NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY AND CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT IN INCARCERATED BOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nederlof; J.M. van der Ham; P.M.J.A. Dingemans; T.I. Oei

    2010-01-01

    The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personali

  9. Comparative Studies on the Changes of Microtubule Distribution and Reorganization During the Meiotic Stages of Development in Normal (IR36) and a Temperature/photoperiod Sensitive Male Sterile Line (Peiai 64S) of Rice (Oryza sativa)%水稻IR36及光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间微管骨架的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐是雄; 刘向东; 冯九焕; 卢永根

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the pattern of organization of microtubules in themeiotic stages of development of pollen (i.e. from pre-meiotic interphase to more or less metaphase Ⅰ) of a normal (IR36) and a temperature/photoperiod sensitive male sterile line (Peiai 64S) of rice were studied using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In IR36, from pre-meiotic interphase to metaphase Ⅰ, the pattern of microtubule distribution in the meiocytes underwent a series of changes. Some new organizational patterns of microtubules (that have not been described before) were observed during microsporogenesis, including the existence of a broad band of perinuclear microtubules at the diakinesis stage of development. The pattern of microtubule distribution in the meiocytes of the male sterile line, Peiai 64S, was quite different from that seen in IR36. In Peiai 64S, the microtubules showed abnormal patterns of distribution from pre-meiotic interphase to metaphase Ⅰ. For example the broad band of perinuclear microtubules seen at diakinesis in IR36 was much disorganized and loosened in Peiai 64S. The spindles formed were also very abnormal and different from the normal spindle. The appearance of abnormal microtubule distribution in the early stages of microsporogenesis may contribute to the malformation and ultimate abortion of pollen in Peiai 64S.%对水稻(OryzasativaL.)IR36及光温敏核雄性不育系培矮64S小孢子母细胞减数分裂期间微管骨架的变化的研究显示,微管在小孢子母细胞正常发育的情况下,每一个发育阶段(即造孢细胞时期、细线期、偶线期、粗线期、双线期、终变期、中期Ⅰ、后期Ⅰ)都出现不同的组织结构形态和分布。在IR36中,还发现了一些新的和特殊的微管组织结构和分布。主要包括:(1)在细线期,从核膜向胞质衍射的微管呈螺旋状,显示核具旋转功能;(2)在偶线期,微管的分布呈极性分布现象;(3)在终变期,核被一组微管形成

  10. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for 1 well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; 2 chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.

  11. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  12. Stereotypes concerning normal and handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S; Dyck, N; Kappes, B M

    1979-05-01

    Individuals' attitudes were assessed toward various groups of children. In study 1 the respondents were 65 male and female teachers from across the state of Kansas. In study 2 the respondents were 89 men and women in attendance at the 1978 International Conference of the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities. In both studies the evaluations of the labels "gifted children," "normal children," and "physically handicapped children" were found to be significantly more positive than the evaluations of the labels "mentally retarded children," "learning disabled children," and "emotionally disturbed children." These results seem to indicate that definite negative stereotypes are held toward the latter three groups of children. In study 1 these findings were found to occur generally regardless of the respondents' sex, age, educational level attained, and amount of previous mainstreaming experience.

  13. Higher dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On May 21 2008, Journal of Neuroscience published an online paper from the Institute of Neuroscience, the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, entitled "Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila." This work was done by Mr. LIU Tong, a doctoral candidate, and colleagues under the supervision of Dr. GUO Aike, and in collaboration with Dr. Jean-Francois Ferveur from France.

  14. Normal family of quasimeromorphic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Daochun(孙道椿); YANG; Lo(杨乐)

    2003-01-01

    The more general quasimeromorphic mappings are studied with the geometric method. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the normality of the family of quasimeromorphic mappings are discussed. We proved two inequalities on the covering surface and obtained some normal criteria on quasimeromorphic mappings with them. Obviously, these criteria hold for meromorphic functions.

  15. Surfaces parametrised by the normals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    the origin to the tangent plane and the surface is simply considered as the envelope of its family of tangent planes. Suppose we are given points and normals and we want a C^k-surface interpolating these data. The data gives the value and gradients of the support function at certain points (the given normals...

  16. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  17. Normal BGG solutions and polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, A; Hammerl, M

    2012-01-01

    First BGG operators are a large class of overdetermined linear differential operators intrinsically associated to a parabolic geometry on a manifold. The corresponding equations include those controlling infinitesimal automorphisms, higher symmetries, and many other widely studied PDE of geometric origin. The machinery of BGG sequences also singles out a subclass of solutions called normal solutions. These correspond to parallel tractor fields and hence to (certain) holonomy reductions of the canonical normal Cartan connection. Using the normal Cartan connection, we define a special class of local frames for any natural vector bundle associated to a parabolic geometry. We then prove that the coefficient functions of any normal solution of a first BGG operator with respect to such a frame are polynomials in the normal coordinates of the parabolic geometry. A bound on the degree of these polynomials in terms of representation theory data is derived. For geometries locally isomorphic to the homogeneous model of ...

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12, aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females; and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20, aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results: Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05. Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  20. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2017-03-06

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  3. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    .... Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ...

  4. Projection of drought hazards in China during twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulian; Wang, Yongli; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenbin; Jin, Shaofei; Han, Mingchen

    2017-06-01

    Drought is occurring with increased frequency under climate warming. To understand the behavior of drought and its variation in the future, current and future drought in the twenty-first century over China is discussed. The drought frequency and trend of drought intensity are assessed using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is calculated based on historical meteorological observations and outputs of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The simulation results of drought period, defined by PDSI class, could capture more than 90% of historical drought events. Projection results indicate that drought frequency will increase over China in the twenty-first century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the mid-twenty-first century (2021-2050), similar patterns of drought frequency are found under the three emission scenarios, and annual drought duration would last 3.5-4 months. At the end of the twenty-first century (2071-2100), annual drought duration could exceed 5 months in northwestern China as well as coastal areas of eastern and southern China under the RCP8.5 scenario. Drought is slightly reduced over the entire twenty-first century under the RCP2.6 scenario, whereas drought hazards will be more serious in most regions of China under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  5. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all situations, and individuals ...

  6. Twenty years later: The war did (not begin at Maksimir an anthropological analysis of the media narratives about a never ended football game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity

  7. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chan, Yick-Bun; Yew, Joanne Y; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Levine, Joel D; Kravitz, Edward A

    2010-11-23

    Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR) was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF) elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral responses towards

  8. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Fernández

    Full Text Available Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signals that elicit aggression remain unclear. Here we show that when female pheromones or behavior are masculinized, males recognize females as competitors and switch from courtship to aggression. To masculinize female pheromones, a transgene carrying dsRNA for the sex determination factor transformer (traIR was targeted to the pheromone producing cells, the oenocytes. Shortly after copulation males attacked these females, indicating that pheromonal cues can override other sensory cues. Surprisingly, masculinization of female behavior by targeting traIR to the nervous system in an otherwise normal female also was sufficient to trigger male aggression. Simultaneous masculinization of both pheromones and behavior induced a complete switch in the normal male response to a female. Control males now fought rather than copulated with these females. In a reciprocal experiment, feminization of the oenocytes and nervous system in males by expression of transformer (traF elicited high levels of courtship and little or no aggression from control males. Finally, when confronted with flies devoid of pheromones, control males attacked male but not female opponents, suggesting that aggression is not a default behavior in the absence of pheromonal cues. Thus, our results show that masculinization of either pheromones or behavior in females is sufficient to trigger male-to-female aggression. Moreover, by manipulating both the pheromonal profile and the fighting patterns displayed by the opponent, male behavioral

  9. Male Genitoplasty for Intersex Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate surgical procedures adopted for male genitoplasty in intersex disorders. Patients and Methods. Case records of intersex patients undergoing male genitoplasty from Pediatric Intersex clinic were studied. Results. Of 356 intersex cases undergoing urethroplasty from 1989–2007, the hypospadias was penoscrotal (68%), scrotal (17%) and perineal (15%). 351 patients underwent chordee correction for mild: moderate: severe chordee in 24 : 136 : 191 cases. Byars...

  10. Male Breast Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jin Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC of the breast is a rare condition, and cases in male patients are even less common. Case: We describe a case of ACC of the breast with axillary lymph node metastasis, disseminated osteolytic bone metastasis and bone marrow involvement in a 41-year-old man. Conclusion: Male breast ACC is an extremely rare malignancy; there can be difficulty in obtaining a final diagnosis. We report this case because of its rarity.

  11. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  12. Placental Growth during Normal Pregnancy - A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Lasse; Grønbeck, Lene; von Huth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    was 640 g (range 500-787 g). All pregnancies were carried to term, resulting in the delivery of healthy infants with good correlation between placental size and birth weight (R = 0.56, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Placental growth was measured systematically in a longitudinal study through the second and third......OBJECTIVE: To investigate normal human placental growth longitudinally throughout the second and third trimesters using MRI. METHODS: Twenty normal, first-time singleton pregnancies were scanned 7 times between the 14th and 38th week of gestation, at 4-week intervals, using MRI. Placental volumes...... were measured in both sagittal and transversal slices. All placentas were weighed after delivery to make a comparative study. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 20 women had increasing placental volumes from the 14th to 38th week of gestation. The 6th and 7th scan showed that 4 women had placentas of the same...

  13. Normal families of meromorphic functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-wei; WANG Yong-jun

    2007-01-01

    A normal theorem concerning meromorphic functions sharing values was proved with the method of Zalcman-Pang.The theorem is as follows.If for each f in F,all zeros of f-a have multiplicity at least k(k≥2),f and its k-th derivative function share a,and if f=b whenever its k-th denvative equal b,then F is normal in D.This theorem improved the result of Chen and Fang[Chen HH,Fang ML,Shared values and normal families of meromorphic functions,Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,2001,260:124-1 32].

  14. Proximal hypospadias in a male patient with 5α-reductase deficiency: A case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Basuguy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypospadias is a congenital disorder of male external genital. The newborn showed penoscrotal hypospadias with chordee and microphallus. Endocrine data and a normal male karyotype were suggestive of 5α-reductase deficiency. Penoscrotalhypospadias repair of the patient was made.

  15. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free

  16. Dialogues with Tradition: Feminist-Queer Encounters in German Crime Stories at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pieke Biermann’s feminist crime collection Mit Zorn, Charme, und Methode (1992 and Lisa Kuppler’s gay and lesbian anthology Queer Crime (2002 engage in a common project, the rewriting of a popular genre to give voice to previously marginalized identities and perspectives. This article investigates the ways in which each volume negotiates the gendered conventions of crime fiction and its subcategories, feminist and queer crime. A comparative analysis of three mysteries from each collection demonstrates the converging and diverging tendencies of feminist and queer representation in turn-of-the-twenty-first century crime narratives. Feminist mysteries by Edith Kneifl, Birgit Rabisch, and Barbara Neuhaus shift generic conventions by aligning narrative perspectives with a feminist world view that destabilizes male-dominated structures through the intervention of a strong female figure who successfully closes the case. By contrast, queer mysteries by Thea Dorn, Ursula Steck, and Susanne Billig destabilize generic conventions and structures of identity altogether, highlighting misreadings and unsolved mysteries through parody, double entendre, and open endings.

  17. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  18. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  19. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  20. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  1. AGE IN NORMAL HUMAN PREGNANCY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Normal human pregnancy (PREG) predisposes towards gestational age (GA) ... These results potently suggest that the HH changes observed in this study are of advantage to ... changes of physiological functions affecting all body.

  2. Fedosov supermanifolds: II. Normal coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The study of recently introduced Fedosov supermanifolds is continued. Using normal coordinates, properties of even and odd symplectic supermanifolds endowed with a symmetric connection respecting given sympletic structure are studied.

  3. Normality Criteria of Meromorphic Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiong; Yuan Wen-jun; Chen Wei; Tian Hong-gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider normality criteria for a family of meromorphic functions concerning shared values. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions defined in a domain D, m, n, k and d be four positive integers satisfying m≥n+2 and d≥ k+1m−n−1 , and a(̸=0), b be two finite constants. Suppose that every f ∈F has all its zeros and poles of multiplicity at least k and d, respectively. If (fn)(k)−afm and (gn)(k)−agm share the value b for every pair of functions (f, g) of F, then F is normal in D. Our results improve the related theorems of Schwick (Schwick W. Normality criteria for families of meromorphic function. J. Anal. Math., 1989, 52:241–289), Li and Gu (Li Y T, Gu Y X. On normal families of meromorphic functions. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 2009, 354: 421–425).

  4. The Effects of the Air Cast Sports Stirrup on Postural Sway in Normal Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PAI Paula Sammarone, MA, ATC Date Rangos School of Health Sciences I Director, Athletic Training Duquesne University I Pittsburgh, PA I...sprain occurs, tearing of the ligaments also occur, which results in de- afferentization of the articular nerves (20). 1 Several treatment modalities...intermediate ranges. Articular nerve fibers have lower tensile strength than collagen fibers (21). Since most inversion injuries of the ankle result in some

  5. Immoral, deviant, or just normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research often relates driving under the influence (DUI) to alcohol addiction and young drunk drivers, in particular, to social deviance. Based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers, this article studies the relationship between drinking and DUI. The article focus...... themselves and their relationship between drinking and DUI as normal. The article thus concludes that while some drunk drivers view themselves in line with popular conceptions of DUI, others distance themselves from these associations so as to present themselves as normal....

  6. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  7. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  8. Testosterone replacement therapy in obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewa, Tomasz; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Chlosta, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Controversy surrounds testosterone replacement therapy in obese ageing due to no generally accepted lower limits of normal testosterone level and high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the ageing male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Late onset hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age, often coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome. High fat and carbohydrates (fructose) consumption is responsible for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome which is one of risk factors for hypogonadism in older men. High fructose intake has been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Obesity and lack of physical activity negatively influence testosterone level. Low testosterone level should be regarded as an effect of obesity, but reverse relationship has not been proved yet. The management of late-onset hypogonadism symptoms has to be treated by a change of a life style and prevented with healthy nutrition and physical activity. The question related to rational indications for testosterone replacement therapy in obese males seems to be still actual.

  9. Motion analysis of Chinese normal knees during gait based on a novel portable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yao, Zilong; Wang, Shaobai; Huang, Wenhan; Ma, Limin; Huang, Huayang; Xia, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Normative tibiofemoral data of Chinese or Asian subjects during gait is rarely reported. This study is aimed at investigating the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee kinematics of adult Chinese during gait, based on a novel portable system. Twenty-eight healthy Chinese subjects (56 knees) were studied during their treadmill gaits. A set of optical marker clusters were attached to the thighs and shanks of each subject, who was tracked by an optical joint kinematics measurement system. Knee landmarks were initially digitized with respect to the marker cluster sets to determine the local coordinate systems for calculation of 6DOF knee joint kinematics. The range of motion (ROM) in 6DOF and 5 kinematic parameters were calculated and compared between bilateral knees and genders. We discovered that knee rotations, as well as motion in proximodistal and mediolateral translations, showed similar patterns in flexion and extension. However, the anteroposterior translations did not show a clear pattern. The results of ROM in 6DOF obtained in this study are comparable with those reported in existing literature. No statistical difference was found between left and right knees either in the ROMs or in the 5 kinematic parameters. However, the ROM in the mediolateral direction during gait was found to be higher in men than women (P=0.014). In addition, the femurs of female subjects rotated more internally than the femurs of male during the stance phase (P=0.011). We concluded that normal Chinese knees exhibited distinct gait patterns, except for anteroposterior motion. Women and men exhibit different axial rotations and mediolateral translation patterns during their treadmill gait.

  10. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  11. Dietary Phosphate Restriction Normalizes Biochemical and Skeletal Abnormalities in a Murine Model of Tumoral Calcinosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M; Gray, Amie K; Allen, Matthew R; Econs, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    ...) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal), and 1.65% (high...

  12. The sperm penetration test (P-test) can predict fecundability in the male partner from infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A;

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-one consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital in the period from November 1977 to June 1985. The male partners were evaluated in two ways: the classical semen analysis, and the ability of sperm to penetrate fresh hen egg white...

  13. Morphology, testes development and behaviour of unusual triploid males in microchromosome-carrying clones of Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamatsch, D K; Stöck, M; Fuchs, R; Döbler, M; Wacker, R; Parzefall, J; Schlupp, I; Schartl, M

    2010-11-01

    In a microchromosome-carrying laboratory stock of the normally all-female Amazon molly Poecilia formosa triploid individuals were obtained, all of which spontaneously developed into males. A comparison of morphology of the external and internal insemination apparatus and the gonads, sperm ploidy and behaviour, to laboratory-bred F(1) hybrids revealed that the triploid P. formosa males, though producing mostly aneuploid sperm, are partly functional males that differ mainly in sperm maturation and sexual motivation from gonochoristic P. formosa males.

  14. Microarray expression profiling in adhesion and normal peritoneal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Dana R; Golden, Alicia M; Gell, Jennifer S; Saed, Ghassan M; Carey, David J; Diamond, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    To identify molecular markers associated with adhesion and normal peritoneal tissue using microarray expression profiling. Comparative study. University hospital. Five premenopausal women. Adhesion and normal peritoneal tissue samples were obtained from premenopausal women. Ribonucleic acid was extracted using standard protocols and processed for hybridization to Affymetrix Whole Transcript Human Gene Expression Chips. Microarray data were obtained from five different patients, each with adhesion tissue and normal peritoneal samples. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for confirmation using standard protocols. Gene expression in postoperative adhesion and normal peritoneal tissues. A total of 1,263 genes were differentially expressed between adhesion and normal tissues. One hundred seventy-three genes were found to be up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated in the adhesion tissues compared with normal peritoneal tissues. The genes were sorted into functional categories according to Gene Ontology annotations. Twenty-six up-regulated genes and 11 down-regulated genes were identified with functions potentially relevant to the pathophysiology of postoperative adhesions. We evaluated and confirmed expression of 12 of these specific genes via polymerase chain reaction. The pathogenesis, natural history, and optimal treatment of postoperative adhesive disease remains unanswered. Microarray analysis of adhesions identified specific genes with increased and decreased expression when compared with normal peritoneum. Knowledge of these genes and ontologic pathways with altered expression provide targets for new therapies to treat patients who have or are at risk for postoperative adhesions. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood Pressure Levels in Male Carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    (122 mmHg versus 115; p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (77 mmHg versus 72; pgroups. Metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in CT-carriers than in CC-carriers (P... found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima...

  16. Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ke; Yang, Fang; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem, affecting men and women about equally. Mouse genetic studies demonstrate that more than 200 genes specifically or predominantly regulate fertility. However, few genetic causes of infertility in humans have been identified. Here, we focus on the regulation of male fertility by X-linked, germ cell-specific genes. Previous genomic studies reveal that the mammalian X chromosome is enriched for genes expressed in early spermatogenesis. Recent genetic studies in mice show that X-linked, germ cell-specific genes, such as A-kinase anchor protein 4 (Akap4), nuclear RNA export factor 2 (Nxf2), TBP-associated factor 7l (Taf7l), and testis-expressed gene 11 (Tex11), indeed play important roles in the regulation of male fertility. Moreover, we find that the Taf7l Tex11 double-mutant males exhibit much more severe defects in meiosis than either single mutant, suggesting that these 2 X-linked genes regulate male meiosis synergistically. The X-linked, germ cell-specific genes are particularly attractive in the study of male infertility in humans. Because males are hemizygous for X-linked genes, loss-of-function mutations in the single-copy X-linked genes, unlike in autosomal genes, would not be masked by a normal allele. The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men.

  17. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  18. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  19. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  20. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  1. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  2. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  3. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    political and ecological aspirations, rather than by a sound analysis of State practice. State practice during non-international armed conflicts does...Chipka were visited in the English Channel, the German Las Palmas twenty-two nautical miles south of Cape Vicent and the German Archsum fifty-four

  4. 22 CFR 181.5 - Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements. 181.5 Section 181.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND..., including the Department of State, that concludes an international agreement within the meaning of the Act...

  5. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  6. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  7. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  8. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  9. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  10. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunitie

  11. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  12. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  13. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  14. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  15. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  16. Land and Freedom [Twenty Lessons for High School American Studies Classroom Instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Stan

    Twenty self-contained lessons about land and freedom feature activities that can be used with high school social studies classes. The lessons are: Indian Land Ownership, The Dutch and the New World, Colonial Mercantilism, the Declaration and Natural Rights, Jefferson and Liberty, Louisiana Purchase, the Tariff Issue of 1824, Panic of 1837, John…

  17. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  18. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  19. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  20. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  1. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  2. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  3. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  4. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  5. Twenty-One: cross-language disclosure and retrieval of multimedia documents on sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, ter W.G.; Beijert, J.-H.; Bruin, de G.; Gent, van J.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Netter, K.; Smart, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Twenty-One project brings together environmental organisations, technology providers and research institutes from several European countries. The main objective of the project is to make documents on environmental issues—in particular, on the subject of sustainable development—available on CD-RO

  6. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  7. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  8. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  9. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  10. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  11. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  12. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  13. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  14. Focus Issue on Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009 has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.

  15. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  16. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  17. Familial aspects of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, K; Pillard, R C; Horvath, C; Revelle, W; Bailey, J M

    2000-04-01

    Research has generally supported the existence of familial-genetic factors for male sexual orientation, but has not shed much light on the specific nature of those influences. Gay men with gay brothers provide the opportunity to examine several hypotheses. Sixty-six men, representing 37 gay male sibling pairs, completed questionnaires assessing behavior on various measures including childhood and adult gender nonconformity, timing of awareness of homosexual feelings, self-acceptance, and the quality of family relationships. Consistent with prior findings using twins, gay brothers were similar in their degree of childhood gender non-conformity, suggesting that this variable may distinguish etiologically (e.g., genetically) heterogeneous subtypes. The large majority of gay men with brothers knew about their own homosexual feelings before they learned about their brothers' homosexual feelings, suggesting that discovery of brothers' homosexuality is not an important cause of male homosexuality.

  18. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Computerized tomographic study of normal Evans index in adult Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umdagas Hamidu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evaluation of degree of ventricular enlargement should be based on established indices rather than on personal experience as this is highly subjective. Our aim was to establish normal values for Evans index in a Nigerian adult population as none has been found in the Nigerian medical literature. Materials and Methods: Axial computerized tomographic brain scans of 488 normal subjects were reviewed retrospectively. Of them, 319 (65.36% of the patients were males and 169 (34.63% were females; their ages ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean age of 37.26 years. The images were acquired using a multi-slice GE Sigma excite scanner. Evans index was measured as the linear ratio of the total width of the frontal horns of the cerebral lateral ventricles to the maximum intracranial diameter. Results: The mean value for Evans index for the studied population was 0.252 ± 0.04. The EI increased with age and it was slightly higher among males. The difference in Evans value in males and females was not statistically significant. Individuals above 60 years old had the highest Evans values in both sexes. Conclusion: This study has established ranges of normal value for Evans index in a Nigerian population. It agrees with the diagnostic cut-off value of > 0.3 for hydrocephalus and it compares well with that of the Caucasians.

  20. Male perceptions of female attractiveness: the effects of targets' personal attributes and subjects' degree of masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, B L; Gynther, M D

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the degree of sexist beliefs held toward women by male subjects and their perceptions of attractiveness of females described as possessing either masculine or feminine personality characteristics. One hundred twenty-two undergraduate males were given the Macho Scale, the Auburn University Personal Behavior Summary, a biodata sheet, and were asked to judge previously rated photographs of women along a dimension of attractiveness. Results demonstrated that males perceived physically unattractive and average females described as affectionate and compassionate as more attractive than similarly rated females described as independent and assertive. High Macho subjects viewed females as less attractive than low Macho subjects. Physical attractiveness of the male subjects was largely unrelated to their ratings of the females.

  1. Groupoid normalizers of tensor products

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng; White, Stuart A; Wiggins, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    We consider an inclusion $B\\subseteq M$ of finite von Neumann algebras satisfying $B'\\cap M\\subseteq B$. A partial isometry $v\\in M$ is called a groupoid normalizer if $vBv^*, v^*Bv\\subseteq B$. Given two such inclusions $B_i\\subseteq M_i$, $i=1,2$, we find approximations to the groupoid normalizers of $B_1 \\vnotimes B_2$ in $M_1\\vnotimes M_2$, from which we deduce that the von Neumann algebra generated by the groupoid normalizers of the tensor product is equal to the tensor product of the von Neumann algebras generated by the groupoid normalizers. Examples are given to show that this can fail without the hypothesis $B_i'\\cap M_i\\subseteq B_i$, $i=1,2$. We also prove a parallel result where the groupoid normalizers are replaced by the intertwiners, those partial isometries $v\\in M$ satisfying $vBv^*\\subseteq B$ and $v^*v, vv^*\\in B$.

  2. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  3. Brain damage and semantic category dissociations: is the animals category easier for males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stefania; Laiacona, Marcella; Capitani, Erminio

    2010-08-01

    Semantic dissociations show that biological stimuli present a further dissociation between animals and plant life. Almost all cases of greater impairment of plant life knowledge were males, suggesting a higher male familiarity with animals possibly derived from different daily activities. To verify this hypothesis, we collected familiarity ratings for normal males and females, for 288 animals, subdivided according to whether they were hunted/fished, or were used as food. The overall familiarity was almost identical between males and females. Males were more familiar with hunted animals, but for them also food animals were more familiar. There was not a consistent effect of hunting/fishing independently of the food/not food classification. The claim that males are generally more proficient with animals knowledge because most hunters/fishers are males seems rather simplistic, and the familiarity structure of the animals category is more complex. An evolution-based account is suggested for the category by sex interaction.

  4. Indonesian Fan Girls’ Perception towards Soft Masculinity as Represented By K-pop Male Idols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine how fan girls perceive this new form of masculinity represented by K-pop male idols (termed as soft masculinity. This research used a mixed method in collecting the data from a questionnaire distributed via e-mail and Line to twenty fan girls from various fandoms in April 2016. The result shows that the respondents are aware that in the entertainment business, gender identity can be modified and presented as a part of marketing strategy. In addition, they only see the soft masculinity delivered by K-pop male idols as a form of performance.

  5. Male genital trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  6. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  7. Protective effects of erdosteine against nephrotoxicity caused by gamma radiation in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, A A; Ibrahim, I M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of erdosteine against gamma radiation-induced renal lesions in male albino rats. Twenty-eight albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy), treated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week), and treated irradiated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week, then exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy). The results revealed that the administration of erdosteine to rats before irradiation significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in kidney function (creatinine and urea) compared with irradiated group. Also the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6 activities were markedly improved compared with the corresponding values of irradiated group. Kidney catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione concentration showed approximately normal level when compared with the irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of renal lesions in irradiated group, while in treated irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture. Erdosteine acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorate the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological changes and might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damage.

  8. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  9. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  10. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  11. Investigation of normal flatus production in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, J; Lowis, C; Read, N W

    1991-01-01

    Flatulence can cause discomfort and distress but there are few published data of normal patterns and volumes. Twenty four hour collections were made using a rectal catheter in 10 normal volunteers taking their normal diet plus 200 g baked beans. Total daily volume ranged from 476 to 1491 ml (median 705 ml). Women and men (both n = 5) expelled equivalent amounts. The median daily flatus hydrogen volume was 361 ml/24 h (range 42-1060) and the carbon dioxide volume 68 ml/24 h (range 25-116), three volunteers produced methane (3, 26, and 120 ml/24 h), and the remaining unidentified gas (presumably nitrogen) or gases contributed a median 213 ml/24 h (range 61-476). Larger volumes of flatus were produced after meals than at other times. Flatus produced at a faster rate tended to contain more fermentation gases. Flatus was produced during the sleeping period, but the rate was significantly lower than the daytime rate (median 16 and 34 ml/h respectively). Ingestion of a 'fibre free' diet (Fortisip) for 48 hours significantly reduced the total volume collected in 24 hours (median 214 ml/24 h), reduced the carbon dioxide volume (median 6 ml/24 h), and practically eradicated hydrogen production. The volume of unidentified gas was not significantly affected (median 207 ml/24 h). Thus fermentation gases make the highest contribution to normal flatus volume. A 'fibre free' diet eliminates these without changing residual gas release of around 200 ml/24 h. PMID:1648028

  12. Simultaneous detection of HBV and HCV by multiplex PCR normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To design and establish a method of multiplex PCR normalization for simultaneously detecting HBV and HCV.METHODS: Two pairs of primers with a 20 bp joint sequence were used to amplify the target genes of HBV and HCV by two rounds of amplification. After the two rounds of amplification all the products had the joint sequence. Then the joint sequence was used as primers to finish the last amplification. Finally multiplex PCR was normalized to a single PCR system to eliminate multiplex factor interference. Four kinds of nucleic acid extraction methods were compared and screened. A multiplex PCR normalization method was established and optimized by orthogonal design of 6 key factors. Then twenty serum samples were detected to evaluate the validity and authenticity of this method.RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic index and efficiency were 83.3%, 70%, 153.3% and 72.2%,respectively for both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive patients,and were 78.6%, 80%, 258.6% and 79.2%, respectively for HBsAg positive patients, and were 75%, 90%, 165%and 83.3%, respectively for anti-HCV positive patients.CONCLUSION: The multiplex PCR normalization method shows a broad prospect in simultaneous amplification of multiple genes of different sources. It is practical, correct and authentic, and can be used to prevent and control HBV and HCV.

  13. Mechanical stratigraphy and normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Hill, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stratigraphy encompasses the mechanical properties, thicknesses, and interface properties of rock units. Although mechanical stratigraphy often relates directly to lithostratigraphy, lithologic description alone does not adequately describe mechanical behavior. Analyses of normal faults with displacements of millimeters to 10's of kilometers in mechanically layered rocks reveal that mechanical stratigraphy influences nucleation, failure mode, fault geometry, displacement gradient, displacement distribution, fault core and damage zone characteristics, and fault zone deformation processes. The relationship between normal faulting and mechanical stratigraphy can be used either to predict structural style using knowledge of mechanical stratigraphy, or conversely to interpret mechanical stratigraphy based on characterization of the structural style. This review paper explores a range of mechanical stratigraphic controls on normal faulting illustrated by natural and modeled examples.

  14. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  15. Glaucoma de pressão normal Normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maynart Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O glaucoma de pressão normal é neuropatia óptica caracterizada por diminuição da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, aumento da relação escavação/disco e defeito de campo visual, porém sem evidência de aumento da pressão intra-ocular. Os pacientes com glaucoma de pressão normal constituem um grupo heterogêneo em que várias condições sistêmicas podem ser encontradas e apresentam sinais clínicos oculares somente facilmente identificados nos estágios muito avançados da doença. E seu tratamento apresenta desafios maiores do que os existentes no tratamento dos glaucomas hipertensivos. O presente texto propõe uma revisão da patogênese e do diagnóstico diferencial, discutindo os aspectos vasculares, reumáticos, neurológicos e genéticos que devem ser investigados, assim como do tratamento dessa doença. Os autores pesquisaram os bancos de dados do PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane Library (CENTRAL.Normal tension glaucoma is an optic neuropathy in which the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is reduced, the optic nerve is pathologically excavated, and the visual field is disturbed, although intraocular pressure is classified as normal. Patients with normal tension glaucoma are a heterogeneous group in which many systemic pathologic conditions may be present, and presenting ocular clinical signs that are difficult to be identified in the early stages of the disease. Treatment is more challenging than in hypertensive glaucomas. The authors sought to review the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of this condition assessing vascular, rheumatic, neurological and genetic aspects that should be studied, as well as its treatment. The sources of references are PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL databases.

  16. Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2011-01-01

    Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen. Mikroskop......Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen...

  17. Asymptotic Normality of Quadratic Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, James; Li, Lingling; Tchetgen, Eric; van der Vaart, Aad

    2016-12-01

    We prove conditional asymptotic normality of a class of quadratic U-statistics that are dominated by their degenerate second order part and have kernels that change with the number of observations. These statistics arise in the construction of estimators in high-dimensional semi- and non-parametric models, and in the construction of nonparametric confidence sets. This is illustrated by estimation of the integral of a square of a density or regression function, and estimation of the mean response with missing data. We show that estimators are asymptotically normal even in the case that the rate is slower than the square root of the observations.

  18. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  19. Prospective evaluation of early postoperative male and female sexual function after radical prostatectomy with erectile nerves preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, S-N; Wirth, G J; Mayor, G; Rollini, C; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Iselin, C E

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening has led to the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer in increasingly young and sexually active men. Accordingly, the impact of cancer treatment on sexual function is gaining more attention. To prospectively evaluate the impact of radical prostatectomy (RP) on male, female and conjugal sexual function. Patients were prospectively assessed by an urologist and a sexologist before and 6 months after robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALP). RALP was performed with uni- or bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation by a single surgeon. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed tadalafil 20 mg, 3 times a week during 6 months. Male and female sexual functions were evaluated by using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT). Continuous variables were analyzed with rank-sum and t-tests, as needed, and categorical variables with chi-squared tests. All tests were two-sided, with a P-value ⩽ 0.05 considered significant. Twenty-one couples were included. Mean patient male and female age was 62.4 and 60.7 years, respectively. Bilateral nerve sparing was performed in 12/21 (57%) patients. Median preoperative IIEF-5 was 20/25, corresponding to mild erectile dysfunction (ED). Median preoperative FSFI and MAT were both within normal range (28/36 and 114/158, respectively). Six months following surgery, both IIEF-5 (11/25) and FSFI (25/36) had significantly dropped (P=0.007 and 0.003, respectively). Postoperative decreases in IIEF-5 and FSFI scores were associated within couples. MAT scores (115/158), however, remained unaffected by RALP, showing an unmodified relationship satisfaction postoperatively. Finally, bilateral nerve sparing surgery preserved not only male but also female sexual function. This study shows that the expected short-term post-RALP ED is associated with a worsening of female sexual function, whereas nerve sparing surgery has a

  20. Male breast cancer: a report of 127 cases at a Moroccan institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijami Fouad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease representing less than 1% of all malignancies in men and only 1% of all incident breast cancers. Our study details clinico-pathological features, treatments and prognostic factors in a large Moroccan cohort. Findings One hundred and twenty-seven patients were collected from 1985 to 2007 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco. Median age was 62 years and median time for consultation 28 months. The main clinical complaint was a mass beneath the areola in 93, 5% of the cases. Most patients have an advanced disease. Ninety-one percent of tumors were ductal carcinomas. Management consisted especially of radical mastectomy; followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy. The median of follow-up was 30 months. The evolution has been characterized by local recurrence; in twenty two cases (17% of all patients. Metastasis occurred in 41 cases (32% of all patients. The site of metastasis was the bone in twenty cases; lung in twelve cases; liver in seven case; liver and skin in one case and pleura and skin in one case. Conclusion Male breast cancer has many similarities to breast cancer in women, but there are distinct features that should be appreciated. Future research for better understanding of this disease at national or international level are needed to improve the management and prognosis of male patients.

  1. The interrelationship between genes, microprolactinoma and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Walter Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease. This paper takes into account new paediatric hormonal and other evidence which has accumulated in the past two decades concerning the causation of male homosexuality or bisexuality. It includes indirect genetic influence which has now been shown to be present. It also includes the implications of infant male breast development in regard to sexuality. It is asserted that the major cause of male homosexuality is due to failure of masculinisation of the male brain due to temporary but critical prolactin secretion from microprolactinoma present in their pituitary glands. Genes appear to be involved in the production of these tumours and sometimes in their demise. The assessment of their numbers at any one time in infancy has not been correctly addressed. Secondly, there is absolutely compulsive evidence concerning increased male infant breast development and the true nature of "Witch's Milk" and how it is produced and the profound implications of its presence in male neonates. It adds much persuasion to the causation of male homosexuality as enunciated in this paper. Measurement of testosterone levels at exactly and precisely the right time, are able to predict homosexual or bisexual development in adults. This knowledge would be of great help to parents.

  2. Inhibiting Vitamin A Metabolism As An Approach To Male Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Amory, John K.; Michael D Griswold

    2011-01-01

    While oral contraceptives have been available to women since the 1960s, contraceptive options for men have remained limited. Spermatogenesis relies on the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid, to drive spermatogonial differentiation and to allow the production of normal numbers of sperm. Recent evidence describes how the enzymes which control vitamin A metabolism in the testis could be targeted to generate effective male contraceptives; however, the detailed mechanism(s) regarding ho...

  3. Pituitary gonodal axis in fertile and infertile human males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Mahmoud, K.Z.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1984-08-01

    Radioimmunoassays of serum PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol were performed in normal fertile subjects and infertile patients. The findings in the fertile group suggest that prolactin in human males has a role in steroidogenesis. Oligospermic and azospermic patients revealed hormonal patterns which were significantly higher than in the fertile group. Hyperprolactinemia was found in most cases of both infertile groups indicating that PRL has a significant role.

  4. Novel concepts in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine.

  5. Gay Male Fantasies and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Gregory K.

    1978-01-01

    In this study of 47 gay men, it was found that early sexual fantasies preceded interpersonal sexual experience by an average of four years and functioned as a source of self-knowledge. Current affectional and fantasy themes were related to respondents' lifestyles or desire for a male affectional relationship. (Author/WI)

  6. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  7. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  8. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located ... goat) and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female ...

  9. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  10. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia D’Amelio; Giovanni Carlo Isaia

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population.

  11. Zinc balance of twenty healthy elderly subjects consuming self-selected diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.; Prather, E.S.; Rhodes, D.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary zinc (Zn) intake and balance were determined in ten male and ten female free-living, healthy, elderly subjects on self-selected diets over a period of seven consecutive days. Zn content in the diet, fecal and urine composites for each subject was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean age for the 20 participants was 73.9 years. Mean Zn intakes were 8.9 and 23.3 mg/day for females and males, respectively. Female dietary intakes ranged from 8.2 to 26.8 mg Zn/day. However, three of the males took Zn supplements which extended the total intake range to 64.9 mg/day. Mean Zn balances were +0.1 and +5.1 mg/day for females and males, respectively; ranges for females were {minus}0.1 to +4.3 mg/day and for males were {minus}7.3 to +15.1 mg/day. The 1989 RDAs are 15 mg for males and 12 mg for females. Only three females consumed more than 12 mg Zn/day. Only 2 males consumed more than 15 mg/day from their diet; two other males consumed more than 15 mg due to Zn supplements. Total dietary phytate (TDP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were calculated from the 7-day weighed food records. Mean TDP intake for females was 1,159 mg/day; mean TDP for the males was 1,661 mg/day. Mean TDF intake for females was 19 g/day; mean TDF for males was 30 g/day.

  12. Klinefelter syndrome and its association with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Ramakrishnan; S GowthamKumar; RadhaPandiyan

    2014-01-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in which there is at least one extraX chromosome.Males normally have anX chromosome and aY chromosome(XY).But males who haveKlinefelter syndrome have an extraX chromosome(XXY), giving them a total of47 instead of the normal46 chromosomes.Sex chromosome abnormalities are more frequently associated with male infertility.The prevalence ofXXYs has risen from1.09 to1.72 per1000 male births.A patient attended to fertility and genetic clinic, during the clinical diagnosis we found the following complaints of loss of secondary sexual characteristics and infertility.Physical examination revealed breast development, thin built, small size testes, and absence of beard and pubic hairs.Karyotype and biochemical analysis were performed to detect chromosomal abnormality as well as hormonal level to confirm the diagnosis ofKlinefelter's syndrome.Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the constitutional karyotype of47,XXY.Using karyotype the presence of extraX chromosome was confirmed, supporting the cytogenetic finding.The47,XXY syndrome is relatively uncommon and can be missedclinically because of its variable clinical presentations. Accurate diagnosis of this constitutional karyotype provides a valuable aid in the counselling and early management of the patients who undertake fertility evaluation.

  13. Klinefelter syndrome and its association with male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ramakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter's syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome. Males normally have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome (XY. But males who have Klinefelter syndrome have an extra X chromosome (XXY, giving them a total of 47 instead of the normal 46 chromosomes. Sex chromosome abnormalities are more frequently associated with male infertility. The prevalence of XXYs has risen from 1.09 to 1.72 per 1 000 male births. A patient attended to fertility and genetic clinic, during the clinical diagnosis we found the following complaints of loss of secondary sexual characteristics and infertility. Physical examination revealed breast development, thin built, small size testes, and absence of beard and pubic hairs. Karyotype and biochemical analysis were performed to detect chromosomal abnormality as well as hormonal level to confirm the diagnosis of Klinefelter's syndrome. Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the constitutional karyotype of 47, XXY. Using karyotype the presence of extra X chromosome was confirmed, supporting the cytogenetic finding. The 47, XXY syndrome is relatively uncommon and can be missed clinically because of its variable clinical presentations. Accurate diagnosis of this constitutional karyotype provides a valuable aid in the counselling and early management of the patients who undertake fertility evaluation.

  14. Immunophenotyping of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; Hogenes, Marieke C; de Bruin, Peter C; Oudejans, Joost J; Hinrichs, Bernd; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, and knowledge of carcinogenesis is limited. Conflicting results, based on small series, have been reported for clinically relevant biomarkers. One hundred and thirty-four cases of male breast cancer were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), BRST2, cyclin D1, bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, Ki67, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. High mitotic count and high grade were correlated with high Ki67, HER2 amplification/overexpression, p53 accumulation, high p21 expression, low PR expression, and low bcl-2 expression. PR negativity (P=0.009) and p53 accumulation (P=0.042) were correlated with decreased 5-year survival and were independent markers for patient outcome in Cox regression. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering, four groups were identified that were correlated with distinctive clinicopathological features. The hormone negative/ER-positive/high-grade cluster was significantly associated with decreased survival (P=0.011) and was an independent prognostic factor in Cox regression. Several tissue biomarkers are associated with an aggressive phenotype in male breast cancer. PR and p53 are the most promising individual prognostic markers. On the basis of immunophenotype, four distinctive and prognostically relevant male breast cancer groups were identified, indicating that protein expression profiling may be clinically useful in male breast cancer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  15. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs.

  16. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  17. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Normal Families and Shared Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-qin; LEI Chun-lin

    2015-01-01

    Let k be a positive integer, let h be a holomorphic function in a domain D, h 6≡0 and let F be a family of nonvanishing meromorphic functions in D. If each pair of functions f and g in F , f (k) and g(k) share h in D, then F is normal in D.

  20. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F.

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures.

  1. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures. Images PMID:1326602

  2. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  3. Selections, Extensions and Collectionwise Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Gutev, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the classical Michael's selection theorem for l.s.c. mappings with a collectionwise normal domain can be reduced only to compact-valued mappings modulo the Dowker's extension theorem for such spaces. The technique developed to achieve this result is applied to construct selections for set-valued mappings whose point images are in completely metrizable absolute retracts.

  4. Testing bivariate independence and normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa; Rafajlowicz, Ewaryst

    1997-01-01

    In many statistical studies the relationship between two random variables X and Y is investigated and in particular the question whether X and Y are independent and normally distributed is of interest. Smooth tests may be used for testing this. They consist of several components, the first measuring

  5. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...

  6. Inequality constrained normal linear models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation deals with normal linear models with inequality constraints among model parameters. It consists of an introduction and four chapters that are papers submitted for publication. The first chapter introduces the use of inequality constraints. Scientists often have one or more theories

  7. Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2011-01-01

    Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen. Mikroskop...

  8. Cardiovascular pathology in males and females with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

    OpenAIRE

    Katya De Groote; Martine Cools; Jean De Schepper; Margarita Craen; Inge François; Daniel Devos; Karlien Carbonez; Benedicte Eyskens; Daniel De Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Context: The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is heterogeneous ranging from females with Turner syndrome (TS) to apparently normal males. Males with 45,X/46,XY frequently show stigmata typically associated with TS. We hypothesised that males with 45,X/46,XY have similar cardiovascular pathology as females with 45,X/46,XY. Objective: To investigate cardiovascular abnormalities in 45,X/46,XY males and to compare them with 45,X/46,XY females. Design: Patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism w...

  9. The clinical application and nursing experience of adjustable shunt valve in treatment for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Li-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To introduce the application of adjustable shunt valve in treatment for patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Methods Twenty-four patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus implanted adjustable shunt valve underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery and nursing care. Results After operation, cerebrospinal pressure was regulated for 0-6 (1.88 ± 1.52 times. Clinical symptoms were improved, especially in gait disturbance. Conclusion Treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus with adjustable shunt valve can alleviate symptoms of hydrocephalus. It is especially suitable for patients with short course and secondary normal hydrocephalus patients.

  10. Angiogenesis in male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient exchange and waste removal. Recent scrutiny of angiogenesis in female breast cancer has shown it to be of significant prognostic value. It was hypothesized that this holds true in invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast. In the context of male breast cancer, we investigated the relationship of survival and other clinico-pathological variables to the microvascular density of the tumor tissue. Methods Seventy-five cases of primary male breast cancer were identified using the records of the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency over a period of 26 years. Forty-seven cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the male breast had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks that were suitable for this study. All cases were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for the angiogenic markers (cluster designations 31 (CD31, 34 (CD34 and 105 (CD105, von Willebrand factor (VWF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Microvascular density (MVD was determined using average, centre, and highest microvessel counts (AMC, CMC, and HMC, respectively. Statistical analyses compared differences in the distribution of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD, tumor size, node status and age at diagnosis. In addition, MVD values were compared within each marker, between each marker, and were also compared to clinico-pathological data. Results Advanced age and tumor size were related to shorter survival times. There were no statistically significant differences in distributions of survival times and times to relapse between levels of MVD variables. There was no

  11. New Poetics of the Film Body: Docility, Molecular Fundamentalism and Twenty First Century Destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Susan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty first century film evokes a new topology of the body. Science and technology are the new century’s ‘sovereign power’ which enforces biopolitics through bodies which, by virtue of being seen at their most fundamental level, have become docile surfaces. The film body is at once manipulated and coerced into an ethos of optimization; a thoroughly scientific and ‘molecular’ optimization which proffers ‘normalization’ and intimately regulated bodies. In the film bodies of this millennium, bodily intervention results in surveillance becoming internalized. Now the body is both a means and an end of social control. This essay applies the philosophies Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose to twenty first century Hollywood film, elucidating a new tropos, a new film body/body of film.

  12. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  13. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  14. Exploring Cigarette Use among Male Migrant Workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S. Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results Four major themes namely: reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes, factors affecting brand choice, barriers to quitting, effect of smoking mentholated cigarette brands were identified. Conclusion This study provides insight into the use of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes and suggests the need for further studies to explore smoking behavior among Nigerians.

  15. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  16. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  17. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT and insulin, seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8, seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8, scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001 and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001. No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02 and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05, which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001, with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002, with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR = 1.87 (1.05-3.33, P < 0.05, with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05, but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8 and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  18. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  19. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  20. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.