WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty healthy children

  1. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  2. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  3. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Food and Beverage Toolkit Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Updated:Jul 22,2016 The American Heart Association ...

  4. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Lebrun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children. Educators need to become well versed in strategies that both teach short and long term behaviors that will sustain healthy living and healthy minds. Children are the future and what kind of adult do we want running our countries and the world. The article provides many strategies for educators and parents to guide children in making choices that are both empowering and allow them the flexibility to be children.

  5. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  6. How Healthy Are Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…

  7. Kindergarten Brings up Healthy Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Dongjiao Kindergarten, a boarding school attached to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was established in 1950 under the care of former Premier Zhou Enlai. At that time young mothers usually went to work abroad after their 56-day maternity leave, leaving their children in kindergarten. So from its inception the kindergarten aimed at combining nursing school with

  8. Sleep deprivation induces excess diuresis and natriuresis in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B; Kamperis, K; Schroeder, M; Frøkiær, J; Djurhuus, J C; Rittig, S

    2012-01-15

    Urine production is reduced at night, allowing undisturbed sleep. This study was undertaken to show the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) on urine production in healthy children. Special focus was on gender and children at an age where enuresis is still prominent. Twenty healthy children (10 girls) underwent two 24-h studies, randomly assigned to either sleep or SD on the first study night. Diet and fluid intake were standardized. Blood samples were drawn every 4 h during daytime and every 2 h at night. Urine was fractionally collected. Blood pressure and heart rate were noninvasively monitored. Blood was analyzed for plasma antidiuretic hormone (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin. Urine was analyzed for aquaporin-2 and PGE(2). Successful SD was achieved in all participants with a minimum of 4 h 50 min, and full-night SD was obtained in 50% of the participants. During SD, both boys and girls produced markedly larger amounts of urine than during normal sleep (477 ± 145 vs. 291 ± 86 ml, P diuresis in healthy children. The underlying mechanism could be a reduced nighttime dip in blood pressure and a decrease in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system levels during sleep deprivation.

  9. Keeping children with congenital heart disease healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Cathy S

    2011-01-01

    Keeping children with congenital heart disease healthy is vital to their long-term survival and quality of life. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to keep these sometimes fragile children healthy before, between, and after their cardiac surgeries. Primary care visits should address developmental morbidity. Referral for in-depth evaluations and intervention should be initiated for children with hemodynamically significant heart disease. Infants may also experience poor feeding. Nutritional guidance may include fortifying formulas or enteral tube feedings. Attention to immunization status and prevention of winter illnesses and endocarditis may reduce complications in this high-risk group of children. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Resende-Campanholi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  11. Herpes Zoster in Healthy Children: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herpes zoster is an acute dermatomal viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. While it is commonly seen among elderly and immunocompromised individuals, it is rare in healthy children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features, treatment and complications of healthy children with herpes zoster. Methods: Thirty one patients aged between 0-16 years who were admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of herpes zoster, between January 2014 and December 2014, were evaluated retrospectively for age, gender, month of admission, complaint, history of chickenpox infection or varicella vaccination, triggering factors, dermatomal involvement, complications and treatment. Results: Among 31 patients with diagnosis of herpes zoster, 19 were boys (61.3% and 12 were girls (38.7%. The mean of age was 9.12±4.4 years. Twenty patients had thoracic (64.5%, six had lumbar (19.4% and five had cervical involvements (16.2%. The most frequent symptoms were pruritus and pain, respectively. Six patients were administered topical treatment and 25 patients were treated with both systemic and topical treatments. Complication was not observed. Conclusion: Herpes zoster is also being encountered increasingly in healthy children nowadays. It is benign and generally no complications are observed. Incidence can vary because of geographic and socioeconomic differences like vaccination programs.

  12. Apparently healthy urinary bacteriology in children

    OpenAIRE

    Burstein de Herrera, S.; Departamento de Microbiología y Laboratorios Clínicos, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Domínguez Navarrete, N.; Laboratorios Clínicos, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Villanueva, D.; Laboratorios Clínicos, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriological study of urine of 350 apparently healthy children who were divided into groups according to the various stages of childhood ago. In each study urine sediment , gram staining and the qualitative and quantitative culture was performed. The study revealed three maximum sediment leukocytes per microscopic field in 12.3 % of things and 1-2 erythrocytes per field in 6.28 %. No clear cylinders or inflammatory cells were observed . QRAM by coloring germs no sediment or total urine wer...

  13. Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Jay Kumar; Deshpande, Riddhima; Sachdeva, Virender; Vidya, Sagar; Rao, P Srinivasa; Panigati, Anand; Mahat, Birendra; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Pehere, Niranjan; Pathengay, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose was to study choroidal thickness and its profile based on location in healthy Indian children using enhanced depth spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In this cross-sectional observational study 255 eyes of 136 children with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using enhanced depth SD-OCT. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL) >25 mm or choroidal thickness from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-microns intervals up to 2500 microns temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and age, AXL, gender and spherical equivalent (SEq). Mean age of the subjects was 11.9 ± 3.4 years (range: 5-18 years). There were 62 Females and 74 males. The mean AXL was 23.55 ± 0.74 mm. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 312.1 ± 45.40 μm. Choroid was found to be thickest subfoveally, then temporally. Age, AXL and SEq showed a significant correlation with choroidal thickness, whereas gender did not affect choroidal thickness. Our study provides a valid normative database of choroidal thickness in healthy Indian children. This database could be useful for further studies evaluating choroidal changes in various chorioretinal disorders. Age and AXL are critical factors, which negatively correlated with choroidal thickness.

  14. Healthy Diet in Children: Facts and Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khodaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains. In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life. Nutrition for kids is based on the same principles as nutrition for adults. Everyone needs the same types of nutrients; such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at different ages

  15. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P triglyceride levels than women (P triglyceride levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kingella kingae infection in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, J G; Rinsky, L A

    1988-01-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative occasional, but normal, inhabitant of the nasopharynx. We present two new cases of this infection that occurred in previously healthy children, and compare and contrast them to other cases reported in the literature. K. kingae osteomyelitis generally has an insidious, subacute onset, whereas septic arthritis has an acute presentation. To date, all strains of K. kingae have been sensitive to penicillin, and no residual damage has been reported following osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, except that residual disk space narrowing did occur after K. kingae discitis.

  17. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  18. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40 days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  19. Zinc balance of twenty healthy elderly subjects consuming self-selected diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.; Prather, E.S.; Rhodes, D.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary zinc (Zn) intake and balance were determined in ten male and ten female free-living, healthy, elderly subjects on self-selected diets over a period of seven consecutive days. Zn content in the diet, fecal and urine composites for each subject was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean age for the 20 participants was 73.9 years. Mean Zn intakes were 8.9 and 23.3 mg/day for females and males, respectively. Female dietary intakes ranged from 8.2 to 26.8 mg Zn/day. However, three of the males took Zn supplements which extended the total intake range to 64.9 mg/day. Mean Zn balances were +0.1 and +5.1 mg/day for females and males, respectively; ranges for females were {minus}0.1 to +4.3 mg/day and for males were {minus}7.3 to +15.1 mg/day. The 1989 RDAs are 15 mg for males and 12 mg for females. Only three females consumed more than 12 mg Zn/day. Only 2 males consumed more than 15 mg/day from their diet; two other males consumed more than 15 mg due to Zn supplements. Total dietary phytate (TDP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were calculated from the 7-day weighed food records. Mean TDP intake for females was 1,159 mg/day; mean TDP for the males was 1,661 mg/day. Mean TDF intake for females was 19 g/day; mean TDF for males was 30 g/day.

  20. Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Kumar Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study choroidal thickness and its profile based on location in healthy Indian children using enhanced depth spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study 255 eyes of 136 children with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using enhanced depth SD-OCT. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL >25 mm or < 20 mm were excluded. A single observer measured choroidal thickness from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-microns intervals up to 2500 microns temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and age, AXL, gender and spherical equivalent (SEq. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 11.9 ± 3.4 years (range: 5-18 years. There were 62 Females and 74 males. The mean AXL was 23.55 ± 0.74 mm. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 312.1 ± 45.40 μm. Choroid was found to be thickest subfoveally, then temporally. Age, AXL and SEq showed a significant correlation with choroidal thickness, whereas gender did not affect choroidal thickness. Conclusion: Our study provides a valid normative database of choroidal thickness in healthy Indian children. This database could be useful for further studies evaluating choroidal changes in various chorioretinal disorders. Age and AXL are critical factors, which negatively correlated with choroidal thickness.

  1. Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes as predictors of 5-6-year-old children's healthy food knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Sinn, Natalie; Petkov, John; Dollman, James

    2012-07-01

    Young children's knowledge about healthy food may influence the formation of their eating behaviours, and parents have a major influence on the development of children's knowledge in the early years. We investigated the extent to which parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes around food predicted young children's knowledge of healthy foods, controlling for other influences such as socio-economic status (SES) and parent education levels in a cross-sectional research design. Children were given a healthy food knowledge activity and parents completed questionnaires. Twenty primary schools in Adelaide, Australia, stratified by SES. We recruited 192 children aged 5-6 years and their parents. Structural equation modelling showed that parent nutrition knowledge predicted children's nutrition knowledge (r = 0·30, P parents, targeted at low-SES areas at higher risk for obesity, may contribute to the development of healthy food knowledge in young children.

  2. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties).

  3. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties). It includes a comprehensive key skills section, which provides details on the communication-related skills a child should have acquired at each stage in his/her early years development. It al...

  4. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  5. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  6. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  7. Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in children; clinical and electrophysiological features of twenty-seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Karaoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Brain injuries occurring at a particular time may cause damages in well-defined regions of brain. Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and hypoglycemia are some of the most common types of brain injuries. Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause abnormal myelination in parietal and occipital lobes resulting in parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. There is a small number of studies about clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. They might have important neurologic sequelae such as cortical visual loss, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the causes of parieto-occipital encephalomalacia and evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Settings and Design: We evaluated clinical features and EEGs of 27 children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Hospitalization during the neonatal period was the most common cause (88.9% of parieto-occipital brain injury. Eleven patients (40.7% had a history of neonatal hypoglycemia. Twenty-three patients (85.2% had epilepsy and nine of the epileptic patients (39% had refractory seizures. Most of the patients had bilateral (50% epileptic discharges originating from temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (56.2%. However, some patients had frontal sharp waves and some had continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep. Visual abnormalities were evident in 15 (55.6% patients. Twenty-two (81.5% had psychomotor retardation. Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills. Conclusions: In our study, most of the patients with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia had an eventful perinatal history. Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

  8. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko [National Hospital Organization, Higashi-Hiroshima Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 {+-} 3.6 mm and 5.6 {+-} 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 {+-} 4.1 mm and 2.0 {+-} 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  9. Children's inquiry strategies in referential communication and in the game of twenty questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, M L

    1989-08-01

    Young listeners perform poorly on referential communication tasks because they respond to ambiguous messages by guessing rather than by seeking clarification. 2 experiments addressed the ability of 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old listeners to perform competently following training in the skill of asking categorical questions. Training was presented either in the context of a Listener task or a Twenty Questions task. As these tasks require common strategies of information seeking, it was predicted that training in one task context would lead to improved performance on that task and to generalization of skill to the untrained task. The hypothesis was supported, although there were age differences in the effectiveness of training and efficiency of strategy use. The implications of the results for children's developing communication abilities were discussed.

  10. Association between Sleep Duration and Intelligence Scores in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Anja; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation…

  11. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  12. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  13. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  14. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  15. Association between Sleep Duration and Intelligence Scores in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Anja; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation…

  16. Attentional performance, age and scholastic achievement in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Trautmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional processes in children play a critical role in daily school demands and accomplishments. Studies on the association of attentional processes with school achievement and age in healthy school children are scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify correlations between dimensions of attentional performance, scholastic achievement and age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive testing battery was used to assess a wide range of attentional dimensions. A principal component analysis revealed three factors that are related to attentional performance (distractibility, lapses of attention, cognitive speed. Age was negatively associated with distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed, indicating that distractibility and lapses of attention decreased with age in healthy children and resulted in lower cognitive speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attentional processes in healthy children should be measured in relation to distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed.

  17. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...... in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...

  18. Homocysteine level in urine of autistic and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Michalska, Monika; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid which plays several important roles in human physiology and is an important biomarker for possible deficiencies of various vitamins (vitamin B₆ and B₁₂, folic acid). In this work GC-MS method was used to determine the levels of homocysteine in the urine of autistic and healthy children. The levels of homocysteine in urine samples from 34 autistic and 21 healthy children were 2.36 ± 1.24 and 0.76 ± 0.31 (mmol∙mol⁻¹ creatinine), respectively. The higher level of homocysteine in autistic children may indicate deficiencies of folic acid and vitamins B₆ and B₁₂ in nutrition of these children. The results of this work were taken into consideration in the nutrition of autistic children treated in the Navicula Centre of Diagnosis and Therapy of Autism in Łódź (Poland).

  19. BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodhi Sukhbir

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This study has been carried out to determine the pattern of BCG reaction comparing previously vaccinated with non-vaccinated children. Methods The study was conducted in the healthy school children aged 4–6 years. The BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative children was compared between children with and without previous BCG scar. After the Mantoux and BCG Test, the analysis of variance was done as per protocol. Results Out of 50 children previously BCG vaccinated, 39(78% showed exaggerated BCG test responses while out of another 50 children who were not vaccinated for TB, only 9(18% showed exaggerated BCG Test response (p-value Conclusion The present study indicates that normal healthy children may have a mild exaggerated BCG Test response i.e. induration up to 8 mm because of prior BCG vaccination. Therefore, BCG Test, though important should not be the only criteria for start of chemotherapy for TB in children as the side effects of drugs may cause much morbidity. An induration up to 8 mm after the BCG Test can be normal in Indian settings due to exposure to Mycobacterium in environment and/or BCG vaccine.

  20. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised if...

  1. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644

  2. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood hypertension. Normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP values in children with body heights between 100 and 120 cm have not been reported. The aim of the study was to establish the normal range of values for ABPM in these children. 24-hour ABPM was performed in 40 normotensive (auscultatory casual blood pressure was obtained before ABPM subjects, aged from 4 to 6 years (26 males, 14 females with body heights between 95 and 125 cm. ABPM was carried out on non-dominant arm using the oscillometric device (SpaceLab 90207 with appropriate cuff size. The monitor was programmed to measure BP every 15 min. during the day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and every 30 min. during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.. The mean daytime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 108+/-6/67+/-5 and 105+/-5/66+/-1, respectively. The mean nighttime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 98+/-6/56+/-5 and 97+/-7/56+/-4, respectively. There was a significant difference between day and night readings of SBP, DBP and heart rate (nocturnal fall was observed. The distribution of ABP noted in this study could serve as preliminary reference. A multicenter study should be performed to provide normal ranges of ABP.

  4. Galactose oxidation using {sup 13}C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Porta, G. [Unidade de Hepatologia Pediátrica, Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcântara, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-{sup 13}C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-{sup 13}C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}CO{sub 2} were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of {sup 13}C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  5. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  6. Common genetic determinants of glucose homeostasis in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelliny, Clara; Ekelund, Ulf; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    ) were genotyped in 2,025 healthy European children aged 9-11 and 14-16 years. Associations with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) and HOMA-B were investigated along with those observed for type 2 diabetes variants available in this study (CDKN2A/B, IGF...

  7. [Colonization rate of Clostridium Difficile in healthy children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Guo, S; Zhao, C N; Xu, X W

    2017-04-02

    Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: Clostridium difficile toxin genes including tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin CDT (cdtA and cdtB), and toxin regulatory genes including tcdC, tcdD and tcdE. And then the positive samples were sequenced. Measurement data were compared by using t test and rank sum test, while, enumeration data were compared using chi-square test. Result: Fifteen (7.4%) specimens were positive for Clostridium difficile toxin genes in 203 stool specimens. Of the 15 positive specimens, eight(53.3%) were tcdA(+) tcdB(-)(A(+) B(-)), four were A(+) B(+) , 3(20.0%) were A(-)B(+) , the binary toxin-positive specimens were not detected. TcdC, tcdD, tcdE positive specimens were 8, 6 and 11, respectively. Gene mutations were not found in positive samples by DNA sequencing. In the 15 positive samples, four (7.5%) specimens were in Clostridium difficile in healthy children was 7.4%. And toxigenic Clostridium difficile can be detected in all age groups.

  8. Surgical treatment of pelvic sarcoma in children: outcomes for twenty six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Muayad; Womer, Richard B; Dormans, John P

    2017-07-27

    Pelvic sarcoma is uncommon in children and challenging to treat. This study examined different surgical approaches to treat pelvic sarcoma with the aim of assessing the oncologic, and functional outcomes. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent surgery for pelvic sarcoma at our institution from 1992 to 2010. The functional status of the patients was examined after a minimum follow-up of two years. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. Nineteen (73%) patients were male and seven (27%) were female. Mean age at presentation was 12.0 ± 3.9 years. Nineteen patients had Ewing sarcoma (73%), five had osteosarcoma (19%), one had chondrosarcoma (4%) and one had rhabdomyosarcoma (4%). Iliac wing resection with no reconstruction was done in three patients. Reconstruction with free fibular graft A-frame was performed in four patients, saddle endoproshtesis in five patients, iliac autoclave in one patient, and internal hemipelvectomy in nine patients. Hindquarter amputation was performed in five patients. Median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 2.6-16 years). Nineteen patients were alive (73%); of those, 13 were known to be without disease, three were with disease and three did not have known tumor status. Six patients were reported deceased, three had osteosarcoma and three had Ewing sarcoma. Function was assessed in 17 patients; 64% were asymptomatic and ambulatory and 36% were symptomatic and ambulatory. Salvage reconstruction for pelvic sarcoma can be performed through various procedures on the extent of necessary bony resection. Survival rate and functional outcomes were promising in the performed study.

  9. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A Al-Hussaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  10. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L

    2010-12-01

    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children.

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy children with parental hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Harika; Ozdemir, Nihal; Wühl, Elke; Topuzoğlu, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in offspring with at least one hypertensive parent (HP) to offspring with normotensive parents (NP) and to determine whether gender of parent or child might influence the association between parental hypertension and blood pressure (BP). Eighty-nine healthy children (mean age 11.1 +/- 3.9 years) with HP and 90 controls (mean age 10.5 +/- 3.1 years) with NP were recruited. Age, gender, and height did not differ between the two groups, whereas children of HP had higher weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference compared with healthy controls. No difference was found in casual BP between the two groups. In contrast, during ABPM daytime and nighttime mean systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) standard deviation scores (SDS) were significantly elevated in children with HP. The mean percentage of nocturnal BP decline (dipping) was not significantly different between the two groups. Children with hypertensive mothers had higher daytime systolic and MAP SDS than controls; no such difference was detected for children with hypertensive fathers. Daytime systolic and MAP SDS were significantly elevated in boys with HP compared with boys with NP but failed to be significant in girls. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parental history of hypertension (B = 0.29) and BMI (B = 0.03) were independently correlated with increase of daytime MAP SDS. Early changes in ambulatory BP parameters were present in healthy children of HP. BP in HP offspring was influenced by the gender of the affected parent and the offspring.

  12. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does.

  13. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  14. 3D joint dynamics analysis of healthy children's gait

    OpenAIRE

    SAMSON, William; DESROCHES, Guillaume; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    The 3D joint moments and 2D joint powers have been largely explored in the literature of healthy children's gait, in particular to compare them with pathologic subjects' gait. However, no study reported on 3D joint power in children which could be due to the difficulties in interpreting the results. Recently, the analysis of the 3D angle between the joint moment and the joint angular velocity vectors has been proposed in order to help 3D joint power interpretation. Our hypothesis is that this...

  15. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  16. Lymphocytes sensitivity to Fas stimulation in healthy and asthmatic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gomułka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The T cell hypothesis of asthma is based on the concept that the disease is driven and maintained by the persistence of a specialized subset of chronically activated T memory cells sensitized against an array of allergenic, occupational or viral antigens. Overreaction of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and airway tissues is an invariant feature of asthma; therefore a potent mechanism for augmenting the number of activated T cells in this disease would be the resistance to the normally programmed pathway for cell death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of apoptotic markers on peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic children before and after stimulation with antiCD95 antibodies. The blood was collected from 21 children with atopic asthma suffering from allergic rhinitis because of house dust mite and/or grass pollen allergens and 8 healthy children matched for their age and sex. Blood was mixed with purified monoclonal antibody antiCD95 (Beckman Coulter, incubated for 24 hours and than stained with Annexin V andPI (Becton Dickinson. Prepared suspensions were analyzed with Cytomics FC 500 (Beckman Coulter flow cytometer. Annexin V(+/PI(- cells were characterized as early apoptotic, Annexin V(+/PI(+ as late apoptotic and Annexin V(-/PI(+ as dead. In unstimulated sample from asthmatic children 21.09+/-11.20% cells were characterized as Annexin V positive/PI negative. After stimulation with antiCD95 Annexin V positive/PI negative cells constituted 18.72+/-9.42% of cells, p=0.1. In unstimulated sample from healthy children 11.69+/-6.70% cells were characterized as Annexin V positive/PI negative. In the sample stimulated with antiCD95 16.54+/-2.98% of cells were Annexin V positive/PI negative, p=0.02. There were no differences between results of late apoptotic and necrotic lymphocytes from healthy and asthmatic children. Performed research indicates that lymphocytes from asthmatic children are resistant to Fas

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Briseño

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents.A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD] and parents' years completed at school were used as proxies of SES.Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents' schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 and Forced vital capacity (FVC increased 8.5 (0.4% and 10.6 mL (0.4%, respectively (p <0.05 when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone.Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age.

  18. High g-Force Rollercoaster Rides Induce Sinus Tachycardia but No Cardiac Arrhythmias in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieles, Guido E; Husk, Victoria; Blackwell, Teresa; Wilson, Deirdre; Collin, Simon M; Williams, Craig A; Stuart, A Graham

    2017-01-01

    Theme park operators and medical professionals advise children with heart conditions against using rollercoaster rides, but these recommendations are not evidence-based. The underlying assumption is that the combination of adrenergic stimulation through stress and acceleration might trigger arrhythmias in susceptible individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to assess heart rate and rhythm in healthy children during commercial rollercoaster rides. Twenty healthy children (9 male) aged 11-15 (mean 13.3 ± 1.4) years underwent continuous heart rate and rhythm monitoring (2-lead ECG) from 5 min before until 10 min after each of 4 high speed (>50 km h(-1)), high g-force (>4) commercial rollercoaster rides. Total recording time was 13 h 20 min. No arrhythmic events were detected. Resting heart rate was 81 ± 10 b min(-1) and increased to 158 ± 20 b·min(-1) during rides. The highest mean HR (165 ± 23 b min(-1)) was observed on the ride with the lowest g-force (4.5 g), but one of the highest speeds (100 km h(-1)). Anticipatory tachycardia (126 ± 15 b min(-1)) within 5 min was frequently observed. A 10 min recovery HR (124 ± 17 b min(-1)) was 56 % greater than resting HR. The speed and g-force experienced on roller coasters induce sinus tachycardia but do not elicit pathological arrhythmias in healthy children.

  19. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  20. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  1. Twenty-Five-Month-Old Children Do Not Have a Grammatical Category of Verb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Raquel; Tomasello, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A study of two year olds investigated the nature and development of children's early productivity with verb-argument structure and verb morphology. Results indicated that the children showed no signs of productive verb morphology, but they did use newly learned verbs in some creative ways involving nounlike uses and the appending of locatives.…

  2. Ecological Literacy--Preparing Children for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Miranda, Ana Célia; Jófili, Zélia; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    How is it possible to form concepts in early childhood education? This question was the starting point of this study using recreational activities as a tool to support ecological literacy. The research was conducted with children aged 4-5 years in a Brazilian school. Initially, the meanings children attributed to the concept of a "food…

  3. Twenty Weeks of Computer-Training Improves Sense of Agency in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, A.; Christensen, M. S.; Nielsen, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) show alteration of perceptual and cognitive abilities in addition to motor and sensory deficits, which may include altered sense of agency. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 20 weeks of internet-based motor, perceptual and cognitive training enhances the ability of CP children to determine whether they…

  4. Literacy in the Twenty-First Century: Children, Families and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Family literacy refers to parents and their children using literacy together at home. They participate in literacy experiences in a natural way during their daily routines. Studies on family literacy show its impact on the children's literacy development. For more than five decades, family literacy studies have demonstrated the importance of the…

  5. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy children and children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the role of urinary Ca excretion in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and defined normality and intra-individual variability in Ca excretion in healthy children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 46 Danish children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and 96...... healthy controls. We performed fractional urine collections at home during 2 days in controls or during hospitalization in children with enuresis. Urine volume, osmolality, and Ca and creatinine measurements were performed and Ca-to-creatinine ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Based...... on nocturnal urine output children with enuresis were characterized as having polyuria (nocturnal urine volume greater than 130% of expected bladder capacity) or not having polyuria. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in controls compared with children with enuresis who did not and did have nocturnal...

  6. Colonization by Candida in children with cancer, children with cystic fibrosis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelsrud, K W; Sandven, P; Høiby, E A; Sandvik, L; Brandtzaeg, P; Gaustad, P

    2011-12-01

    A longitudinal, prospective study was conducted intermittently in Norway, from 1999 to 2008, to investigate the Candida colonization rates and species distributions in the tonsillopharyngeal and faecal flora in: (i) children with cancer; (ii) children with cystic fibrosis (CF); and (iii) healthy children. The effect of antibiotic treatment on Candida colonization was also studied, and we looked for changes in antifungal susceptibility over time within each child and between the different groups of children. In total, 566 tonsillopharyngeal swabs and 545 faecal samples were collected from 45 children with cancer, 37 children with CF, and 71 healthy, age-matched controls. The overall colonization rate with Candida was not significantly higher in the two groups of children undergoing extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics than in healthy controls. Approximately one-third of the cancer patients had a total lack of Candida colonization or had only one Candida-positive sample, despite multiple samples being taken, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, long hospital stays, and periods with neutropenia. Children with CF had the highest prevalence of Candida albicans. Amoxycillin, azithromycin, third-generation cephalosporins and oral vancomycin resulted in a significantly increased Candida colonization rate. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, second-generation cephalosporins, metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, penicillinase-resistant penicillins and inhaled tobramycin or colistin showed minimal effects on the Candida colonization rate. We found no evidence of development of antifungal resistance over time.

  7. [Microbiological monitoring of oral fluid of clinically healthy children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoukina, A M; Mikhaĭlova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Alekseeva, Iu A; Zhmakin, I A; Andreeva, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents qualitative and quantitative parameters of microbiocenosis of oral fluid and feces of clinically healthy children in different age groups. In most of the cases compensated disbiotic changes were found, which were characterized by reduction in the number of indigenous microflora (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) and increase of representatives of opportunistic pathogens (Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Candida). Microecological changes in different gastrointestinal biotopes are closely interrelated. Saliva may be considered as a specimen of integral fluid of human environment and can be used for complex assessment of the state of gastrointestinal tract microflora.

  8. Twenty weeks of home-based interactive training of children with cerebral palsy improves functional abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Greve, Line Z; Kliim-Due, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Home-based training is becoming ever more important with increasing demands on the public health systems. We investigated whether individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet improves functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy...... (CP). METHODS: Thirty four children with CP (aged 9-16; mean age 10.9 ± 2.4 years) (GMFCS I-II; MACS I-II) were included in this non-randomized controlled clinical training study. 12 children (aged 7-16; mean age: 11.3+/-0.9 years) were allocated to a control group in which measurements were performed...... home training of children with CP is an efficient way to deliver training, which can enable functional motor improvements and increased activity to perform daily activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13188513 . Date of registration: 04/12/2014....

  9. Twenty-five years of bicycle helmet promotion for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Diana Stark; Ekman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe some of the results of a long-term bicycle helmet campaign for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden. The hospital discharge data for bicycle-related injuries occurring in children under the age of 15 were reviewed, to assess changes in patterns for head and other body injuries. The study shows that head injuries to children as a result of bicycle injuries were reduced between 94 and 99% in the study areas. The tremendous gains in safety for children who ride bicycles in Skaraborg District were the result of not only national policy changes that occurred in the latter half of this study period but also the result of local collaborations based on the Safe Communities model, which were organised during the first part of the study period.

  10. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  11. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  12. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all pataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf S; Carroll, John L; Jeffries, Jenny L; Grone, Charles; Bean, Judy A; Chini, Barbara; Bokulic, Ronald; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent elevation of systemic blood pressure (BP) during sleep. To determine whether obstructive apnea in children has a tonic effect on diurnal BP, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained from 60 children with mean age of 10.8 +/- 3.5 years. Thirty-nine children had obstructive apnea and 21 had primary snoring. Children with obstructive apnea had significantly greater mean BP variability during wakefulness and sleep, a higher night-to-day systolic BP, and a smaller nocturnal dipping of mean BP. Variability of mean arterial pressure during wakefulness was predicted by the desaturation, body mass, and arousal indices, whereas variability during sleep was predicted by apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices. Nocturnal BP dipping was predicted by the desaturation index. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial BP during sleep between the groups. Diastolic BP during wakefulness was significantly different between the groups and correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index. We conclude that obstructive apnea in children is associated with 24-hour BP dysregulation and that, independent of obesity, the frequency of obstructive apnea, oxygen desaturation, and arousal contributes to abnormal BP control.

  14. Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

  15. Twenty american families' stories of adaptation: adoption of children from Russian and Romanian institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; Lyness, Anne Prouty

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how 20 families have adapted after adopting children between the ages of 3 and 5 years from eastern European institutions. The researcher visited a Romanian orphanage and then interviewed 20 families about their experiences with the adoption process and with family adaptation postadoption. Several themes emerged from the parents' stories regarding their search for support and resources to aid in parenting their children. Family therapists who are interested in working with families who adopt internationally from institutional settings can learn from the stories of parents.

  16. Twenty weeks of computer-training improves sense of agency in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) show alteration of perceptual and cognitive abilities in addition to motor and sensory deficits, which may include altered sense of agency. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 20 weeks of internet-based motor, perceptual and cognitive training enhances ...

  17. Twenty weeks of home-based interactive training of children with cerebral palsy improves functional abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Greve, Line Z; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Home-based training is becoming ever more important with increasing demands on the public health systems. We investigated whether individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet improves functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy...

  18. Standards and Practices: Children's Literature and Curricula Reform for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that implementing the new social studies curriculum standards has been a challenge for many elementary teachers. Asserts that high-quality children's literature is essential for an integrated, multicultural curriculum. Provides an annotated bibliography of 13 teacher resource books. (CFR)

  19. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (Pmuscles from different perspectives. Except for the upper arm MDI_BIA, both indices at all locations regardless of age, showed significant chronological increases after an average period of 1.10years. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly correlated with age and height in healthy children, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  1. Arm trajectories and writing strategy in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of elementary writing skills in children is usually obtained with high resolution (and high cost techniques or with low resolution pen-and-paper tests. In this observational study we tested a quantitative method to obtain normative data to describe arm movement during a writing precursor gesture. Methods We recruited 226 healthy children (mean age 9,1 years [range: 6.3 – 11.4 years], attending primary schools belonging to the “Istituto Comprensivo” of Rivanazzano Terme (Pavia. We asked to drive a cursor through a polygonal path (labyrinth projected in front of them using a wireless mouse. Dartfish™ video analysis software was used to elaborate images and Excel™, MedCalc™ and Statistica 7™ to analyze values of shoulder, elbow and wrist ranges of motion, arm trajectories, execution times and gesture accuracy. Results Differences seen in motor strategies, when divided according to attended class, suggest a proximal-distal maturation of motor control. Obtained values were not significantly correlated with variables such as gender, ethnicity or cognitive functioning. Conclusions This type of approach to a study of arm movement during childhood represents a valid alternative to other tests, considering that it can differentiate children who perform similarly in the VMI test and is non-invasive, low-cost and easily reproducible.

  2. High frequency oscillations after median nerve stimulations in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Sergio; Del Piero, Ivana; Martucci, Lucia; Restuccia, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to address somatosensory high frequency oscillations (400-800Hz) in healthy children and adolescents in comparison with healthy adults. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in nineteen resting healthy children/adolescents and in nineteen resting healthy adults with eyes closed. We administered six consecutive stimulation blocks (500 sweeps each). The presynaptic component of high frequency oscillations amplitudes was smaller in healthy children/adolescents than in healthy adults (no difference between groups was found as far as the postsynaptic component was concerned). Healthy children/adolescents had smaller presynaptic component than the postsynaptic one (the postsynaptic component amplitude was 145% of the presynaptic one), while healthy adults showed the opposite (reduction of the postsynaptic component to 80% of the presynaptic one). No habituation phenomena concerning high frequency oscillation amplitudes were registered in neither healthy children/adolescents nor healthy adults. These findings suggest that healthy children/adolescents present with significantly different pattern of somatosensory high frequency oscillations compared with healthy adults' ones. This different pattern is reasonably expression of higher cortical excitability of the developing brain cortex. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani; Callery, Peter

    2015-12-01

    China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6-12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China.

  4. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  5. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  6. Development of Postural Control in Healthy Children: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Assaiante

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available From a set of experimental studies showing how intersegmental coordination develops during childhood in various posturokinetic tasks, we have established a repertoire of equilibrium strategies in the course of ontogenesis. The experimental data demonstrate that the first reference frame used for the organization of balance control during locomotion is the pelvis, especially in young children. Head stabilization during posturokinetic activities, particularly locomotion, constitutes a complex motor skill requiring a long time to develop during childhood. When studying the emergence of postural strategies, it is essential to distinguish between results that can be explained by biomechanical reasons strictly and those reflecting the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS. To address this problem, we have studied our young subjects in situations requiring various types of adaptation. The studies dealing with adaptation of postural strategies aimed at testing short and long-term adaptation capacity of the CNS during imposed transient external biomechanical constraints in healthy children, and during chronic internal constraints in children with skeletal pathologies. In addition to maintenance of balance, another function of posture is to ensure the orientation of a body segment. It appears that the control of orientation and the control of balance both require the trunk as an initial reference frame involving a development from egocentric to exocentric postural control. It is concluded that the first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies, and the second step consists in learning to select the most appropriate postural strategy, depending on the ability to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and the efficiency of the task.

  7. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  8. Prospective dynamic balance control in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Hanne; van der Meer, Audrey L H

    2007-08-01

    Balance control during gait initiation was studied using center of pressure (CoP) data from force plate measurements. Twenty-four participants were divided into four age groups: (1) 2-3 years, (2) 4-5 years, (3) 7-8 years, and (4) adults. Movement in the antero-posterior (CoPy) direction during the initial step was tau-G analyzed, investigating the hypothesis that tau of the CoPy motion-gap (tau(CoPy)), i.e., the time it will take to close the gap at its current closure rate, is tau-coupled onto an intrinsic tau-G guide (tau(G)), by maintaining the relation tau(CoPy )= Ktau(G), for a constant K. Mean percentage of tau-guidance for all groups was >/=99%, resulting in all r(2) exceeding 0.95, justifying an investigation of the regression slope as an estimate of the coupling constant K in the tau-coupling equation. Mean K values decreased significantly with age and were for 2- to 3-year-olds 0.56, for 4- to 5-year-olds 0.50, for 7- to 8-year-olds 0.47, and for adults 0.41. Therefore, the control of dynamic balance develops from the youngest children colliding with the boundaries of the base of support (K > 0.5) to the older children and adults making touch contact (K

  9. Non-pharmacological Management of Fever in Otherwise Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robin; Robertson, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Fever is a common childhood problem faced in both hospital and community settings. In many cases the fever is associated with mild to moderate self-limiting illnesses. There has been a rapid increase in antipyretic use as the means of managing or treating this adaptive physiological response to infection. The use of alternative means of caring for a febrile child could minimise the amount of antipyretics administered to children and thereby reduce the potential risks. The objective of this systematic review was to establish what non-pharmacological practices are effective in managing fever in children, three months to 12 years of age, who are otherwise healthy. Interventions for inclusion were physiological e.g. maintenance of hydration and rest, and external cooling, either direct e.g. sponging, clothing, or environmental e.g. fans, ambient temperature. Outcomes of interest were effect on fever, increase in comfort, decrease in parental anxiety and reduction in unnecessary use of health services. The search sought English, Spanish, Portuguese, Mandarin and Italian language studies, published 2001-2011 in 12 major databases. Critical appraisal of and data extraction from eligible studies were undertaken using standardised tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. As statistical pooling of data was precluded, the findings are presented in narrative form. Twelve randomised controlled trials were included, involving 986 children in total. Only one intervention identified in the review protocol - direct external cooling measures - was addressed by the studies. Eleven studies included sponging as an intervention while one also included clothing (unwrapping). No studies investigated physiological interventions, (e.g. hydration or rest), or environmental cooling measures, (e.g. fans or ambient temperature) as separate interventions. Three of these interventions (encouragement of fluid intake, rest and fans) were reported as part of the standard care provided to

  10. Genetics, parenting, and children's rights in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, P S

    2000-05-01

    Not only do genetic traits sometimes translate into physical and mental illnesses, they may also manifest themselves as tendencies towards certain behaviours. This discovery has led to the misinterpretation and misapplication of genetic information, and has been directed to unforeseen uses, from criminal defence to genetic racism. The issue is especially sensitive when deciding if and when parents should have access to the genetic information of their children. The author begins with an overview of the principles of behavioural genetics and types of behaviour currently under study. Next, the social and psychological risks associated with genetic testing are presented, along with guidelines necessary to distinguish between testing which is therapeutic and that which is non-therapeutic. The distinction is a crucial one, as the author proposes a therapeutic-benefit test, advocating testing only where an effective intervention is available. Finally, the author concludes that legislation is the more appropriate medium for defining the extent of parental rights once intervention is allowed rather than leaving physicians to decide on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    NO concentration and 95% CI was 3.9 (3.5-4.2) parts per billion (p.p.b.) for on-line measurements and 3.0 (2.7-3.3) p.p.b. for off-line measurements. Exhaled NO was independent of gender, age, height and weight. The 95% reference intervals (RI) for on-line and off-line measurements were 1.2-8.2 and 1.3-7.1 p......The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask.......p.b. respectively. Twenty-three children completed measurements of within-day and day-to-day variations, none of which showed significant variation. In conclusion, the established reference values and data on variability within and between days may facilitate the clinical application for measurement of eNO during...

  12. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  13. The Comparison of Malocclusion Prevalence Between Children with Cerebral Palsy and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakarcić, Danko; Lajnert, Vlatka; Maricić, Barbara Mady; Jokić, Nataga Ivancić; Vrancić, Zlatka Roksandić; Grzić, Renata; Prpić, Igor

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to examine the prevalence of malocclusion and habits in a group of children with cerebral palsy and to compare it with a control group of healthy children. The presence of an anterior open bite was statistically significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The presence of aposterior crossbite was not significantly different between the examined groups, as was the case for a lingual crossbite. The occurrence of visceral swallowing, incompetent lips and oral respiration was significantly higher in the cerebral palsied group. The current study cannot satisfactorily sustain the issue of a higher prevalence of posterior and lingual crossbite in children with cerebral palsy because of no significant differences between groups, but it certainly can for an anterior openbite. The present study also adds to the evidence that there is an increased prevalence of oral breathing, visceral swallowing and lip incompetence in children with cerebral palsy.

  14. From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Debra W.

    This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2,…

  15. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  16. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  17. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  18. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  19. VEP characteristics in children with achiasmia, in comparison to albino and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecelj, Jelka; Sustar, Maja; Pečarič-Meglič, Nuška; Skrbec, Miha; Stirn-Kranjc, Branka

    2012-04-01

    Achiasmia is a rare disorder of visual pathway maldevelopment that can show diverse clinical and magnetic resonance imaging spectra. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that differentiate abnormal optic-nerve-fibre decussation in children with achiasmia versus children with albinism and healthy children. In four children with achiasmia, the following VEP characteristics were studied and compared to children with ocular albinism and with healthy control children: (a) flash and pattern onset VEP interhemispheric asymmetry; (b) flash N2, P2 and onset C1 amplitudes and latencies; (c) interocular polarity differences in interhemisphere potentials; and (d) chiasm coefficients (CCs). In the children with achiasmia, VEPs were related to an absence of or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: ipsilateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the ipsilateral hemisphere (p VEP features (uncrossed asymmetry and positive CC) were also seen if additional visual pathway maldevelopment (such as severe optic nerve hypoplasia and/or absence of the optic tractus on one side) were associated with achiasmia. In the children with albinism, the VEPs were related to excess optic-nerve-fibre decussation at the chiasm and showed: contralateral asymmetry, significantly higher VEP amplitudes over the contralateral hemisphere (p VEPs to flash stimulation were more robust and more clearly distinguished between the conditions compared with the VEPs to pattern onset stimulation. VEPs in achiasmia are associated with absent or reduced optic-nerve-fibre decussation, where ipsilateral interhemispheric asymmetry is associated with interocular inverse polarity and a negative CC.

  20. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  1. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  3. High Rate of Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, María; Vicente, Diego; Gomariz, María; Esnal, Olatz; Landa, Joseba; Oñate, Eider

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) was studied in stool samples from 125 8- to 16-month-old healthy children. Twenty-four percent of them and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples studied yielded extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, with the types being SHV-12, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-14, and TEM-52, the most common types of β-lactamases. This high prevalence of ESBLPE in healthy people, which is to our knowledge the highest currently reported in Europe, may represent a risk for increased infections by these organisms in the future. PMID:24395224

  4. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Faught, Erin L; Willows, Noreen D; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-09-24

    Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child's healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children's use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10-11 years) and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children's use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89), cared 'quite a lot' (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and 'very much' (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21) vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about physical activity, and encouraged 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17). Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins ('quite a lot' and 'very much' compared to 'not at all/a little bit' (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively). Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children.

  5. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  6. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  7. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  8. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemelin Lucie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and

  9. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  10. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246

  11. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  12. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  13. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad GHAFFARI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghaffari J, Abbaskhanian A, Jalili M, Yazdani Charati Y. IQ Score of Children With Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: Comparison with Healthy Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3: 44-48. AbstractObjectivePrevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children.Intelligence quotient (IQ is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children.Material & MethodsThis was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for hildren was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively.Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50% in the case group and 90 children (50%, the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57% were male and 80 (43% were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females.ConclusionAlthough allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.  ReferencesGhaffari J, Mohammadzadeh I, Khaliian A, Rafatpanah H, Mohammadjafari H, Davoudi A. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in elementary schools in Sari(Iran. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine

  14. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The 1970s Nigeria witnessed oil boom which turns out to be a disaster to people ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of ..... that demand high intelligence, proper planning and long term preparation.

  16. Detection of putative periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic and healthy children: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) in type 1 diabetic and healthy children. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetic and 50 healthy children in the age group of 7-14 years were recruited for the study. Subgingival plaque samples collected from permanent first molars w...

  17. Examining opportunities for promotion of healthy eating at children's sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2010-12-01

    Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index 2 or lack of doctor's approval. Measures will be collected at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months. The program involves fathers attending seven face-to-face group sessions (three with children over 3-months. Measures: The primary outcome is fathers' weight. Secondary outcomes for both fathers and children include: waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary intake. Father-only measures include portion size, alcohol consumption, parenting for physical activity and nutrition and parental engagement

  19. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  20. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  1. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...

  2. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  3. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  4. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  5. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  7. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Schools are a well suited setting for learning and establishment of good habits of children and youth. Using schools in healthy eating strategies may play an important role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, and a growing number of schools and municipalities engage in init...... explored the attitudes, policies/intentions and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies to increase the healthiness of school eating patterns....

  8. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  9. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  10. Motor performance and disability in Dutch children with haemophilia : a comparison with their healthy peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Helders, PJM; Van den Berg, HM

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether haemophilic children who are on prophylactic therapy differ from their healthy peers in terms of motor performance and disability. Thirty-nine children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate (eight) and severe (31) haemophilia were included. Patients with severe haemophilia received

  11. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  12. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  14. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  15. The steep ramp test in healthy children and adolescents: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, B.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Helders, P.J.M.; Takken, T.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the steep ramp test (SRT), a feasible, maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer that does not require the use of respiratory gas analysis, in healthy children and adolescents.METHODS: Seventy-five children were randomly divided i

  16. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  17. Interracial Children: Growing Up Healthy in an Unhealthy Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Kate

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a conference which addressed the needs of children of interracial families. Reports that the lack of support, materials, and information for interracial families was a major concern. Recommends that interracial children be allowed to choose the racial identity they find most comfortable, and presents suggestions for starting a support…

  18. The effect of healthy dietary consumption on executive cognitive functioning in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J F W; Gorski, M T; Gruber, S A; Kurdziel, L B F; Rimm, E B

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate whether healthier dietary consumption among children and adolescents impacts executive functioning. PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, PsychINFO and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science databases were searched, and studies of executive functioning among children or adolescents aged 6-18 years, which examined food quality, macronutrients and/or foods, were included. Study quality was also assessed. In all, twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Among the twelve studies examining food quality (n 9) or macronutrient intakes (n 4), studies examining longer-term diet (n 6) showed positive associations between healthier overall diet quality and executive functioning, whereas the studies examining the acute impact of diet (n 6) were inconsistent but suggestive of improvements in executive functioning with better food quality. Among the ten studies examining foods, overall, there was a positive association between healthier foods (e.g. whole grains, fish, fruits and/or vegetables) and executive function, whereas less-healthy snack foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and red/processed meats were inversely associated with executive functioning. Taken together, evidence suggests a positive association between healthy dietary consumption and executive functioning. Additional studies examining the effects of healthier food consumption, as well as macronutrients, on executive functioning are warranted. These studies should ideally be conducted in controlled environments and use validated cognitive tests.

  19. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications.

  20. Detection of putative periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic and healthy children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnudurai Arangannal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in type 1 diabetic and healthy children. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetic and 50 healthy children in the age group of 7-14 years were recruited for the study. Subgingival plaque samples collected from permanent first molars were subjected to polymerase chain reaction assay to detect 16S rRNA gene of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of subgingival periodontal pathogens in diabetic and healthy children was 2% and 4% for P. gingivalis, 34% and 34% for T. denticola, 20% and 18% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and for T. forsythia, 4% and 34%, respectively. Significant statistical difference was not observed with regard to the prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and A. actinomycetemcomitans among type 1 diabetic and healthy children (P = 1.00. Conversely, T. forsythia was less prevalent in diabetic children compared to healthy children. Conclusion: Statistical significance was not observed for the prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic subjects. The results of the present study thus reveal the absence of risk of periodontitis by these bacterial species in type 1 diabetic subjects.

  1. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: An intergenerational transmission perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms, and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers' beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and perceived behavioural control, and also by their mothers' intentions and perceived behavioural control. Mothers' own beliefs and intentions may be involved in shaping their children's beliefs and intentions into adulthood but their child feeding practices may have less of an influence.

  2. Children with cerebral palsy do not achieve healthy physical activity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bratteby Tollerz, L. U.; Forslund, A. H.; Olsson, R. M.; Lidström, Helene; Holmback, U.

    2015-01-01

    AimThis study compared daily activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children with cerebral palsy with a control group and investigated whether the children achieved healthy levels of physical activity. MethodsWe enrolled eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy, from eight to 10years of age, and a group of controls matched for age and gender. For three days, physical activity was simultaneously measured by accelerometers and self-reports using a diary. The daily AEE results were compared be...

  3. Healthy eating beliefs and intentions of mothers and their adult children: an intergenerational transmission perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sumodhee, Dayyanah; Payne, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This study examined possible intergenerational transmission of eating beliefs and intentions between 60 mothers and their adult children. Maternal restrictive feeding practices were correlated with mothers' own healthy eating attitudes and subjective norms and with their adult children's subjective norms. Mothers’ beliefs and intentions were correlated with their adult children’s. Adult children's intentions to eat healthily were predicted by their attitudes and PBC, and also by their mothers...

  4. Salmonella Osteomyelitis in Previously Healthy Children: Report of 4 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagris, Vasileios; Vliora, Christianna; Mihelarakis, Ioannis; Syridou, Garyfallia; Pasparakis, Dimitrios; Lebessi, Evangelia; Tsolia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis in children is an uncommon condition, typically associated with hemoglobinopathies or other underlying disorders. Only few cases have been reported in children without predisposing factors. We describe 4 cases of Salmonella osteomyelitis in otherwise healthy children. Since treatment duration is expected to be prolonged, the practice of direct inoculation of aspirates into blood culture bottles appears to be essential for diagnosis and targeted therapy.

  5. Kids: Passing on Healthy Habits to Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruit juice, sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, regular-calorie soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened or flavored milk, sweetened iced tea.Limit the amount of time your children spend watching television, using the computer or playing ...

  6. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  7. Children's reaction to depictions of healthy foods in fast-food television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P advertisement. Of the 4 healthy food images, only depiction of apples by McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.

  8. The effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors of mothers on obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Sevil; Canbulat, Nejla; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviours of mothers and obesity in their pre-school children. The cross-sectional study was performed in a district of Istanbul, Turkey, between April and June 2011, and comprised children aged 4-6 years attending public pre-schools and their mothers.. Data was obtained using a questionnaire and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours Scale-II. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 531 children in the study, 246(46.3%) were girls. Overall prevalence of overweight was 136(25.6%), obesity 77(14.5%)Overweight mothers were 126(23.7%), and obese mothers were 31(5.8%). The mothers of obese children obtained lower scores in the physical activity (pobesity among preschool children. Strategies should be developed to improve the physical activity and eating habits of mothers.

  9. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. How to promote healthy eating habits in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Daniela Marisa Fontes

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Childhood’s overweight and obesity are a worrying issue in the world nowadays. The purpose of this study was to provide contributions to the promotion of healthy food by analyzing the impact of physical activity, parents’ influence and home meals frequency on children’s food choices. Structured questionnaires were used and were answered b...

  11. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E den Heijer

    Full Text Available Whole Body Vibration (WBV is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition. The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition.Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8-13 participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration, inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity.Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group.

  12. Exploring Healthy Eating: Activities for Parents and Children Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…

  13. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  14. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  15. Promoting Children's Healthy Social-Emotional Growth: Dialogue Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Park, Sol

    2017-01-01

    Dialogue journals are a form of writing in which a student and a teacher carry on a conversation over time. This paper addresses the benefits of using dialogue journals for promoting a positive social-emotional learning (SEL) environment for children in school settings. Educators and researchers have increasingly acknowledged the importance of SEL…

  16. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port ... children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male ... endogenous and exogenous factors could influence.

  17. The comparison of intelligence levels of children born to kidney or liver transplant women with children of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Mazanowska, Natalia; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Pietrzak, Bronislawa

    2017-08-16

    Pregnancy after transplantation is associated with high risk of complications and prenatal exposure to immunosuppressants. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the intellectual development of children born to women after organ transplantation. A comparison of intelligence levels in 78 children of kidney or liver transplant women of 78 children born to healthy mothers. The assessment of intellectual level in children was conducted by psychologists and evaluated using age-adjusted intelligence tests (Psyche Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, Terman-Merril Intelligence Scale or the Scales of Raven's Progressive Matrices). No significant differences in the distribution of the quotient of intelligence between children born to kidney and liver transplant women were noted (Chi(2) = 5.037; p = .284). Also no differences in the distribution of intelligence levels were noted between the children of transplanted and healthy mothers in infants and toddlers (Chi(2) = 3.125; p = .537); preschool (Chi(2) = 1.440; p = .692), and school age children (Chi(2) = 4.079; p = .395). The intellectual development of children of post-transplant women is similar to the general population. These results provide information on the low risk of intellectual disability in children of transplanted mothers and may improve counseling on the planning of pregnancy in this group of women.

  18. Biochemical Risk Factors for Stone Formation in Healthy School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasumeh Mohkam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of urolithiasis in childhood is increasing. The wide geographic variation in the incidence of lithiasis in childhood is related to climatic, dietary, and socioeconomic factors. Many children with stone disease have a metabolic abnormality. In Southeast Asia, urinary calculi are endemic and are related to dietary factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal stone, urine metabolic abnormality, control of blood pressure and demographic character in elementary school children of Qom. A cross sectional study was performed on 110 primary school children (56 girls and 54 boys aged 7 to 11 years old. Demographic data such as age, height, weight were gathered, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Urine analysis and culture, urinary levels of calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, cystine, citrate, oxalate, protein and sonographic findings were evaluated. The mean (±SD of age was 8.85±1.51 years. Only one child had renal stone (1%, but the prevalence of abnormal renal sonography was 7%. The most prevalent urine metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (23% and hypocitraturia (100%. 11.2% of children had positive urine culture that all were female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.1% for girls and 11.1% for boys. The prevalence of renal stone in children in this study was 1%, which means the accurate judgment about the prevalence of renal stone in Qom city needs more comprehensive studies. Similar to other studies in Iran this study shows that the prevalence of hypercalciuria is significantly higher comparing to other countries, it may be associated with excessive intake of sodium.

  19. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  20. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and

  1. [Physical self-concept, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in children with cancer and healthy children without cancer history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragado, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Ma José; Sánchez-Bernardos, Ma Luisa; Urbano, Susana

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to test if children with cancer receiving chemotherapy show a poorer physical self-concept, less self-esteem and more anxiety and depression than healthy children (with no cancer history) within the same age range (9-16 years old) and social condition. Furthermore, the capacity of self-concept and self-esteem to predict emotional distress is analyzed. The Spanish versions of PSDQ, CDI and STAIC were administered to 30 children with cancer and 90 healthy children. Except for the health and flexibility dimensions in the PSDQ, no significant differences between groups were found. Self-esteem was the best predictor of depression, whereas health and self-concept predicted anxiety.

  2. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Schools are a well suited setting for learning and establishment of good habits of children and youth. Using schools in healthy eating strategies may play an important role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, and a growing number of schools and municipalities engage...... in initiatives which promote healthy foods and physical activity. Concurrently, municipalities and other public bodies increasingly recognize their responsibility to support sustainable food production methods, such as organic agriculture, by choosing this kind of foods in public institutions. The question...

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  4. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  5. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    , absence of observable direct immediate results, social impact (for older people - the impact of family members and social image; for children and adolescents - the influence of parents and peers). For children and adolescents, availability and temptation of unhealthy foods and unavailability of good......  Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify barriers to healthy eating among older people and children/adolescents. Method: Four focus groups; two with older people and two with children/adolescents were conducted in Denmark. The focus groups were moderated to discuss the experienced...... or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation...

  6. Twenty-Five Years after Early Intervention: A Follow-Up of Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marci J.

    2003-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome and their families who participated in an early intervention program between 1974 and 1977 were interviewed 25 years later. Parents reported challenges such as medical complications, teasing or ostracism, and lack of adequate services and supports as children reached adulthood. Parents also described joys and…

  7. Cognitive deficits in children with benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood or rolandic discharges: a study of children between 4 and 7 years of age with and without seizures compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2009-12-01

    Recent developments in research on cognitive abilities in benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes have led to interest in the following domains: language, memory, executive, motor, and visual-constructive functions. As previous studies have investigated the cognitive development of mainly school-aged children, this study focuses on preschool and elementary school children. Twenty-five children affected by benign rolandic epilepsy/rolandic discharges and 25 healthy children matched for age and sex were enrolled in this retrospective study. The mean IQ scores were 94.76 for children with epilepsy and 99.3 for control children. For the children with benign rolandic epilepsy, cognitive testing revealed increased verbal and nonverbal deficits with respect to articulation (P=0.002), auditory memory (P=0.003), visual memory (P=0.016), language comprehension (P=0.009), and visual-constructive performance (P=0.033), as compared with the children in the control group. In our sample, the results showed an association between rolandic epilepsy and language and memory deficits. As cognitive development in preschool children is progressive and dynamic, larger prospective follow-up studies, with assessments at different time points, will facilitate understanding of the cognitive profiles of children with rolandic epilepsy.

  8. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  9. Effect of nutrition on vitamin D status: studies on healthy and poorly nourished Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, E R; Jones, D A; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1984-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out of 412 healthy and 226 chronically malnourished children in Recife, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, x-rays of hands and wrists, and biochemical data related to skeletal growth were obtained. Levels of plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D were measured in both groups of children and both showed higher concentrations than those reported for normal European children. The high levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D found in these two groups of Brazilian children are probably the result of the intense solar radiation in this part of Brazil and argue against the diet being an important source of vitamin D in poorly nourished children. Some bone abnormalities were seen in the underprivileged group of children but in view of our findings these were more likely to be a result of protein-energy malnutrition than rickets.

  10. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in healthy children and adolescents at moderately high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Castañeda-López, Javier; Myers, Jonathan; Miranda, Irma; Quiroga, Paula; Rius, María-Dolores; Lopez-de-la-Vega, César; Vallejo, Enrique; Calderón, Juan; Figueroa, Javier; Buendía, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a tool that helps clinicians to establish diagnosis and calculate risk stratification in adults. However, the utility of this test among children with congenital heart disease has not been fully explored. The goal of this study was to describe reference values for cardiopulmonary performance of healthy children. This study included 103 apparently healthy children (aged from 4 to 18 years; 61 boys), who underwent cardiopulmonary test using a treadmill protocol. All tests took place at 2240m above sea level (Mexico City). Exercise time was 11±4min. There were no complications. Peak oxygen uptake correlated closely with height in both genders (girls r=0.84; boys r=0.84, p<0.001). A multivariable linear regression model showed that body surface area, exercise time, gender and heart rate reserve were significant predictors of peak oxygen uptake (R(2)=0.815, p<0.001). Peak oxygen uptake was strongly associated with age even among children younger than thirteen years (r=0.74, p<0.001). This study provides physiological values for the major cardiopulmonary variables obtained from exercise testing using a treadmill among healthy children. Cardiopulmonary exercise test can be safely and effectively performed in young children even as young as 4 years old. Variables including age, gender and height are strongly associated with exercise time, peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake. Regression equations for predicting peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake are presented as reference values that allow researchers to compare children with heart disease versus those who are healthy. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. The ABCs of Family Mealtimes: Observational Lessons for Promoting Healthy Outcomes for Children with Persistent Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Winter, Marcia A.; Botti, Joanna C.

    2011-01-01

    Family mealtimes have the potential to promote healthy child development. This observational study of 200 family mealtimes examined the relation between child health in a group of children (ages 5 to 12) with persistent asthma and 3 dimensions of mealtime interaction: Action, Behavior Control, and Communication. Percent time spent in Action and…

  12. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... have knowledge about community programs/ policies related to healthy nutrition, physical activity, and... study of community programs and policies and their relationship to childhood obesity. The HCS is an... community programs/policies and Body Mass Index (BMI), diet, and physical activity in children; and...

  13. Assessing the epidemiological impact of extending the national influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. Green

    2015-01-01

    Infection with influenza can result in significant morbidity and mortality each winter. The key strategy for control is vaccination and it was recently recommended to extend the routine programme in England to include healthy children. The aim of this thesis is therefore to collate the intelligence

  14. Impact of human coronavirus infections in otherwise healthy children who attended an emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert G M; Tremolati, Elena; Begliatti, Enrica; Rognoni, Alessandro; Tagliabue, Claudia; Principi, Nicola; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2006-01-01

    This prospective clinical and virological study of 2,060 otherwise healthy children aged <15 years of age (1,112 males; mean age +/- SD, 3.46 +/- 3.30 years) who attended the Emergency Department of Milan University's Institute of Pediatrics because of an acute disease excluding trauma during the wi

  15. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  16. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  17. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  18. Autonomy at Mealtime: Building Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharreban, Catherine; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia

    1996-01-01

    Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing…

  19. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  20. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  1. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.Journal of Human Hypertension...

  2. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods...... and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which...

  3. Distinct distal gut microbiome diversity and composition in healthy children from Bangladesh and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrie Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our current understanding of the composition and stability of the human distal gut microbiota is based largely on studies of infants and adults living in developed countries. In contrast, little is known about the gut microbiota and its variation over time in older children and adolescents, especially in developing countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the diversity, composition, and temporal stability of the fecal microbiota of healthy children, ages 9 to 14 years, living in an urban slum in Bangladesh with that of children of the same age range in an upper-middle class suburban community in the United States. We analyzed >8,000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences and over 845,000 pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 region. The distal gut of Bangladeshi children harbored significantly greater bacterial diversity than that of U.S. children, including novel lineages from several bacterial phyla. Bangladeshi and U.S. children had distinct fecal bacterial community membership and structure; the microbiota of Bangladeshi children was enriched in Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Oscillospira and depleted in Bacteroides relative to U.S. children (although similar to Bangladeshi adults. Furthermore, community membership and structure in Bangladeshi children was significantly less stable month-to-month than U.S. children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results suggest that differing environmental or genetic factors may shape the microbiota of healthy children in the two countries. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanisms and factors that underlie these differences, and to incorporate these findings into new strategies for the prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent diseases.

  4. The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, J D

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  6. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  7. Technology prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotova A.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle. Material : a theoretical analysis and compilation of more than 50 sources of scientific and methodological literature. Applied methods of modeling and design of social and educational activities. Results : the technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community. The main components of addictive behavior prevention technologies children are: diagnostic levels of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community; goal-prevention technologies, the choice of technology development or prevention of addictive behavior in children, preparation and planning of prevention, the introduction of technology, expertise and evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology deployed, summing outcomes. Conclusions . prevention of addictive behavior is an integral part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle for children. Procedural embodiment prevention of addictive behavior of children in the life of the territorial community is represented as a developed social and educational technology.

  8. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention - Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper's purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. The parents of 120 children of age group between 5-16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital's Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD - RS. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management.

  9. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer

    2017-04-19

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  10. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment.

  11. Reference values for respiratory system impedance using impulse oscillometry in healthy preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye Hae Park

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The normal values for lung resistance and lung capacity of children, as determined by impulse oscillometry (IOS, are different for children of different ethnicities. However, reference values there is no available reference value for Korean preschool children have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ranges of IOS parameters in Korean preschool children. Methods : A total of 133 healthy Korean preschool children were selected from 639 children (aged 3 to 6 years who attended kindergarten in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Healthy children were defined according to the European Respiratory Society (ERS criteria. All subjects underwent lung function tests using IOS. The relationships between IOS value (respiratory resistance (Rrs and reactance (Xrs at 5 and 10 Hz and resonance frequency (RF and age, height, and weight were analyzed by simple linear and multiple linear regression analyses. Results : The IOS success rate was 89.5%, yielding data on 119 children. Linear regression identified height as the best predictor of Rrs and Xrs. Using stepwise multiple linear regressions based on age, height, and weight, we determined regression equations and coefficients of determination (R2 for boys (Rrs5=1.934&#8211; 0.009¡¿Height, R2=12.1%; Xrs5=0.774+0.006¡¿Height&#8211;0.002¡¿Age, R2=20.2% and for girls (Rrs5=2.201&#8211;0.012¡¿Height, R2=18.2%; Xrs5=-0.674+0.004¡¿Height, R2=10.5%. Conclusion : This study provides reference values for IOS measurements of normal Korean preschool children. These provide a basis for the diagnosis and monitoring of preschool children with a variety of respiratory diseases.

  12. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  13. Late effects after treatment of twenty children with soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck. Experience at a single institution with a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, M.; Littman, P.; Raney, R.B.; Nelson, L.; Handler, S.; Diamond, G.; Stanley, C.

    1986-05-15

    Twenty children with soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck, treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from 1972 to 1981, were evaluated for the late deleterious effects of treatment. All patients received radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide; certain patients also received Adriamycin (doxorubicin). All had ophthalmologic, otologic, growth, and cosmetic evaluations; 15 also had dental and maxillofacial examinations. The median age at diagnosis was 6 years (range, 7 months-13 years). Median follow-up from time of diagnosis was 5.5 years with a minimum of 3 years in all but four patients. The major problems encountered were related to the eyes (xerophthalmia and cataracts), ears (hearing loss), teeth (maleruption and caries), glandular structures (xerostomia, hypopituitarism), and development (craniofacial deformity). It is concluded that children treated for soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck with combined modality therapy, including radiation enhancers, may show a variety of late treatment-related adversities. These children require close multidisciplinary follow-up for detection of late effects in order that appropriate prophylactic or symptomatic treatment can be instituted to minimize their consequences.

  14. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  15. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (pimmunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  16. Nasal carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Marothi, Yogyata; Iyer, Rama V; Singh, Binita; Sharma, Megha; Eriksson, Bo; Macaden, Ragini; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2010-12-29

    There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5) out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007) or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Vloemans, Janneke; Vos, Rimke; Teunisse, Peter-Paul; Hudig, Cisca; Bubbers, Sally; Verbruggen, Sascha; Veldhorst, Margriet; de Leeuw, Tom; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Brus, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), during the first years of life, are associated with delayed motor and neurological development. Many studies evaluated iron status without an assessment of an acute-phase protein to identify infection. Because most indicators of iron status are influenced by infection, these data may underestimate the ID prevalence. A food consumption survey in the Netherlands showed that the mean iron intake of children ages 2 to 3 years was below the advised adequate intake of 7 mg/day. The aim of the study was to investigate iron status in a well-defined, healthy population of young children in the southwestern region of the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for ID. We conducted a multicenter, observational study in healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years. We defined ID as ferritin Children with elevated C-reactive protein levels (>5 mg/L) or underlying causes for anemia were excluded. Parents filled in a questionnaire to identify risk factors for ID. We included 400 children in the study. ID and IDA were detected in 18.8% and 8.5% of the children, respectively. The present use of formula and the visit of preschool/day care were associated with a lower prevalence of ID, and a high intake of cow's milk was associated with a higher prevalence of ID, after adjustment for age. ID is present in 18.8% of healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years and living in the southwestern region of the Netherlands. The present visit of preschool/day care and the use of formula are associated with a reduced risk of ID, whereas a high intake of cow's milk is associated with an increased risk of ID.

  18. Packaging as a vehicle of nutritional information for children: Enhancing children’s perceptions of healthy food

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques, Ana Luísa Freixial

    2013-01-01

    Field lab in marketing: Children consumer behaviour This research explores on-package nutrition claims as a way to transmit nutritional information and to promote children’s choice of healthy food. The influence of two formats of a nutrition claim - in verbal and visual form – and of a general claim assuring tastiness were analyzed on children and adults’ attention to the nutrition claim, attitude toward the product, perceived healthiness and purchase intention. A sample of 233 children ag...

  19. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Zahedi; Mostafa Qorbani; Shirin Hasani Ranjbar; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Moloud Payab; Omid Safari; Gita Shafiee; Morteza Mansourian; Ramin Heshmat; Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage,...

  20. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  2. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of simulated crouch gait on foot kinematics and kinetics in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Julia; Schelldorfer, Sarah; Bauer, Christoph; van der Linden, Marietta L

    2013-09-01

    Identification of secondary and tertiary impairments in neurologically induced gait deviations, such as crouch gait, is not always straightforward, but essential in order to decide upon the most efficient medical treatment in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Until now, exact intersegmental dependency of the development of foot deformities has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore if an artificially induced bilateral knee flexion contracture causes compensatory mechanisms in foot motion during gait in healthy children. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data from 30 healthy children (mean age 10.6 years) were derived from the Oxford Foot model (OFM). Participants walked first in an artificially induced crouch gait (limitation of knee extension to 40°) and then normally. Walking speed was kept the same in both conditions. Analysis revealed small but significant (pknee flexion contracture with an increase in maximal dorsiflexion, eversion and external rotation of the hindfoot, which also allowed increased foot motion in other foot segments. The results of this study showed that an isolated proximal joint contracture had an influence on foot position during stance in healthy children. Further interpretation of the data in relation to CP children will be possible as soon as comparable OFM data of pathological crouch gait is available.

  4. Asymptomatic infections by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children from Misiones, Argentina, during the first twenty months of their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M; Oviedo, P; Chinen, I; Pegels, E; Husulak, E; Binztein, N; Rivas, M; Schiavoni, L; Vergara, M

    2000-01-01

    Diarrheagenics Escherichia coli are the major agents involved in diarrheal disease in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of appearance of the first asymptomatic infection by the different categories of diarrheagenic E. coli in 44 children since their birth and during the first 20 months of their lives. In all of the children studied, we detected at least one category of diarrheagenic E. coli through the 20 months of the study. 510 diarrheagenic E. coli (33.5%) were obtained from the 1,524 samples collected from the 44 children during the time of the study (31.4% EAggEC, 28.8% EPEC, 27.1% DAEC, and 12.7% ETEC). Neither EHEC nor EIEC were identified. The median age for diarrheagenic E. coli colonization was 7.5 months. The mean weaning period was 12.8 months and the mean age for introduction of mixed feeding (breast fed supplemented) was 3.8 months. A significantly lower incidence of diarrheal disease and asymptomatic infections was recorded among the exclusively breast-fed rather than in the supplemented and non breast-fed infants. For ETEC, EPEC and EAggEC the introduction of weaning foods and complete termination of breast-feeding were associated with an increase of asymptomatic infections.

  5. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2017-09-08

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  9. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  10. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 15 MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fysal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to lack of iron is the most important hematological disorder of infancy and childhood. According to India’s third National Family Health Survey ( NFHS - 3 of 2005 - 6 , 70 % of children between 6 months and 59 months are anemic. So it is very important to screen children for anemia early. The first 2 years of life is a critical window of opportunity to intervene in children since anemia can impair psychomotor development. A cross sectional study involving 260 apparently healthy children between 6 months and 15 months of age , showed the prevalence of anemia to be 60.7%. Only 9.2% of them were having Protein Energy Malnutrition. Introduction of animal milk at an early age and the amount of animal milk consumed were found to be the two important risk factors significantly associated with anemia. KEY WORDS: Hemoglobin , Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM , Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia , Exclusive Breast Feeding ( EBF

  11. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  12. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  13. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  14. 'Thin people … they're healthy': young children's understanding of body weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, S L; Collins, S C; Hill, A J

    2016-10-01

    While research has investigated negative stereotyping of fat body shapes, little has focused on young children's understanding of the mechanisms, motivations and consequences of weight change. To investigate children's understanding of how weight change is achieved, people's motivation for weight change, and the consequences of weight loss or weight gain. One hundred children (mean age 5.2, 38 girls) read a book in which one of the main characters (male/female according to the child's sex) was either healthy weight or overweight. Afterwards, this character was described as gaining or losing weight, and drawings which depicted the child in the story as either healthy weight or overweight were presented to the child and discussed. An audio-recorded semi-structured interview followed and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Nearly all children described the weight/shape change and attributed this to food more frequently than exercise. Weight loss was viewed positively and both motivations and consequences grouped under two master themes (physical and social reasons). No clear gender differences were observed in these responses. Talking with 5-year-olds showed them to be observant and knowledgeable, especially about motivations for and consequences of weight change. For those working to improve children's health literacy, this suggests receptiveness to early and fact-based education. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Promoting children's healthy eating in obesogenic environments: Lessons learned from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-09-26

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's learning about food and flavors has been inspired by the animal literature, which has a long history of carefully controlled studies elucidating the mechanisms through which rats and other animals learn to prefer and avoid foods and flavors. This literature provides many clues as to the processes by which learning paradigms may be used to encourage the intake of healthy foods, altering the implicit learning of obesogenic eating patterns that is likely to occur without intervention in the current environment. Overall, the implications of the literature are that children should be repeatedly exposed to a variety of flavors early in life, and that new flavors should be paired with already-liked flavors and positive contexts. This message is consistent with recent research results from our laboratory, showing that familiarization and associative learning paradigms may be used to increase young children's acceptance of, preference for, and intake of previously-unfamiliar, healthy foods.

  16. Promoting Children's Healthy Eating in Obesogenic Environments: Lessons Learned from the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's learning about food and flavors has been inspired by the animal literature, which has a long history of carefully controlled studies elucidating the mechanisms through which rats and other animals learn to prefer and avoid foods and flavors. This literature provides many clues as to the processes by which learning paradigms may be used to encourage the intake of healthy foods, altering the implicit learning of obesogenic eating patterns that is likely to occur without intervention in the current environment. Overall, the implications of the literature are that children should be repeatedly exposed to a variety of flavors early in life, and that new flavors should be paired with already-liked flavors and positive contexts. This message is consistent with recent research results from our laboratory, showing that familiarization and associative learning paradigms may be used to increase young children's acceptance of, preference for, and intake of previously-unfamiliar, healthy foods. PMID:21620880

  17. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  18. Twenty-eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: trends and psychosocial concomitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österman, Karin; Björkqvist, Kaj; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide.

  19. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Sánchez-Romero; Holub, Christina K.; Simón Barquera; Arredondo, Elva M.; Eisenberg, Christina M.; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Elder, John P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Materi- als and methods. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articl...

  20. Feeding children in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: how much is spent and what would be the cost of a healthy diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Rosa Gama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to measure food expenditure for children living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, and compare this expenditure to the cost of a healthy diet, based on local prices. Methods: panel study, with three collection dates – 2004, 2008 and 2012 – conducted in children (5 to 9 years old in Manguinhos. Food prices were collected by way of a sample of local food stores in 2013 and deflated using indicators specific to food prices. Twenty-four hour diet recall, qualitative food frequency and the Brazilian food pyramid adequate for the age group were used to estimate the observed expenditure and the cost of a healthy diet. Results: in 2004, 49.2% of the families interviewed lived on less than US$1 per person/day and 9.7% in 2012.In the same period, the percentage of students eating free school meals dropped from 73% to 49%. Money spent on food was concentrated on sugary products (32.4% and snacks (12.5%. The estimated monthly cost of a healthy diet (US$142 was lower than the observed expenditure (US$176. Conclusions: increased purchasing power has not led to healthier food choices. The common belief that poor people choose food based on prices was rejected by the present study. Other factors certainly play an important role in food purchasing decisions.

  1. Twenty-four hours or 10 days? A prospective randomised controlled trial in children comparing head bandages following pinnaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Narayanan, V; Laing, J H E

    2006-01-01

    The perceived benefits of bandaging for 10 days following pinnaplasty have been questioned by previous studies. The problems arising from these dressings are many [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bartley J. How long should ears be bandaged after otoplasty? J Laryngol Otol 1998;112:531-2. Wong MC, Sylaidis P. Head dressings for pinnaplasty: a tradition not supported by evidence. Br J Plast Surg 2001;54:81-2], including their slippage [Powell BWEM. The value of head dressings in the postoperative management of the prominent ear. Br J Plast Surg 1989;42:692-4. Bradbury ET, Hewison J, Timmons MJ. Psychological and social outcome of prominent ear correction in children. Br J Plast Surg 1992;45:97-100. Jeffery SLA. Complications following correction of prominent ears: an audit review of 122 cases. Br J Plast Surg 1999;52:588-90]. Eighty children were recruited into a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the use of a head bandage for only 24 h with a standard practise of a 10-day head bandage. A preoperative measurement of the lateral ear projection (LEP) was made. The outcome measures recorded during the two planned postoperative visits at 10 days (visit 1) and 2 months (visit 2) were: patient satisfaction score, LEP, complications and any unscheduled hospital visits associated with the surgery. There was no significant difference in LEP and patient satisfaction between the two groups at both the scheduled postoperative visits. Differences between the groups in the number of unscheduled visits (p=0.21) did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that it is safe and effective to use head bandage for only 24 h following surgical correction of prominent ears. This study shows no benefit from the application of a formal head bandage for any longer than 1 day.

  2. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  3. Spatial and temporal postural analysis: a developmental study in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouleme, Nathalie; Ezane, Marie Désirée; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore further the development of postural control in healthy children. The novelty of this study was to resort to both spatial and temporal analysis of the center of pressure (CoP). Forty-six healthy children from 4 to 16 years old (mean age: 9.1±3 years) and a group of 13 healthy adults (mean age: 25±3 years) participated to this study. Postural control was tested on both a stable and an unstable platform in three different visual conditions: eyes open fixating a target, under optocinetic stimulation, and eyes closed. Resul*ts showed a significant decrease of both surface area as well as mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP) during childhood. With the children's increasing age, the spectral power indices decreased significantly and the canceling time increased significantly. Such improvement in postural control could be due to a better use of sensorial inputs and cerebellar integration during development, allowing subjects to achieve more efficient postural control.

  4. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  5. Investigating developmental changes in sensory processing: visual mismatch response in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McLaurin Cleary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect small changes in one’s visual environment is important for effective adaptation to and interaction with a wide variety of external stimuli. Much research has studied the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN, or the brain’s automatic response to rare changes in a series of repetitive auditory stimuli. But recent studies indicate that a visual homologue to this component of the event-related potential (ERP can also be measured. While most visual mismatch response studies have focused on adult populations, few studies have investigated this response in healthy children, and little is known about the developmental nature of this phenomenon. We recorded EEG data in 22 healthy children (ages 8-12 and 20 healthy adults (ages 18-42. Participants were presented with two types of task irrelevant background images of black and gray gratings while performing a visual target detection task. Spatial frequency of the background gratings was varied with 85% of the gratings being of high spatial frequency (i.e. standard background stimulus and 15% of the images being of low spatial frequency (i.e. deviant background stimulus. Results in the adult group showed a robust mismatch response to deviant (nontarget background stimuli at around 150ms post-stimulus at occipital electrode locations. In the children, two negativities around 150ms and 230ms post-stimulus at occipital electrode locations and a positivity around 250ms poststimulus at frontocentral electrode locations were observed. In addition, larger amplitudes of P1 and longer latencies of P1 and N1 to deviant background stimuli were observed in children versus adults. These results suggest that processing of deviant stimuli presented outside the focus of attention in 8-12-year-old children differs from those in adults, and are in agreement with previous research. They also suggest that the visual mismatch response may change across the lifespan in accordance with other components of

  6. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  7. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  8. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Turkish children living in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneş, Ulker; Somer, Ayper; Sapan, Nihat; Dişçi, Rian; Güler, Nermin

    2004-01-01

    In the evaluation and management of bronchial asthma, simple instruments for measurements of the peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate are needed. The aim of this study was to determine normal PEF values of Turkish children living in Istanbul. This is the largest study conducted in Turkey. In a cross-sectional study, we measured PEF in 2791 healthy schoolchildren (1468 boys and 1323 girls) aged 7-14 years, with a Mini Wright peak flow meter. We entered height, age, and sex into the regression equation. The equation for prediction of PEF in boys was calculated as (3.5 x height [cm]) + (9.2 x age [years]) - 256.5, (p 7 millions inhabitants) can reflect more reliably real PEF values of Turkish children. We concluded that our findings would serve as an important basis for preparing centile curves for normal PEF values for Turkish children.

  9. Uncomplicated pneumonia in healthy Canadian children and youth: Practice points for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Although immunization has decreased the incidence of bacterial pneumonia in vaccinated children, pneumonia remains common in healthy children. Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia frequently overlap those present with viral infections or reactive airway disease. Optimally, the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia should be supported by a chest radiograph before starting antimicrobials. Factors such as age, vital signs and other measures of illness severity are critical when deciding whether to admit a patient to hospital. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to be the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, prescribing amoxicillin or ampicillin for seven to 10 days remains the mainstay of empirical therapy for nonsevere pneumonia. If improvement does not occur, consideration should be given to searching for complications (empyema or lung abscess). Routine chest radiographs at the end of therapy are not recommended unless clinically indicated. PMID:26744558

  10. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  11. The effect of face exploration on postural control in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulème, Nathalie; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to explore how face exploration affects postural control in healthy children. The novelty here is that eye movements and posture were simultaneously recorded. Three groups of children participated in the study: 12 children of 7.8±0.5 years old, 13 children of 10.4±0.5 years old and 12 children of 15.7±0.9 years old. Eye movements were recorded by video-oculography and postural stability was recorded by a platform. Children were invited to explore five emotional faces (neutral, happy, sad fear and angry). Analysis of eye movements was done on saccadic latency, percentage of exploration time spent and number of saccades for each specific region of interest (ROI): eyes, nose and mouth. Analysis of posture was made on surface area, sway length and mean velocity of the center of pressures (CoP). Results showed that visual strategies, exploration and postural control develop during childhood and adolescence. Indeed, after nine years-old, children started to look the eyes ROI firstly, then the nose ROI and finally the mouth ROI. The number of saccades decreased with the age of children. The percentage of exploration time spent in eyes ROI was longer than the others ROIs and greater for unpleasant faces (sad, fear and angry) with respect to pleasant emotional face (happy). We found that in front of sad and happy faces the surface area of the CoP was significantly larger compared to other faces (neutral and angry). These results suggest that visual strategies and postural control change during children's development and can be influenced by the emotional face.

  12. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.

  13. Relationship between Sleep Habits and Nighttime Sleep among Healthy Preschool Children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming Jae

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: We examined the nighttime sleep habits associated with insufficient sleep quantity and poor sleep quality among healthy preschool-aged Taiwanese children. Materials and Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional survey was a stratified random sample of 3 to 6-year-old preschool children from 19 cities and counties in Taiwan. A caregiver-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on preschooler sleep quantity (sleep duration and sleep latency) and sleep quality (sleep disturbances and disruption) and potentially related sleep habits. Results: Of the 1253 children for whom analysable survey data were collected (children's mean age: 5.03 ± 1.27 years), more than half (53.07%) engaged in bedtime television (TV)-viewing, 88.95% required a sleep reminder, 43.85% exhibited bedtime resistance, 93.6% engaged in co-sleeping (bed-sharing or room-sharing), and only 33.72% slept in a well darkened bedroom. Bedtime TV-viewing, co-sleeping, bedroom light exposure, and bedtime resistance were the primary predictors, without a bedtime TV-viewing habit was the strongest predictor analysed; it explained 15.2% and 19.9% of the variance in adequate sleep quantity and improved sleep quality in preschool children. Conclusion: Sleep loss and poor sleep quality in preschool children could be alleviated, at least partly, by curtailing bedtime TV-viewing, limiting light exposure during sleeping, and reducing bed-sharing habit.

  14. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. Results The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p niacin, and vitamin B6 (p < 0.05), as well as with vitamin D and zinc intake (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Omission errors were positively correlated with the consumption of rice and ramyeon (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with the consumption of snacks (p < 0.05). Standard deviations in reaction times showed positive correlation with the consumption of rice (p < 0.01), snacks, and chocolate (p < 0.05). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the consumption of rice with mixed grains (p < 0.01) and eggs (p < 0.05). Conclusion The relationship between dietary intake and cognitive function is generally better observed in girls than in boys. The consumption of healthy foods is correlated with good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is closely related to cognitive function, even in healthy children and adolescents. PMID:28261556

  15. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Low salt intake and high fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in adults. Longitudinal data on the independent effect of both FVI and salt intake on BP in healthy normotensive children are not available yet. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the concomitant influence of salt intake and FVI on BP development throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined 435 healthy subjects, for whom at least three repeated measurements of BP had been taken and who had provided 24 h urine samples and 3 d weighed dietary records between 4 and 18 years of age. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer (Mercuro 300, WelchAllyn) and salt intake was determined based on 24 h Na excretion. The intra-individual change in salt intake was almost significantly associated with the change in systolic BP (SBP, P= 0·06) and marginally (P= 0·09) with that in diastolic BP (DBP) in puberty, but not in pre-puberty. A 1 g/d increase in salt intake was associated with a 0·2 mmHg increase in SBP. In pre-puberty, but not in puberty, differences in FVI between children predicted between-person variations in SBP and DBP (P= 0·03). Corresponding findings were obtained for 24 h K excretion (a urinary indicator for FVI). A 100 g/d lower FVI was related to a 0·4 mmHg higher BP value. In conclusion, in healthy children and adolescents with BP in the low-normal range, both salt intake and FVI may already start to influence BP, although at a small magnitude. The potential importance of establishing healthy eating habits in childhood for later BP development emphasises the role of higher FVI and lower salt intake in the prevention of hypertension in the long run.

  16. Iron deficiency among apparently healthy children aged 6 to 24 months in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owa, Olufunke Tolulope; Brown, Biobele J; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga O

    2016-08-01

    Iron deficiency remains a global public health challenge, with a higher burden in children in the tropics. When it occurs early in life, it may have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. The aims of this study were to assess the iron status of children aged 6-24 months, to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study between March and June 2014. A total of 202 apparently healthy children aged between 6 and 24 months attending 2 major immunization clinics in Ibadan were included. A questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, and nutritional history. Physical examination was carried out on all the subjects, and serum ferritin level was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Iron deficiency was defined using a cutoff value of children (29.2%) had iron deficiency. No clinical features were found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was associated with breastfeeding (P = .020) and younger age (P = .015) in the study population. One hundred and forty-three (70.8%) of the study participants had anemia, and 39 (19.3%) had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of iron deficiency among apparently healthy children aged 6-24 months in Ibadan, Nigeria, is high. There is the need for a national policy on routine screening for iron deficiency and iron supplementation for infants and young children as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  17. Nasal carriage screening of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Mobasherizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The current report reflects issues and concerns that the high rate of colonization by CA-MRSA in Iranian healthy children provides obliging evidence that MRSA have established a foothold in the community and are emerging as important health threatening pathogens. It is suggested that we need more effective infection control measures to prevent transmission of nasal CA-MRSA in healthy preschool children.

  18. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  19. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  20. Growing healthy children and communities: Children's insights in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    A diverse group of 103 children aged 7-11 years old living in family and residential care in rural and urban settings in two northern provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic participated in group discussions using images and community mapping. Children's identified sources of risk and protection illustrate primary public health and protection concerns and resources. Young children worried about lack of hygiene, unintentional injuries, corporal punishment, and domestic violence. They also expressed concern about gambling and children sleeping in the streets, even if they had never seen any of the latter in their communities. In contrast, food and shelter; artistic, religious, and cultural practices; supportive interpersonal relationships; and schooling largely evoked feelings of safety and belonging. Images that prompted conflicting interpretations surfaced individual and contextual considerations that nuanced analysis. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from using this developmentally appropriate, context-sensitive child-centred visual method to elicit young children's views of risk and protection. It may also serve as a tool for public health education. Involving young children in the initial selection of images would further enhance the efficiency of the method.

  1. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  2. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  3. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articles. There were six intervention studies included in the present review. Five studies showed reductions in obesity-related outcomes, while one study reported gains in body mass index (BMI). Physical activity and healthy eating remain constant components in obesity treatment interventions, which highlights the importance of understanding evidence-based strategies to guide future research to reduce childhood obesity in Mexico.

  4. Evaluation of Diet Quality of Egyptian Children and Adolescents using Healthy Eating Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat A. Esmail ­ Wafaa M.A.Saleh ­Nebal A.R.Aboul Ella ­ Asmaa M. Abd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthful eating is essential for development and well-being. Some dietary patterns are associated with 4 of the 10 leading causes of death (coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Major improvements in the health of the public can, therefore, be made by improving people's dietary patterns. The U.S. department of Agriculture has developed an index, called the Healthy Eating Index (HEI that was updated in the year 2002. It is based on different aspects of a healthful diet; the Index is designed to provide a measure of overall dietary quality, and the compliance with specific Dietary Guidelines recommendations. The aim of our study is to use the healthy eating index to assess the diet quality of a representative sample of the Egyptian children and adolescents and to examine the association between body mass index and caloric intake of the studied sample. Materials & Methods: This study is a part of National Egyptian survey, Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. The Healthy Eating Index was applied with slight modifications to measure how well the studied Egyptian students' diet conforms to recommended healthy eating pattern. The data were based on representative sample (2145 of children and adolescents (10 -18 years in 7 governorates from. One day of dietary intake data (24 hours recall was collected, during an in-person interview. The Healthy Eating Index measures how well the studied children and adolescents' diets conform to the American Dietary Guidelines recommendations and the Food Guide Pyramid applied in our country. Ten dietary components have been identified and the overall Index has a total possible score ranging from zero to 100. Results: Our results showed that the average Healthy Eating Index score was 59.1 out of a possible 100 and it ranged from 20 to 86, Only 0.5 percent of the students had Healthy Eating scores above 80; while 16.9 percent of them

  5. Food through the child's eye: An eye-tracking study on attentional bias for food in healthy-weight children and children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Schyns, Ghislaine; Roefs, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Obesity prevalence among children is high and knowledge on cognitive factors that contribute to children's reactivity to the "obesogenic" food environment could help to design effective treatment and prevention campaigns. Empirical studies in adults suggest that attention bias for food could be a risk factor for overeating. Accordingly, the current study tested if children with obesity have an elevated attention bias for food when compared to healthy-weight children. Another aim was to explore whether attention biases for food predicted weight-change after 3 and 6 months in obese children. Obese children (n = 34) were recruited from an intervention program and tested prior to the start of this intervention. Healthy-weight children (n = 36) were recruited from local schools. First, attention biases for food were compared between children with obesity (n = 30) and matched healthy-weight children (n = 30). Second, regression analyses were conducted to test if food-related attention biases predicted weight changes after 3 and 6 months in children with obesity following a weight loss lifestyle intervention. Results showed that obese children did not differ from healthy-weight children in their attention bias to food. Yet automatically directing attention toward food (i.e., initial orientation bias) was related to a reduced weight loss (R² = .14, p = .032) after 6 months in children with obesity. High palatable food is a salient stimulus for all children, irrespective of their weight status. However, automatically directing attention to food cues might facilitate further weight gain in children with obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A.; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-01-01

    Objective American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. Design During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-b...

  7. Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation in clinically healthy children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Villarreal-Calderon, R; Valencia-Salazar, G; Henríquez-Roldán, C; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Osnaya-Brizuela, N; Romero, L; Torres-Jardón, R; Solt, A; Reed, W

    2008-03-01

    Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon exposure to particulate matter (PM). Endothelial dysfunction is a critical event in cardiovascular disease. The focus of this work was to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollution including PM(2.5) produces systemic inflammation and endothelial injury in healthy children. We measured markers of endothelial activation, and inflammatory mediators in 52 children age 8.6+/-0.1 yr, residents of Mexico City (n: 28) or of Polotitlán (n: 24), a city with low levels of pollutants. Mexico City children had significant increases in inflammatory mediators and vasoconstrictors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, prostaglandin (PG) E2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, and endothelin-1. There was a significant anti-inflammatory response, and a downregulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and -2, and selectins sE and sL. Results from linear regression found TNF a positively associated with 24- and 48-h cumulative levels of PM(2.5), while the 7-d PM(2.5) value was negatively associated with the numbers of white blood cells in peripheral blood in highly exposed children. Systemic subclinical inflammation, increased endothelin- 1, and significant downregulation of soluble adhesion molecules are seen in Mexico City children. Children chronically exposed to fine PM above the standard could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other systemic effects later in life.

  8. Is healthy eating for obese children necessarily more costly for families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan; Williams, Jessica; Cumberlidge, Tina; Cimonetti, Tânia; Sharp, Deborah J; Shield, Julian P H

    2012-01-01

    During consultations on weight management in childhood obesity clinics, the additional costs incurred by healthy eating are often cited, as an economic barrier to achieving a better nutritional balance. To examine whether adopting an improved theoretical, balanced diet compared to current dietary habits in children incurs additional cost. Children aged 5-16 years (body mass index [BMI] ≥98th percentile) recruited to a randomised trial comparing a hospital-based and primary care childhood obesity clinics provided data for this study. Three-day dietary diaries collected at baseline were analysed for energy and fat intake and then compared to a theoretical, adjusted healthy-eating diet based on the Food Standards Agency, 'Eatwell plate'. Both were priced contemporaneously using the appropriate portion size, at a neighbourhood, mid-range supermarket, at a budget supermarket, and on the local high street. The existing diet purchased at a budget supermarket was cheapest (£2.48/day). The healthier, alternative menu at the same shop cost an additional 33 pence/day (£2.81). The same exercise in a mid-range supermarket, incurred an additional cost of 4 pence per day (£3.40 versus £3.44). Switching from an unhealthy mid-range supermarket menu to the healthier, budget-outlet alternative saved 59 pence per day. The healthier, alternative menu was cheaper than the existing diet if purchased on the high street (£3.58 versus £3.75), although for both menus this was most expensive. For many obese children, eating healthily would not necessarily incur prohibitive, additional financial cost, although a poor diet at a budget supermarket remains the cheapest of all options. Cost is a possible barrier to healthy eating for the most economically disadvantaged.

  9. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  10. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Lívia Barboza de; Silva, Diogo A R G; Salgado, Taíza L B; Figueroa, José N; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Britto, Murilo C A

    2014-01-01

    to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables. this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL) questionnaire (PAQLQ) and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%. 40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3±2.1 years, mean height was 1.5±0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8±12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9%±19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r=0.373, p=0.018) and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r=-0.518, p<0.001). Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r=-0.311, p=0.051). asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2016-01-01

    and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the "Healthy Start" study. Linear regression analysis was used...

  12. Promotion of a Healthy Weight and Lifestyle among Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOverweight and obesity among children has become a public health issue. This thesis aimed to describe interventions promoting a healthy weight and lifestyle among children and provide insight in elements that may be related to intervention improvement. Health care has an important role i

  13. Promotion of a Healthy Weight and Lifestyle among Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOverweight and obesity among children has become a public health issue. This thesis aimed to describe interventions promoting a healthy weight and lifestyle among children and provide insight in elements that may be related to intervention improvement. Health care has an important role i

  14. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio......, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. METHODS: DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-05-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  17. Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Li, Xing; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Yao, A-Ling; Chen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is expected to facilitate universal immunization against these 4 diseases. This study was undertaken to synthesize current research findings of the immunogenicity and safety of MMRV in healthy children.We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other databases through September 9, 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and collected independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3.Twenty-four RCTs were included in qualitative synthesis. Nineteen RCTs compared single MMRV dose with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with or without varicella vaccine (MMR + V/MMR). Similar seroconversion rates of these 4 viruses were found between comparison groups. There were comparable geometric mean titers (GMTs) against mumps and varicella viruses between MMRV group and MMR + V/MMR group. MMRV group achieved enhanced immune response to measles component, with GMT ratio of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48, 1.86; P measles/rubella-like rash (relative risks 1.44-1.45) in MMRV groups.MMRV had comparable immunogenicity and overall safety profiles to MMR + V/MMR in healthy children based on current evidence.

  18. Targeted Reactivation during Sleep Differentially Affects Negative Memories in Socially Anxious and Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; McMakin, Dana L; Rasch, Björn; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome. Half of the words were re-presented during postlearning sleep (i.e., they were cued). Recall of picture-word associations and subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal in response to the pictures was tested for cued and uncued stimuli. In the morning after cueing, cueing facilitated retention of positive and negative memories equally well in SAD patients and healthy controls. One week later, cueing led to reduced ratings of pleasantness of negative information in SAD but not in healthy controls. Coincidental to these findings was more pronounced EEG theta activity over frontal, temporal and parietal regions in response to negative stimuli in SAD patients. Our findings suggest that the preferential abstraction of negative emotional information during sleep might represent one factor underlying the negative memory bias in SAD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We aim to uncover mechanisms underlying the characteristic negative memory bias in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The formation of long-lasting memories-a process referred to as memory consolidation-depends on the reactivation of newly acquired memories during sleep. We demonstrated that experimentally induced memory reactivation during sleep renders long-term memories of negative experiences more negative in SAD patients but not in healthy controls. We also found in SAD patients that the reactivation of negative experiences coincided with more

  19. Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Jo Anne

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

  20. Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Jo Anne

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

  1. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011 and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools.

  3. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  4. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Fiorott, Bruna Santos; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB) while 167 (24.3%) were mouth breathers (MB); 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB. PMID:26154460

  5. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  6. Dog attachment and perceived social support in overweight/obese and healthy weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Linder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective and sustainable interventions to treat childhood obesity remains both a priority and a challenge. Previous studies support that dogs provide social support in overweight adults in obesity interventions, but the child-dog relationship is not as well understood. The goal of the study was to examine the child-dog relationship among children to inform novel childhood obesity interventions including dogs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston in 2015. Children aged 8–13, with a dog in the household, answered surveys on pet attachment (Pet Relationship Scale, perceived social support from parents and close friends (Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, and had a height and weight measurement taken for calculation of body mass index percentile. Overweight and obese children (≥85th body mass index percentile had greater mean attachment score to their dog and less mean perceived social support from their parents and friends combined compared to healthy weight children (73.1 ± 5.6 vs. 68.5 ± 7.2, p = 0.037; 110.5 ± 13.5 vs. 122.9 ± 14.8, p = 0.015, respectively; n = 43. In conclusions, children who are overweight/obese report greater mean dog attachment and lower mean perceived social support, supporting the concept that pet dogs are considered part of overweight/obese children's social support networks. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of including pet dogs as additional health support in child obesity interventions.

  7. Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José J; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, José M

    2014-09-01

    There is a tendency in Mediterranean countries to abandon the characteristic Mediterranean diet. This is especially apparent within younger populations. This could have negative consequences for health such as, cardiovascular diseases, obesity or metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to the Mediterranean diet within a population of school children and to examine the influence of different socio-demographic factors and lifestyle habits. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 321 school children aged 11-12 years from 31 schools in the city of Logroño (La Rioja). Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, level of development, aerobic fitness, lifestyle, physical activity habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet was reported by 46.7% of school children, with low adherence being reported by 4.7% of them. Children attending state schools, immigrants and families from low-to-medium socio-economic strata reported significantly lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = .039), but the results did not reveal any significant differences in terms of body composition. Correlations were found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle habits, especially level of physical activity (r = .38) and screen time (r = -.18). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet differs according to the type of school attended by children, and the child's nationality and socio-economic status. Children who attended state schools, immigrants and those from families with a medium-to-low socio-economic status were less likely to follow healthy diets.

  8. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  9. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  10. Circadian variation in serum free ultrafiltrable insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, C; Skjaerbaek, C; Orskov, H; Wolthers, O D

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess 24-h free IGF-I profiles in serum in healthy children using an ultrafiltration method that approached in vivo conditions. Five girls and two boys aged 10.4 to 13.6 (mean 12.2) years with pubertal stages I to III were studied. A fasting blood sample was drawn at 0800 h, and thereafter samples were drawn at specific times every 20 min until 0800 h the next morning. Free IGF-I, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and insulin were analyzed in 1-h samples, total IGF-1 in 2-h samples, and GH in 20-min samples. A statistically significant diurnal variation in serum free IGF-I was seen (p insulin were seen. In healthy children, circulating free IGF-I exhibits a nocturnal decrease and an increase in the morning. The diurnal secretion of free IGF-I correlates with GH and is inversely related to IGFBP-1. The metabolic significance of these findings needs further study.

  11. A Parental Health Education Model of Children's Food Consumption: Influence on Children's Attitudes, Intention, and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.

  12. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  13. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  14. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shen-Song; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Yi; Jiang, Du-Yin

    2015-08-20

    The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial. Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years. Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography. The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured. Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal. The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P rib growth was not linear. In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients, the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients. In 18 (14.9%) patients, the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix, helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent, and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved. Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing. In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length, the operation was delayed. In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length, which left no cartilage for helix splicing, the result was unsatisfactory. Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable. Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia.

  15. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Song Kang; Ying Guo; Dong-Yi Zhang; Du-Yin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial.Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction.We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years.Methods:Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography.The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured.Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal.Results:The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P < 0.05).From 5 to 10 years of age,eighth rib growth was not linear.In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients,the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear;satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients.In 18 (14.9%) patients,the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix,helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent,and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved.Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing.In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length,the operation was delayed.In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length,which left no cartilage for helix splicing,the result was unsatisfactory.Conclusions:Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable.Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia.

  16. Predictive equations using regression analysis of pulmonary function for healthy children in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few published studies on spirometric reference values for healthy children in China. We hypothesize that there would have been changes in lung function that would not have been precisely predicted by the existing spirometric reference equations. The objective of the study was to develop more accurate predictive equations for spirometric reference values for children aged 9 to 15 years in Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Spirometric measurements were obtained from 3,922 children, including 1,974 boys and 1,948 girls, who were randomly selected from five cities of Liaoning province, Northeast China, using the ATS (American Thoracic Society and ERS (European Respiratory Society standards. The data was then randomly split into a training subset containing 2078 cases and a validation subset containing 1844 cases. Predictive equations used multiple linear regression techniques with three predictor variables: height, age and weight. Model goodness of fit was examined using the coefficient of determination or the R(2 and adjusted R(2. The predicted values were compared with those obtained from the existing spirometric reference equations. The results showed the prediction equations using linear regression analysis performed well for most spirometric parameters. Paired t-tests were used to compare the predicted values obtained from the developed and existing spirometric reference equations based on the validation subset. The t-test for males was not statistically significant (p>0.01. The predictive accuracy of the developed equations was higher than the existing equations and the predictive ability of the model was also validated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed prediction equations using linear regression analysis of spirometric parameters for children aged 9-15 years in Northeast China. These equations represent the first attempt at predicting lung function for Chinese children following the ATS

  17. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  18. High prevalence of multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummeepak, Rapee; Leerach, Nontapat; Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Tangchaisuriya, Udomsak; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is an emerging health problem worldwide. The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae is increasing, and nasal colonization of S. pneumoniae in children increases the risk of pneumococcal infection. In this study, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was studied in Thai children from three different districts. S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was found in 38 of 237 subjects (16.0%). The carriage rate indicated higher rates in two rural districts (18.2% and 29.8%) than in the urban district (2.8%). The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the disk diffusion method. Prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae (MDR-SP) was 31.6%. Resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was found for ampicillin (5.3%), azithromycin (26.3%), cefepime (2.6%), chloramphenicol (18.4%), clindamycin (18.4%), erythromycin (21.1%), oxacillin (44.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (78.9%) and tetracycline (15.8%). All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was used to compare genetic diversity of the S. pneumoniae isolates. PFGE demonstrated the variation in genotypes of S. pneumoniae from different areas. High prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae nasal colonization in healthy Thai children was indicated. Effective strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics are therefore needed in the community.

  19. Relationship of neuroticism and laboratory pain in healthy children: does anxiety sensitivity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Laura A; Seidman, Laura C; Lung, Kirsten C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2013-01-01

    Both neuroticism, a higher-order, stable personality trait, and anxiety sensitivity (AS), a lower-order pain-related construct, have been associated with pain, although no research exists examining the relationship of both these constructs to acute pain in children. In the current study, 99 healthy children (53 girls) completed self-report measures of neuroticism and AS before undergoing pain tasks involving cold and pressure pain. We hypothesized that both neuroticism and AS would be correlated with acute pain responses, but that AS would at least partially mediate the relationship between neuroticism and pain responses. Results indicated significant correlations between neuroticism, AS, and anticipatory anxiety, pain intensity and pain bother. Mediational models revealed that AS partially mediated relationships between neuroticism and pain intensity/bother, and fully mediated relationships between neuroticism and anticipatory anxiety. These data suggest that, at least in children, neuroticism may be best understood as a vulnerability factor for elevated pain responses, especially when coupled with a fear of bodily sensations.

  20. Strengthening healthy resistance and courage in children: a gender-based strategy for preventing youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Carol

    2004-12-01

    Beginning with the distinction between core consciousness or a core sense of self and a self that is wedded to a story about itself, this paper suggests that we have collectively been wedded to a false story about ourselves, a story that the core self resists. The gender disparity with respect to times in development when children's resilience is at heightened risk highlights the costs of an initiation that occurs for boys in early childhood and for girls at adolescence. Because of this difference in the timing, girls can become informants about a process of psychic splitting and dissociation that impedes the relational capacities of children and opens the way to violence. The articulateness of girls' resistance to losses that are psychologically and socially consequential illuminates a resistance in boys that may otherwise be overlooked. Evidence drawn from studies of girls' development leads to the suggestion that by joining a healthy resistance in children, we can act to prevent youth violence. The paper ends with a case study of a suicidal adolescent girl to illustrate how a relational framework shifts the interpretation of violent behavior and informs a strategy of response.

  1. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  2. Detection of respiratory viruses and bacteria in children using a twenty-two target reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chelsey; Misir, Amita; Hui, Charles; Jabbour, Mona; Barrowman, Nicholas; Langill, Jonathan; Bowes, Jennifer; Slinger, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rapid detection of the wide range of viruses and bacteria that cause respiratory infection in children is important for patient care and antibiotic stewardship. We therefore designed and evaluated a ready-to-use 22 target respiratory infection reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) panel to determine if this would improve detection of these agents at our pediatric hospital. RT-qPCR assays for twenty-two target organisms were dried-down in individual wells of 96 well plates and saved at room temperature. Targets included 18 respiratory viruses and 4 bacteria. After automated nucleic acid extraction of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples, rapid qPCR was performed. RT-qPCR results were compared with those obtained by the testing methods used at our hospital laboratories. One hundred fifty-nine pediatric NPA samples were tested with the RT-qPCR panel. One or more respiratory pathogens were detected in 132/159 (83%) samples. This was significantly higher than the detection rate of standard methods (94/159, 59%) (Pviruses, bocavirus, and coronaviruses. The panel internal control assay performance remained stable at room temperature storage over a two-month testing period. The RT-qPCR panel was able to identify pathogens in a high proportion of respiratory samples. The panel detected more positive specimens than the methods in use at our hospital. The pre-made panel format was easy to use and rapid, with results available in approximately 90 minutes. We now plan to determine if use of this panel improves patient care and antibiotic stewardship.

  3. Macular Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measured by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Wook; Song, In Seok; Lee, Ju-hyang; Shin, Yong Un; Lim, Han Woong; Lee, Won June; Lee, Byung Ro

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers (choroidal thickness map. We also examined 44 eyes of 35 healthy adult volunteers (≥18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 ± 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 ± 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p choroidal thickness (p choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases.

  4. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Zahedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.

  5. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  6. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  7. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  8. Steps to Growing Up Healthy: a pediatric primary care based obesity prevention program for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Wiley, James; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hernandez, Dominica; Grant, Autherene; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2014-01-23

    Leading medical organizations have called on primary care pediatricians to take a central role in the prevention of childhood obesity. Weight counseling typically has not been incorporated into routine pediatric practice due to time and training constraints. Brief interventions with simple behavior change messages are needed to reach high-risk children, particularly Latino and Black children who are disproportionately affected by obesity and related comorbidities. Steps to Growing Up Healthy (Added Value) is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of brief motivational counseling (BMC) delivered by primary care clinicians and the added value of supplementing BMC with monthly contact by community health workers (CHW) in the prevention/reversal of obesity in Latino and Black children ages 2-4 years old. Mother-child dyads (targeted n = 150) are recruited for this 12-month randomized trial at an inner-city pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to: 1) BMC delivered by clinicians and nurses at well, sick, and WIC visits with the goal of reducing obesogenic behaviors (BMC); 2) BMC plus monthly phone calls by a CHW (BMC + Phone); or 3) BMC plus monthly home visits by a CHW (BMC + Home). During BMC, the medical team facilitates the selection of a specific goal (i.e., reduce sugar sweetened beverage consumption) that is meaningful to the mother and teaches the mother simple behavioral strategies. Monthly contacts with CHWs are designed to identify and overcome barriers to goal progress. Dyads are assessed at baseline and 12 months and the primary outcome is change in the child's BMI percentile. We hypothesize that BMC + Phone and BMC + Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC alone and that BMC + Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC + Phone. Steps to Growing Up Healthy will provide important information about whether a brief primary care-based intervention that utilizes a

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Biovac-A™ in healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhave S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Bhave,1 Apurba Ghosh,2 Amita Sapru,1 Monjori Mitra,2 Suparna Chatterjee,3 Nisha Bhattacharya,2 Ganesh Kadhe,4 Amey Mane,4 Sucheta Roy41Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 4Medical Affairs Department, Wockhardt Ltd, Mumbai, IndiaIntroduction: The World Health Organization (WHO recommends either inactivated or live attenuated vaccine against the hepatitis A virus (HAV infection in countries with high incidence. Live attenuated vaccines against HAV infection have been developed and used exclusively in the People’s Republic of China and have shown promising results. This is the first study conducted outside the People’s Republic of China to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Biovac-A™ in healthy Indian children.Material and methods: This was an open-labeled, 8-week (July 2012 to October 2012, non-comparative, non-randomized, confirmatory study conducted at two centers (Kolkata and Pune in India. A total of 140 healthy Indian children aged 12 months to 12 years were administered live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine at the two centers. Overall, 137 subjects (female: 66, mean age: 4.09±2.5 years completed the study. The subjects were vaccinated (subcutaneous over the deltoid muscle of the upper arm with 0.5 mL of live attenuated H2 strain hepatitis A vaccine.Results: Eight weeks after a single dose of the vaccine, 136 subjects from both the centers developed protective immunoglobulin (IgM G antibodies ≥20 mIU/mL. The overall seroconversion rate was 99% (Kolkata: 100%, Pune: 98%. The hematological and biochemical parameters remained within normal limits. All the adverse events were non-serious and mild in severity.Conclusion: Live attenuated H2 strain hepatitis A vaccine is

  10. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY CONTINANCE AGES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AND ENURETIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin BILBAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49

  11. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined.

  12. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  13. Enhancing healthy habits among overweight and obese children through Serious Games: Review and Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity that begins in childhood results in excess adult mortality estimated at between 50 and 80%. The medical community developed an understanding of obesity as a chronic condition that must be managed on an ongoing basis. An integrated system based on ICT, including games adapted to the age and profile of the children and youth can be the key to support them and their families in the prevention of obesity and the acquisition of healthy habits. Important societal and economic impact is foreseen from the adoption of these technologies. In this paper, Serious Games will be research to remark its potential for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking as well as more effective utilization of obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information.

  14. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  15. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid and Healthy Children: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab ORDOOEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ordooei M, MottaghiPisheh H, Fallah R, Rabiee A. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid andHealthy Children: A Comparative Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 28-32.AbstractObjectiveEarly diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening with a healthy control group (2007 in Yazd, Iran.Materials & MethodsIn a case-controlled study, the intelligent quotient (IQ of 40 five-year-old children with early treated CH and good compliance were evaluated by the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligent test and compared to 40 healthy age and gender matched children as controls.Results22 boys (55% and 18 girls (45% in both groups were evaluated. In children with CH, 19 (47.5% and 21 (52.5% persons had transient and permanent hypothyroidism, respectively.Range of TSH and T4 level at the onset of diagnosis were 11.41–81 mu/l and 1.50–14.20 μg/dl, respectively.The intelligence levels of all children with CH were within the average or normal range and IQs ranged from 91–108.Children with CH had lower full-scale IQs (107.25 ± 2. 9 versus 110.50 ± 2.66, p=0.001, verbal IQ (106.95 ± 3.5 versus 109.90 ± 3.44, P-value=0.001 and performance IQ (106.3 ± 3.68 versus 108.87 ± 3.70 than the control group.However, no statistically significant differences were observed for mean IQ scores in permanent and transient CH.ConclusionChildren with CH who had early treatment and good compliance had normal cognitive abilities, but may have a decreased IQ relative to the healthy control group.ReferencesLeFranchi S. Hypothyroidism. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Saunders 2011; 19th edition, Pp: 1895-1900.Nouri-Shadkam M, Jafarizadeh M

  16. Urine volume dependency of specific dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol metabolites in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Wudy, Stefan A; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Urine volume should be considered as a confounder when using urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE) to assess glucocorticoid (GC) status. We aimed to examine whether adrenal androgen (AA) metabolites may be also affected by urine volume in healthy children. To compare the flow dependence of GC and AA metabolites, specific GC metabolites were examined. In 24-h urine samples of 120 (60 boys) healthy children (4-10 yr), steroid profiles were determined by GC-MS analysis, UFF and UFE by radioimmunoassay. To assess daily AA and GC secretion rates, 7 quantitatively most important AA (∑C19) and GC (∑C21) metabolites were summed. Sum of DHEA and its 16α-hydroxylated metabolites were denoted as DHEA&M. Association of urine volume with AA (∑C19, DHEA&M, DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 3β,16α,17β-androstenetriol) and GC (∑C21, UFF, UFE, 6β-hydroxycortisol, 20α-dihydrocortisol) were examined in linear regression models. Among the examined AA metabolites, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA (β=0.56, pDHEA (β=0.43, p=0.05) showed relatively strong association with urine volume. A trend was seen for ∑C19 (β=0.23, p=0.08), but not for DHEA&M (p>0.1). Regarding GC metabolites, urine volume showed a stronger association with cortisol's direct metabolites, i.e., cortisone, 6β-hydroxycortisol and 20α-dihydrocortisol (β=0.4-0.6, pDHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, 6β-hydroxycortisol, and 20α-dihydrocortisol may also depend on urine volume. The intrarenal production of the latter three and cortisone might explain their relative strong water-flow-dependency. Total AA or GC secretion marker appears not to be relevantly confounded by urine volume. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  18. FREQUENCIES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MYELOID CELLS IN HEALTHY KENYAN CHILDREN WITH α+ THALASSEMIA AND THE SICKLE CELL TRAIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    URBAN, BRITTA C.; SHAFI, MOHAMMED J.; CORDERY, DAMIEN V.; MACHARIA, ALEX; LOWE, BRETT; MARSH, KEVIN; WILLIAMS, THOMAS N.

    2009-01-01

    The high frequencies of both α+ thalassemia and the sickle cell trait (hemoglobin AS [HbAS]) found in many tropical populations are thought to reflect selection pressure from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. For HbAS, but not for α+ thalassemia, protection appears to be mediated by the enhanced phagocytic clearance of ring-infected erythrocytes. We have investigated the genotype-specific distributions of peripheral blood leukocyte populations in two groups of children living on the coast of Kenya: a group of healthy P. falciparum parasite-negative children sampled at cross-sectional survey during a period of low malaria transmission, and a group of children attending the hospital with acute malaria. We report distinctive distributions of peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells and monocytes in children with α+ thalassemia and HbAS during healthy periods and disease, and suggest ways in which these might relate to the mechanisms of protection afforded by these conditions. PMID:16606987

  19. Hypertension outcomes in metabolically unhealthy normal-weight and metabolically healthy obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W Q; Yan, Y K; Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Hou, D Q; Mi, J

    2015-09-01

    Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. However, the association between MHO and the risk of developing hypertension remains controversial. A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the risk of hypertension in MHO and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW) Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 1183 participants, 6-18 years old at baseline with normal blood pressure values, were studied using follow-up data from the cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to the body mass index and the presence/absence of metabolic abnormality, which was defined by metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR). During the 6-year follow-up period, 239 (20.2%) participants developed incident hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, pubertal stage, dietary habits and family history of hypertension, an increased risk for hypertension was observed in the MHO individuals (risk ratio, RRMetS 5.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19-9.22 and RRIR 7.59; 95% CI 1.64-35.20) compared with their metabolically healthy normal-weight counterparts. Independent of the definition of metabolic abnormality, the MUNW subjects did not have an elevated incidence of hypertension. These results suggest that the risk of developing hypertension is increased in the MHO but not in the MUNW individuals.

  20. Repeatability and reproducibility of the Tekscan HR-Walkway system in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Andrea; Carline, Tom; Santos, Derek

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the repeatability and reproducibility of the HR Walkway system with regards to peak pressure values (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) in healthy children, ranging between 5 and 18 years of age. Subjects recruited took part in two non-invasive clinical assessments, at baseline and 1 week later. Gait analysis was carried out using the PP box approach, and plantar foot recording was divided into 10 anatomical areas. The PP and PTI was investigated for the left, right and both feet accounted together. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) test was adopted for statistical analysis. Overall, 30 healthy patients were recruited and 60 appointments were completed, 53.3% (n=16) were female and 46.7% (n=14) were male. Mean age was 13.3 years (SD=4.5), with an age-range of 5-18.6 years old. Results indicated that for all variables tested the repeatability data were 'good' ICC for 73.8% (n=121) and 'moderate' ICC for 26.2% (n=43). For all variables tested, the reproducibility data showed that 'good' ICC for 70.7% (n=58) and 'moderate' ICC for 29.3% (n=24). In conclusion, the HR Walkway system is able to provide repeatable and reproducible data.

  1. Anatomical and hemodynamic evaluations of the heart and pulmonary arterial pressure in healthy children residing at high altitude in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Qi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Children living at high altitude in China have significantly higher mPAP, dilated right heart and slower regression of right ventricular hypertrophy in the first 14 years of life. Systolic and diastolic functions of both ventricles were reduced with a paradoxically higher CI. There was no significant difference in these features between the Hans and the Tibetans. These values provide references for the care of healthy children and the sick ones with cardiopulmonary diseases at high altitude.

  2. Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhi, Raheleh; Amin, Mansour; Rostami, Soodabeh; Shoja, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neisseria lactamica as one of the main commensal in oropharynx during the childhood is related to the induction of a natural immunity against meningococcal meningitis. Also Moraxella catarrhalis in oropharynx of children is a predisposing factor for otitis media infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of the N. lactamica, other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. and M. catarrhalis in the oropharynx of young healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran by the two p...

  3. Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean A; Cotton, Wayne G; Peralta, Louisa R

    2015-02-25

    Healthy eating by primary school-aged children is important for good health and development. Schools can play an important role in the education and promotion of healthy eating among children. The aim of this review was to: 1) perform a systematic review of randomised controlled, quasi-experimental and cluster controlled trials examining the school-based teaching interventions that improve the eating habits of primary school children; and 2) perform a meta-analysis to determine the effect of those interventions. The systematic review was limited to four healthy eating outcomes: reduced food consumption or energy intake; increased fruit and vegetable consumption or preference; reduced sugar consumption or preference (not from whole fruit); increased nutritional knowledge. In March 2014, we searched seven electronic databases using predefined keywords for intervention studies that were conducted in primary schools which focused on the four healthy eating outcomes. Targeted internet searching using Google Scholar was also used. In excess of 200,000 possible citations were identified. Abstracts and full text of articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data pertaining to teaching strategies that reported on healthy eating outcomes for primary school children was extracted from the 49 eligible papers. Experiential learning strategies were associated with the largest effects across the reduced food consumption or energy intake; increased fruit and vegetable consumption or preference; and increased nutritional knowledge outcomes. Reducing sugar consumption and preference was most influenced by cross-curricular approaches embedded in the interventions. As with most educational interventions, most of the teaching strategies extracted from the intervention studies led to positive changes in primary school children's healthy eating behaviours. However, given the finite resources, increased overcrowding of school curriculum and capacity of

  4. Sleep and memory in healthy children and adolescents - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasz, Marta; Loessl, Barbara; Hornyak, Magdolna; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Piosczyk, Hannah; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    There is mounting evidence that sleep is important for learning, memory and the underlying neural plasticity. This article aims to review published studies that evaluate the association between sleep, its distinct stages and memory systems in healthy children and adolescents. Furthermore it intends to suggest directions for future research. A computerised search of the literature for relevant articles published between 1966 and March 2008 was performed using the keywords "sleep", "memory", "learn", "child", "adolescents", "adolescence" and "teenager". Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Published studies focused on the impact of sleep on working memory and memory consolidation. In summary, most studies support the hypothesis that sleep facilitates working memory as well as memory consolidation in children and adolescents. There is evidence that performance in abstract and complex tasks involving higher brain functions declines more strongly after sleep deprivation than the performance in simple memory tasks. Future studies are needed to better understand the impact of a variety of variables potentially modulating the interplay between sleep and memory, such as developmental stage, socioeconomic burden, circadian factors, or the level of post-learning sensory and motor activity (interference). This line of research can provide valuable input relevant to teaching, learning and public health policy.

  5. [Promotion of healthy life style and growth in primary school children (OKkio alla SALUTE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Cattaneo, C; Fontana, G; Lamberti, A

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, the Italian Ministry of Health, the Centre for Disease Control and the Regions entrusted the National Institute of Health with the coordination of the initiative "Okkio alla Salute"--Promotion of healthy lifestyle and growth in primary school children. This programme is linked to the European programme "Gaining health" and the National Plan for Prevention. The objective of the project was to develop and maintain a monitoring system for both the health services and the schools that could also be used to better target public health interventions. The first national survey to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and to collect information on diet and physical activity has been conducted in close collaboration with the individual regions. In the first nine months of the project, 1025 health workers and approximately 1500 school teachers have received training, and, using standardised methods, they have collected data and weighed and measured nearly 45000 third grade students (median age 8.8 years) in 2000 schools throughout the country. Participation rates have exceeded 95%. The results obtained to date indicate that the methodology is sustainable using existing health and educational resources and can be adopted as a national surveillance system.

  6. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  7. Age and sex relationship with flow-mediated dilation in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nicola D; Dengel, Donald R; Stratton, Gareth; Kelly, Aaron S; Steinberger, Julia; Zavala, Hanan; Marlatt, Kara; Perry, Daniel; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2015-10-15

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive technique used to measure conduit artery vascular function. Limited information is available on normative FMD values in healthy children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between age and sex with FMD across childhood and adolescence. Nine hundred and seventy-eight asymptomatic children (12 ± 3 yr, range 6-18 yr, 530 male) underwent ultrasonic brachial artery assessment before and after 5 min of forearm ischemia. Sex differences in FMD and baseline artery diameter were assessed using mixed linear models. Baseline artery diameter was smaller in females than males [2.96 mm (95% CI: 2.92-3.00) vs. 3.24 mm (3.19-3.28), P sexes; however, there are sex differences in the timing and rate of growth, in line with typical sex-specific adolescent growth patterns. Males have a lower FMD than females, and FMD appears to decline with age; however, these findings are driven by reductions in FMD as males near maturity. The use of age- and sex-specific FMD data may therefore not be pertinent in childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors.

  9. Norms for developmental milestones using VABS-II and association with anthropometric measures among apparently healthy urban Indian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Zhu, Jianjun; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of developmental milestones based on locally developed norms is critical for accurate estimate of overall development of a child's cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional development. A cross-sectional study was done to develop age specific norms for developmental milestones using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) for apparently healthy children from 2 to 5 years from urban Bangalore, India, and to examine its association with anthropometric measures. Mothers (or caregivers) of 412 children participated in the study. Age-specific norms using inferential norming method and adaptive levels for all domains and subdomains were derived. Low adaptive level, also called delayed developmental milestone, was observed in 2.3% of the children, specifically 2.7% in motor and daily living skills and 2.4% in communication skills. When these children were assessed on the existing U.S. norms, there was a significant overestimation of delayed development in socialization and motor skills, whereas delay in communication and daily living skills were underestimated (all p VABS-II in preschool children, the prevalence of developmental delay could either be under- or overestimated using Western norms. Thus, locally referenced norms are critical for reliable assessments of development in children. Stunted and underweight children are more likely to have poorer developmental scores compared with healthy children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  11. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying intra-limb coordination in walking of healthy children aged three to six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyu; Zhou, Nan; Xu, Bo; Chen, Wuyong; Wu, Jianxin; Zhou, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was first to quantify intra-limb coordination and then to explore the gender differences of 180 healthy children aged 3-6. The children's joint Euler angles and angular velocities were measured and were used to calculate the phase angle (PA) and continuous relative phase (CRP). Firstly, a portrait of the mean and standard deviation (SD) of PA and CRP was applied to quantify coordination in the knees and ankles; then five key events in walking were selected and their inter-age differences were assessed by One-way ANOVA. Finally, gender differences were evaluated by GLM-Univariate. The significance level was 0.05 and confidence interval was 95%. Our results show that similar portraits of PA and CRP were found for knees and ankles from age 3-6; SD demonstrated that the PA and CRP in the knees and ankles were consistent with the increase in age. Moreover, θ_CRP(K-A) demonstrated that the direction reversal in heels off of those two joints in children aged 5 and 6 was earlier than those of age 3 and 4 and no inter-age significant differences were recorded for PA and CRP in either gait event. Finally, gender differences exist before the age of six, particularly in the transition period such as heel contact, toe off and during the mid swing. Overall, although further development such as gait control or balance is still improving, basic principle of intra-limb coordination has formed by the age of 3 and gender differences already existed before age of 6.

  13. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  14. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  15. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  16. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  17. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  18. Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhun; Ku, Brian; Combs, Patrick D.; Da Silveira, Adriana. C.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-06-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group requires its own facial norm data, yet there are no existing facial norm data for Hispanic/Latino White children. The objective of this paper is to identify measures of facial appearance relevant for planning reconstructive surgery for CL ± P of Hispanic/Latino White children. Quantitative analysis was conducted on 3D facial images of 82 (41 girls, 41 boys) healthy Hispanic/Latino White children whose ages ranged from 7 to 12 years. Twenty-eight facial anthropometric features related to CL ± P (mainly in the nasal and mouth area) were measured from 3D facial images. In addition, facial aesthetic ratings were obtained from 16 non-clinical observers for the same 3D facial images using a 7-point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to find features that were correlated with the panel ratings of observers. Boys with a longer face and nose, or thicker upper and lower lips are considered more attractive than others while girls with a less curved middle face contour are considered more attractive than others. Associated facial landmarks for these features are primary focus areas for reconstructive surgery for CL ± P. This study identified anthropometric measures of facial features of Hispanic/Latino White children that are pertinent to CL ± P and which correlate with the panel attractiveness ratings.

  19. Tissue Doppler and speckle tracking strain echocardiography : from evaluation in healthy children to follow-up after surgery for a congenital heart defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klitsie, Liselotte Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights in characteristics of newly introduced echocardiographic parameters in healthy children and their use in follow-up of patients with a congenital heart defect (CHD) after surgery. In healthy children, reference values and characteristics of two echocardiographic

  20. Motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among middle school children who are healthy, overweight, and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Gaunaurd, Annabel; Moore, James G; Roach, Kathryn E; Miller, Tracie L; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J

    2013-01-01

    To compare motor proficiency, strength, endurance, and physical activity among children from minority backgrounds who were healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Eighty-six children, aged 10 to 15 years, of mostly Hispanic ethnicity, participated. Children were categorized according to body mass index-for-age percentile. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2) Short Form, Sit-to-Stand (STS), Timed Up and Down Stairs, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) were administered. Physical activity was measured by using activity monitors. Forty-five percent of children were classified as OW/OB. Children who were OB had lower mean BOT2, STS, and 6MWT performance than children of HW. Among children who were OW/OB, daily mean steps were lower and sedentary minutes higher than children of HW. In children who were OW/OB, body mass index was negatively correlated with BOT2, STS, and abdominal curls. Children who are OB demonstrate greater impairments in motor proficiency, strength, and endurance and participate in less physical activity than peers of HW.

  1. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention – Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper’s purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. Methods The parents of 120 children of age group between 5–16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital’s Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD – RS. Results Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Conclusion Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management. PMID:27924144

  2. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I M; Mølgaard, C; Main, K M

    2001-01-01

    When evaluating renal abnormalities, kidney volume is an important parameter. Most reference materials on kidney size in children are based on data from pediatric patients examined for non-uronephrological problems. Renal size is traditionally related to body height, weight, or surface area......, but not to body composition. As part of a prospective cohort study we have examined 102 healthy 10-year-old children measuring kidney volume by ultrasonography, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body height and weight. Boys had significantly larger kidneys than girls. The strongest....... In conclusion, the strongest predictor of kidney volume in healthy 10-year-old children is lean body mass. The correlation is likely to reflect an association between metabolic active tissue, renal solute load, and kidney volume. We have currently no explanation for the negative correlation between fat body...

  3. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during a sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bingwei; Li, Jialing; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xiuqiong; Zheng, Zhiying; Mai, Jianning

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the cerebral hemodynamic changes during a routine sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram (SD-VEEG) in healthy children. Forty-two children with normal intelligence were examined. The children were 5-14 years of age, and their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were within the normal range. Each subject was deprived of a routine night's sleep and then examined during non-drug-induced sleep in the daytime. The awake and sleep stages were evaluated using EEGs, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Stable transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) tracings through real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring were recorded. The mean systolic cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), diastolic CBFV, pulsatility index and resistance index of each artery were analyzed for 30 s per stage. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to compare the hemodynamic parameters for the awake stage versus light sleep and deep sleep stages. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was associated with an increased CBFV in the middle (164.38  ±  27.28) and anterior cerebral artery (131.81  ±  21.55) during light sleep (stages N1 and N2) (P  =  0.0001), a reduced systolic CBFV in all vascular arteries (LMCA, 138.73  ±  20.64; LACA, 108.33  ±  22.33; LPCA, 83.9  ±  18.6) during deep sleep (stage N3) compared with light sleep (P  =  0.0001), and a sustained increased PI (LMCA, 0.92  ±  0.13; LACA, 0.964  ±  0.18) during deep sleep (P  <  0.05). These findings indicate distinct cerebral hemodynamic alterations during SD-VEEG in children. This study utilized real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring during SD-EEG to further investigate neurovascular coupling in interictal epileptic discharges and understand its potential influence on cognition in the developing brain.

  4. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  5. Temporal organization of rest defined by actigraphy data in healthy and childhood chronic fatigue syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Minako; Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kawatani, Junko; Tomoda, Akemi; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-04

    Accumulating evidence has shown a universality in the temporal organization of activity and rest among animals ranging from mammals to insects. Previous reports in both humans and mice showed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law) distributions, whereas activity bouts followed exponential distributions. We confirmed similar results in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Conversely, another report showed that the awakening bout durations, which were defined by polysomnography in bed, followed power-law distributions, while sleeping periods, which may correspond to rest, followed exponential distributions. This apparent discrepancy has been left to be resolved. Actigraphy data from healthy and disordered children were analyzed separately for two periods: time out of bed (UP period) and time in bed (DOWN period). When data over a period of 24 h were analyzed as a whole, rest bouts showed a power law distribution as previously reported. However, when UP and DOWN period data were analyzed separately, neither showed power law properties. Using a newly developed strict method, only 30% of individuals satisfied the power law criteria, even when the 24 h data were analyzed. The human results were in contrast to the Drosophila results, which revealed clear power-law distributions for both day time and night time rest through the use of a strict method. In addition, we analyzed the actigraphy data from patients with childhood type chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS), and found that they showed differences from healthy controls when their UP and DOWN data were analyzed separately. These results suggested that the DOWN sleep, the bout distribution of which showed exponential properties, contributes to the production of long-tail distributions in human rest periods. We propose that separate analysis of UP and DOWN period data is important for understanding the temporal organization of activity.

  6. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bolivar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis, gender, and site status (diseased or control site. Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  7. Nasal carriage screening of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children of a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Shojaei, Hasan; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Davoodabadi, Fazlollah; Khorvash, Farzin; Kushki, Ali Mehrabi; Daei-Naser, Abbas; Ghanbari, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has raised considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries. The current study aimed to address the extent of this phenomenon in healthy preschool children of a developing country. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study from April 2013 to March 2014 on 410 healthy 2-6 years old preschool children in Isfahan, Iran. Demographic medical data and nasal samples were collected from the participating children. Isolates were identified as S. aureus and MRSA based on microbiological and molecular tests, including the presence of eap and mecA genes. Results: The overall prevalence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA nasal carriage was 28% (115/410) and 6.1% (25/410), respectively. The identity of isolates was confirmed by molecular assay. The factors that were independently associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus were: Children crowding in day-care nurseries and income level of families. A total of 20/90 (22.2%) of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and all 25 CA-MRSA displayed multiple drug resistance to 3–8 antibiotics. Conclusions: The current report reflects issues and concerns that the high rate of colonization by CA-MRSA in Iranian healthy children provides obliging evidence that MRSA have established a foothold in the community and are emerging as important health threatening pathogens. It is suggested that we need more effective infection control measures to prevent transmission of nasal CA-MRSA in healthy preschool children. PMID:27656613

  8. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Hwa Wan

    Full Text Available Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC. This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  9. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial: e0116876

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gisela Nyberg; Elinor Sundblom; Åsa Norman; Benjamin Bohman; Jan Hagberg; Liselotte Schäfer Elinder

    2015-01-01

      Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children...

  10. Birth of healthy children after preimplantation diagnosis of β-thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦泽旭; 庄广伦; 周灿权; 舒益民; 李洁; 梁晓燕

    2004-01-01

    Background Clinical programs for preventing β-thalassemia are presently based on prospective carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis. This paper report an achievement of a pregnancy with unaffected embryos using in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), for a couple at risk of having children with β-thalassemia.Methods A couple carrying different thalassemia mutations, both a codon 41-42 mutation and the IVS Ⅱ 654 mutation, received standard IVF treatment, with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsiy, single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis. Only unaffected or carrier embryos were transferred to the uterine cavity. After confirmation of pregnancy, a prenatal diagnosis was performed.Results Of a total of 13 embryos analyzed for β-globin mutations, PGD indicated that 2 were normal,3 were affected, and 6 were carriers. Diagnosis could not be made in the other 2 embryos. Three embryos were transferred to the uterus on the third day after oocyte retrieval. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy with one blighted ovum. The prenatal genetic diagnosis revealed that both fetuses were unaffected, and two healthy boys were born, confirming the results of PGD.Conclusions We developed a single-cell based primer extension preamplification (PEP)-PCR assay for the detection of β-thalassemia mutations. The assays were efficient and accurate at all stages of the procedure, and resulted in the birth of PGD-confirmed β-thalassemia free children in China. PEP was used here in PGD for β-thalassemia.

  11. The link between callosal thickness and intelligence in healthy children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Thompson, Paul M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Zamanyan, Alen; Chou, Yi-Yu; Gutman, Boris; Dinov, Ivo D.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    The link between brain structure and intelligence is a well-investigated topic, but existing analyses have mainly focused on adult samples. Studies in healthy children and adolescents are rare, and normative data specifically addressing the association between corpus callosum morphology and intellectual abilities is quite limited. To advance this field of research, we mapped the correlations between standardized intelligence measures and callosal thickness based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Our large and well-matched sample included 200 normally developing subjects (100 males, 100 females) ranging from 6 to 17 years of age. Although the strongest correlations were negative and confined to the splenium, the strength and the direction of intelligence-callosal thickness associations varied considerably with respect to age and sex. While significant correlations in females were mainly positive, significant correlations in males were exclusively negative. However, only the negative correlations in the overall sample (i.e., males and females combined) remained significant when controlling for multiple comparisons. The observed negative correlations between callosal thickness and intelligence in children and adolescents contrast with the positive correlations typically reported in adult samples. However, negative correlations are in line with reports from other pediatric studies relating cognitive measures to other brain attributes such as cortical thickness, gray matter volume, and gray matter density. Altogether, these findings suggest that relationships between callosal morphology and cognition are highly dynamic during brain maturation. Sex effects on links between callosal thickness and intelligence during childhood and adolescence are present but appear rather weak in general. PMID:20932920

  12. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  13. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p activity patterns from T1 to T2. Parent nutrition and physical activity patterns significantly influence their preschool-age children's consumption of fruits/vegetables, junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  14. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to ...

  15. [Comparative analysis of the six-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Evanirso S; Mourão, Flávio A G; Souza, Roberta K V; Glicério, Bráulio M; Coelho, Cristiane C

    2010-01-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of the six-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents in corridors of 30.5m (100 feet) 20m (65.6 feet) in length. We evaluated 67 participants (36 boys and 31 girls), aged 7 to 14 years old, from public schools of a city in a metropolitan area. All were submitted to four walking tests, two in each of the corridors. The variables analyzed were: walked distance, work rate, mean blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and significance level at ppressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation. The walked distance was not statistically different in the two tests on each corridor. However, the participants covered greater distances on the 30.5m corridor (p<0.05) compared to the best test between corridors. However, this increase was less than 10%. Regarding the cardiac overload and the work rate, there were no significant differences between the corridors. There were differences in walked distance between the corridors, however they were less than 10% with no significant changes in the other measured parameters. Therefore, the 20m corridor had a good reproducibility for the population of this study.

  16. Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

    2014-03-01

    The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities.

  17. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  18. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  19. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.;

    2016-01-01

    and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the "Healthy Start" study. Linear regression analysis was used......, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children's adiposity measures. RESULTS: HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0...... to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise...

  20. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  1. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component.

  2. The ABC’s of Family Mealtimes: Observational Lessons for Promoting Healthy Outcomes for Children with Persistent Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Shared family mealtimes have been identified as potential promoters of healthy child development. This observational study of 200 family mealtimes examined the relation between child health indicators in a group of children with persistent asthma and three dimensions of mealtime interaction: Action, Behavior Control, and Communication. Mealtimes lasted, on average, 18 minutes with a range of 2 to 47. Percent of time spent in Action and Positive Communication varied by asthma symptom severity ...

  3. VALUES OF LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS IN HEALTHY MACEDONIAN CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kareva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of demographic factors on a wide range of immunological variables demonstrate the importance of having normative data representative of particular patient population. There was no lymphocyte subpopulation data for Macedonian children and the purpose of this study was to establish such a data. Subject and methods: The study population consists of 87 healthy children. Subjects were grouped into four age categories as follows: group 1 age range 5d-10d (n=15; group 2 age range 1 mo-1 yr (n=18; group 3 age 1yr-2 yr(n=20 and group 4 age 2yr-5 yr(n=34 Monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluorochromes and immunofluorescent microscopy were used to detect cells bearing specific cell markers. Results: The mean lymphocyte cell count gradually fell with increasing age from 6,65x10^9/l in group 1, to 5,67x10^9/l in group 2, 4,55x10^9/l in group 3, and to 4,14x10^9/l in group 4. Absolute values of CD3, CD4 and CD20 positive cells decreased gradually with age. Significant differences in mean absolute values were observed for absolute lymphocyte counts between groups 1/2 and 1/4 (P<0,01 and groups 2/4(P<0,05; for CD3 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3(P<0,05 and 1/4(P<0,01; for CD4 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3 (P<0,05 and 1/4(P<0,01 and for CD20 positive lymphocytes between groups 1/3 and 3/4(P<0,05 and groups 1/4 (P<0,01. Significant difference for CD4/CD8 ratio and for percentage values of different lymphocyte subpopulations between the different age groups was not found. Conclusion: This data may serve as a reference range for studies of Macedonian pediatric subjects.

  4. INTRAMUSCULAR VERSUS INTRADERMAL HEPATITIS B REVACCINATION IN HEALTHY NON-RESPONDER CHILDREN:A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Guihua; Yan Hong; Wang Xueliang; Wu Qian; Wang Lirong; Gao Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective With the same times of injection to compare low-dose intradermal regimen with routine-dose intramuscular inoculation in revaccination of non-responders to hepatitis B vaccine. Methods 40 healthy non-responder children collected by screening were administrated a three-dose revaccination randomly by intramuscular or intradermal route (10 vs 2 g per dose), and regularly tested for serologic markers up to five years. By the end of follow-up, a booster dose (5 μg) was given to those who had lost anti-HBs of ≥10 mIU/mL (seroprotection) and anamnestic response was estimated thereafter. Results All 17 intramuscular and 22 of 23 intradermal children effected seroprotection after revaccination. Intradermal children lost seroprotection over time significantly rapider compared with intramuscular children (Log Rank test, P= 0.029). In year 5, 50% of intramuscular but only 18.2% of intradermal children still maintained seroprotection (P=0.075). 12-14 days after the booster dose, all the eight intramuscular children developed an anamnestic response with anti-HBs titer increasing greater, but two of the 18 intradermal children failed to mount seroprotective level. Conclusion Three-routine-dose intramuscular revaccination was significantly effective than low-dose intradermal one with the same times of injection, especially in long-term immunity. We recommend routine-dose intramuscular protocol in revaccination of non-responders.

  5. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners.

  7. Systematic Review to Compare Serious Game and Traditional Learning to Engage Children doClean and Healthy Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wulan Purwaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Life style plays an important role in bio-psychological health. There is an interlock relationship between health problems and life style. In other words, life style is one of the most important influential factors on individual‟s health and illness. In Indonesia, regulated about lifestyle has been regulated by The Minister of National Development Planning (MNDP. From MNDP‟s report we know that nowadays children not live clean and healthy lifestyle correctly. Our aim in this article is to compare traditional learning and serious game to engage children do clean and healthy lifestyle. Our serious game is concern to help children get visualization about hand washing habit; how important to consume vegetable and fruit; drink adequate quantities of water that are free from contaminants. Our game was name “My Lifestyle” and bring on serious game concept. In an anonymous survey 33 students from the first year and 35 students from the second year of DukuhKupang Elementary School in Indonesia were involved. They were counterbalanced and randomly assigned to one of two conditions:a Children at the experimental group who played My Lifestyle game first and then the traditional learning method; b Children at the traditional learning group who listen explanation about healthy lifestyle first and then played My Lifestyle game. The results show that there is a significant difference between the two groups in learning the concepts of addition and subtraction ( < 0.05, and the experimental group has a higher mean score than the traditional learninggroup. Moreover, the results indicate that there a significant difference between the two groups in retention of the concepts of addition and subtraction ( < 0.05, with the experimental group scoring higher than the traditional learninggroup.

  8. Valeo-pedagogical culture of parents and its role in forming healthy way of life of preschool age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshyn O. R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered organizationally-methodical aspects of work with family on forming health for young people. Maintenance is reflected, forms of organization of work with families in the conditions of valeology of preschool education. In research were questionnaire 45 parents, 25 educators and 25 children in the free mode during two weeks. The results of questionnaires proved that only 20% parents spare certain attention in families to forming of healthy way of life of children, 30% consider that an example of adults in this question is fundamental principle, but almost 68% parents have an insufficient level of pedagogical valeological culture. The analysis of results of questionnaire of children testifies that respondents have necessary pre-conditions for forming knowledge, abilities and skills of healthy way of life, accessible understanding of value of own health and health of near them. Methodical recommendations are brought for activations of co-operation of preschool educational establishment and family on forming of health of preschool children.

  9. CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3 (+) T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donma, Metin; Karasu, Erkut; Ozdilek, Burcu; Turgut, Burhan; Topcu, Birol; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Orkide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4(+), CD25(+), and FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0.16 %; p ≤ 0.001), asthmatic (0.25 %; p ≤ 0.01), and asthmatic obese (0.29 %; p ≤ 0.05) groups than control group (0.38 %). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than control (p ≤ 0.01) and obese (p ≤ 0.001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic, and asthmatic obese children might represent a challenge of these cells.

  10. Recording daily routines with guidance on healthy lifestyle to improve health parameters in children and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the efficacy of using a diary to record daily routines, combined with guidance on healthy lifestyle (GHL by a physical educator, on promoting changes in health parameters in children. Sixty-three children (10 ± 0.8 years were allocated to one of the three following groups: a control group (CON, n = 18; a group that did not use the diary, but received GHL (G, n = 23; or a group that both used the diary and received GHL (DG, n = 22. Blood pressure, body composition, physical fitness tests (PF, physical activity levels (PAL, and dietary intake profiles were assessed in children and their parents before and after 2 months of intervention. The DG group improved their performance in PF, increased PAL, and reduced body fat (p < 0.05. Additionally, 56% of families from both DG and G reduced their consumption of unhealthy foods and 70,6% increased their consumption of healthy foods. Overall, it was concluded that 2 months of using a diary to record daily routines combined with GHL by a physical educator improved PAL, PF, body composition, and dietary intake profiles of children and their families.

  11. Maternal pain influences her evaluation of recurrent pain in 6- to 11-year-old healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    2016-01-01

    adjusted for child characteristics and socio-demographic parameters, mothers who had chronic pain were five times more likely to report frequent pain in their children than mothers without pain. This is a new finding. CONCLUSION: Maternal health factors may influence her evaluation of her child's pain......-based survey in Danish public schools. The participants were 131 healthy children aged 6-11 years and their mothers. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of recurrent pain reported by the mother and child, agreements between their reports and any associations between the child's pain, socio-demographic...... characteristics and maternal health factors. RESULTS: Recurrent pain was reported by nearly one-third (31%) of the children and their mothers. A quarter (25%) of the mother-child pairs disagreed on the existence of pain in the child, and a third (33%) disagreed on the frequency and duration. When the data were...

  12. General health status and intelligence scores of children of mothers with acromegaly do not differ from those of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, Ozlem; Dogangun, Burak; Ozcabi, Bahar; Kural, Hanife Ugur; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Pamukcu, Fatma Colkesen; Bektas, Elif; Poyraz, Burc Cagri; Buber, Hakan; Evliyaoglu, Olcay; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    To determine the physical status and intelligence scores of children of acromegalic mothers and to compare them with those of children from mothers without acromegaly. Six women with acromegaly who became pregnant under follow-up between 2010 and 2014 and their 16 children (group A) were assessed and compared with 16 children of healthy women (group B) and 15 children of women with prolactinoma (group C). The physical examinations of children were performed by the department of pediatric endocrinology and intelligence quotient (IQ) testing was undertaken by adult and pediatric psychiatry departments, using appropriate scales for their ages. Six of the 16 children (girls/boys: 7/9) were born after the diagnosis of acromegaly. Five of the 6 pregnancies occured when the patients were taking somatostatin analogs, none continued taking the drugs during pregnancy. The mean IQ of groups A, B, and C were 106.4 ± 12.5, 105.3 ± 12.5, and 103.2 ± 16.1 respectively (p > 0.05). The mean ages, birth percentiles, recent weight and height standard deviation scores were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Two siblings from group A and 1 child from group B were large for gestational age at birth. At recent follow-up, two children from group A were found tall for their age and one from group C was short for his age and was placed under the care of pediatric endocrinology clinic. Pregnancies in acromegaly seems to be uneventful and the general health status and IQ scores of children from women with and without acromegaly were found similar.

  13. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  14. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)--an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualisation and development of an innovative approach to promoting healthy lifestyles for children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-20

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  15. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; ter Stege, J.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Reiss, P.; Schmand, B.; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants

  16. "Children with cerebral palsy experience greater levels of loading at the low back during gait compared to healthy controls".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2016-07-01

    Excessive trunk motion has been shown to be characteristic of cerebral palsy (CP) gait. However, the associated demands on the lower spine are unknown. This study investigated 3-dimensional reactive forces and moments at the low back in CP children compared to healthy controls. In addition, the impact of functional level of impairment was investigated (GMFCS levels). Fifty-two children with CP (26 GMFCS I and 26 GMFCS II) and 26 controls were recruited to the study. Three-dimensional thorax kinematics and reactive forces and moments at the low back (L5/S1 spine) were examined. Discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters were assessed between groups. Thorax movement demonstrated increased range for CP children in all 3 planes while L5/S1 reactive forces and moments increased with increasing level of functional impairment. Peak reactive force data were increased by up to 57% for GMFCS I and 63% for GMFCS II children compared to controls. Peak moment data were increased by up to 21% for GMFCS II children compared to GMFCS I and up to 90% for GMFCS II compared to control. In addition, a strong correlation was demonstrated between thorax side flexion and L5/S1 lateral bend moment (r=0.519, pGMFCS II children demonstrated significantly more involvement. Intervention should be aimed at reducing excessive thorax movement, especially in the coronal plane, in order to reduce abnormal loading on the spine in this population.

  17. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  18. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  19. Effect of Casilan® on 13 C-caffeine metabolism in overnight-fasted healthy Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem A Oshikoya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Casilan® on 13 C-caffeine metabolism in healthy Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy Nigerian children (male: six, female: six aged 3-8 years were studied on three occasions. After an overnight fast, the children were studied after ingesting Casilan® only (Week 1. They were restudied after ingesting 3 mg/kg of labeled caffeine only (Week 2, and further re-studied after ingesting both Casilan® and labeled caffeine (Week 3. Breath samples were collected by blowing via a straw into an exentainer bottle. The cumulative percentage of 13 C-caffeine exhaled as 13 CO 2 was measured over 2 h. Results: The time courses of 13 C-enrichments in exhaled CO 2 for all the children, after they had ingested labeled caffeine only and after they had ingested both Casilan® and labeled caffeine, were identical. There was a gradual rise and peak of the enrichments at about 60-75 min, followed by a gradual fall (II or a plateau (III. Contrarily, the time course of 13 C-enrichments for all the children was consistently low and stable after they had ingested Casilan® only (I. The mean values of cumulative percent 13 C-doses recovered in the CO 2 exhaled over a 2-h period, after ingesting labeled caffeine only (8.59 ± 1.10 δ%/mg and after ingesting both Casilan® and labeled caffeine (8.58 ± 1.33 δ%/mg, were identical, with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.972. This suggests that Casilan® did not affect the CYP1A2 metabolic pathway. Conclusions: Casilan® is a safe, reliable and quantitative food supplement for overnight-fasted children undergoing caffeine breath test.

  20. [Chondropathia patellae--study of the femoropatellar joints of healthy, athletic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, K; Wodick, R E; Späte, W

    1990-06-01

    155 children, aged 8 to 13 years, who trained regularly, were examined clinically for signs of chondropathy patellae. As control group, 200 children of the same age were included who did not take part in any sports activities except in school. 32% of the training group children showed signs suggestive of chondropathy. With increasing training age, the part of children with these signs increased from 16% in the first to 45% in the third to fourth training year. Non-training children showed in 17% positive signs of chondropathy.

  1. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  2. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  3. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  4. Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelsen S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls, aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention

  5. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  6. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.

  7. NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN HEALTHY CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN CENTRAL LOMBOK REGENCY, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Prayitno, Ari; Khoeri, Miftahuddin Majid; Djelantik, I Gusti Gede; Dewi, Nurhandini Eka; Indriyani, Sang Ayu Kompiang; Muttaqin, Zainul; Mudaliana, Siti; Safari, Dodi

    2016-05-01

    Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is mostly symptomless, but can progress to respiratory or even systemic disease. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children under five years of age in Central Lombok Regency, Indonesia. This cross sectional study was carried out in 2012 among 1,200 healthy children aged 2 to 60 months. A multiplex sequential PCR was employed to determine serotype of cultured S. pneumoniae and a disk diffusion method to assess susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 554 children and the most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B (22% of pneumococcal strains), 19F (11%), 23F (10%), 15B/C (8%), and 19A and 14 (4% each). The majority of strains were still susceptible to clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (87%), chloramphenicol (81%), and penicillin (72%), with only 41% and 38% susceptible to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Continuous surveillance of S. pneumoniae carriage is important for future pneumococcal vaccination programs in Indonesia.

  8. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Lijie; Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .... We examined 435 healthy subjects, for whom at least three repeated measurements of BP had been taken and who had provided 24 h urine samples and 3 d weighed dietary records between 4 and 18 years of age...

  9. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2 Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3 Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years. Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA behavior (p < 0.0001. However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV behavior, screen time (ST behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4 Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior.

  10. Promoting Children's Healthy Eating in Obesogenic Environments: Lessons Learned from the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Leann L.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's lear...

  11. Children with asthma have significantly lower long-term cortisol levels in their scalp hair than healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Arvid W. A.; Molenmaker, Marco; Kemperman, Ramses; van der Veen, Betty S.; Bocca, Gianni; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Noninvasive measurement of long-term cortisol levels is a useful way of evaluating the effect of chronic disease on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. The aim of this pilot study was to compare hair cortisol levels in children using inhaled corticosteroids for asthma and healt

  12. Children with asthma have significantly lower long-term cortisol levels in their scalp hair than healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Arvid W. A.; Molenmaker, Marco; Kemperman, Ramses; van der Veen, Betty S.; Bocca, Gianni; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.

    Aim: Noninvasive measurement of long-term cortisol levels is a useful way of evaluating the effect of chronic disease on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. The aim of this pilot study was to compare hair cortisol levels in children using inhaled corticosteroids for asthma and

  13. Ewing's sarcoma in children: twenty-five years of experience at the Instituto Portugês de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil (I.P.O.F.G.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, M B; Vilhena, M; Neves, M; Raposo, S; Catita, J; De Sousa, V; Martins, A G

    1991-05-01

    Fifty children with Ewing's sarcoma were consecutively treated from 1962 to 1987 and retrospectively analyzed at the I.P.O.F.G. of Lisbon. At first diagnosis, 10 cases had distant metastases. The remaining 40 patients had clinically localized disease, and different protocols were followed over the years. The best results were obtained with chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without surgery; and for these children the two-year survival rate was 42.8% vs. 8.3% for the group of patients submitted to local treatment alone. Besides the treatment modality, other factors influenced the prognosis, such as inflammatory signs, sex, tumor volume, and tumor site as well as evidence of distant metastases.

  14. Vibrotactile perception in finger pulps and in the sole of the foot in healthy subjects among children or adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars B Dahlin

    Full Text Available To evaluate vibrotactile perception at different frequencies in fingers and in foot in healthy girls and boys.Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs were measured in 283 healthy (8-20 years, consecutively included, girls (n=146 and boys (n=137; i.e., 269 children after excluding those with diseases or disorders possibly affecting the nervous system. Thresholds were measured in finger pulps of index and little fingers (seven frequencies; 8-500 Hz and at first and fifth metatarsal head and at heel in the sole of the foot (six frequencies; 8-250 Hz; using Multi Frequency Tactilometry.VPTs, divided in six groups by age and gender (i.e., 8-10 years, 11-15 years and 16-20 years, at all three sites in the sole increased with higher frequencies, but without gender differences. Thresholds at 64 and 125 Hz were generally higher at heel compared to metatarsal heads. VPTs in finger pulps of index and little fingers, with no finger differences, had a different pattern with increasing thresholds with frequency, but with lower thresholds at 64 and 125 Hz. Thresholds at lower frequencies were higher in finger pulps, while at higher frequencies VPTs were lower in finger pulps than in the sole of the foot; thus, vibration perception in the sole was better than perception in finger pulps at lower frequencies and opposite at higher frequencies. VPTs were higher among adolescents than in younger children in the foot, while thresholds were lower in the finger pulps among adolescents, particularly in index finger. Thresholds in finger pulps of index and little fingers, particularly at higher frequencies, correlated with each other, which the three sites in the sole also did.VPTs in fingers and in feet are different as related to frequency in healthy girls and boys. Multi Frequency Tactilometry is a future valuable method to detect neuropathy in children and adolescents.

  15. The APPLE Project: An Investigation of the Barriers and Promoters of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in New Zealand Children Aged 5-12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williden, Micalla; Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Simpson, Jean C; Oakley, Maggie; Mann, Jim I

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To use the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to determine the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in children aged 5-12 years, as a basis for the development of a pilot community-based programme for preventing obesity in children (APPLE project: A Pilot Programme for Lifestyle…

  16. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed....... We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88...

  17. Impact of an active video game on healthy children's physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This naturalistic study tests whether children receiving a new (to them) active video game spontaneously engage in more physical activity than those receiving an inactive video game, and whether the effect would be greater among children in unsafe neighborhoods,who might not be allowed to play outsi...

  18. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    , absence of observable direct immediate results, social impact (for older people - the impact of family members and social image; for children and adolescents - the influence of parents and peers). For children and adolescents, availability and temptation of unhealthy foods and unavailability of good...

  19. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  20. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... the associations between community programs/policies and body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical... associations between community programs/policies and BMI, diet, and physical activity in children; and (3) assess the associations between programs/policies and BMI, diet and physical activity in children in...

  1. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  2. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.S. van der; Vucic, S.; Marrewijk, D.J.F. van; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dental development

  3. Circulating levels of microRNA from children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lotte B; Wang, Cheng; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the mi......RNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (n = 275 and 129, resp.) and one control group (n = 151). We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, mi...

  4. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  5. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  6. Measures of Heart Rate Variability in 24-h ECGs Depend on Age but Not Gender of Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Bobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many methods computing heart rate variability (HRV have been applied in studies in children. Not all of these methods have a comprehensive physiological interpretation, and not all of studies are in agreement with the Task Force Standards on HRV from 1996, and the New Joint Position Statement on the advances of HRV from 2015. The study aim was to analyse HRV in the 24-h ECGs of healthy children by the Poincare plots and Lomb-Scargle periodograms, and to follow proper HRV recommendations. Additionally, we investigated the associations between age, children's sex and measured HRV indices. One hundred healthy children, aged 3–18 underwent 24-h ECG Holter monitoring. HRV was analyzed by the Poincaré plots and spectral by Lomb-Scargle periodograms of RR intervals. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare sex differences in HRV, the van Elteren's test was used to correct for the age-gender interaction, and non-parametric Spearman correlation was applied to analyse the association between age and HRV indices. None of the HRV measures differed significantly between boys and girls. None of the HRV indices was modified by the age-gender interaction. There were statistically significant associations of age with measures of ultra-low (rho = 0.42; p < 0.0001, very low (rho = 0.35; p = 00004 and low (rho = 0.30; p = 0.0028 frequency powers, the ratio of the low to high frequency power (rho = 0.38; p = 0.0001, indices of long-term (SD2; rho = 0.37; p = 0.0002 and total (SDNN; rho = 0.33; p = 0.0008 HRV, and the contribution of the long-term HRV to total HRV (CL; rho = 0.32; p = 0.0012. In general, HRV parameters derived from the analyses of Poincaré plots and Lomb-Scargle periodograms appear not to be affected by gender, however, most of them increase with age in the 24-h ECG recordings in healthy children.

  7. Inter -and intraobserver variation of ultrasonographic cartilage thickness assessments in small and large joints in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenbøg Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest among pediatric rheumatologist for using ultrasonography (US in the daily clinical examination of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Loss of joint cartilage may be an early feature of destructive disease in JIA. However, US still needs validation before it can be used as a diagnostic bedside tool in a pediatric setting. This study aims to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of US measurements of cartilage thickness in the joints of healthy children. Methods 740 joints of 74 healthy Caucasian children (27 girls/47 boys, aged 11.3 (7.11 – 16 years were examined with bilateral US in 5 preselected joints to assess the interobserver variability. In 17 of these children (6 girls/11 boys, aged 10.1(7.11–11.1 years, 170 joints was examined in an intraobserver sub study, with a 2 week interval between the first and second examination. Results In this study we found a good inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV less than 10% in the knee (CV = 9.5%interobserver and 5.9%intraobservserI, 9.3%intraobserverII respectively for the two intraobserver measurements and fairly good for the MCP joints (CV = 11.9%interobserver, 12.9%intraobserverI and 11.9%intraobsevrerII. In the ankle and PIP joints the inter- and intraobserver agreement was within an acceptable limit (CV26%. We found no difference in cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in the investigated joints. Conclusion We found a good inter -and intraobserver agreement when measuring cartilage thickness with US. The inter- and intraobserver variation seemed not to be related to joint size. These findings suggest that positioning of the joint and the transducer is of major importance for reproducible US measurements. We found no difference in joint cartilage thickness between the left and right extremity in any of the examined joint of the healthy children. This is an

  8. Reference Values for the Six-Minute Walk Test in Healthy Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods: To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS and Cochrane (LILACS, Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results: The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58% reported descriptive data and 6 (50% established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion: The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise

  9. Assessment of self-reported self-esteem in healthy and diabetic children and adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachioti, Efrosini; Petsios, Konstantinos; Boutopoulou, Barbara; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Galanis, Petros; Matziou, Vasiliki

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate any possible negative effect of diabetes on the self-esteem of children and adolescents with diabetes. Self-esteem was evaluated using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2) in 144 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; 7-18 years of age) treated in a diabetes center and compared against that of 136 healthy children and adolescents. Self-esteem was correlated with age (P = 0.017), but not with diabetes (P = 0.886). The median CFSEI-2 score for both healthy and diabetic children was 22. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and sex, body mass index (BMI), physical exercise, HbA1c or parental educational level. According to Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)), there was a significant association between age and self-esteem (r(s) = -0.15). Conversely, although BMI (r(s) = -0.09) and treatment duration (r(s) = -0.107) had a slight negative effect on self-esteem and the duration of physical exercise (r(s) = 0.11) and parental education (r(s) = 0.07) seemed to have a positive effect, the associations did not reach statistical significance. Self-esteem in diabetic children is mainly affected by their age, level of physical activity and level of family support. These findings emphasize the need to discriminate between glycemic control and diabetic adjustment. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Reference Values for the Six-Minute Walk Test in Healthy Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira; de Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Maynard, Luana G.; Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Fernandes, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS) and Cochrane (LILACS), Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58%) reported descriptive data and 6 (50%) established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise interpretation of the test

  11. 21例儿童流行性乙型脑炎临床分析%Twenty-one clinical cases of epidemic encephalitis B in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 方琼; 沈晓丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握儿童流行性乙型脑炎(简称乙脑)的临床特征,为诊治乙脑提供参考.方法 收集我院儿科确诊的21例乙脑患儿资料,对他们的预防接种史、临床表现、辅助检查及诊疗过程进行分析.结果 本组患儿均来自农村,发病月份为7-9月,大多患儿未接种乙脑疫苗或接种史不详,临床表现为高热、颅高压症状、频繁抽搐、意识障碍、呼吸衰竭;病初外周血白细胞计数及中性粒细胞均增高,病程的3~7 d血清或脑脊液乙脑IgM阳性;大多患儿出院时有各种不同程度神经系统损害.结论 儿童乙脑病情危重,早诊断、积极治疗可降低病死率和致残率.%The clinical data of children epidemic encephalitis B in 21 cases was analyzed in order to understand the clinical characteristic for diagnosis and treatment of epidemic encephalitis B. In this procedure the inoculation history, clinical manifes tation, auxiliary examination, diagnosis and treatment of 21 pediatric inpatients with epidemic encephalitis B were analyzed ret respectively. The results indicated that all these children were from the countryside, and the cases occurred between July and September. Most children were uninoculated or the inoculation history was unknown. The patients usually presented with high fever, cranial high pressure symptoms, frequent convulsions, consciousness obstacle, and respiratory failure. Peripheral white blood cell count and neutrophils were increased in the early stage of illness. The epidemic encephalitis type B specific IgM anti body in serum or cerebrospinal fluid was positive from the third day up to the seventh day in stage of illness. Most children had neurological damage in different manifestation when they left the hospital. This study suggested that illness condition is often critical. Early diagnosis and active therapy could reduce the mortality and morbidity.

  12. The comparison of behavioral and emotional problems in children with a bipolar parent and children with healthy parents in Zahedan, Iran, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Firoozkouhi Moghaddan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Mental illness in parents can cause behavioral problems in children because of genetic contribution and their narrowed parenting capabilities. Organic and psychotic disease in mother and father can affect their role in family and rising up children with genetic tendency to bipolar disorder in family which have impaired competence to bringing up the children increases the risk of mental damages. Subject or material and methods. In this descriptive-cross sectional study 65 children of bipolar parents (case group and 65 with healthy parents (control where chosen with convenience sampling and compared with child behavior check list (CBCL.comparison of mean scores on CBCL scales between the two groups was performed by using statistical T test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. Findings showed that the mean scores of CBCL were higher in case group than in control group and boys had higher scores than girls in case group. Significant relation between birth order and mean CBCL scores in anxiety, somatic complain, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder subscales was found (p<0.05 and CBCL mean scores in anxiety subscale had significant relation with duration of disorders in parents.(p<0.05. Discussion. The higher CBCL mean scores in bipolar parents’ children than control group may suggest there is higher emotional and behavioral problems and increase in risk of bipolar disorder. Conclusions. Higher degree of emotional and behavioral problems in off springs of BMD patients may predict mood disorders in future.

  13. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress in Parents of Children with Cancer: Are they Elevated Relative to Parents of Healthy Children?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Long, Alanna; Ticona, Luis; Phipps, Sean

    .... Method Participants included parents of 199 children with cancer, comprising a cross-sectional sample of diagnoses and treatment phases, ranging from currently on therapy to long-term survivors...

  14. [N.B.T. - PABA screening test for exocrine pancreatic function in healthy children. Preliminary investigation in 60 normal children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Morte, M A; Losi, S; Morelli, P; Ripa, C; Sala, M R; Cereda, M; Mancosu, M; Saputo, V

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical bases of PABA test as a diagnostic screening test of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, its mode of execution and the findings obtained in 60 healthy subjects ranging in age from 2 to 14 years are reported. Those conditions related to extra-pancreatic disorders or to other factors that may interfere with the test and reduce its reliability are also discussed.

  15. Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Expect Respect: Healthy Relationships Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  16. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g.

  17. Incentivizing healthy eating in children: An investigation of the "ripple" and "temporal" effects of a reward-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Saied

    2017-10-01

    Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment-wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies-involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tidal breathing parameters measured using structured light plethysmography in healthy children and those with asthma before and after bronchodilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmeidi, Hamzah; Motamedi-Fakhr, Shayan; Chadwick, Edward; Gilchrist, Francis J; Lenney, Warren; Iles, Richard; Wilson, Rachel C; Alexander, John

    2017-03-01

    Structured light plethysmography (SLP) is a light-based, noncontact technique that measures tidal breathing by monitoring displacements of the thoracoabdominal (TA) wall. We used SLP to measure tidal breathing parameters and their within-subject variability (v) in 30 children aged 7-16 years with asthma and abnormal spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1] displacement ratio (IE50SLP, calculated as TIF50SLP/TEF50SLP, where TIF50SLP is tidal inspiratory TA displacement rate at 50% of inspiratory displacement and TEF50SLP is tidal expiratory TA displacement rate at 50% of expiratory displacement). Median (m) IE50SLP and its variability (vIE50SLP) were both higher in children with asthma (prebronchodilator) compared with healthy children (mIE50SLP: 1.53 vs. 1.22, P < 0.001; vIE50SLP: 0.63 vs. 0.47, P < 0.001). After administration of bronchodilators to the asthma group, mIE50SLP decreased from 1.53 to 1.45 (P = 0.01) and vIE50SLP decreased from 0.63 to 0.60 (P = 0.04). SLP-measured tidal breathing parameters could differentiate between children with and without asthma and indicate a response to bronchodilator.

  19. Regulation of naturally acquired mucosal immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Malawian adults and children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Glennie

    Full Text Available Worldwide, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is most common in young children. In adults, disease rates decline following intermittent colonization and the acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. We characterized mucosal and systemic pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in African children and adults who contend with intense rates of colonization, up to 100% and 60% respectively. We find most Malawian children have high pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in tonsil tissue and peripheral blood. In addition, frequent commensalism generates CD25(hi (Tregs which modulate mucosal pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in some children and ≥50% of adults. We propose that immune regulation may prolong pneumococcal colonization and predispose vulnerable individuals to disease.

  20. Evaluation of a 2-Year Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention in Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, Leen; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; Stevens, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a middle school physical activity and healthy eating intervention, including an environmental and computer-tailored component, and to investigate the effects of parental involvement. A random sample of 15 schools with seventh and eight graders was randomly assigned to one of three…

  1. Using Pediatric Visits to Support Children and Families: Ten Positive Outcomes From HealthySteps

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Sarah; Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric health care practices are ideal settings within which to provide vital screenings, support, and parent education to families of infants and toddlers. HealthySteps (HS) uses an integrated, relationship-based approach to deliver a range of services and supports such as anticipatory guidance, developmental and behavioral screenings,…

  2. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy chil

  3. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  4. Healthy School, Happy School: Design and Protocol for a Randomized Clinical Trial Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Daniela Schneid; Goulart, Maíra Ribas; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Sica, Caroline D’Azevedo; Borges, Raphael; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. Methods: This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school’s multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. Conclusion: The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population. PMID:28699973

  5. A randomised controlled trial and mediation analysis of the 'Healthy Habits', telephone-based dietary intervention for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Amanda; Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca; Bowman, Jenny; McElduff, Patrick; Duncan, Sarah

    2013-04-08

    Consumption of non-core foods in childhood is associated with excessive weight gain in childhood. Parents play a vital role in establishing healthy diet behaviours in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a telephone-based intervention in reducing child consumption of non-core foods, and to examine parent and home food environment mediators of change in child consumption. The 'Healthy Habits' trial utilised a clustered randomised controlled design. Parents were recruited from 30 preschools (N=394 participants, mean age 35.2±5.6 years). Parents randomized to the intervention group received four telephone contacts and print materials. Parents allocated to the control condition receive generic print materials only. Non-core food consumption was assessed using a validated child dietary questionnaire at baseline, 2 and 6 months post recruitment in 2010. The intervention was effective in reducing child consumption of non-core foods at 2 months (intention to treat analysis: z=-2.83, ppreschool age children, however further development is needed to sustain the effect in the long-term. Australian Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000820202.

  6. Steps to Growing Up Healthy: a pediatric primary care based obesity prevention program for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Gorin, Amy A.; Wiley, James; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hernandez, Dominica; Grant, Autherene; Cloutier, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leading medical organizations have called on primary care pediatricians to take a central role in the prevention of childhood obesity. Weight counseling typically has not been incorporated into routine pediatric practice due to time and training constraints. Brief interventions with simple behavior change messages are needed to reach high-risk children, particularly Latino and Black children who are disproportionately affected by obesity and related comorbidities. Steps to Growing ...

  7. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabet Forsum; Eva Flinke Carlsson; Hanna Henriksson; Pontus Henriksson; Marie Löf

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the rel...

  8. Improved outcomes after autologous bone marrow transplantation for children with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: twenty years experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Phillip M; Link, Michael P; Donaldson, Sarah S; Advani, Ranjana H; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Porteus, Matthew; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Agarwal-Hashmi, Rajni

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival of pediatric patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (auBMT) for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) and to identify factors that might contribute to their outcome. We reviewed the records and clinical course of 89 consecutive rrHL patients ≤ 21 years old who underwent auBMT at Stanford Hospitals and Clinics and the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford between 1989 and 2012. We investigated, by multiple analyses, patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with outcome. Endpoints were 5-year overall and event-free survival. Our findings include that cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) as a conditioning regimen for auBMT is effective for most patients ≤ 21 years old with rrHL (5-year overall survival, 71%). Transplantation after the year 2001 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with our earlier experience (80% compared with 65%). Patients with multiply relapsed disease or with disease not responsive to initial therapy fared less well compared with those with response to initial therapy or after first relapse. Administration of post-auBMT consolidative radiotherapy (cRT) also appears to contribute to improved survival. We are able to conclude that high-dose chemotherapy with CBV followed by auBMT is effective for the treatment of rrHL in children and adolescents. Survival for patients who undergo auBMT for rrHL has improved significantly. This improvement may be because of patient selection and improvements in utilization of radiotherapy rather than improvements in chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to describe the role of auBMT across the entire spectrum of patients with rrHL and to identify the most appropriate preparative regimen with or without cRT therapy in the treatment of rrHL in young patients.

  9. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index. However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2±4.7 and 26.8±4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P<0.001 but weak (r=0.39 correlation between BMI and body fat (%. In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (% in this age group.

  10. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  11. Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with Candida species-induced meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Barbati, Elisa; Chaussade, Hélène; Koumar, Yatrika; Levy, Romain; Denis, Blandine; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Sophie; Loop, Michèle; Peeters, Julie; de Selys, Ariel; Vanclaire, Jean; Vermylen, Christiane; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Chatzis, Olga; Liu, Luyan; Migaud, Mélanie; Pedergnana, Vincent; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Netea, Mihai G; De Bruycker, Jean J; Bernard, Louis; Reynes, Jacques; Amazrine, Noureddine; Abel, Laurent; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Harrison, Tom; Picard, Capucine; Lortholary, Olivier; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Invasive infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both caused by Candida species remain unexplained. We studied 5 previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the CNS, digestive tract, or both caused by Candida species. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17, 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated, but each was born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (2 patients), Iranian, Moroccan, or Pakistani origin. Meningoencephalitis was reported in 3 patients, meningoencephalitis associated with colitis was reported in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient had colitis only. Inherited caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala species, including meningoencephalitis but not colitis caused by Candida and Exophiala species. Therefore we sequenced CARD9 in the 5 patients. All patients were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the 3 patients with Candida albicans-induced meningoencephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningoencephalitis and colitis caused by Candida glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with Candida albicans-induced colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients' monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Exophiala dermatitidis). Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida species in previously healthy children and even adults might be caused by inherited CARD9

  12. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  13. A randomised trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the novel single oral dose typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 in healthy Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinh Hien Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistant typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in Asia. An oral single dose typhoid vaccine would have major advantages. M01ZH09 is a live oral single dose candidate typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-ssaV(- ZH9 with two independently attenuating deletions. Studies in healthy adults demonstrated immunogenicity and an acceptable safety profile. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a randomised placebo controlled, single-blind trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of M01ZH09 in healthy Vietnamese children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a nominal dose of 5x10(9 CFU of M01ZH09 or placebo and were followed up for 28 days. The primary safety outcome was the proportion of subjects with any adverse event attributed to M01ZH09. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the proportion of subjects who showed a positive immune response to M01ZH09 in the Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS specific serum IgA and IgG ELISA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and fifty-one children were enrolled, 101 subjects received M01ZH09 and 50 subjects received placebo. An intention to treat analysis was conducted. There were no serious adverse events and no bacteraemias. In the M01ZH09 group, 26 (26%; 95% CI, 18-5% of 101 subjects experienced adverse events compared to 11 (22%; 95% CI, 12-36% of 50 subjects in the placebo group (odds ratio (OR [95%CI] = 1.23 [0.550-2.747]; p = 0.691. Faecal shedding of S. Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-ssaV(- ZH9 was detected in 51 (51%; 95% CI, 41-61% of 100 M01ZH09 subjects. No shedding was detected beyond day 3. A positive immune response, defined as 70% increase (1.7 fold change in LPS specific serum IgG (day 14 or 28 and/or 50% increase (1.5 fold change in LPS specific serum IgA (day 7 or 14 from baseline was detected in 98 (97%; 95% CI, 92-99% of 101 M01ZH09 recipients and 8 (16%; 95% CI, 7-29% of 50 placebo

  14. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  15. Identification of lifestyle patterns associated with obesity and fat mass in children: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kalliora, Andriana C; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Papandreou, Christopher; Koutoukidis, Dimitris; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2014-03-01

    To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Primary schools from four regions in Greece. A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4%, 45·2% and 32·2% less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4% less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0%, 26·3% and 29·5% less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.

  16. Cytogenetic status of healthy children assessed with the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Oreščanin, Višnja; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-01-20

    In the present study the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay were used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 50 healthy children from the general population in Croatia (age, 11.62±1.81 years). Mean values of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment, as comet assay parameters, were 12.92±0.10, 0.73±0.06 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. The mean frequency of micronuclei (MN) for all subjects was 2.32±0.28 per 1000 bi-nucleated cells, while the mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) was 1.72±0.24 and of nuclear buds (NBUDs) 1.44±0.19. The mean nuclear division index (NDI) was 1.70±0.05. When comet-assay parameters were considered, higher mean values for all three were found for the female population. According to the Mann-Whitney U test applied on the results of the comet assay, the only statistically significant difference between the male and female populations was found for tail length. Similar to the results obtained by the comet assay, girls showed higher mean values of all three measured parameters of the CBMN Cyt assay. This difference was statistically significant for total number of NPBs only. In the case of the NDI, a higher mean value was also obtained in girls, but this difference was not statistically significant. The results obtained present background data that could be considered as normal values for healthy children living in urban areas, and can later on serve as baseline values for further toxicological monitoring. Additionally, the usefulness of both techniques in measuring cytogenetic damage during bio-monitoring of children is confirmed.

  17. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Jeddi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys; about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04, lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02, and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02 compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039. Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures.

  18. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI in healthy children during the winter season. Methods Subjects included 73 children (N = 42 males, N = 31 females ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.7 years, and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Results Subjects ingested 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

  19. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  20. The role of parents' educational background in healthy lifestyle practices and attitudes of their 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhammar, Christina; Sarkadi, Anna; Edlund, Birgitta

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine parents' reported and desired frequencies (practices vs. attitudes) of their 6-year-old children's meals, nutritional intake and lifestyle components, as well as possible obstacles and desired support with respect to higher or lower educational backgrounds. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Five elementary schools in Uppsala, Sweden. Parents of 176 6-year-old pupils attending the first grade. The total response rate was 89.7%. Parents with a college degree reported that their 6-year-olds had a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity and fewer hours watching television compared with parents with a secondary school degree. Congruent to these differences in reported practices, more parents with a college degree desired a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical exercise and less television viewing for their children. Regarding parents' desired meal frequencies during the week, no differences between the groups with higher and lower levels of education were found. Despite similar attitudes, however, parents with a college degree reported that their children ate mostly all meals significantly more often during the week. Both parent groups stated lack of time as the most common obstacle in providing their children with desired lifestyle practices, although parents with a secondary school education added lack of money as a contributing factor. As attitudes are not always reflected in reported practices, it seems a fruitful approach to assess both, as well as obstacles perceived by parents, before planning interventions to enhance healthy lifestyle habits in children.

  1. Reference values for fasting serum resistin in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2017-01-01

    are needed for the risk stratification and interpretation of individual serum resistin concentrations. METHODS: A total of 1191 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (727 girls) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were included. Fasting serum resistin concentrations were quantitated by Human Resistin ELISA...... in both boys (p=0.02) and girls (pFasting serum resistin concentrations differ between sexes...

  2. Genu Valgum and Flat Feet in Children With Healthy and Excessive Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity, genu valgum, and flat feet in children, and find practical implications for therapeutic interventions. A total of 1364 children aged 3-7 years took part in the research. Their body mass index was calculated and their weight status described. Participants' knee alignment was assessed by measuring the intermalleolar distance in the standing position with the knees in contact. The height of the longitudinal arch of each foot was measured using Clarke's angle. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased with age. Reduction of intermalleolar distance and increased longitudinal arch of the foot, characteristic of typical growth and development, were observed. Genu valgum was more common in children who were overweight. Significant correlations among body mass index, intermalleolar distance, and Clarke's angle (P genu valgum and flat feet.

  3. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-04-12

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in improving physical activity levels, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers attending early childcare centers. This study follows a cluster randomized controlled trial design in which the childcare centers are randomly assigned to receive the intervention or serve as usual care controls. The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention is comprised of interlinked components aiming to enable families and educators to integrate physical activity and healthy eating in the daily lives of young children by influencing factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, physical environment and policy levels. The intervention period, spanning 6-8 months, is preceded and followed by data collections. Participants are recruited from 61 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. Centers eligible for this study have to prepare and provide meals for lunch and have at least 20 children between the ages of 3 and 5. Centers are excluded if they have previously received a physical activity or nutrition promoting intervention. Eligible centers are stratified by province, geographical location (urban or rural) and language (English or French), then recruited and randomized using a one to one protocol for each stratum. Data collection is ongoing. The primary study outcomes are assessed using accelerometers (physical activity levels), the Test of Gross Motor

  4. Postexercise Dietary Protein Ingestion Increases Whole-Body Leucine Balance in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Moore, Daniel R; Breithaupt, Peter; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Offord, Elizabeth A; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Background: Protein ingestion is important in enhancing whole-body protein balance in children. The effect of discrete bolus protein ingestion on acute postexercise recovery has yet to be determined.Objective: This study determined the effect of increasing doses of ingested protein on postexercise whole-body leucine balance in healthy, active children.Methods: Thirty-five children (26 boys, 9 girls; age range: 9-13 y; weight mean ± SD: 44.9 ± 10.6 kg) underwent a 5-d adaptation diet (0.95 g protein ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) before performing 20 min of cycling 3 times with a concurrent, primed, constant infusion of [(13)C]leucine. After exercise, participants consumed an isoenergetic beverage (140 kcal) containing variable amounts of bovine skim-milk protein and carbohydrates (sucrose) (0, 5, 10, and 15 g protein made up with 35, 30, 25, and 20 g carbohydrates, respectively). Blood and breath samples were taken over the 3 h of recovery to determine non-steady state whole-body leucine oxidation (LeuOX) and net leucine balance (LeuBAL).Results: LeuOX (secondary outcome) peaked 60 min after beverage ingestion and demonstrated a relative dose-response over the 3 h of recovery (15 g = 10 > 5 > 0 g; P 10 g (11.6 ± 4.3 mg/kg) > 5 g (5.7 ± 1.9 mg/kg) > 0 g (-3.0 ± 1.7 mg/kg); all P ingestion alone; however, the co-ingestion of carbohydrates and 5 g high-quality dietary protein was sufficient to promote a positive postexercise whole-body protein balance in healthy, active children. Moreover, LeuBAL increased in a dose-dependent manner within the protein range studied. Children should consider consuming a source of dietary protein after physical activity to enhance whole-body anabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01598935. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from healthy Ghanaian preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayie, Nicholas Tete Kwaku Dzifa; Arhin, Reuben E.; Newman, Mercy J.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the cause of high mortality among children worldwide. Antimicrobial treatment and vaccination are used to control pneumococcal infections. In Ghana, data on antimicrobial resistance and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clones are scarce; hence, the aim...... of this study was to determine the antibiogram of S. pneumoniae recovered from Ghanaian children younger than six years of age and to what extent resistances were due to the spread of certain sero- and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types. The susceptibility of 115 pneumococcal isolates, recovered...

  6. Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content and Their Relation With Other Indicators of Iron Status in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruzafa, Encarnación; Vázquez-López, Maria A; Lendinez-Molinos, Francisco; Poveda-González, Juan; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio; Martín-González, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered an indicator of functional iron deficiency, but is understudied in children. The goals of this study are to determine the reference intervals for CHr in healthy children, and their relation with iron parameters, erythropoiesis, and individual conditions. A total of 902 children without iron deficiency, aged 1 to 11 years were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Besides a physical examination of the subjects and a questionnaire completed by their parents, the complete blood count, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, and CHr levels were measured. Changes in CHr, iron status, and erythropoiesis at different age intervals were analyzed and linear multiple regression was used to identify the factors that determine CHr variability. Mean value obtained for CHr was 30.9±1.8 pg (P2.5-P97.5: 26.9 to 34.3 pg), but the influence of age on CHr (the values increased with age) and on the iron parameters justified the establishment of different reference ranges. In addition to age, nutritional status, hematologic measurements, reticulocytes, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin accounted for 39% of CHr variability.

  7. Obesity and Preference-Weighted Quality of Life of Ethnically Diverse Middle School Children: The HEALTHY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Treviño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, studies examining the relation between body mass index percentile (BMI% categories and health-related quality of life (QOL measurements have not reported preference-weighted scores among ethnically diverse children. We report the associations between BMI% categories and preference-weighted scores among a large cohort of ethnically diverse sixth grade children who participated in the HEALTHY school-based type 2 diabetes risk factor prevention study. Health Utility Index 2 (HUI2 and Health Utility Index 3 (HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT were the preference-weighted QOL instruments used to measure student’s preference scores. Of 6358 consented students, 4979 (78.3% had complete QOL, height, weight, and covariate data. Mean (SD preference scores were 0.846 (0.160, 0.796 (0.237, and 0.806 (0.161 for the HUI2, HUI3, and FT, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, blood glucose and insulin, Tanner stage, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and educational attainment, children with severe obesity (>99% had significantly lower preference scores compared to normal weight on all three instruments (HUI2 P=0.013; HUI3 P=0.025; and FT P<0.001. Obese and severe obese categories were significantly associated with lower HUI2 functional ratings in the mobility domain and with lower HUI3 functional ratings in the speech domain.

  8. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  9. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... age range of children is 3-15 years upon entry into the study. The study examines quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school...: Families or households; businesses, other for-profit, and non-profit. Type of Respondents: Parents...

  10. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.

  11. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  12. Specific airway resistance, interrupter resistance, and respiratory impedance in healthy children aged 2-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    in the range of 5-35 Hz. The techniques applied in this study require minimal cooperation and allow measurement of lung function in 80% of our population of awake young children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potentials of the presently established reference values for clinical and epidemiological...

  13. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  14. Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer L.; Schultz, Alyce A.

    2004-01-01

    Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in…

  15. Comparison of body mass index on children with functional constipation and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders, especially in developed population, which categorized to organic or functional (non-organic constipation. Furthermore, obesity is a growing chronic pediatric problem that could cause any compromise in weight and height. The aim of this study is the evaluation of probable relation between obesity and pediatric functional constipation. Methods: This study was conducted as a case-control investigation on 2-14-years-old children those referred to Baqiyatallah University clinic during 2009-2011. The constipated children with organic causes were excluded. The control group of children was those who had not any disorders affecting on height and weight. Quantitative variables were expressed by mean and standard deviation and the correlation was tested with chi2 through SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 259 children (male 51.7% consisting 124 cases and 135 controls were enrolled. The mean age in constipated and normal children was 69.47 ± 35.03 and 74.15 ± 39.68, respectively. BMI over 95% in the control group was 11.9% and in the constipated group was 17.7% that the difference was not statistically significant either (P = 0.188. The only significant association was found between obesity and the duration of constipation and also age (P = 0.008, 0.042, respectively. Conclusion: Although we found a significant relationship between duration of constipation and obesity, there was not a clear association between obesity and presence of constipation. Furthermore, we suggest extended cohort or clinical trial study regarding to the regional nutritional and growth patterns to confirm weight decrease or increase the effect on defecation.

  16. Pilot survey of a novel incentive to promote healthy behavior among school children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kwang Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversing the obesity epidemic has been a persistent global public health challenge, particularly among low socioeconomic status populations and racial/ethnic minorities. We developed a novel concept of community-based incentives to approach this problem in such communities. Applying this concept, we proposed a school intervention to promote obesity prevention in the U.S. We conducted a pilot survey to explore attitudes towards this future intervention. The survey was collected as a nonprobability sample (N = 137 school-aged children (5–12 years in northern California in July 2013. We implemented multivariable logistic regression analyses where the dependent variable indicated the intention to participate in the future intervention. The covariates included the body mass index (BMI based weight categories, demographics, and others. We found that the future intervention is expected to motivate generally-high-risk populations (such as children and parents who have never joined a past health-improvement program compared to those who have completed a past health-improvement program (the odds-ratio (OR = 5.84, p < 0.05 and children with an obese/overweight parent (OR = 2.72, p < 0.05 compared to those without one to participate in future obesity-prevention activities. Our analyses also showed that some subgroups of high-risk populations, such as Hispanic children (OR = 0.27, p < 0.05 and children eligible for a free or reduced price meal program (OR = 0.37, p < 0.06, remain difficult to reach and need an intensive outreach activity for the future intervention. The survey indicated high interest in the future school intervention among high-risk parents who have never joined a past health-improvement program or are obese/overweight. These findings will help design and implement a future intervention.

  17. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah; Florentina Sustini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample o...

  18. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honisett, Suzy; Woolcock, Suzi; Porter, Creina; Hughes, Ian

    2009-09-18

    This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS) and primary schools (PS) to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. The Medical Research Council's (UK) framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting schools approach, which was demonstrated to be a suitable model to

  19. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Creina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS and primary schools (PS to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods The Medical Research Council's (UK framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Results Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting

  20. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  1. Timing and pattern of postexercise protein ingestion affects whole-body protein balance in healthy children: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Moore, Daniel R; Breithaupt, Peter; Grathwohl, Dominik; Offord, Elizabeth A; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Timmons, Brian W

    2017-07-06

    The dose and timing of postexercise protein ingestion can influence whole-body protein balance (WBPB) in adults, although comparable data from children are scarce. This study investigated how protein intake (both amount and distribution) postexercise can affect WBPB in physically active children. Thirty-five children (26 males; 9-13 years old) underwent a 5-day adaptation diet, maintaining a protein intake of 0.95 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). Participants consumed [(15)N]glycine (2 mg·kg(-1)) before performing 3 × 20 min of variable-intensity cycling, and whole-body protein kinetics were assessed over 6 and 24 h of recovery. Fifteen grams of protein was distributed across 2 isoenergetic carbohydrate-containing beverages (15 and 240 min postexercise) containing reciprocal amounts of protein (i.e., 0 + 15 g, 5 + 10 g, 10 + 5 g, and 15 + 0 g for Groups A-D, respectively). Over the 6 h that included the exercise bout and consumption of the first beverage at 15 min postexercise, WBPB (i.e., synthesis - breakdown) demonstrated a linear increase of 0.647 g·kg(-1)·day(-1) per 1 g protein intake (P parabola (P < 0.05), suggesting that a maximum in WBPB was achieved between groups B and C. In conclusion, despite a dose response early in recovery, a periodized protein intake with multiple smaller doses after physical activity may be more beneficial than a single bolus dose in promoting daily WBPB in healthy active children.

  2. Coagulation, thrombophilia and patency of arteriovenous fistula in children undergoing haemodialysis compared with healthy volunteers: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Abdel-Rahman, Safaa M; Thabet, Eman H; Kamel, Solaf; Kandil, Dina; Ibrahim, Mona H; El-Ahmady, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess whether markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis or thrombophilia are increased in children on haemodialysis compared with controls and whether measurement of any of these factors could help to identify patients at an increased risk of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) occlusion. Blood samples were taken from 55 children immediately before a session of haemodialysis and from 20 healthy volunteers. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) and anticardiolipin immunoglobulin G (ACA-Ig G) were measured by ELISA. Factor V Leiden mutation (G1691A) was determined by gene polymorphism [restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)]. Determination of the patency of the AVF was prospectively followed up for a minimum of 4 years or until the AVF was nonfunctioning. Fifty-five patients were studied with a median follow-up of 659 days (range 30-1670 days). A significant increase was found in the levels of D-dimer, PAP and ACA-Ig G in haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVFs vs. There was a significant difference between both chronic haemodialysis patients with thrombosed and nonthrombosed native AVF with regard to ACA-IgG levels. At 1 year follow-up, primary patency was 61.4% (27 patients). In multivariate analysis, D-dimer was inversely associated with secondary patency.Thrombophilia may predispose children with end stage renal disease to access failure. The promising finding is that in children on haemodialysis, D-dimer levels were increased and inversely correlated with secondary patency. Further evaluation is required into the possible role of D-dimer as a biomarker of AVF occlusion.

  3. Twenty-Year Reunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A massive earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter Scale struck the city of Tangshan at 3:42 a.m. on July 28, 1976. The city, which had history of well over 100 years and a population of over one million people, was left in ruins. The violent earthquake killed 242,469 people, with 164,851 people sustaining injuries, 2,652 children under 16 years of age left as orphans and 885 elderly people as widowers. Some 96 percent of the city’s buildings and houses collapsed, with a direct economic loss of 10 billion yuan. Earthquake tremors spread over a two million square kilometer area, with hundreds of millions people placed in peril by the natural disaster.The Tangshan earthquake set a record as the world’s strongest earthquake of the century. The people of Tangshan have set a new record for the rate of reconstruction accomplished over the past 20 years. The support of the People’s Liberation Army and people across the nation combined with the unyielding efforts of survivors led to the establishment of a new Ta

  4. Healthy urban environments for children and young people: A systematic review of intervention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. PMID:26457624

  5. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    optimization. RESULTS: In a generalized linear model adjusted for BMI SDS, total serum adiponectin concentrations were correlated to age in girls (psexes combined (psexes was found. Reference intervals were calculated using...... age as a continuous variable. The best fitted reference curve for both sexes was: 50th percentile: Y=-0.1478∗X+6.046; 2.5th percentile: Y=-0.06256∗X+2.34; 97.5th percentile: Y=-0.4086∗X+22.39, where Y=adiponectin in μg/mL and X=years of age (from 6 to 18years). CONCLUSION: We developed a pediatric...... reference levels for total serum adiponectin in a sample of 1193 Danish children and adolescents aged 6-18years. A correlation with age was demonstrated in children, but no significant difference was seen between the sexes....

  6. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  7. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  8. [Association of metabolic syndrome markers with abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in healthy children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Gabriel; García, Hernán; Jaime, Francisca; Bancalari, Rodrigo; Harris, Paul R

    2012-07-01

    There is a high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) among pediatric patients. The identification of clinical predictors of these conditions would allow a timely treatment. To evaluate the relationship between serum alanine aminotransferase levels and parameters of metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic school students without hepatic illness. A randomized sample of 175 children aged between 9 and 14 years (54% females) was selected, from a database of 3010 students living in Santiago, Chile. Weight, height, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and insulin levels. Forty percent of participants were obese, 17% had metabolic syndrome and 13.1% had abnormal ALT levels. Compared with children with normal ALT levels, the latter had significantly higher waist obesity, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides. However on multivariate analysis, only waist obesity was independently associated with abnormal ALT levels (adjusted odds ratio 3.93, 95% confidence intervals 1.44-10.78, p = 0.008). Only waist obesity was independently associated with abnormal ALT levels in this sample of children.

  9. 重视婴幼儿健全人格的培养%Paying attentirn tr the training rf healthy persrnality rf infants and yrung children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍秀兰; 李月萍

    2013-01-01

    The health of infants and young children includes the comprehensive development of physical, psychological and social adaptation ability. This paper emphasizes the importance of healthy personality of infants and young children, which consists of optimism and emotional stability, self-dependence of thinking and activity, good ability of social adaptation, and self-esteem and self-confidence. The neurological theory and method of early intervention in cultivation of healthy personality of infants and young children are introduced, and the outcomes of early comprehensive training for healthy personality of infants and young children are demonstrated. It is revealed that early intervention can effectively promote the development of healthy personality of infants and young children.%婴幼儿健康躯体、心理和社会适应力的全面发展。强调婴幼儿健全人格的重要性,乐观和定的情绪、思维和活动的独自主性、良好的社会适应力及自尊心和自信心;阐述早期培养婴幼儿健全人格的脑科学依据和方法;简介早期综合干预培养婴幼儿健全人格的研究成果,明早期干预有效促进婴幼儿健全人格的发展。

  10. A restaurant-based intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items: the Kids' Choice Restaurant Program cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Williams, Christine B; Lin, Shih-Fan; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2016-03-10

    Away-from-home eating is an important dietary behavior with implications on diet quality. Thus, it is an important behavior to target to prevent and control childhood obesity and other chronic health conditions. Numerous studies have been conducted to improve children's dietary intake at home, in early care and education, and in schools; however, few studies have sought to modify the restaurant food environment for children. This study adds to this body of research by describing the development and launch of an innovative intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items in independent restaurants in Southern California, United States. This is a cluster randomized trial with eight pair-matched restaurants in San Diego, California. Restaurants were randomized to a menu-only versus menu-plus intervention condition. The menu-only intervention condition involves manager/owner collaboration on the addition of pre-determined healthy children's menu items and kitchen manager/owner collaboration to prepare and plate these items and train kitchen staff. The menu-plus intervention condition involves more extensive manager/owner collaboration and kitchen staff training to select, prepare, and plate new healthy children's menu items, and a healthy children's menu campaign that includes marketing materials and server training to promote the items. The primary outcome is sales of healthy children's menu items over an 18-week period. In addition, dining parties consisting of adults with children under 18 years of age are being observed unobtrusively while ordering and then interviewed throughout the 18-week study period to determine the impact of the intervention on ordering behaviors. Manager/owner interviews and restaurant audits provide additional evidence of impact on customers, employees, and the restaurant environment. Our process evaluation assesses dose delivered, dose received, and intervention fidelity. Successful recruitment of the restaurants has been

  11. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  12. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kuwano

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control, healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO, and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD children suggest that a genetic predisposition to ASD may be detectable even in peripheral cells. Altered expression of several autism candidate genes such as FMR-1 and MECP2, could be detected in leukocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ASD-associated genes identified in leukocytes are informative to explore the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental background of ASD and might become potential tools to assess the crucial factors related to the clinical onset of the disorder.

  13. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the “Healthy Start” Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested a direct association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as other adiposity measures. However, these studies have mostly been conducted among adult populations. Objective To examine the association between HCC and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the “Healthy Start” study. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between HCC and adiposity measures while taking into account possible confounding factors. Analyses were performed examining the association between HCC and BMI, fat mass and fat free mass index Z-scores, as well as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio among the children. Likewise, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children’s adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0.26, P = 0.02] and -0.17 SD [95% CI: -0.30, -0.05, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg, respectively). Conclusions Our study found no evidence of an association between HCC and measures of adiposity among children predisposed to obesity. However, HCC may be directly associated with BMI among men and women, and maternal HCC may be related to a higher fat mass and a lower fat free mass among their children. PMID:27662656

  14. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  15. Exposure to 'healthy' fast food meal bundles in television advertisements promotes liking for fast food but not healthier choices in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Kavanagh-Safran, Melissa; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-03-28

    Due to regulatory changes, fast food companies often depict healthy foods in their television advertisements to children. The present study examined how exposure to advertising for 'healthy' meal bundles to children influenced the selection of food in children. A total of fifty-nine children (thirty-seven males) aged 7-10 years (8·8 (SD 0·9) years) took part in the present study. The within-participant, counterbalanced design had two conditions: control (exposure to ten toy adverts across two breaks of five adverts each) and experimental (the middle advert in each break replaced with one for a McDonald's Happy Meal® depicting the meal bundle as consisting of fish fingers, a fruit bag and a bottle of mineral water). Following viewing of the adverts embedded in a cartoon, children completed a hypothetical menu task that reported liking for McDonald's food and fast food, in general. Nutritional knowledge, height and weight of the children were measured. There was no significant difference between the two advert conditions for the nutritional content of the meal bundles selected. However, children's liking for fast food, in general, increased after exposure to the food adverts relative to control (P= 0·004). Compared to children with high nutritional knowledge, those with low scores selected meals of greater energy content (305 kJ) after viewing the food adverts (P= 0·016). Exposure to adverts for 'healthy' meal bundles did not drive healthier choices in children, but did promote liking for fast food. These findings contribute to debates about food advertising to children and the effectiveness of related policies.

  16. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Gómez Dulce, I., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. Mexico and Physics Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Pilar, Dies Suarez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Benito, De Celis Alonso, E-mail: benileon@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. Mexico and Fundación para el Desarrollo Carlos Sigüenza. Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  17. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula

    2016-01-01

    of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups...... leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). RESULTS: Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.......71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: 

  18. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  19. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier children in Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfayate-Miguélez, S; Ruiz Gómez, J; Sanchez-Solis de Querol, M; Guerrero Gómez, C; Pérez Simón, M; Ortiz Romero, M M; Núñez Trigueros, M L; López Yepes, M L; Blazquez Abellán, A; Zarauz García, J M; Ruiz Merino, G; Ortuño del Moral, M P

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a human pathogen that involves a high use of antibiotics. The objective of the study was to determine the susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics and their associated risk factors, in order to promote rational use of antibiotics. In A multicentre study was conducted in summer 2009 and winter 2010 on children attending paediatric clinics in the Region of Murcia. A nasopharyngeal sample was collected and an epidemiological questionnaire was completed. The study included 1562 children aged 1 and 4 years old. Almost one-third (31.3%, 489/1562) of children were nasal carriers. A sensitivity study was carried out on 376 isolates, of which 343 were serotyped. Almost two-thirds (61.7%, 964/1562) of children had received at least one dose of PCV7 (heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine), and 12.8% (44/343) of the isolates belonged to PCV7 serotypes. The prevalence rates of penicillin resistance (meningitis infections criteria CMI>0.06mg/L) were 28.1%; however, this percentage was 54% in PCV7 serotypes. None of the isolates had (MIC >2mg/L), so prevalence rates of susceptibility with non-meningitis infections criteria were 100%. There was a high percentage of erythromycin resistance (45.7%). The factors favouring resistance to penicillin and cefotaxime were the consumption of antibiotics in the previous month and the carrying of vaccine serotypes. On the other hand, the age of 4 years old was a protective factor of resistance. The 14, 35B, 19A, 15A, and 19F serotypes were less susceptible to penicillin. Both oral amoxicillin given to outpatients and intravenous penicillin or ampicillin to hospitalized patients are excellent options for the treatment of non-meningeal infections, as seen with pneumonia in these kinds of environments, where there is low incidence of isolates highly resistant to penicillin (CMI ≥ 2mg/L). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Bring fruit at school: promotion of healthy food habit in primary school-children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Antoniciello, A; Ugolini, G; Dalton, S

    2009-01-01

    The many nutrition education guidelines formulated by different organizations and institutions are the frames for the program actions targeting nutrition awareness in the school-age population. But while the guidelines represent a solid starting block they still need to be backed up by programs giving concrete form to the guiding principles, a program whose efficacy is demonstrated by specific applications studies. The aim of the "Bring Fruit at School" nutrition education program is to encourage elementary school children to change their eating habits for the better. And in particular to eat more fruit, vegetables, legumes, and fish and to cut down on junk-food and sugar-sweetened drink.

  1. Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Capsular and Molecular Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Asymptomatic Healthy Children in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nawawy, Ahmed A; Hafez, Soad F; Meheissen, Marwa A; Shahtout, Nehal M; Mohammed, Essam E

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide with increasing antimicrobial resistance. 600 randomly chosen asymptomatic healthy children aged 2-60 months attending Alexandria University Children's Hospital were evaluated for prevalence of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of S. pneumoniae. Prevalence of NP carriage was 29.2% (n = 175/600) Capsular serotyping was done using Quellung reaction. Vaccine covered serotypes (VST) represented 67.4% while non-vaccine serotypes (NVST) were 32.6%. The most common VST isolated were 19F (24.6%), 6B (14.3%) and 6A (10.9%). Confirmation of serotyping was performed by multiplex PCR which showed 100% concordance with the Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed penicillin non-susceptibility of 15% (using non-meningitis penicillin MIC breakpoints) and 55% (using meningitis penicillin MIC breakpoints). Highest resistance was found in sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (55%), tetracyclins (49%), erythromycin (40%) and clindamycin (25%). This study revealed the epidemiological importance to evaluate regularly the prevalence, serotypes and the increasing antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae in the community.

  2. Levels of antibodies specific to tetanus toxoid, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Uwe; Stemberg, Frank; Rieger, Christian H L; Büttner, Wolfgang; Borte, Michael; Schubert, Simone; Möllers, Helga; Riedel, Frank; Herz, Udo; Renz, Harald; Herzog, Wilhelm

    2003-03-01

    Antibody levels specific for capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and for tetanus toxoid were measured in serum samples of 386 age-stratified subjects. The study group consists of healthy adult blood donors and hospitalized children undergoing elective surgery, excluding individuals with a history of infection. In children, anti-tetanus toxoid antibody levels displayed two peaks of 1.20 IU/ml (20.4 mg/liter) and 1.65 IU/ml (28.1 mg/liter) related to the schedule of routine childhood immunization in the first year and at 8 years of age. Eighty percent of the antibodies are of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype. For pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP), the specific antibody levels represent the acquisition of natural immunity. The initial concentration of 9.2 mg/liter was low in infancy (0.5 to 1 years of age) and remained low until 3 to 4 years of age (14.6 mg/liter). During this period PCP antibodies were almost 100% of the IgG2 subclass. Thereafter, IgG anti-PCP antibody titers increased steadily to adult levels (59.5 mg/liter). The data are intended to provide reference ranges to aid in the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting.

  3. The Potential Gonad of Diadema Setosum as a Healthy Food to Improve the Nutritional Status of Coastal’s Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waode Salma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of malnutrition in the household, especially for children who settled the coastal region are frequent. It required to use the potential of indigenous foods such as gonad of Diadema setosum, which has been known to contain macro and micro nutrient substances are highly qualified and the results of microbiological tests by culture, was not contaminated by Salmonella sp and E. coli so it was safe for consumption. The purpose of our study, assessing the effect of gonad of Diadema setosum extracts to weight gain in animal models of strain BALB/c mice were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The method of weight assessment was using a special tool scales OHAUS Triple Beam Balance. Induction of LPS 0.2 ml x 103ml / CFU intraperitoneally. The results showed that the intervention group body weight dose of 200 mg / kg group increased higher than the dose of 100 mg / kg opposite occurred the control group weight loss was significantly p <(0.001. It can be concluded, gonad Diadema setosum may play a role in the growth and development of children as it proves it can significantly improve weight BALB / c mice induced by LPS. It show that gonad of Diadema setosum have potential as a healthy food for the treatment of latest of ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTFs sourced from marine biological food.

  4. Healthy Casetas: A Potential Strategy to Improve the Food Environment in Low-Income Schools to Reduce Obesity in Children in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L.; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone rapid transitions driven by globalization and development, which have accelerated increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for early intervention and favorable arenas in which to target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (casetas) which provide food and drink for sale to children. From July through October 2013, observation during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n=4) and caseta vendors (n=4), and focus groups with children (n=48) were conducted. This paper explores products currently available to children at casetas. We found that current factors that impact what casetas offer and subsequent nutrition habits of children at school include: regulations and enforcement; vendor investment and earnings; vendor challenges related to resources (i.e. refrigeration); the current economy and product demand; product pricing; and children's product preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies that emerged include healthy food preparation to improve product health and quality, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthy product consumption, as well as government and corporate involvement to push policy toward development of healthier products. PMID:27065019

  5. Microstructure and compressive mechanical properties of cortical bone in children with osteogenesis imperfecta treated with bisphosphonates compared with healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by a change in bone tissue quality, but little data are available to describe the factors involved at the macroscopic scale. To better understand the effect of microstructure alterations on the mechanical properties at the sample scale, we studied the structural and mechanical properties of six cortical bone samples from children with OI treated with bisphosphonates and compared them to the properties of three controls. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution computed tomography and compression testing were used to assess these properties. More resorption cavities and a higher osteocyte lacunar density were observed in OI bone compared with controls. Moreover, a higher porosity was measured for OI bones along with lower macroscopic Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate stress. The microstructure was impaired in OI bones; the higher porosity and osteocyte lacunar density negatively impacted the mechanical properties and made the bone more prone to fracture.

  6. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school children in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akodu, Olufemi S; Disu, Elizabeth A; Njokanma, Olisamedua F; Kehinde, Omolara A

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. The study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010 at the outpatient clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and serum ferritin were assayed in subjects. The primary outcome measured was iron deficiency anaemia established based on the following criteria: hemoglobin iron depletion and this child belonged to the ≤ 2 years age category. None of the recruited subjects had iron deficiency without anaemia. Nine of the study subjects (10.11%) had iron deficiency anaemia. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia was significantly higher among younger age group than in the older age group (19.1% Vs 2.1%, p = 0.022). The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia was significantly higher among subjects with weight-for-age, and weight-for-height Z scores below two standard scores (83.3% and 75.0% respectively, p = iron deficiency anaemia among study subjects was 10.11%. Iron deficiency anaemia was more common in children aged two years and below. Weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores below minus two standard scores were strongly associated with iron deficiency anaemia.

  7. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stensel David J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control. Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks; a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day, their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase. A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive

  8. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  9. Feasibility of an Online and Mobile Videogame Curriculum for Teaching Children Safe and Healthy Cellphone and Internet Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hswen, Yulin; Rubenzahl, Lauren; Bickham, David S

    2014-08-01

    Increased prevalence and penetration of cellphone and mobile Internet use have raised significant concerns about children's health and safety by offering new spaces for cyberbullying, harassment, and sexual misconduct. "Cyberhero Mobile Safety" is a videogame-based education program designed using tenets of the capacity model with the goal of instilling the knowledge and skills necessary to safely and productively navigate the mobile online environment. This study evaluates its usability, appeal, and perceived impact and usefulness. Six educational videogames were part of a program delivered to 3rd-6th grade students (n=108) across six public schools in Upstate New York. Videogame play was electronically captured to evaluate usability. Likeability, acceptability, and perceived usefulness of videogame content were evaluated through postgame questionnaires. Videogame usability criteria were achieved on 82.7 percent of the students' gameplays. On a scale from 1 (low) to 5 (high), mean ratings were 4.09 (standard deviation [SD]=1.28) for likeability, 3.54 (SD=1.61) for acceptability, and 4.16 (SD=1.33) for perceived message usefulness. The "Cyberhero Mobile Safety" program is a feasible and potentially effective platform for delivering information about safe and healthy cellphone and Internet use to children. Results support the use of the capacity model to design educational videogames because games that aligned with theory principles were reported as having the most impact and being the most useful at shifting children's online behaviors. Future research should directly test the individual components of the capacity model to inform educational game design.

  10. Prevalence of atopy in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B virus carriers, and healthy children: role of T helper 1 (Th1)-type immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Akcay, Seker; Karakas, Taner; Gedik, Yusuf; Okten, Aysenur; Orhan, Fazil

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and atopic dermatitis has increased over the past few decades, especially in developed countries. They are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Two common chronic diseases of childhood-an autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), and a chronic viral infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers-are associated with a Th1-dominant and Th1-insufficient cytokine profile, respectively. The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of allergic disease in patients with type 1 DM and, in HBV carriers, to evaluate the role of Th1-type immune response in atopy and allergic disease. The study included patients with type 1 DM (group I, n = 52), HBV carriers (group III, n = 47), and a healthy control group (group III, n = 209). Participants were screened for allergic disease and atopic sensitization. Symptoms of asthma, eczema, and atopy were found more commonly in HBV carrier children compared with those with DM and healthy controls. This study supports the Th1/Th2 model. The prevalence of allergic disease and atopy is decreased in Th1-mediated autoimmune disease, type 1 DM, and, conversely, is increased in insufficient Th1 response, chronic HBV carriers. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effect of atopy and allergic diseases in glycemic control and long-term complications in patients with type 1 DM and the effect of atopy on progression of chronic HBV infection.

  11. Factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kristy J; Burns, Joshua; North, Kathryn N

    2010-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects foot and ankle strength from the earliest stages of the disease; however, little is known about factors influencing normal strength development or the pathogenesis of foot weakness and deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The authors investigated factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and compared to age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. In healthy children, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion was one of the strongest independent correlates of foot and ankle strength. Compared with healthy children, those with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A had significantly less dorsiflexion strength and range as well as imbalance in inversion-to-eversion and plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion strength ratios. Given the association between ankle dorsiflexion strength and range in the healthy children, and the abnormality of these parameters in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, investigation of the cause-effect relationship is warranted to identify more targeted therapy and further understand the pathogenesis of foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  12. Immunoglobulin G isotype responses to variant surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in healthy Gabonese adults and children during and after successive malaria attacks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, G.; Yone, C.L.; Tebo, A.E.; Aaken, J. van; Lell, B.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype responses with specificity for the variant surface antigens (VSA) of heterologous Plasmodium falciparum isolates by using flow cytometry and plasma from healthy Gabonese adults and from children during and after two consecutive malaria episodes. The individ

  13. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Schure, Rose-Minke; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; de Greeff, S. C.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12 mo

  14. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and creatinine by healthy Dutch children during day and night. The influence of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speek, A.J.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Schrijver, J.

    1986-01-01

    The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine and creatinine and the urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine excretion ratio during day and night were investigated in a group of 103 healthy, normally fed Dutch children (52 boys and 51 girls) aged 2-17 years. The 3-methylhistidine to creatinine ratio of

  15. Promoting Healthy Behaviours among Children Living in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods : development and evaluation of a Social Marketing intervention: the ‘Water Campaign’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focused on the development and evaluation of an intervention aimed to promote a healthy lifestyle among children. This intervention – the ‘Water Campaign’- was developed with Social Marketing, aimed to decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among

  16. Maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour: Role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aims of this study are 1) to investigate the association between maternal educational level and healthy eating behaviour of 11-year-old children (fruit, vegetables and breakfast consumption), and 2) to examine whether factors in the home food environment (parental intake

  17. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: Health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); L. Veldhuis (Lydian); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the interventio

  18. Topography and asymmetry of visual EEG reactivity in healthy school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Dušan S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the visual reactivity of EEC to opening the eyes, the topography of EEG power spectra in a sample of 72 healthy subjects aged from 7-15 years, was studied. The EEGs were recorder at 14 scalp sites under eyes closed (ECL and eyes open (EOP. It has been established that the absolute powers in total and in alpha band were significant- ly higher in all derivations under ECL as compared with EOP condition. Except for the frontal derivations, absolute power in theta band under ECL condition was significantly higher than that under EOP condition. Changes in delta and beta powers were seldom significant. In beta 2 band no EEG blocking was noticed in anterior area. Opening the eyes significantly influenced the values of asymmetry index in alpha band and total power. In all frequency bands and under both conditions, the differences of powers between the hemi spheres were found mainly in the prefrontal and laterofrontal areas. The results showed that the visual blocking of EEG was mostly due to a higher degree of EEG desynchronization after opening the eyes.

  19. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed.

  20. Specific serum immunoglobulin G to Hpylori and CagA in healthy children and adults (south-east of Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Jafarzadeh; MT Rezayati; M Nemati

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the serologic IgG response to H pylori and CagA across age groups and in healthy children and adults.METHODS: Totally, 386 children aged 1-15 years and 200 adults aged 20-60 years, were enrolled to study. The serum samples of participant were tested for presence of anti-//pylori and anti-CagA IgG by using ELJSA method.RESULTS: The seroprevalence of H pylori in adults was significantly higher than that observed in children (67.5% vs 46.6%; P < 0.000003). In children, the seropositivity rate in males (51.9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that observed in females (41.7%). The prevalence of serum anti-CagA antibody was 72.8% and 67.4% in infected children and adults, respectively. The mean titer of serum anti-CagA antibodies was significantly higher among children in comparison to adults (64.1 Uarb/mL vs 30.7; P < 0.03). In infected children and adults the prevalence of serum anti-CagA antibody was higher in males compared to females (78.4% vs 66.3%; P = 0.07 and 75.6% vs 54.71%; P < 0.04, respectively). The age-specific prevalence of anti-H pylori and anti-CagA antibody (in infected subjects) was 37.6% and 59.57% at age 1-5 years, 46.9% and 75% at age 6-10 years, 54.9% and 79.45% at age 11-15, 59.01% and 83.33% at age 20-30 years, 66.6% and 60.52% at age 31-40 years, 73.46% and 63.88% at age 41-50 years and 75.75% and 60% at age 51-60 years with mean titer of anti-CagA antibody of 75.94, 63.32, 57.11, 52.06, 23.62, 21.52 and 21.80 Uarb/mL, respectively. There was significant difference between mean serum anti-CagA antibody in age subgroups (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: These results showed that anti-//pylori and anti-CagA antibodies were common in the children and adults. The///7y/0//-specific antibodies influenced by age and sex of subjects. Moreover, it seems that males are more susceptible to infection with CagA+ strains compared to females. The seroprevalence of anti-CagA antibody was increased with age, up to 30 years and then decreased. It

  1. Systolic-diastolic functional coupling in healthy children and in those with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark K; Margossian, Renee; Lu, Minmin; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Henderson, Heather T; Nutting, Arni; Friedman, Kevin; Molina, Kimberly M; Altmann, Karen; Canter, Charles; Sleeper, Lynn A; Colan, Steven D

    2016-06-01

    Systolic and diastolic function affect dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) outcomes. However, systolic-diastolic coupling, as a distinct characteristic, may itself affect function but is poorly characterized. We hypothesized that echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic tissue velocities (S') correlate with diastolic longitudinal velocities (E') and that their relationship is associated with ventricular function and that this relationship is impaired in pediatric DCM. We analyzed data from the Pediatric Heart Network Ventricular Volume Variability study, using linear regression and generalized additive modeling to assess relationships between S' and E' at the lateral and septal mitral annulus. We explored relationships between the systolic:diastolic (S:D) coupling ratio (S':E' relative to age) and ventricular function. Up to 4 echocardiograms from 130 DCM patients (mean age: 9.3 ± 6.1 yr) and 1 echocardiogram from each of 591 healthy controls were analyzed. S' and E' were linearly related in controls (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and DCM (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). In DCM, the magnitude of association between S' and E' was reduced with progressive ventricular remodeling. The S:D ratio was more strongly associated with LV function in controls vs. DCM. The septal S:D ratio was higher (presumed worse) in DCM vs. controls (0.69 ± 0.13 vs. 0.62 ± 0.12, P = 0.001). A higher septal S:D ratio was associated with worse LV dimensions (parameter estimate: 0.0061, P = 0.004), mass (parameter estimate: 0.0074, P = 0.002), ejection fraction (parameter estimate: -0.0303, P = 0.024), and inflow propagation (parameter estimate: -0.3538, P < .001). S:D coupling becomes weaker in DCM with LV remodeling and dysfunction. The S:D coupling ratio may be useful to assess coupling, warranting study in relation to patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Jefferson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs are stockpiled and recommended by public health agencies for treating and preventing seasonal and pandemic influenza. They are used clinically worldwide.OBJECTIVE:To describe the potential benefits and harms of NIs for influenza in all age groups by reviewing all clinical study reports of published and unpublished randomised, placebo-controlled trials and regulatory comments.METHODSSearch methods: We searched trial registries, electronic databases (to 22 July 2013 and regulatory archives, and corresponded with manufacturers to identify all trials. We also requested clinical study reports. We focused on the primary data sources of manufacturers but we checked that there were no published randomised controlled trials (RCTs from non-manufacturer sources by running electronic searches in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE (Ovid, EMBASE, Embase.com, PubMed (not MEDLINE, the Database of Reviews of Effects, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Economic Evaluations Database.Selection criteria: Randomised, placebo-controlled trials on adults and children with confirmed or suspected exposure to naturally occurring influenza.Data collection and analysis: We extracted clinical study reports and assessed risk of bias using purpose-built instruments. We analysed the effects of zanamivir and oseltamivir on time to first alleviation of symptoms, influenza outcomes, complications, hospitalisations and adverse events in the intention-to-treat (ITT population. All trials were sponsored by the manufacturers.MAIN RESULTS: We obtained 107 clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency (EMA, GlaxoSmithKline and Roche. We accessed comments by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, EMA and Japanese regulator. We included 53 trials in Stage 1 (a judgement of appropriate study design and 46 in Stage 2 (formal analysis, including 20

  3. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses.

  4. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre; Ezri, Jessica; Cominetti, Ornella; Da Silva, Laeticia; Kussmann, Martin; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Nydegger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males) were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males) were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses. PMID:27529220

  5. Quantification of nucleated cells, CD34-positive cells and CFU-GM colonies in single bone marrow samples and bone marrow harvests derived from healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schündeln, Michael M; Walde, Gabriele; Basu, Oliver; Havers, Werner; Kremens, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Little is known regarding bone marrow (BM) cellularity, CD34+ fraction, and CFU-GM colony formation in relation to age and whether healthy children require a reference range distinct from healthy adults. We therefore analyzed a series of single BM aspirates from 45 healthy children who were evaluated as potential BM donors. Thirty-three of these children subsequently donated BM. We quantified the nucleated cell count, fraction of CD34+ cells, and number of CFU-GM colonies in single aspirates and BM harvests. Single aspirates displayed a mean nucleated cell count of 31.3 × 10(6) cells/mL, a mean fraction of 1.17% CD34+ cells, and a mean colony forming potential of 66.6 CFU-GM/10(5) cells. Harvests yielded the same number of nucleated cells but increased numbers of CD34+ cells and CFU-GM compared with single aspirates. The mean nucleated cell count in BM harvests was 31.1 × 10(6) /mL with a mean fraction of 1.95% CD34+ cells and a mean of 112.4 CFU-GM colonies/10(5) cells. The concentration of nucleated cells was elevated compared with reported adult counts, while CD34+ percentage and CFU-GM counts were similar. In this series of healthy children, the fraction of CD34+ cells, CFU-GM colonies, and nucleated cells decreased with age. We did not identify gender specific differences. To our knowledge, this represents the first comprehensive study of CD34+ cell fraction, CFU-GM counts, and nucleated cell numbers in the BM of healthy children. The findings provide valuable information for practical use for BM transplantation and contribute to the understanding of hematopoiesis from birth to adulthood.

  6. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W;

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  7. Prospective association of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, H; Grøntved, A; Møller, N C

    2014-01-01

    . Total body fat (TBF) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), CRF, blood samples, and blood pressure were obtained in 2008 and 2010 in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study in Denmark (CHAMPS study-DK). Greater adiposity......This study aimed to examine the prospective association of three different measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with 2-year change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. Two-year longitudinal data in schoolchildren aged 7-11 years (n = 365-729) was used...... at baseline was associated with increased CVD risk factor levels at follow-up. The magnitudes of associations were similar regardless of adiposity measure [TBF%: β 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.39; BMI: β 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14-0.33; WC: β 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.31], and no evidence of nonlinear...

  8. The system of physical training for women during pregnancy to a natural birth of healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusik Krzysztof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The substantive provisions of the system of physical preparation of pregnant are considered in «Opening of flower». The system is built in obedience to the substantive provisions of theory and method of physical culture, a central place in the system occupies gymnastics for future mothers in verses about nature. A gymnastics contains undulations, directed on strengthening of muscles of small pelvis, development of flexibility and to elasticity. In experimental research took part 59 pregnant which parted on 4 groups in obedience to the level of their physical preparedness. It is rotined that application of the system of physical preparation of future mothers «Opening of flower» is rendered by positive influence on motion of births, instrumental in normalization of indexes of blood and urine tests, prevention of breaks of crotch and complications, substantial diminishing of the pain feelings during births. Application of the system of physical «Opening of flower» renders future mothers also positive influence on development of children.

  9. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  10. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  11. The role of motor impulsivity in socioemotional adjustment in high-risk seven year old children and healthy controls: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Perales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was two-wise: first, to assess the presence of behavioral and intellectual disturbances in high-risk 7-year-old children, compared to healthy controls; and, second, and most importantly, to evaluate the discriminative validity of a motor impulsivity neuropsychological task (Go/No-go as an indicator of daily-life socioemotional adjustment. We administered the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC, the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV, and the Go/No-go task to 14 high-risk 7 year-olds and 20 matched healthy controls. High-risk children had been classified as so shortly after birth, due to the presence of perinatal risk factors, and later released from the early care unit. They are currently schooled according to their age. We expected performance in the Go/No-go task to be a good indicator of behavioral disturbances in high-risk children, and more specifically of those related to socioemotional adjustment. Accordingly to such a hypothesis, high-risk children showed significantly worse scores in most BASC and WISC subscales, and committed more commission and omission errors on the Go/No-go task. Most importantly, regression analyses showed that performance on the Go/No-go task (but not WISC scores was an independent indicator of socioemotional adjustment problems. This result is in accordance with proposals that motor impulsivity is an important mediator between altered executive function development and socioemotional adjustment.

  12. Description of Clean and Healthy Behavior of Food Borne Disease Among by School Children Age in Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Heny Sholikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of food borne disease, such as diarrhea, typhoid and hookworm infection in school childrenwere still sufficient susceptible. Lack of clean and healthy behavior became primary cause, so that the agent can easilyenter to the body through the food consumed. The purpose of this study was to descript the clean and healthy behaviors by school children age at Babat Jerawat I Elementary School, District Pakal Surabaya. Methods: This study was a crosssectional study. The sample of this study were 112 of fifth grade students at Babat Jerawat I Elementary school, District Pakal Surabaya, selected by purposive sampling of 121 students who met the inclusion criteria. Data of clean and healthy behavior were collected by observation and interviews focused on a group of school children using questionnaires, checklists and interview guides. Data analysis was done by using descriptive analysis. Results: The results showed that the clean and healthy behaviors about food borne disease, the majority of school children in Elementary school Babat Jerawat I District Pakal Surabaya included in good criteria (51.8% and small portion of these included less category (48.2%. Conclusion:Clean and Healthy Behavior of food borne disease in school children age had good criteria, but still need attention formany factors that influence it, such as the availability of facilities, affordability snacks outside of school and examples ofunhealthy behaviors in family environment. Recommendation: Improve the cooperation between the school and localhealth officials to tighten rules on the management of snack vending around schools, and do continuous education both within the school and the child’s school community.

  13. What parents know and want to learn about healthy eating and body image in preschool children: a triangulated qualitative study with parents and Early Childhood Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Cornell, Chelsea; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-07-02

    Interventions for parents to encourage healthy eating in children often do not address parental feeding practices and body image development. The current study investigated what parents (of children aged 1-6 years) understand about child healthy eating and body image, and what they would like in future interventions, by using structured focus groups with parents, and individual interviews with Early Childhood Professionals. Forty three parents (M(age) = 36.95 years, 93% female, 79% university degree) participated across 9 focus groups. Eleven Early Childhood Professionals (M(age) = 51.04, 100% female, 64% university degree, 64% Maternal and Child Health Nurses, 36% Childcare Centre Directors) completed individual telephone interviews. Parents described healthy eating as a variety, balance, and range of foods as well as limiting certain foods, such as the intake of sugar, salt, and processed foods. Most often parents defined child body image as a child's physical appearance and did not mention thoughts and feelings related to appearance or body experiences. Body image was most commonly considered a problem in early adolescence and often not an issue of relevance in early childhood. Parents appeared knowledgeable about nutrition and accessed information about healthy eating across a range of resources though rarely accessed information about child body image. They desired more practical information about how to avoid encouraging negative body image when promoting healthy eating. Professionals' responses confirmed these findings. Results suggest future interventions need to stress the important role positive body image plays in encouraging healthy attitudes to food and weight management, and the benefits positive body image can have on the health and mental health of preschool children.

  14. Reliability and reference values of two clinical measurements of dynamic and static knee position in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Moström, Eva B; Roos, Ewa M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate reliability of the Single-limb mini squat test (a dynamic measure of medio-lateral knee position) and the Quadriceps-angle (Q-angle) (a static measure of medio-lateral knee position), present paediatric reference values of the Q......-angle, and evaluate the association between the tests. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six healthy children (9-16 years) were included (intra/inter-rater reliability for Q-angle (n = 37/85) and for Single-limb mini squat test (n = 33/28)). Dynamic medio-lateral knee position was assessed by the Single-limb mini squat...... test. Static medio-lateral knee position was evaluated by the Q-angle. RESULTS: The reliability of the Single-limb mini squat test was found to be moderate (kappa 0.48-0.57, 95% CI 0.16-0.85, 76-79% agreement). Fair to moderate reliability (ICC 0.35-0.42, 95% CI 0.11-0.66, SEM 1.4°-1.9°, n.s.) of the Q...

  15. Cross-validation of pedometer-determined cut-points for healthy weight in British children from White and South Asian backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma L J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Birch, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based pedometer cut-points for health have not been sufficiently examined in the context of ethnicity. To (1) evaluate previously described steps/day cut-points in a sample of White and South Asian British primary school children and (2) use ROC analysis to generate alternative, ethnic specific, steps/day cut-offs for children. Height, body mass and pedometer determined physical activity were assessed in 763 British children (357 boys and 406 girls) from White (n = 593) and South Asian (n = 170) ethnic groups, aged 8-11 years. The Vincent and Pangrazi cut-points significantly predicted BMI in white (p = 0.006, Adjusted R(2 )= 0.08) and South Asian children (p = 0.039, Adjusted R(2 )= 0.078). The Tudor-Locke et al. cut-points significantly predicted BMI in White children (p = 0.0001, Adjusted R(2 )= 0.079) but not South Asian children (p children). Subsequent cut-points associated with healthy weight, when translated to steps/day were 13,625 for White boys, 13,135 for White girls, 10,897 for South Asian boys and 10,161 for South Asian girls. Previously published steps/day cut-points for healthy weight may not account for known ethnic variation in physical activity between White and South Asian children in the UK. Alternative, ethnic-specific, cut-points may be better placed to distinguish British children based on pedometer-determined physical activity.

  16. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure. Methods The Home Environment Survey (HES was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V, and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS. Parents of overweight children (n = 219 completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156 completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41 completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA. Results Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84 with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75 for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89. PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21 and parent (r = .15–.31 PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r

  17. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  18. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  19. An exploratory trial of a health education programme to promote healthy lifestyles through social and emotional competence in young children: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Martins, Elena; López-Dicastillo, Olga; Mujika, Agurtzane

    2017-07-26

    To implement and evaluate a health education programme based on the development of social and emotional competence in young children. Children's social and emotional skills play a key role in the adoption and maintenance of their lifestyles. Currently, a more comprehensive perspective dealing with these aspects is needed to promote healthy habits in children and develop effective health education programmes. An exploratory randomized controlled trial. A convenience sample of 30 children (5 and 6 years old) will be recruited from a public school in Spain, with 15 participants in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. Participants in the experimental group will receive the first unit of the programme, consisting of developing emotional knowledge skills around daily health habits (eating, hygiene, sleep and physical exercise) using different game-based dynamics and an emotional diary, while those in the control group will continue with their usual school routine. Outcome measures include emotional knowledge ability, basic social skills and children's health profile. The perceived impact of the intervention by parents, acceptability (by parents and children) and feasibility of the programme will be also assessed. Data will be collected at baseline, postintervention and at 7-month follow-up. This study offers an innovative intervention aimed at improving children's healthy lifestyles from a holistic perspective by addressing social and emotional competence as one of the most influential aspects of children's development. This exploratory trial is an essential step to explore crucial aspects of the full-scale clinical trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DETERMINATION OF LIFE QUALITY OF HEALTHY CHILDREN AT THE AGE GROUP OF 4-7 YEARS ACCORDING TO THEIR PARENTS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Beker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus this study aims to investigate life quality of healthy children at the age group of 4-7 years who received/still receive pre-school education according to their parents’ views by means of general life quality criteria. This is a descriptive research. The study group included parents of 78 healthy children between the ages of 4-7 years who received or still receive pre-school education. “KINDL”4-7 Age Family Form was used to collect data as parents would assess life quality of their children indirectly. SPSS 15.0 package program was used to analyze the data. Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis H Test were used to determine whether there is a difference between scale scores related to socio-demographic features. According to parents’ views, the factors on which children have highest life quality are “family” (  =83.21, “kindergarten” (  =82.82, “emotional well-being” (  =81.99, “social relationships” (  =81.67, respectively. The lowest factors are “self-esteem” (  =75.00 and “physical well-being” (  =69.94, respectively. T