WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty cantonese-speaking chinese

  1. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  2. A Phonological Screening Tool for Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L.K.H.; Leung, C-S.S.

    2004-01-01

    To assess whether children have phonological disorders, we need to make use of screening tools of the child's first language. This paper describes and evaluates one published phonological screening tool that has been developed for Cantonese-speaking children, the Cantonese Segmental Phonology Test (CSPT). Such a test is also valid for assessing…

  3. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  4. Predictors of English Reading Comprehension: Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first language (L1) and second language (L2) oral language and word reading skills were used as predictors to devise a model of reading comprehension in young Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. L1 and L2 language and literacy measures were collected from a total of 101 Cantonese-speaking ELLs…

  5. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were…

  6. Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, T; Wellman, H M

    2000-01-01

    Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.

  7. The acquisition of phonology by Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L K; Dodd, B J

    1995-10-01

    Little is known about the acquisition of phonology by children learning Cantonese as their first language. This paper describes the phoneme repertoires and phonological error patterns used by 268 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;0 to 6;0, as well as a longitudinal study of tone acquisition by four children aged 1;2 to 2;0. Children had mastered the contrastive use of tones and vowels by two years. While the order of acquisition of consonants was similar to that reported for English, the rate of acquisition was more rapid. The developmental error patterns used by more than 10% of children are also reported as common in other languages. However, specific rules associated with Cantonese phonology were also identified. Few phonological errors were made after age four. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ambient language influences the implementation of universal tendencies in phonological acquisition.

  8. Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

    2012-02-01

    The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants.

  9. Language Proficiency and Early Literacy Skills of Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners in the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average,…

  10. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  11. Acquisition of Mental State Language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…

  12. Assessing Learning Control of English Hedges among Tertiary Cantonese-Speaking EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng

    2014-01-01

    This project was designed to try to investigate the difficulties EFL learners would have in learning to use hedging as a rhetorical device in academic writing. The participants were 136 native Cantonese-speaking EFL students who enrolled in the one-year course "English for Academic Purposes" offered by a language centre at a university…

  13. Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Zoe W. Y.; So, Lydia K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the phonological skills of 2 groups of Cantonese-speaking children with prelingual, profound bilateral hearing loss. The phonological abilities of 7 children fitted with hearing aids were compared with the abilities of 7 children who wore cochlear implants. Method: Participants in each group ranged in age from 5;1…

  14. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  15. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted bef...

  16. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  17. The development of discourse referencing in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M Y; Johnston, Judith R

    2004-08-01

    The ability to make clear reference in connected discourse was examined in children learning Cantonese, a Chinese language where noun phrase constituents, whatever their grammatical role, are omissible from sentences under discourse conditions that are not well-understood. Forty-three typically developing children aged 3 ; 0, 5 ; 0, 7 ; 0 and 12 ; 0 told 16 stories based on picture sequences. A panel of adult native Cantonese speakers was asked to judge the referential adequacy of each child's stories by identifying the character the child was talking about in 32 targeted referential acts. The targeted acts were of three sorts: MAINTENANCE of a known character, INTRODUCTION of a second new character, and REINTRODUCTION of a known character. Reference was judged to be adequate when 3 out of 4 'listeners' could successfully identify the character. Children's referential expressions were most adequate for Maintenance, less adequate for Introduction, and least adequate for Reintroduction. The twelve- and seven-year-olds approached ceiling on all three functions. The five-year-olds scored poorly on Reintroduction, and the three-year-olds failed both Introduction and Reintroduction, despite knowledge of at least one of the possible linguistic forms required for these acts as evidenced in a sentence imitation task. Viewed within the framework of Levelt's (1989) discourse model, the data improve our understanding of the developmental period during which children learn to make appropriate presuppositions about the listener's knowledge and attentional states.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Syntactic Treatment Procedures with Cantonese-Speaking, School-Age Children with Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Lui, Hoi Ming; Li, Xin Xin; Lam, Gary Y. H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentence-combining (SC) and narrative-based (NAR) intervention approaches to syntax intervention using a randomized-controlled-trial design. Method: Fifty-two Cantonese-speaking, school-age children with language impairment were assigned randomly to either the SC or the NAR treatment…

  19. Four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of relative clauses: a permutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Yang, Wenchun; Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan

    2017-06-13

    We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types, classifier (CL) and ge3 RCs, were tested in a between-participants design. The two RC types differ in their syntactic analyses and frequency of occurrence, providing an important point of comparison for theories of RC acquisition and processing. A permutation analysis showed that the two structures were processed differently: CL RCs showed a significant object-over-subject advantage, whereas ge3 RCs showed the opposite effect. This study shows that children can have different preferences even for two very similar RC structures within the same language, suggesting that syntactic processing preferences are shaped by the unique features of particular constructions both within and across different linguistic typologies.

  20. Factors that enhance English-speaking speech-language pathologists' transcription of Cantonese-speaking children's consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-08-01

    To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Task 1 (baseline) involved transcribing English words. In Task 2, students transcribed 25 words spoken by a Cantonese adult. An average of 59.1% consonants was transcribed correctly (72.9% when Cantonese-English transfer patterns were allowed). There was higher accuracy on shared English and Cantonese syllable-initial consonants /m,n,f,s,h,j,w,l/ and syllable-final consonants. In Task 3, students identified consonant errors and transcribed 100 words spoken by Cantonese-speaking children under 4 additive conditions: (1) baseline, (2) +adult model, (3) +information about Cantonese phonology, and (4) all variables (2 and 3 were counterbalanced). There was a significant improvement in the students' identification and transcription scores for conditions 2, 3, and 4, with a moderate effect size. Increased skill was not based on listeners' proficiency in speaking another language, perceived transcription skill, musicality, or confidence with multilingual clients. Speech-language pathology students, with no exposure to or specific training in Cantonese, have some skills to identify errors and transcribe Cantonese. Provision of a Cantonese-adult model and information about Cantonese phonology increased students' accuracy in transcribing Cantonese speech.

  1. Counseling Style Preference of Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Herbert A.; Lau, Ester Ying-wah

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study to determine preferences of Cantonese-speaking Chinese college students (N=50) from Hong Kong attending a large midwestern university for either a directive or nondirective counseling approach to emotional adjustment problems. Results showed that subjects strongly preferred a directive counseling approach and attributed low…

  2. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered…

  3. Role of sentence-final particles and prosody in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jackie P W; Law, Thomas; Lam, Gary Y H; To, Carol K S

    2013-01-01

    English-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are less capable of using prosodic cues such as intonation for irony comprehension. Prosodic cues, in particular intonation, in Cantonese are relatively restricted while sentence-final particles (SFPs) may be used for this pragmatic function. This study investigated the use of prosodic cues and SFPs in irony comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children with and without ASD. Thirteen children with ASD (8;3-12;9) were language-matched with 13 typically developing (TD) peers. By manipulating prosodic cues and SFPs, 16 stories with an ironic remark were constructed. Participants had to judge the speaker's belief and intention. Both groups performed similarly well in judging the speaker's belief. For the speaker's intention, the TD group relied more on SFPs. The ASD group performed significantly poorer and did not rely on either cue. SFPs may play a salient role in Cantonese irony comprehension. The differences between the two groups were discussed by considering the literature on theory of mind.

  4. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Kwan, Susan; Lam, Stephen; Khan, Nadia A; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials), followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet). The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and perceived self-efficacy to manage COPD. The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures. Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique (Pmanage a COPD exacerbation (Pmanaging COPD (Peducational interventions designed specifically to meet the needs of Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients are associated with significantly better understanding of self-management practices. Self-management education led to improved proper use of medications, ability to manage COPD exacerbations, and ability to achieve goals in managing COPD. A relatively simple culturally appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and self-management practices. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management education on behavioral change and patient empowerment strategies.

  5. PROGRESS OF CHINESE REGIONAL GEOGRAPHYSTUDIES IN RECENT TWENTY YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Regional geography, embodying the regionality and integration, is the kernel of Geography. Since the 1980s, the Chinese geographers have extensively taken part in the social practical activities and made progress in physicogeographical regionalization, economic regionalization, territorial (regional) development planning, construction of special economic zone, and integrated research in the major areas of China. Through these works, the theories of regional geography have been richened and the capacity participating in the social practice promoted as well. In China, many regional researches had been conducted respectively from the aspects of regional physico-geography and regional economic geography,etc. According to the cases, this paper gives a review on the studies of regional geography during the latest two decades in China. It ought to be indicated that the natural and human components should be combined and the disciplines intersected and permeated, with the support of advanced technology. In order to serve the regional sustainable development, on the background of global change, this is an inevitable tendency for the development of the regional geography.

  6. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Kwan, Susan; Lam, Stephen; Khan, Nadia A; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Methods Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials), followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet). The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and perceived self-efficacy to manage COPD. The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures. Results Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique (P<0.001), preparedness to manage a COPD exacerbation (P<0.01), ability to achieve goals in managing COPD (P<0.01), and understanding pulmonary rehabilitation procedures (P<0.05). Conclusion Culturally appropriate educational interventions designed specifically to meet the needs of Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients are associated with significantly better understanding of self-management practices. Self-management education led to improved proper use of medications, ability to manage COPD exacerbations, and ability to achieve goals in managing COPD. Clinical implication A relatively simple culturally appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and self-management practices. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management education on behavioral change and patient empowerment

  7. Evaluation of two videotape instruction programmes on how to break bad news--for Cantonese-speaking medical students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betson, C L; Fielding, R; Wong, G; Chung, S F; Nestel, D F

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate a culture-specific videotape on how to 'break bad news' and another videotape produced by a western university, and to determine if the language of presentation influenced the students' perceived abilities to execute basic skills. Third year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong. Longitudinal study with experimental design. Two instructional tapes on breaking bad news; one using Chinese speaking role models and one using English. In both groups, self-efficacy summed scores increased from 26.8 (95% CI = 25.9-27.7) at the pre-test to 29.0 (95% CI = 28.4-29.6). The biggest changes occurred in perceived self-efficacy regarding specific skills. However, students using the Chinese tape rated skills as more useful than those using the English tape. The videotapes were useful in teaching communication skills. Culturally relevant audiovisual materials were more effective.

  8. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities.

  9. The Worldwide Significance of Chinese Aesthetics in the Twenty-First Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingping

    2006-01-01

    Through comparisons between traditional Chinese and Western aesthetics,this article tries to explain the worldwide significance of Chinese aesthetic tradition in the twentyfirst century.In contrast to cognitive-rational spirit and the tendency to distinguish the subjectives and objectives of traditional Western aesthetics,traditional Chinese aesthetics shows a distinctive practical-emotional spirit and a tendency to harmoniously unite human beings with nature,and believes that beauty is,first and foremost,a free state or way (Dao) of human life;the most important thing for human beings is how to make their own lives and existence beautiful.Therefore,it puts forward some persuasive and valuable insights into beauty and art,thus playing an independent and constructive role in intercultural aesthetic dialogues of the twenty-first century.

  10. Reforming Chinese Characters in the PRC and Japan: New Directions in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratne, Dilhara D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative evaluation of Chinese character reform in the People's Republic of China and Japan, with a particular focus on the latest changes announced in 2009 to the existing script policies in the two countries. The first Chinese script reform took place in 1956 and the first Japanese script reform in 1946, both for the…

  11. Studies on the Chinese in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michael D. Barr and Zlatko Skrbis, Constructing Singapore; Elitism, ethnicity and the nation-building project. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 978877694028, price GBP 50.00 (hardback; 9788776940294, GBP 16.99 (paperback. Marleen Dieleman, The rhythm of strategy; A corporate biography of the Salim Group of Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007, 205 pp. [ICAS Publications Series, Monograph 1.] ISBN 9789053560334. Price: EUR 29.50 (paperback. Kristina Goransson, The binding tie; Chinese intergenerational relations in modern Singapore. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2009, x + 191 pp. ISBN 9780824832599, price USD 57.00 (hardback; 9780824833527, USD 26.00 (paperback. Chang-Yau Hoon, Chinese identity in post-Suharto Indonesia; Culture, politics and media. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008, xi + 230 pp. ISBN 9781845192686. Price: GBP 49.95 (hardback. Leo Suryadinata, Understanding the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007, x + 310 pp. ISBN 9789812304377. Price: USD 21.90 (paperback. Sikko Visscher, The business of politics and ethnicity; A history of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Singapore: NUS Press, 2007, xviii + 372 pp. ISBN 97899713657. Price: USD 32.00 (paperback. Voon Phin Keong (ed., Malaysian Chinese and nation-building; Before Merdeka and fifty years after. Vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, 2008. ISBN 9789833808066 (hardback; 9789833908059 (paperback.

  12. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (Pspeaking Chinese children (Pspeaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically

  13. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  14. The experiences and needs of Chinese-Canadian stroke survivors and family caregivers as they re-integrate into the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Emily H L; Szeto, Amy; Richardson, Denyse; Lai, Suk-han; Lim, Eva; Cameron, Jill I

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and community re-integration is a priority for stroke rehabilitation. In North America, we have a growing population of individuals whose first language is not English. Little is known about the experiences of visible minorities living in North America as they re-integrate into the community post stroke or how these experiences change over time. Specifically, this research aimed to explore the experiences and needs of Chinese stroke survivors and family caregivers as they return to community living using the Timing it Right Framework as a conceptual guide. We recruited Cantonese-speaking stroke survivors and family caregivers from outpatient rehabilitation programmes. Using qualitative interviews conducted in Cantonese or English, we examined their experiences and needs as they return to community living and explored the influence of culture and time on their experiences. The interviews were transcribed and translated, and then analysed using framework analysis. Using framework analysis, we coded the data corresponding to the phases of the Timing it Right framework to determine the influence of time on the themes. We interviewed five Cantonese-speaking stroke survivors and 13 caregivers in 2009. We identified two main themes: (i) Participants' education and support needs change over time and (ii) Chinese resources are needed across care environments. These resources include access to care in their preferred language, traditional Chinese medicine, and Chinese food during their recovery and rehabilitation. To optimise Chinese stroke survivors' and caregivers' community re-integration, healthcare professionals should provide timely and accessible education and be aware of the role of Chinese diet and traditional medicine in stroke survivors' rehabilitation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Twenty years' review and prospect of modernization research on traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-li; Zhang, Jun-hua

    2015-09-01

    The modernization strategy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been implemented for 20 years, which has provided a strong impetus to the development of TCM and gained remarkable achievements in scientific research platform, research result, industry scale, clinical evaluation, internationalization and professionals training as well. The achievements of TCM modernization greatly improved the clinical service ability and level of TCM, broadened the scope of service, become the important foundation of the big health industry. TCM has played an irreplaceable role in the health care reform, benefiting people's livelihood, promoting industrial structure adjustment and cultivating strategic emerging industries. This article summarized the main achievements of the modernization of TCM and prospected the direction and tasks in the next 20 years in order to further promote the modernization process of TCM.

  16. Language Transfer and English Phonological Acquisition of Cantonese Speaking Students%语言迁移与广西粤方言区学生英语语音习得

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉苏

    2011-01-01

    通过对广西粤方言区的30名大学生的测查实验分析,实验,母语为粤方言的学生在英语语音学习过程中因为母语负迁移而造成学习英语的诸多障碍。为了改善粤方言区学生学习英语语言学习现状,应该根据语音习得的特点进行英汉对比、创造语言环境、培养良好的学习动机。%In this paper, the author focuses on the analysis of the obstacles in English phonetic learning resulted from the negative transfer of students' mother tongue based on an experiment of 30 college students whose mother tongue is Cantonese, At the same time, the writer also refers to the characteristics of phonological acquisition and offers some corresponding solutions such as English-Chinese contrasting, language environment creating and good learning motivation cultivating.

  17. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  18. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  19. Honoring Identity Through Mealtimes in Chinese Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ivy T Y; Keller, Heather H

    2015-11-01

    Mealtimes are opportunities for social interactions and expressions of individual and family identity, and serve as a microcosm of the broader lives of families living with dementia. The Eating Together study and its resulting Life Nourishment Theory (LNT) explicated the importance of mealtimes for honouring individual and family identities in the context of dementia. This sub-study examined a specific ethnocultural group with cultural food-ways and caring expectations, to determine if the concept of honouring identity needed to be modified or extended. Using active interview techniques, two Cantonese speaking researchers completed dyad/triad family and individual interviews with six Chinese Canadian immigrant families, recruited from two service providers in a large, urban, multicultural city. This sub-study provided insight into the challenges and rewards of mealtimes for Chinese immigrant families with dementia in the community and specifically provided further insights into the honouring identity concept. Although LNT and specifically the honouring identity concept was generally confirmed in this group, some culturally-specific themes were also identified. This work serves as a basis for future studies examining the meaning and experience of mealtimes in specific cultural groups living with dementia. Such work would confirm if the LNT can be applied to specific ethnocultural groups as well as the general population living with dementia.

  20. Acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on Chinese American immigrants' diabetes and health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Strycker, Lisa A; Chesla, Catherine A

    2016-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine effects of bicultural efficacy, or perceived confidence in dealing with bicultural acculturation stressors, on type 2 diabetes management and health for first-generation, Cantonese-speaking, Chinese American immigrants (N = 162) recruited for a larger community-based diabetes intervention study (Chesla et al. in Res Nurs Health 36(4):359-372, 2013. doi: 10.1002/nur.21543 ). The current study also tested whether a new Bicultural Efficacy in Health Management (BEFF-HM) scale is a more robust predictor of diabetes and health outcomes than proxy (years in the U.S.) and general acculturation measures. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that high BEFF-HM was significantly related to positive outcomes on five of six diabetes and health measures as hypothesized after accounting for participant characteristics, proxy and general acculturation measures, and social support. Proxy and general acculturation measures failed to predict any study outcome supporting our secondary hypothesis that BEFF-HM is a better predictor of Chinese American immigrants' diabetes and health management. An immigrant-focused research approach advances understanding of acculturation and bicultural efficacy effects on health by identifying key acculturation domains for study.

  1. Twenty-eight Cases of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Gangrene Treated with the Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Injection of Ahylsantinfarctase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡

    2002-01-01

    @@ Since 1995, the Chinese herbal medicine for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation combined with injection of ahylsantinfarctase into the femoral artery has been used in 28 cases of diabetes complicated with gangrene and ulcer of the foot, with quite good therapeutic effects as reported in the following.

  2. Segmental and suprasegmental features in speech perception in Cantonese-speaking second graders: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Chia-Ying; Zhang, Juan; Shuai, Lan; Maurer, Urs; Chung, Kevin K H

    2014-11-01

    Using a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm, this study examined second graders' brain responses to Cantonese speech. We aimed to address the question of whether a change in a consonant or lexical tone could be automatically detected by children. We measured auditory mismatch responses to place of articulation and voice onset time (VOT), reflecting segmental perception, as well as Cantonese lexical tones including level tone and contour tone, reflecting suprasegmental perception. The data showed that robust mismatch negativities (MMNs) were elicited by all deviants in the time window of 300-500 ms in second graders. Moreover, relative to the standard stimuli, the VOT deviant elicited a robust positive mismatch response, and the level tone deviant elicited a significant MMN in the time window of 150-300 ms. The findings suggest that Hong Kong second graders were sensitive to neural discriminations of speech sounds both at the segmental and suprasegmental levels.

  3. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  4. Modal Verbs with and without Tense: A Study of English- and Cantonese-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background: Surprizingly little is known about the use of modal auxiliaries by children with specific language impairment (SLI). These forms fall within the category of grammatical morphology, an area of morphosyntax that is purportedly very weak in children with SLI. Aims: Three studies were conducted to examine the use of modal auxiliaries by…

  5. Deficits of congenital amusia beyond pitch: Evidence from impaired categorical perception of vowels in Cantonese-speaking congenital amusics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caicai Zhang; Jing Shao; Xunan Huang

    2017-01-01

    .... However, it remains unclear whether amusia is a pitch-specific deficit, or whether it affects frequency/spectral processing more broadly, such as the perception of formant frequency in vowels, apart from pitch...

  6. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  7. Investigating Cantonese Speakers' Language Attitudes in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Dana Funywe; Zhao, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) has often been considered a monolithic, monolingual state but, in fact, it is linguistically and culturally diverse. Despite the size, there is still a lack of sociolinguistic studies on the Han Chinese in the PRC. Therefore, this study focuses on the language attitudes of Cantonese-speaking students in…

  8. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  9. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  10. 国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的文献计量分析%Literature metrology Analysis on Domestic Studies on Chinese Medicine in Treating Cerebral Infarction in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究文献发表数量及内容的研究现状,总结规律,指导临床。方法采用文献计量学整理文献年度发表量、发表趋势,总结此领域的治疗方法、分期论治、辨证分型、治则治法及中药运用情况等。结果该领域文献发表数较多且逐年增加,临床随机对照研究文献数呈上升趋势,非随机对照研究文献数呈下降趋势;脑梗死急性期研究最多,且各期辨证用药及干预措施各有侧重;气虚血瘀证、痰瘀阻络证贯穿病程始终,为脑梗死的基本病机;中医药治疗脑梗死方法多样,中药运用细致周到。结论中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究发展迅速且日趋成熟,治疗中体现出辨证论治的中医特色;但还需进一步提高研究水平,扩大该领域研究范围。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate the quantity,and content of research status, summary of regulation,clinical instruction of the domestic clinical trials on Chinese medicine in treating cere-bral infarction in the past 20 years. Methods Literature metrology was used to analyze the annual publishing amount,publishing trends,so as to summarize treatment methods,stage of governance,syndrome differentia-tion,therapeutic principle and application of traditional Chinese medicine and so on in this area. Results ①Clinical trials published in past20 years on the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction increased and the total number of randomized controlled trials showed increasing trend year by year;the number of randomized con-trolled clinical trials literature on the rise,the number of non -randomized controlled trial literature de-creased;②Acute cerebral infarction took account of the most studies and TCM drugs and interventions were used;③QDBS ,phlegm and blood stasis syndrome had always been throughout the course of cerebral infarc-tion,and ischemic stroke′s basic pathogenesis

  11. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  12. 20味中草药与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌体外抑菌作用的分析%Antibacterial Effect of Combination of Twenty Chinese Herbs with Ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立杰; 赵晴; 宋晓言; 刘树明; 马红霞

    2014-01-01

    To observe the antibacterial effect in vitro of Chinese medicine herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of water extract and alcohol extract of twenty Chinese herbs against Streptococcus suis in vitro were determined by tube two-double dilution method. Fractional inhibitory concentrations ( FIC ) of water extract and alcohol extract of twenty medicine herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis were determined by constant checkerboard dilution method. The results showed that water extract and alcohol extract of twenty medicine herbs have antibactierial effect against Streptococcus suis in certain extent. It ’s shown that some extracts such as alcohol extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim have strong antibactierial effect on Streptococcus suis in vitro. The antibactierial effect of some extracts such as water extract of Patrinia were low on Streptococcus suis in vitro. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect was existed in the alcohol extract of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim, alcohol extract of smoked plum and water extract of smoked plum combined with ciprofloxacin. Inhibitory bacterium unrelated effect was existed in some extracts such as alcohol extract of Isatidis Radix combined with ciprofloxacin.%为观察中草药与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌效果,采用试管二倍稀释法测定20味中草药水提物、醇提物的最低抑菌浓度( MIC),用常量棋盘稀释法测定20味中草药水提物、醇提物与抗生素联用对猪源链球菌的部分抑菌浓度( FIC)。结果显示,所选20味中草药的水提物、醇提物对猪源链球菌均具有一定的抑菌作用,瓜蒌醇提物等对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌作用较强;败酱草水提物等对猪源链球菌的体外抑菌作用较弱。瓜蒌醇提物、乌梅醇提物、乌梅水提物与环丙沙星联合用药的抑菌作用表现为相加作用,板蓝根醇提物等与

  13. 20味中药提取物对无乳链球菌的体外抑菌活性研究%Effects of twenty traditional Chinese medicine extracts against Streptococcus agalactiae in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭练慈; 殷中琼; 贾仁勇; 李莉; 代如意; 曲径; 刘明辉; 陈萍

    2014-01-01

    【目的】筛选对无乳链球菌Streptococcus agalactiae具有良好体外抑菌效果的中药.【方法】通过乙醇回流、超声波方法提取20味中药的抗菌活性部位,采用试管二倍稀释法测定黄连Coptis chinensis等20味中药提取物对无乳链球菌的最低抑菌浓度( Minimal inhibitory concentration ,MIC)和最低杀菌浓度( Minimal bactericidal concentration , MBC),并评价抗菌活性较强的几味中药的体外联合抑菌效果.【结果和结论】乌梅Prunus mume、黄连、黄芩Scutel-laria baicalensis、虎杖Polygonum cuspidatum和地榆Sanguisorba officinalis 5味中药提取物对无乳链球菌的MIC范围为7.80~31.25 mg/mL.蒲公英Taraxacum mongolicum、茵陈Artemisia scoparia、秦皮Fraxinus rhynchophylla、艾叶Arte-misia argyi、黄柏 Phellodendron chinense、鱼腥草 Houttuynia cordata、紫花地丁 Violae yedoensis 和白头翁 Pulsatilla chinensis 8味中药提取物的MIC范围为62.50~125.00 mg/mL.何首乌Po.multiflorum、苦参Sophora flavescens、穿心莲Andrographis paniculata、杜仲Eucommia ulmoides、连翘Forsythia suspensa、金银花Lonicera japonica和夏枯草Prunel-la vulgaris 7味中药提取物的MIC范围为250.00~500.00 mg/mL.联合抑菌试验结果表明,黄芩、虎杖、地榆和黄连的联合抑菌指数(FICI)≤1,虎杖、黄芩和地榆的FICI>2.黄连、黄芩、虎杖和地榆对无乳链球菌均具有很强的体外抗菌活性,地榆、黄连为相加作用,黄连、黄芩和虎杖为协同作用,地榆与黄芩、虎杖为拮抗作用.%Objective] Screening for the traditional Chinese medicines which have good antibacterial effects on Streptococcus agalactiae in vitro.[Method] Using ethanol reflux and ultrasonic method , ex-tracts of 20 different traditional Chinese medicines were obtained .Minimal inhibitory concentration ( MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration ( MBC) of Coptis chinensis and other 19

  14. Estimating Incidence of Developmental Dyslexia in Hong Kong: What Differences Do Different Criteria Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Tsang, Suk-man; Lee, Suk-han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the data of a school-referred sample of Cantonese-speaking Chinese children who met the Hong Kong criterion of dyslexia, we estimated for developmental dyslexia of Chinese children aged between 6 and 10 1/2 in Hong Kong an incidence rate of 0.66% and a gender ratio of 3.29 boys to 1 girl over a four-year period. We also explored the…

  15. 中外男篮后卫进攻能力的比较研究--以第26届男篮亚锦赛为例%Comparative Study of Chinese and Foreign Men's Basketball Team Guard Offensive Ability---The Twenty-Sixth Men's Basketball Championships as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉杰

    2015-01-01

    By using the methods of literature, video observation, mathematical statistics and others, through the twenty-sixth FIBA Asia,Championship Chinese team with other team defender game players in the scoring, rebounds, assists offensive ability were analyzed. The results found: China guard team points averaged and defender a team significant differences (P<0.05),and free throw attempts are far lower than other competitors; rebounds, assists are higher than other competing guards; There are obvious gap between China basketball reserve guard and the main force guard ability . In this paper,it puts forward suggestions to strengthen the attack and break through aggressive foul, positive rebound and later in the basketball training the team should pay attention to the cultivation of comprehensive technology defender suggestions in order to make Chinese men's basketball team in the future development have further improvement.%运用文献资料、录像分析、数理统计等方法,对比分析对第26届男篮亚锦赛中国队与其他参赛队后卫队员在比赛中的得分、篮板球、助攻等进攻能力,结果发现:中国后卫队员在场均得分方面与参赛队后卫队员有着显著性差异(P<0.05),罚球次数远低于其他参赛对手;篮板、助攻数都高于其他参赛后卫队员;中国男篮替补后卫与主力后卫之间的能力差距明显。针对研究结论提出加强进攻的侵略性及突破造犯规能力,积极拼抢篮板球和在以后的篮球训练中要注重对后卫队员全面性技术培养的建议。

  16. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  17. Factors that Enhance English-Speaking Speech-Language Pathologists' Transcription of Cantonese-Speaking Children's Consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Method: Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Results: Task 1 (baseline) involved…

  18. Cochlear implant in Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S O; Luk, W S; Lau, C C; So, K W; Wong, C M; Yiu, M L; Kwok, C L

    1990-11-01

    Cochlear implant surgery was performed in four Cantonese-speaking postlingually deaf Chinese adults, using the House/3M single channel device. This article outlines the methodology, including preoperative assessment and postoperative rehabilitation; and explains the necessary modifications in speech and audiologic work-up in Cantonese-speaking patients. Salient features of Cantonese phonetics, especially its tonal characteristics, are described. The findings of the study are presented. The results of the cochlear implant would suggest a performance superior to that of the hearing aid. Furthermore, the cochlear implant is able to detect tonal cues. This quality of the cochlear implant may prove to be a valuable asset to a tonal language-speaking cochlear implantee.

  19. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  20. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  1. Chinese Online Hot Expressions:A Chinese Voice that Can Be Heard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2016-01-01

    Chinese online hot expressions, as one of Chinese popular cultures, were forming in the process of globalization and internetization. With about twenty years’development, now some Chinese online hot expressions have begun to enter into the international netspeak, forming a kind of counter-impact to the international net culture. It is an important part of our national culture and should be used as a special national resource in promoting the cultural soft power of our country.

  2. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  3. Twenty-Channel Voice Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    programs and vocabulary. 0 Telephone Company (TELCO) Switched Lines - provides access to VRS using telephones. * Bell 407C Data Sets - Converts the Touch...from the twenty 407C units. 0 DLII-E - Asynchronous interface to the 11/34 unibus for the VOTRAX unit. * 20 Channel ADPCM Decoder - a specially designed

  4. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  5. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  6. On Chinese Loan Words from English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai

    2009-01-01

    In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…

  7. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.;

    2006-01-01

    similarities; especially that entrepreneurship within universities has to be welcomed and facilitated top-down, but organically occurs and develops bottom-up. Implementing entrepreneurship at universities is thus about stimulating a culture of organic intrapreneurship and we provide practical recommendations...... studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...... by the interviewees was surveyed. We showed that the practices have been implemented only to various degrees and rather unsystematically. There are important differences among the universities, to some extent depending on the level of ambition that each university has regarding each practice. There are also important...

  8. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  9. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  10. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of lorazepam tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-junQIU; Guo-xinHU; Jian-gangWANG; Zong-shunDAI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of lorazepam tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers. METHODS:Twenty Chinese healthy male volunteers were involved in the study. Each subject received a single dose of 3 mg Lorazepam tested formulation (T, Hubei Zhongtian Airbeck Pharmaceutical Limited Company) or Lorazepam reference formulation (R, Thailand Atlatic Pharmaceutical Limited Company) with a random-

  12. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  13. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  14. 中国近现代工程史开端的“二十年延误”--对洋务运动之前三场战争的回顾和分析%The Lost Twenty Years in the Early History of Chinese Modern Engineering---Review and Analysis of the Three Wars before the Westernization Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯聪

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of engineering philosophy ,researchers give concern to engineering history .In view of general history ,the first Opium War marks the beginning of modern history in China .However ,the Chinese history of modern engineering actually starts with Westernization Movement ,which means a twenty‐year delay in Chinese modern engineering history .Before the West‐ernization Movement ,modern China witnessed the following three wars :the two Opium Wars and the rebellion of Taiping Heav‐enly Kingdom .As far as the military industry and military equipment are concerned ,the two Opium Wars reflect the battles be‐tween western modern military industry system and China’s ancient military industry system ,while the war of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom involves China’s transformation from ancient military industry system to the modern one .The root causes of the twenty‐year delay for the beginning of the modern engineering history are the rigid feudal ideology and system .%工程哲学兴起之后,工程史研究也开始兴起。虽然从通史角度看鸦片战争是中国近现代史的开端,但中国近现代工程史却应以洋务运动为正式开端,这就出现了“二十年延误”。在洋务运动之前,中国近代史上爆发了三场战争———两次鸦片战争和太平天国战争。从军工产业和军事装备特征方面看,两次鸦片战争是西方近代军工体系和军事装备体系与中国古代军工体系和军事装备体系的战争,而太平天国战争则涉及中国军工体系和军事装备体系“从古代形态向近现代形态的转型”问题。造成中国工程近代化开端“二十年延误”的根本原因是僵化的封建意识形态和封建制度及其运行机制的阻碍和抗拒。在中国近现代史上,这“二十年延误”的后果严重,教训沉痛。

  15. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  16. Antibacterial activity of crude extract from twenty traditional Chinese medicines like Artemisia argyi against Pasteurella multocida in vitro%艾叶等20种中药对禽多杀性巴氏杆菌的体外抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲径; 殷中琼; 贾仁勇; 彭练慈; 康帅; 李莉

    2015-01-01

    Active ingredients of 20 traditional Chinese medicines were extracted by ethanol circum-fluence,water decoction,and ultrasonic extraction.Double dilution method is used to determine the anti-bacterial activity on Pasteurella multocida in vitro .And then the joint bacteriostatic activities of a few traditional Chinese medicines were evaluated.The result showed that the minimal inhibitory concentra-tion (MIC)was in a range of 6.25 ~50 mg/mL mugwort leaf (Artemisia argyi ),Rhizoma coptidis , Cortex phellodendri ,Cortex fraxini ,Garden burnet ,Giant knotweed ’s extracts,in range of 50 to 100 mg/mL for Radix paeoniaerubra ,Radix-polygonimultiflori ,Herba artemisiae capillaris ,Rhizomabel-amcandae ,Licorice root ,Dandelion,Cortex dictamni ’s extracts,and more than 100 mg/mL for Honey-suckle ,Radix bupleuri ,Radix isatidis ,Prunella vulgaris ,Herba andrographitis ,Rhizoma anemarrhe-nae ,Radix sophorae flavescentis ’s extracts.The results of joint bacteriostatic test showed that the frac-tional inhibitory concentration index (FICI)of R.coptidis ,C.phellodendri ,C.fraxini ,G.knotweed ,and A.argyi were less than or equal to 0.5 and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI)of C. phellodendri ,C.fraxini ,R.coptidis and G.knotweed ,Qin leather,G.burnet and C.phellodendri were more than or equal to 2.In conclusion,R.coptidis ,C.phellodendri ,G.burnet,and A.argyi had good an-timicrobial activities against P .multocida .R.coptidis ,C.phellodendri ,G.burnet and Mugwort showed additive or synergy action,while Sanguisorba and C.phellodendri showed antagonistic action.%通过乙醇回流、水煎煮和超声波等方法提取艾叶等20种中药的有效成分,采用二倍稀释法测定其对禽多杀性巴氏杆菌(C48-1,血清型 A∶1)的体外抗菌活性;并研究抗菌活性较强的几味中药的体外联合抑菌效果。结果显示,艾叶、黄连、黄柏、秦皮、地榆、虎杖6种中药提取物对巴氏杆菌的最低抑菌浓度值(MIC)范围在6

  17. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  18. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  19. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. The New Korean Wave in China: Chinese Users’ Use of Korean Popular Culture via the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jungah Ahn

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese teens and twenty year olds as the main consumers of Korean popular culture and the how preferred genres, motives, and behaviors of Korean pop culture...

  1. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  2. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  3. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  4. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  5. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  6. The Validation of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Scale in a Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the classification system for career decision difficulties of college students in a Chinese culture. Five hundred twenty-one college students completed the Chinese version of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance, factor analysis,…

  7. Trends in Participation and Attainment of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Cristina; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The UK higher education system receives the second largest number of Chinese overseas students in the world. The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data used in this study show that the total number of Chinese graduates (at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels) increased from around 6000 at the beginning of the twenty-first century to…

  8. Think or Sink: Chinese Learners' Acquisition of the English Voiceless Interdental Fricative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, D. Victoria; Chang, Hui-Huan Ann; Tarone, Elaine E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the production of the English interdental fricative [theta] by Chinese learners of English, using a variationist framework. Twenty-seven Chinese participants were asked to evaluate the acceptability of four possible substitutes for the variable (th) and to perform four oral production tasks. The results indicated that…

  9. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  10. 以粤语为母语的日语学习者的语音迁移现象及对策%Voice Transfer Phenomenon in Cantonese-speaking Japanese Learners and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Migration phenomenon occurs native speech is an inevitable part of the process of teaching in Japanese. Correct use of regular migration;avoid negative transfer for speech learning effectiveness and efficiency of learners will have a huge impact. From the sound system, the Cantonese phoneme is relatively complex, but Japanese is relatively simple. More flex-ible use of Cantonese pronunciation of phonemes features will be introduced into the teaching process, while the Japanese voice, discern the lack of Cantonese and Japanese in particular phonemes but included targeted education, is bound to Japa-nese learners pronunciation errors play an effective role in the prevention and correction.%母语语音迁移现象的出现在日语教学过程中是不可避免的一个环节。正确利用正迁移,避免负迁移对于学习者的语音学习效果和效率会产生巨大影响。从发音系统上来看,粤语的音位相对复杂,而日语相对简单。灵活利用粤语音位较多的发音特点,将其引入日语语音的教学过程的同时,辨清粤语中缺乏而日语中却包含的特殊音位,进行有针对性的教学,必将对日语学习者发音错误的预防和纠正起到有效作用。

  11. Influence of additional language learning on first language learning in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  14. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  15. Kinematics of hip, knee, ankle of the young and elderly Chinese people during kneeling activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hai; Wang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Tao-ran; Zeng, Xiang-sen; Wang, Cheng-tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure the kinematics of the lower limbs of Chinese people during normal kneeling activity, as such data could be valuable in designing joint prosthesis and arthroplasty that meet the needs of Chinese citizens’ daily activities. Methods: Thirty young and twenty elderly Chinese participants with no personal history of joint diseases were recruited, and matched by age (average age: 23.8 years for the young group, 60.8 years for the elderly group). Ea...

  16. Yangzhou’s Famous Twenty-fourth Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “LOOMING green moun-tains and runningstreams;grass does notwither and fall,though the autumnhas come to an end in the south.The bright moon arises overTwenty-fourth Bridge.Where doyou teach pure-jade Yangzhouwomen to play music on bambooflutes?”This poem by Du Mu(803-c.852),a famous poet of thelate Tang Dynasty,is well remem-bered today It made Yangzhou’sTwenty-fourth Bridge Known to la-ter generations.Of many ancientpoems about Twenty-fourth Bridge

  17. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  18. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    pollutant emissions on human driving the development of highly efficient low- health range from respiratory diseases (e.g., child- emission combustion...Systems (N. 101. Stein, S. E., Walker, J. A., Suryan, M. M., and Fahr , Peters and B. Rogg, eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, A., in Twenty-Third Symposium...M. M., and Fahr , A., and Kawano, H., Int. j. Chem. Kinet. 21:643-666 in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Com- (1989). bustion, The

  19. Chinese Mandarin Advanced Course: Newspaper and Periodicals Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Dale F.; Poelman, James S.

    This reader provides supplementary materials for improvement of reading fluency and expansion of vocabulary for advanced students of Chinese. It familiarizes students with terminology used in mainland China publications. Twenty articles, taken from several newspapers, are compiled in this reader. Vocabulary lists are provided for each selection.…

  20. The Acquisition of Chinese Relative Clauses: Contrasting Two Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenai; Gavarró, Anna; Vernice, Mirta; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension of relative clauses by Chinese-speaking children, and evaluates the validity of the predictions of the Dependency Locality Theory (Gibson, 1998, 2000) and the Relativized Minimality approach (Friedmann, Belletti & Rizzi, 2009). One hundred and twenty children from three to eight years of age were tested by…

  1. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  2. Samuel Dyer and His Contributions to Chinese Typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ibrahim bin

    1984-01-01

    This history of a London Missionary Society member's contributions to typography development in China highlights selection of 3,000 Chinese characters needed for purpose of printing Christian books, production of temporary font from wooden blocks, and use of European methods of punches and matrices to produce permanent metal font. (Twenty-seven…

  3. Samuel Dyer and His Contributions to Chinese Typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ibrahim bin

    1984-01-01

    This history of a London Missionary Society member's contributions to typography development in China highlights selection of 3,000 Chinese characters needed for purpose of printing Christian books, production of temporary font from wooden blocks, and use of European methods of punches and matrices to produce permanent metal font. (Twenty-seven…

  4. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  5. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Shi; Yang Yao; Yingying Zhu; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing;however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3%of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4%and 36.1%of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70%ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  6. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  7. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  8. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  9. The Use of E-Dictionary to Read E-Text by Intermediate and Advanced Learners of Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical outcomes connected with the use of an e-dictionary by intermediate and advanced learners of Chinese to aid in reading an expository Chinese e-text. Twenty intermediate and advanced participants read an e-text twice aided by an e-dictionary and wrote recalls of the text in English. In addition to low frequency…

  10. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  11. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Combustion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, p. 81. 12. Ross, H. D., Miller, F. J., Schiller, D. N., and Sirig- nano , W...Mech. 48:547-591 (1971). 2. Lazaro , B. J. and Lasheras, J. C, Phys. Fluids 1:1035 (1989). 3. Kiger, K. T. and Lasheras, J. C, Twenty-Fifth Sympo

  12. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  13. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  14. Educators Guide to Free Filmstrips. Twenty-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Comp.; Diffor, John C., Comp.

    A total of 453 titles of filmstrips, slide sets, and sets of transparencies available free of charge to educators are listed in this guide. More than 20,000 separate frames are offered from 95 sources. Twenty of the filmstrips may be retained permanently by the borrower. The films cover topics in the fields of accident prevention, aerospace…

  15. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  16. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  17. Powering into the twenty-first century [Singapore Power Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century power industry, Singapore Power was incorporated as a commercial entity in October 1995. As the leading energy company in Singapore, SP continues to invest heavily in infrastructure development to improve its service efficiency and reliability, and to maintain its reputation as one of the world`s best power suppliers. (UK)

  18. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  19. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  20. Blended Instruction: The Roaring Twenties Meets Coursesites.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    The action research study described in this report outlines the design and implementation of a unit of blended instruction in a traditional high school English classroom. Twenty technical high school students in an 11th grade Honors English class engaged in a variety of internet-based activities in conjunction with traditional learning activities…

  1. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  2. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  3. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  4. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  5. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  6. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  7. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  8. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  9. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  10. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  11. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  12. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  13. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  14. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  15. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  16. Executive functions and aphasia treatment outcomes: data from an ortho-phonological cueing therapy for anomia in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Olivia; Law, Sam-Po

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the existence of a possible relationship between anomic treatment outcomes and executive functions. An ortho-phonological cueing method was used to facilitate object naming in 12 Cantonese-speaking anomic individuals. Treatment effectiveness for each participant was quantified and correlated with the performance of executive functions and language tasks. It was found that 10 participants showed significant improvement in naming treated items. Eight of the participants were able to maintain treatment gains for at least 1 month. Phonological generalization effects were observed in two participants. Performance on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-3) was significantly correlated with effect sizes of treatment, treatment generalization and maintenance and the Attention Network Test (ANT) was significantly correlated with phonological generalization. The result of a simultaneous multiple regression suggested that the performance of the ANT played an important role in phonological generalization. The findings reinforce the current view about the role of executive functions in language rehabilitation. They also shed light on the effect of inhibitory control on treatment generalization.

  17. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  18. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  19. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rules of engagement for force protection.19 NATO Foreign Ministers authorized the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to begin the next stage of...the mission on 9 December 2004. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It allowed the deployment of 300...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  20. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  1. About capital in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present three key facts about income and wealth inequality in the long run emerging from my book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, and seek to sharpen and refocus the discussion about those trends. In particular, I clarify the role played by r > g in my analysis of wealth inequality. I also discuss some of the implications for optimal taxation, and the relation between capital-income ratios and capital shares.

  2. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-15

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  3. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  4. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  5. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  6. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  7. Becoming gold-plated: Chinese nurses studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R Y; Lethbridge, D J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive study is to describe the experience of Chinese nurses studying abroad. Twenty-three nurses living in Taiwan, who had studied in the United States for university degrees, were interviewed in 1990. A central process was "Becoming gold-plated." The first major theme was "Enormous pressure and sacrifice," with the subthemes of "Self-doubt," "Language difficulties," "Isolation and loneliness," and "Separation and guilt." The second major theme was "Transformed self," with subthemes of "High aspiration" and "New perspective on life." In spite of the hardships of study abroad, Chinese nurses felt pride in their accomplishment and self-respect for the knowledge and sophistication they gained.

  8. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  9. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  10. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  11. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  12. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  13. Earth observations in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the achievements of earth observations from past space missions are described. Also discussed are the achievements to be anticipated from currently approved and planned earth observation missions. In looking forward to what the objectives of earth observations from space are expected to be in the future, together with what technology is expected to enable, what the earth observing program will look like during the first part of the twenty-first century is discussed. It is concluded that a key part of this program will be long-term observations holistically viewing the earth system.

  14. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  15. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  16. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  17. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  18. The visual magnocellular-dorsal dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia impedes Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Coltheart, Max

    2014-11-20

    The visual magnocellular-dorsal (M-D) deficit theory of developmental dyslexia (DD) is still highly debated. Many researchers have made great efforts to investigate the relationship between M-D dysfunction and reading disability. Given that visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese reading, the present study tried to examine how the M-D dysfunction affected Chinese character recognition in Chinese children with DD. Sixteen DD children with M-D deficit, fifteen DD children with normal M-D function and twenty-seven age-matched typically developing children participated in this study. A global/local decision task was adopted, in which we manipulated the spatial frequency of target characters to separate an M-D condition from an unfiltered condition. Results of reaction times and error rates showed that in the M-D condition both M-D normal dyslexics and controls exhibited a significant global precedence effect, with faster responses and lower error rates in global decision than in local decision. In contrast, this global advantage was absent for the M-D impaired dyslexics. Accordingly, we propose that the M-D impairment present in some but not all dyslexics might influence global recognition of Chinese characters in this subgroup of children with DD, which might be implicated in their difficulties in learning to read.

  19. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  20. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  1. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  2. Twenty-first century power needs. Challenges, and supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Solar Energy Lab.

    1997-11-01

    The challenge of providing adequate power to enable world prosperity in the twenty-first century to continue was discussed. It was estimated that by 2050, a prosperous world of 10 billion people will require 60 TWt of thermal power. Conventional power systems will not be able to provide the needed energy because of limited fuels, contamination of the biosphere and costs. A viable, cost effective alternative will be solar energy that is captured in space and from facilities on the Moon, and that is imported to Earth by microwaves. Global electric power systems that use the Moon and deliver 1,000 TWe-Y of energy by 2070 was suggested as the most obvious alternative. Despite the huge initial cost of 20 to 100 trillion dollars, the long-term cost was said to be small compared to terrestrial and Earth-orbital options. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  4. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  5. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  6. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  7. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  8. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  9. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  10. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  11. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  12. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  13. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  14. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  15. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  16. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  17. The Development of Chinese Adult Education within Its Social Contexts: A Review since 1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Since the founding of the modern Chinese state in 1949 until the end of the century, China has mobilised and experienced several social/political movements and economic transformations. Entering the twenty-first century, China's repositioning within the global context has brought about its new national policy and blueprint to build a socialist…

  18. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  19. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  20. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  1. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  2. Congenital choledochal cysts in adults: twenty-five-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-bin; CAO Li-ping; PENG Shu-you; WANG Jian-wei; Khagendra Raj Devkota; JI Zhen-ling; LI Jiang-tao; WANG Xu-an; MA Xiao-ming; CAI Wei-long; KONG Ying

    2007-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst is rare in western countries. The relatively high incidence of coexistent hepatobiliary disease increases the difficulty of the surgical management of choledochal cyst. Here we analyze the diagnosis and treatment of congenital bile duct cyst in 122 Chinese adults.Methods The clinical data of 122 patients with congenital choledochal cysts admitted from 1981 to 2006 were analyzed.Results Clinical symptoms in most cases were nonspecific, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Sixty-one patients (50%) had coexistent pancreatobiliary disease. Among the 122 patients, 119 patients underwent ultrasonic examination;ERCP/MRCP was performed in 63 cases and CT in 102 cases. Abnormal pancreatobiliary duct junction was found in 48 patients. Sixteen patients had malignant lesions in the bile duct, arising in 11 of them from incomplete choledochal cyst that underwent various operations including cystenterostomy or cystojejunostomy. There was significant difference between the patients who underwent incomplete cyst resection and complete cyst resection in malignancy rate of bile duct (Chi square test, P= 0.000; odds ratio, 7.800; 95 % confidence interval, 2.450 to 24.836).Conclusions ERCP, CT and MRCP had proved their great values in the classification of the disease. Cyst excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is recommended as the treatment of choice for patients with type Ⅰ or type Ⅳ cysts. For type Ⅴ cyst (Caroli's disease) with recurrent cholangitis, liver transplantation should be considered.

  3. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  4. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  5. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.P. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK).

  6. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  7. New Bachelards?: Reveries, Elements and Twenty-First Century Materialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an infusion of new ideas into material philosophy through the work of the so-called ‘new materialists’. Poignant examples appear within two recent books: the first, Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (2010, sets out to “enhance receptivity to the impersonal life that surrounds and infuses us” (2010: 4. The second, Elemental Philosophy by David Macauley (2010, advocates an anamnesis or recollection of the elements as imaginatively dynamic matter. Within his essays on the imagination of matter, Gaston Bachelard outlined an archetypal vision of the elements predicated upon the material imagination. He explored the manner in which the imagination inhabits the world, is triggered by the stimulus of material dynamism, and is formed from a co-constitution of subject and object. This article proposes that recent trends in materialist philosophy – as exemplified by the monographs of Bennett and Macauley – reinforce the ideas of Bachelard and take them in new directions. Bachelard provides us with a compelling argument for the rediscovery of material imagination, whereas New Materialism portrays a vision of matter filled with autonomous dynamism that lends itself to entering into a relationship with this imagination. Consequently, this article proposes that Gaston Bachelard has gained a new relevance as a result of contemporary trends in material philosophy, has taken on new possibilities through recent scholarship, and remains a force within the twenty-first century discursive landscape.

  8. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  9. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  10. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  11. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  12. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  13. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  14. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  15. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  16. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  17. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  18. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  19. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  20. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  1. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  2. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  3. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  4. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  5. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  6. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  7. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  8. A novel MYOC heterzygous mutation identified in a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Su-ping; Muhemaiti, Paerheti; Yin, Yan; Cheng, Hongbo; Di Ya, A.; Keyimu, Maliyamu; Cao, Xu; Fan, Ning; JIANG, LIQIONG; Yan, Naihong; Zhou, Xiaomin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Xuyang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinical features of a Chinese Uygur pedigree with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and to identify mutations in two candidate genes, trabecular meshwork inducible glucocorticoid response (MYOC/TIGR) and human dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1). Methods Twenty one members from a Chinese Uygur family of four generations were included in the study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations. Five were diagnosed as POAG, four as glaucoma ...

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  10. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  11. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  12. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  13. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  14. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  15. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  16. Investors, Managers, Brokers, and Culture Workers: How the "New" Chinese are Changing the Meaning of Chineseness in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Nyíri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available China has become the largest source of capital in Cambodia. Managers of state enterprises that construct hydropower plants and roads—as well as private investors and managers in mining, agricultural land concessions, and garment manufacturing—wield increasing influence and are beginning to shape labor practices. In this situation, mainland Chinese migrants are no longer seen by the Sino-Khmer as the marginal and suspect outsiders that they were twenty years ago. Rather, for both the increasingly entrenched Sino-Khmer elite and the struggling Sino-Khmer middle classes, they are a source of business opportunities or jobs. The Sino-Khmer have emerged as middlemen both between Chinese capital and the neopatrimonial Cambodian state and between Chinese managers and Khmer labor. This role is predicated upon a display of Chineseness whose form and content is itself rapidly changing under the influence of an increasing number of teachers and journalists who come from the mainland to run Cambodia’s Chinese-language press and schools. This paper will attempt to makes sense of the facets of this change.

  17. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  18. Chinese Tourists in Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rozsypálková, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the Master Thesis is to analyze behavior of Chinese tourist in hotel industry. The analysis is based on questionnaires of three Chinese professionals who worked in a Chinese hotel, three foreigners (Russian, Italian, Spanish) who as well worked in a Chinese hotel and three Czech professionals who worked in a Czech hotel frequently visited by Chinese tourists. The thesis subsequently introduces ways how Chinese tourists should be treated during their visit in a hotel with respect t...

  19. Predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-12-01

    We examined predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents from 3 contexts: characteristics of the media user, types of media use and family media contexts. Three hundred and twenty adolescents, 11-18 years of age, completed questionnaires to measure media use, impulsivity, sensation seeking, time management disposition and family media environment. The results showed that media multitasking was positively correlated with age and total media use time. Participants with high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking reported more multitasking behaviour. Multitasking was negatively correlated with time management. Children from media-oriented families often engage in more multitasking. What's more, social networking sites use and music use can mediate the effect of individual and family factors on media multitasking.

  20. Decadal potential predictability of twenty-first century climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, George J. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, PO Box 3065, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Decadal prediction of the coupled climate system is potentially possible given enough information and knowledge. Predictability will reside in both externally forced and in long timescale internally generated variability. The ''potential predictability'' investigated here is characterized by the fraction of the total variability accounted for by these two components in the presence of short-timescale unpredictable ''noise'' variability. Potential predictability is not a classical measure of predictability nor a measure of forecast skill but it does identify regions where long timescale variability is an appreciable fraction of the total and hence where prediction on these scale may be possible. A multi-model estimate of the potential predictability variance fraction (ppvf) as it evolves through the first part of the twenty-first century is obtained using simulation data from the CMIP3 archive. Two estimates of potential predictability are used which depend on the treatment of the forced component. The multi-decadal estimate considers the magnitude of the forced component as the change from the beginning of the century and so becomes largely a measure of climate change as the century progresses. The next-decade estimate considers the change in the forced component from the past decade and so is more pertinent to an actual forecast for the next decade. Long timescale internally generated variability provides additional potential predictability beyond that of the forced component. The ppvf may be expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and takes on values between 0 and 1. The largest values of the ppvf for temperature are found over tropical and mid-latitude oceans, with the exception of the equatorial Pacific, and some but not all tropical land areas. Overall the potential predictability for temperature generally declines with latitude and is relatively low over mid- to high-latitude land. Potential predictability for

  1. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  2. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  3. Promoting the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘静

    2001-01-01

    @@Reviewing the past, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the 20th century experienced vicissitude. Since the founding the People's Republic of China, especially for the past twenty years, traditional Chinese medicine undertaking, full of vigor and vitality, has made an unprecedented development in China. The legal status and scientific status of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacology have already been established. The medical system of traditional Chinese medicine, which is composed of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, ethnic minority medicine hospitals, integration of traditional and western medicine hospitals and comprehensive hospitals, is playing an important role in preventing, treating diseases and enhancing people's health level. The system of production and circulation for traditional Chinese medicine has basically guaranteed the people's demand for Chinese medicine, with the principles of producing medicinal materials as basis, taking Chinese medicine industry as pillar and Chinese medicine as link. Remarkable achievements have been scored in the research of TCM development as well as research of TCM basic theory and clinical treatment. A number of scientific and technological results have been transformed into productive forces. TCM education has formed a rational pattern based on inheriting traditional way of transmission from master to disciple as well as taking the university and college education as the main part. Minority medical science has been further explored and sorted out; the level of medical treatment, teaching and scientific research for ethnic minority medicines has been improved. As the contingent of integrated traditional and western medicine is growing steadily, medical treatment system, scientific research system and teaching system for integrated traditional and western medicine takes shape progressively. International exchange and cooperation on traditional Chinese medicine has been greatly promoted. Various forms of

  4. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  5. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  6. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  7. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  8. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  9. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  10. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  11. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  12. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  13. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  14. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of topi

  15. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  16. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  17. The Relationship between Extrinsic Motivation, Home Literacy, Classroom Instructional Practices, and Reading Proficiency in Second-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how students' extrinsic motivation, home literacy and classroom instructional practices were related to the students' reading proficiency of 734 Chinese second-graders (48.2 per cent girls and 51.4 per cent boys) from twenty-two classes in seven primary schools in Hong Kong. The mean student age was 7.5 years. All…

  18. Does superstition help? A study of the role of superstitions and death beliefs on death anxiety amongst Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown that traditional Chinese death beliefs, which mostly consisted of superstitious thoughts, are related to death anxiety. However, other studies have shown that superstitions may help people cope with uncertainty and, therefore, reduce uncertainty-induced anxiety. The role of superstitions, whether related to heightened death anxiety or reduced death anxiety, is unclear. This study attempted to address the knowledge gap by examining the relationships among superstitions and Chinese death beliefs on death anxiety in the Chinese context. One hundred twenty-four undergraduates in Hong Kong completed measures of superstition (R-PBS), death anxiety (MFODS), and Chinese death beliefs scale. Superstition was found to be predictor of death anxiety, as expected. With superstitions highly prevalent in Chinese societies, the study has practical implications in end-of-life care, bereavement support, and death education in the Chinese context.

  19. Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

    2014-05-01

    Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.

  20. Young Chinese Singers Take Top Prizes at World Competitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    TWENTY one-year-old Fan Chunmei,a singer from an artensemble of the Chinese People‘s Liberation Army,won firstprize in the fourth Sound of Asia International Popular SongCompetition,held in Kazakhstan on July 19.Ai Jing,from LiaoningProvince,won the Alma-Ata Mayor’s Prize.She sang“My 1997.”Yuan Chenyie of the China Opera Theater took second prize inthe Classical division of the Tokyo International Vocal Music Com-petition,held in Tokyo in June this year.

  1. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  2. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  3. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  4. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  5. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  6. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  7. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  8. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  9. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  10. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  11. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  12. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  13. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  14. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  15. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  16. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  17. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  18. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  19. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  20. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  1. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  2. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  3. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai.......As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...

  4. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  5. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  6. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  7. INSET for Chinese Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈涛; 刘子春

    2007-01-01

    By setting examples,giving tables or taxonomy and so on,the thesis mainly explains the eight general INSET ( in-service teacher training) principles,including Participation,Sympathetic to the context,Teachers' attitude change,Integration of approaches,Communication and support,Evaluation and follow-up,Adequate timescale,then especially concentrate on the problems and solutions to Chinese teacher in using the INSET principles.

  8. My Chinese Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 郭克晴

    2002-01-01

    I have already been a student for about six and half years.So many teachers have taught me.I like them all,but the best one I like is my Chinese teacher,Mr Liu.He is more than thirty years old.He is a little short man,but he is really a good teacher and we all love him.

  9. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  10. The Developing Chinese Garment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1997-01-01

    CHINA is a country with a 5,000-year history and a population of 1.2 billion people. Clothing plays an important role in Chinese people’s cultural and social life. Since the reform and opening up in the 1980s, the garment industry has greatly developed and has increased progressively by an average of 15.7 percent a year. In the past 10 years particularly, township-run garment production enterprises have suddenly come to the fore,

  11. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,

  12. Making Chinese Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2011-01-01

    There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.

  13. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  14. REQUESTS IN CHINESE AND ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sociolinguistic competence is essential for foreign languagelearners to acquire effective communication becausecommunication is subject to social appropriateness.Differentlanguages,however,have different sociallinguistic rules(Wolfson,1989),the knowledge as to what is appropriate tosay to whom,and under what conditions.This paper attemptsto study requests in Chinese and English contrastively,in orderto account for the Chinese transfer influence and the pragmaticfailure in the use of English by Chinese students of English,andto draw pedagogical implications.

  15. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  16. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  17. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  18. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  19. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  20. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  1. Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong

    2015-11-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy".

  2. Introduction to Chinese natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Twenty-first Workshop in Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, held at Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA, January 22-24, 1996. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions including: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling/hot-dry-rock, low enthalpy, fluid injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption, and well stimulation.

  4. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The 1970s Nigeria witnessed oil boom which turns out to be a disaster to people ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of ..... that demand high intelligence, proper planning and long term preparation.

  5. Review of selected Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how Chinese herbal medicines are used in the treatment of diabetes, focusing on potential benefits and risks. Medline, expert interviews, and Internet searches were used to identify Chinese herbal medicines with antidiabetic properties and their diabetes-related health claim, proposed antidiabetic effect, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions. Twenty-three herbs and 5 herbal formulas were selected for review. Antidiabetic health claims included increasing serum insulin, decreasing blood glucose, increasing glucose metabolism, and/or stimulating pancreatic function. Side effects were few or not reported. The use of Chinese herbal medicines in diabetes is promising but still far from proven. Diabetes educators need to be aware of the risks and benefits of herbal medicines. Patients should be asked about the use and source of herbal medicines and carefully monitored for drug interactions and adverse effects.

  6. Report of a mental health survey among Chinese international students at Yale University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Han, Xuemei; Luo, Qianlai; Jacobs, Selby; Jean-Baptiste, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese international students, to identify factors that might be associated with these 2 symptom complexes, and to investigate their perception of mental health issues and counseling services. Chinese students (N = 130) at Yale University. Participants completed an anonymous online survey in fall 2009. Forty-five percent reported symptoms of depression, and 29% reported symptoms of anxiety. A self-evaluation of poor current health, a poor relationship with one's advisor, and a low exercise regimen were associated with a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms. Twenty-seven percent of responders were not aware of the availability of mental health and counseling services on campus. This study suggests that efforts should be made to improve the relationship between students and their advisors and to enhance the awareness of and the accessibility to mental health and counseling services to improve the mental health of Chinese international students.

  7. Acculturation and its implications on parenting for Chinese immigrants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K

    2014-04-01

    To systematically review and synthesize existing findings on acculturation and its implications on parenting for Chinese immigrants. Three electronic databases were searched for original research articles that examined acculturation and its influence on parenting in Chinese immigrants. Twenty-two studies were included. Findings suggest that acculturation influences parenting beliefs, attitudes, and practices, as well as parent-child relationships among Chinese immigrants. Acculturation discrepancies between parents and children are associated with negative child outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships among acculturation and parenting perceptions, parent-child relationships, and parent-child acculturation discrepancies and associated child outcomes. In particular, longitudinal studies with larger samples and multiple methods are needed to suggest causal inferences and validate these relationships. Nurses are at the unique junction to identify these problems through interacting with individuals and families at the clinical and mental/community health levels.

  8. A common haplotype of KIAA0319 contributes to the phonological awareness skill in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cadmon King-Poo; Wong, Amabel May-Bo; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary Mui-Yee

    2014-07-11

    Previous studies have shown that KIAA0319 is a candidate gene for dyslexia in western populations. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is also an association of KIAA0319 in Chinese children with dyslexia and/or to the language-related cognitive skills. A total of twenty six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families. Four of the SNPs have been reported in the literature and twenty two being tag SNPs at KIAA0319. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using permutation. Results indicate that KIAA0319 is not associated with Chinese children with dyslexia but a haplotype consisting of rs2760157 and rs807507 SNPs were significantly associated with an onset detection test, a measure of phonological awareness (pnominal = 6.85 10-5 and pcorrected = 0.0029). In conclusion, our findings suggest that KIAA0319 is associated with a reading-related cognitive skill.

  9. Chinese American Manpower and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Betty Lee

    A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

  10. 100 Years of Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Department of Chinese Language and Literature (DOCLL) of Peking University. On March 31, 1910, the Imperial Capital University (the predecessor of today's Peking University) was estab-lished, with a Chinese literature school as an independent teaching unit.

  11. 100 Years of Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Department of Chinese Language and Literature (DOCLL) of Peking University. On March 31,1910,the Imperial Capital University (the predecessor of today’s Peking University) was established,with a Chinese literature school as an independent teaching unit.

  12. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  13. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  14. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  15. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from

  16. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese...

  17. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  18. Why Do I Study Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the

  19. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  20. Neuroanatomical markers of speaking Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  2. [Selection of biomass estimation models for Chinese fir plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Duan, Ai-guo; Xiang, Cong-wei

    2010-12-01

    A total of 11 kinds of biomass models were adopted to estimate the biomass of single tree and its organs in young (7-year-old), middle-age (16-year-old), mature (28-year-old), and mixed-age Chinese fir plantations. There were totally 308 biomass models fitted. Among the 11 kinds of biomass models, power function models fitted best, followed by exponential models, and then polynomial models. Twenty-one optimal biomass models for individual organ and single tree were chosen, including 18 models for individual organ and 3 models for single tree. There were 7 optimal biomass models for the single tree in the mixed-age plantation, containing 6 for individual organ and 1 for single tree, and all in the form of power function. The optimal biomass models for the single tree in different age plantations had poor generality, but the ones for that in mixed-age plantation had a certain generality with high accuracy, which could be used for estimating the biomass of single tree in different age plantations. The optimal biomass models for single Chinese fir tree in Shaowu of Fujin Province were used to predict the single tree biomass in mature (28-year-old) Chinese fir plantation in Jiangxi Province, and it was found that the models based on a large sample of forest biomass had a relatively high accuracy, being able to be applied in large area, whereas the regional models with small sample were limited to small area.

  3. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  4. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese children are taller and heavier than ever before. According to a national survey from 1995, the average height of children aged 7-14 was 142.3 centimeters, 2 centimeters taller than the average height of children in the same age group ten years before. The average weight was 31.9 kilograms, which is 2.8 kilograms heavier than children of the same age group in 1985. Such improvements must be credited to the development of China’s health care network for children. By the end of last

  5. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  6. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  7. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  8. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...

  9. CHINESE COMMUNITY IN ECUADOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Over 1.5 million women workers from 13,000 enterprises have joined the social coordinated system for child-bearing insurance funds in Zhejiang Province. The funds are paid by regular and contract workers and casual laborers from state-owned and collective enterprises and Chinese employees from joint ventures. The social labor insurance committees under the local governments at the city or county levels are in charge of the practical work for taking over the funds. The amounts of money each pays varies according to the different living standard and salary level in each area.

  11. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  12. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  13. A novel CFTR mutation found in a Chinese patient with cystic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rare in Chinese. We investigated the mutations in the gene of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in a Chinese CF patient and reviewed the clinical features, gene mutations in Chinese CF cases. Methods Blood samples were collected from a previously reported CF girl and her parents. The 24 coding exons of CFTR of the proband were amplified and sequenced. Results A Chinese girl of 16 years old was diagnosed as CF at the age of 14. She had recurrent productive cough with bronchiectasis in bilateral upper lobes, parasinusitis and otitis media, but without pancreatic involvement. Her sweat chloride was (108.9 ±3.3) mmol/L. A heterozygous novel missense mutation of 699 C→A which results in the amino acid change of N189K was identified in exon 5. In addition, a heterozygous 3821-3823 delT mutation in exon 19 was found in CFTR. The mutation 699C→A was inherited from her father, and the 3821-3823delT mutation was from her mother. Twenty patients with CF in Chinese reported from 1974 to 2004 were also reviewed. DelF508 mutation was not found in the nine cases whose CFTR mutations were analyzed. Conclusions The CF proband carries two heterozygous mutations (699C→A and 3821-3823delT) in CFTR. 699C→A mutation is a novel mutation which is not reported previously. Review of reported Chinese cases suggests that the genotype of Chinese CF may be different from those of white cases. More studies are needed to understand the spectra of CFTR and clinical CF features in Chinese.

  14. Jakarta Non-Chinese Ancestry Indonesian Students’motivation of Chinese Studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruo Mei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education in Indonesia. 

  15. Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial.

  16. Chinese Armillary Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The armillary sphere was perhaps the most important type of astronomical instrument in ancient China. It was first invented by Luoxia Hong in the first century BC. After Han times, the structure of the armillary sphere became increasingly sophisticated by including more and more rings representing various celestial movements as recognized by the Chinese astronomers. By the eighth century, the Chinese armillary sphere consisted of three concentric sets of rings revolving on the south-north polar axis. The relative position of the rings could be adjusted to reflect the precession of the equinoxes and the regression of the Moon's nodes along the ecliptic. To counterbalance the defect caused by too many rings, Guo Shoujing from the late thirteenth century constructed the Simplified Instruments which reorganized the rings of the armillary sphere into separate instruments for measuring equatorial coordinates and horizontal coordinates. The armillary sphere was still preserved because it was a good illustration of celestial movements. A fifteenth-century replica of Guo Shoujing's armillary sphere still exists today.

  17. Biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tao, Xiuxiang; Shi, Kaiyi [School of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The biosolubilisation of coal is a promising coal processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient conditions. In this study, the biosolubilisation of Chinese lignite was studied using a fungus isolated from decaying wood. The intensity of biosolubilisation was determined by estimating the liquid formation time and by measuring the weight loss of the lignite granules gravimetrically. The biosolubilisation product (black liquid) was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, element analysis, and heating value. Results showed that this fungus isolated from the decaying wood solubilised 31.83% (by weight) of Chinese lignite to black liquid within 11 days at 27.5 C. The biosolubilisation product mainly contained aromatic acids and chain hydrocarbons, and had organic function groups of hydroxyl, cyclane, carbonyl, ether linkage and aromatic rings. The heating value of the biosolubilisation product was 14 MJ/kg. Chemical analysis of the biosolubilisation product indicated that side chains of lignite were important structures in the biosolubilisation mechanism. (author)

  18. Projection of drought hazards in China during twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulian; Wang, Yongli; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenbin; Jin, Shaofei; Han, Mingchen

    2017-06-01

    Drought is occurring with increased frequency under climate warming. To understand the behavior of drought and its variation in the future, current and future drought in the twenty-first century over China is discussed. The drought frequency and trend of drought intensity are assessed using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is calculated based on historical meteorological observations and outputs of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The simulation results of drought period, defined by PDSI class, could capture more than 90% of historical drought events. Projection results indicate that drought frequency will increase over China in the twenty-first century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the mid-twenty-first century (2021-2050), similar patterns of drought frequency are found under the three emission scenarios, and annual drought duration would last 3.5-4 months. At the end of the twenty-first century (2071-2100), annual drought duration could exceed 5 months in northwestern China as well as coastal areas of eastern and southern China under the RCP8.5 scenario. Drought is slightly reduced over the entire twenty-first century under the RCP2.6 scenario, whereas drought hazards will be more serious in most regions of China under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  19. Genetic Algorithm for Chinese Postman Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hua; Kang Li-shan

    2003-01-01

    Chinese Postman Problem is an unsettled graphic problem. It was approached seldom by evolutionary computation. Now we use genetic algorithm to solve Chinese Postman Problem in undirected graph and get good results. It could be extended to solve Chinese postman problem in directed graph. We make these efforts for exploring in optimizing the mixed Chinese postman problem.

  20. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment beh

  1. Multicultural Awareness for the Classroom: The Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Felix Mario; And Others

    This guide provides the teacher of multiethnic students with information and teaching resources on Chinese. An historical overview of China and the Chinese experience in America is presented in English and Chinese. Several lesson plans and classroom activities reviewing Chinese geography, holidays, legends, and stories are presented. (APM)

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  3. What Should American-Born Chinese Children Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shirley

    This paper discusses the teaching of Chinese to both students with Chinese background and students with non-Chinese background. It is suggested that students with a Chinese background be separated from those without a Chinese background in order not to discourage the latter group from studying Chinese. Chinese background students should be taught…

  4. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  5. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  6. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  7. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  8. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  9. The Analysis of the Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓慧

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of pragmatic studies, politeness has aroused great interest among Chinese scholars. Different cultures have different traditions and values, which bring out different understanding and application of politeness strategies. Great Chinese culture brings out the complicated Chinese politeness scale. A successful communication depends on politeness principle. Learning the Chinese politeness scale will make we know more about the Chinese culture. By researching this, we will perform better in communication.

  10. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  11. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese companies and their global partners. However, Chinese outbound investment faces many hurdles both at home and outside. This article analyzes some of the main aspects in relation to regulatory hurdles, political obstacles as well as environmental, labor and financial challenges primarily focusing......-Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...... on investments in the mining industry....

  12. Clinical Features of Chinese of Chinese Patients with Fuchs' Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peizeng Yang,; Haoli Jin,; Bing Li,; Xuan Chen,; Kijlstra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the clinical features of Chinese patients with Fuchs' syndrome. Design: Retrospective noncomparative case series. Participants: One hundred eighteen eyes of 104 consecutive patients with Fuchs' syndrome initially examined between January 1999 and March 2005. Methods: The his

  13. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  14. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  15. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  16. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  17. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  18. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Dr. Zhao Honored Dr. Zhao Xuefang is in charge of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of the Changzhi City People’s Hospital in Shanxi Province. On April 23, 1994, she received from the hands of Qian Zhengying, Vice-Chairman of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the first Norman Bethune Medal, granted by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Labor and Personnel. Since Dr. Zhao began working in the medical field in 1963, she has continued to improve her techniques. After more than 30 years in medicine, she has treated thousands of patients without incident. Though Dr. Zhao has been diagnosed with cancer and has had two operations, she has continued to heal the wounded and rescue the dying. Her only wish is to relieve the pain of more patients as long as she can. —China Women’s News

  19. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Beijing Celebrates 10th Anniversary of the CWJA On March 20, more than 200 female journalists gathered in Beijing together to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Capital Women Journalists’ Association. The celebration, ended with the establishment of a women’s media supervision network. Since its founding in March 1986, the CWJA has accomplished a great deal in uniting as many female journalists as possible. The association has made great strides in developing socialist journalism, promoting exchanges between Chinese and foreign female journalists, reporting on the achievements of women from all walks of life, and safeguarding the legal rights of women. The CWJA membership has grown from the original 5,000 women from 60 media units, to the current total of more than 7,000 from nearly 100 media units.

  20. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Application of Mass Media and English Han cui xia (ShanDong BinZhou medical college ShanDong YanTai 264003)Read and Write Periodica,vol.9, No.5,16,2012(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese ) Abstract: Rapid technological development of mass media and Internt chances of improvement. This paper analyzes the present situation of adult teaching and learning of English and the application of mass media and Internet in it in the hope of changing the present situation and improving the effect in order for adult learners to benefit more from it.. Key words: mass media; Internet; adult education; teaching and learning of English

  1. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer non......Chinese participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning......, fun, and cultural authenticity. While this form of tangible computing proved engaging, it raises technical issues of how to convey appropriately the interactive elements without the help of the evaluator, and how to evaluate user satisfaction. We also briefly discuss more embodied and spatial...

  2. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March2010,

  3. Tone features in whispered Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xueli; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    Study on the whispered tone is important to speech recognition and conversion in whispered Chinese. In this paper, the characteristics of whispered speech are introduced and the tone features in whispered Chinese are discussed. There is no fundamental frequency in the whispered speech, so other features, such as the amplitude envelope, duration, glottal area, lip area, forrnant, and vocal tract length, are extracted and their contributions to the automatic tone recognition are compared. From the experiments with six simple Chinese whispered vowels in four tones, it is proved that loudness-weighted 32 Mel-frequency bands log-amplitude envelopes and duration can be used as the main tone features in the whispered Chinese tone recognition. The average tone recognition rate approaches that of the human perception level.

  4. Soundscape of classical Chinese garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With deep humanized connotation,the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena.It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.

  5. What Next for Chinese Football?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives.

  6. Globally Oriented Chinese Plastics Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Zhengpin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Through continued endeavor and persistent opening to the whole world the Chinese plastics industry has been developed into a comprehensive industrial system that forms the basic material industries side by side with the steel, cement and the timber industry.

  7. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  8. Chinese Women’s College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Women’s College is located in Yuhuidong Road, in northeast Beijing. The name of the college was written by Jiang Zemin, President of the People’s Republic of China in August 1995 to honor the school.

  9. Twenty-five years of excellence: a retrospective glance of Acta Mechanica Sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Dong Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first version of Acta Mechanica Sinica (AMS) was launched in June 1985 in Beijing, aimed at delivering the cutting-on-edge progress and achievement in Mechanics in China to the world, allowing world-round colleagues to access the work of Chinese mechanician, and supplying an international forum in the field.

  10. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  11. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  12. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  13. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  14. Chinese Loan Words in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜战莹

    2015-01-01

    English language is the most common working language.In the history of its development,English has widened its vocabulary by borrowing.Borrowing plays an important role in the formation of modern English.Chinese loan words are a part in the family of all the loan words.Therefore,the number of loan words which originate from Chinese is not that great,but they hold an important role in contemporary English.

  15. Insecurity and Chinese: US Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    social implications) China must ensure a steady flow of required resources. As China matmes, it will be increasingly pressed to expand its global...fall into the trap of viewing China as a less than modern state and the Chinese as unsophisticated people (much as the view of the Japanese prior to...Sources of Chinese Oil.. ... ~ .............................................. ,..... 24 Table 4. Competing Claims within the South China Sea

  16. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Chinese Movements and Social Controls 6. AUTHOR Michelle S. Mui 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...reform era and the various methods of social control used by the Chinese government to deal with them. The thesis will use historical data and...imprisonment and forced exile. The thesis will also explore the evolution of social control over the decades of social change in China . What

  17. Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; Shou-Dong Lee; Full-Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN)treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients.METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient clinic of Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Chronic hepatitis C was defined as persistent presence of anti-HCV and persistent elevation of liver transaminase for at least 1.5 folds for at least 6 months. Moreover, patients were further categorized into normal fasting glucose and glucose intolerance (diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose) according to the diagnostic criteria of American Diabetic Association. RESULTS: Totally, 359 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled (212 males and 147 females, mean age=58.1±13.0 years). One hundred and twenty-three patients (34.3 %) had various forms of IFN treatment. One hundred and twenty-five patients (34.6 %)had glucose intolerance, including 99 patients (27.6 %) with DM and 26 patients (7.0 %) with impaired fasting glucose.Tn comparison with those with normal fasting glucose levels,patients with chronic hepatitis C with glucose intolerance were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index, and they were more likely to suffer from obesity, to have family history of diabetes and to have had previous IFN treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly that age ≥ 57 years, obesity,previous history of IFN treatment and the presence of family history of diabetes were independent risk factors associated with the presence of glucose intolerance in chronic hepatitis C patients.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 34.6 % of Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C had glucose intolerance. Chronic hepatitis C patients who

  18. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  19. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  20. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  1. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  2. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  3. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  4. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    political and ecological aspirations, rather than by a sound analysis of State practice. State practice during non-international armed conflicts does...Chipka were visited in the English Channel, the German Las Palmas twenty-two nautical miles south of Cape Vicent and the German Archsum fifty-four

  5. 22 CFR 181.5 - Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements. 181.5 Section 181.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND..., including the Department of State, that concludes an international agreement within the meaning of the Act...

  6. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  7. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  8. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  9. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  10. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  11. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunitie

  12. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  13. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  14. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  15. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  16. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  17. Land and Freedom [Twenty Lessons for High School American Studies Classroom Instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Stan

    Twenty self-contained lessons about land and freedom feature activities that can be used with high school social studies classes. The lessons are: Indian Land Ownership, The Dutch and the New World, Colonial Mercantilism, the Declaration and Natural Rights, Jefferson and Liberty, Louisiana Purchase, the Tariff Issue of 1824, Panic of 1837, John…

  18. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  19. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  20. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  1. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  2. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  3. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  4. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  5. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  6. Twenty-One: cross-language disclosure and retrieval of multimedia documents on sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, ter W.G.; Beijert, J.-H.; Bruin, de G.; Gent, van J.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Netter, K.; Smart, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Twenty-One project brings together environmental organisations, technology providers and research institutes from several European countries. The main objective of the project is to make documents on environmental issues—in particular, on the subject of sustainable development—available on CD-RO

  7. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  8. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  9. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  10. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  11. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  12. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  13. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  14. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  15. Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Wong, Rosa S; Li, Sophia L; Chan, Ko Ling; Ho, Frederick K; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2016-12-01

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) can lead to adverse mental health outcomes in adulthood, but its potential impact on Chinese populations is still unclear. This meta-analysis is the first to examine the association between CPA and mental health outcomes in Chinese populations. Studies published before December 31, 2014 were identified from Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Studies with data on the association between CPA and mental health outcomes from Chinese subjects were included. Twenty-four studies were initially identified but two were excluded because of poor quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data to generate summary effect sizes using a random-effects meta-analytic model. A priori subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias in these studies. Our meta-analysis of 22 studies found a significant positive association between CPA and overall mental health outcomes among all Chinese subjects (pooled effect size: odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.87, 2.49]) and among community samples (pooled effect size: OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.71, 2.48]). Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria, CPA was more strongly associated with Axis II (OR = 2.62, 95% CI [2.13, 3.22]) than Axis I disorders (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.58, 2.17]). The detrimental effects of CPA on mental health outcomes in Chinese populations were comparable to, if not more than, the West. Contrary to the Chinese belief that physical punishment is a safe way to discipline children, our findings highlight the potential harm to mental health and the need to change this parenting practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  17. Chinese medicinal herbs for cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tao; Chen, Jun; Jin, Shuli J; Wang, Yiping

    2013-06-29

    Cholelithiasis is a common disease of the biliary tract. Chinese medicinal herbs are being used widely as an alternative treatment in people with cholelithiasis, but their beneficial or harmful effects have not been assessed systematically. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of Chinese medicinal herbs in people with cholelithiasis. We conducted searches in the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese Medicine Conference Disc, and Chinese Bio-Medicine Disc to January 2013. We handsearched four Chinese journals. No language or year of publication restrictions were applied. Randomised clinical trials studying Chinese medicinal herbs for treatment of cholelithiasis. Two review authors (SJ, TG) independently extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR), and for continuous data, we calculated the mean difference. We also calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eleven randomised trials with 1205 participants with asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate cholelithiasis were included. None of the randomised clinical trials compared a single Chinese medicinal herb with a Western medicine or with surgery. No placebo-controlled trials were identified. In the trials comparing one Chinese herbal medicine (Gandanxiaoshi tablet) versus another (Aihuodantong tablet), there was no significant difference in the improvement of upper abdominal pain after the end of treatment (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.71 to 2.05), and the heterogeneity among trials was not substantial. No other outcomes could be assessed. The remaining trials of Chinese medicinal herbs (Qingdan capsule, Danshu capsule, Paishi capsule, Rongdanpaishi capsule), did not offer specific data on symptoms, signs, or change in gallstones that would permit assessment of significant differences in curative effects between the treatment and control

  18. Registered nurses integrate traditional Chinese medicine into the triage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sharon W

    2012-02-01

    People in the United States often consult registered nurses (nurses) for advice when they want to explore alternatives to Western medicine, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Nurses find themselves confronting dilemmas when they are caught between these radically different worlds of medical cultures and thinking. Twenty Minnesota nurses were interviewed to learn how they integrate TCM into their triage process. Symbolic interactionism was the research framework used, and mixed coding methods facilitated data analysis. Several sociological theories explain the findings. The major finding is that nurses use a four-step triage process that begins from the Western medical perspective and includes consideration of TCM use. Nurses' recommendations are influenced by their situational roles and relationships, and by the cues they read from the person who is asking their advice. The results point to nurses being natural disseminators of TCM information and education in their resource role for others making health care decisions.

  19. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive Warm-up in Jiang Hua (Department of Foreign Language, Modern College of Northwest University, Xi'an 710130, China)Read and Write Perodica,vol.9,No.10,10,2012 (ISSN1672 -1578,in, Chinese) Abstract: Classroom teaching activities should be an interactive process, which includes not only interaction between teachers and students but also includes the interaction between students and learning materials and the interaction between students and design activities in class. These interaction processes will directly affect the students learning interest and the effect. So classroom interactions are very important. But how to present these interactions well and make them educational in the classroom is a question which needs considered carefully by teachers. Because of the warm-up is the key part for teachers to introduce the whole unit and stimulate the interests of students, this article mainly discusses the warming-up part of college English teaching, to improve the classroom interactions, and stimulate the students' study enthusiasm and the initiative. Key words: Interaction; Educational; Warm-up

  20. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  1. Military Culture and Counterinsurgency in the Twenty First Century: Defeating Boko Haram in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    poll/152780/Northern-Nigerians-Views-Not-Line-Boko- Haram.aspx accessed (20 March 2013) 95 Ibid. 96 Mark Moyar, Pheonix and the Bird of Prey...Cambridge University Press, 2003. Moyar, Mark. Pheonix and the Bird of Prey: Counterinsurgency and counterterrorism in Vietnam. Lincoln: University...Leadership. CA: Wiley Imprint , 2004. Tzu Sun, Art of War, Translated from Chinese by Lionel Giles. London: Oriental Printed Books, 1910. Weigley

  2. Involvement in Preschools: Comparing Chinese Immigrant and Non-Chinese Parents in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qilong; Keown, Louise; Farruggia, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study compared 120 Chinese immigrant parents and 127 non-Chinese parents from New Zealand preschools on their level of involvement in preschool-based activities, as well as key predictors of parental involvement. Results showed that Chinese immigrant parents had a lower level of involvement than non-Chinese parents across three forms of…

  3. The Meaning of "Being Chinese" and "Being American." Variation among Chinese American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how meanings of being Chinese and being American varied among young adults, examining orientations to Chinese and American cultures and noting cultural domains upon which being Chinese and being American were based. Surveys of Chinese American college students who were American-born or immigrants indicated that the meanings attached…

  4. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  5. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  7. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  8. New Poetics of the Film Body: Docility, Molecular Fundamentalism and Twenty First Century Destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Susan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty first century film evokes a new topology of the body. Science and technology are the new century’s ‘sovereign power’ which enforces biopolitics through bodies which, by virtue of being seen at their most fundamental level, have become docile surfaces. The film body is at once manipulated and coerced into an ethos of optimization; a thoroughly scientific and ‘molecular’ optimization which proffers ‘normalization’ and intimately regulated bodies. In the film bodies of this millennium, bodily intervention results in surveillance becoming internalized. Now the body is both a means and an end of social control. This essay applies the philosophies Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose to twenty first century Hollywood film, elucidating a new tropos, a new film body/body of film.

  9. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  10. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  11. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmas Demircioğlu Karabıyık

    2015-01-01

    .... Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum...

  12. Determinants of Global Competitiveness of Chinese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmas Demircioglu Karabiyik

    2016-01-01

    .... Main aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of the global competitiveness of Chinese economy by considering economic development process of the Chinese economy and World Economic Forum...

  13. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  14. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  15. A Primer on Chinese Music Instruments Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuSan

    2005-01-01

    Chinese traditional musical instruments, with a history of 8,000 years, are known for their diverse forms and types. The qualities, functions and materials of these instrunents reflect the unique aesthetic value of Chinese traditional music.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  17. Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa%Chinese Private Direct Investment and Overseas Chinese Network in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2011-01-01

    Based on extensive interviews in China and in Africa over 2 years, the present paper investigates Chinese private direct investment in Africa. Drawing on the Swedish Uppsala model, we explore two mian issues. First, do Chinese private enterprises follow t

  18. Translating Chinese Zero Anaphoric Subjects into English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher-leng

    1993-01-01

    Deals with a major difference between European languages and Chinese, namely the sparse use of anaphoric reference in Chinese. Suggests that the translator's way of rendering references will affect the interpretational potential of the text in the target language. (NKA)

  19. Chinese Silk in Tibetan Buddhism Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese traditional silk has held a special place in Chinese tex-tile history as its great contribution to the development of economy and culture of all ethnic groups as well as international exchanges.From time immemorial,

  20. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  1. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  2. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  3. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  4. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  5. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  6. Monetary Policy Implementation and Results in Twenty Inflation-Targeting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel.; Matías Tapia

    2002-01-01

    Inflation targeting is an increasingly popular monetary regime among industrialized and developing central banks. However, there is little cross-country comparative information about commonalties and differences in monetary policy implementation and results across inflation-targeting countries. This paper presents the results of a survey on monetary policy conducted among the world’s twenty central banks that currently target inflation. Survey responses highlight operational features of monet...

  7. Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, G.R.; Bacho, A.; Karmis, M. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research are presented. The Conference was held in Blacksburg, Virginia on August 28-30, 1995 and covered such topics as themes of change, miner`s safety, personal and corporate liability, behavioral changes and positive reinforcement, and meeting health and safety objectives in mining operations. A separate abstract was prepared for the thirteen papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. A Summary of the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (AAAI-15) was held in January 2015 in Austin, Texas (USA) The conference program was cochaired by Sven Koenig and Blai Bonet. This report contains reflective summaries of the main conference, the robotics program, the AI and robotics workshop, the virtual agent exhibition, the what's hot track, the competition panel, the senior member track, student and outreach activities, the student abstract and poster program, the doctoral conso...

  9. RHD gene polymorphism among RhD-negative Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群; 张建业; 王勤友; 张世训; 司桂玲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of eight RHD specific exons in 131 Han Chinese blood donors who were classified as RhD-negative by serological methods and explore the genomic structure of RHD gene among the Han Chinese. The Rh blood group system has the highest prevalence of polymorphisms among human blood group systems and is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. The Rh antigens are expressed on polypeptides encoded by two highly homologous genes, RHD and RHCE. Recent molecular studies have shown that the RhD-negative trait could be generated by multiple genetic mechanisms and is ethnic group-dependent.Methods The polymerase chain reaction using-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to amplify exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 of RHD gene and exons 1, 2 and 5 of RHCE gene, as well as intron 4 in each of them.Results The 131 cases of RhD-negative phenotypes consisted of 60 ccee, 58 Ccee, 5 ccEe, 5 CcEe and 3 CCee. Among them, 83 with the Rh ccee or ccEe phenotypes (63.4%) lacked the eight RHD exons indicated above, while 26 cases with the Rh Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (19.9%) had all the RHD exons examined. Twenty-two individuals with the Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (16.8%) carried at least one RHD exon. The phenotypes of the RhD negative individuals carrying the RHD gene were Rh CC or Cc, but not cc. Conclusions Three classes of RhD-negative polymorphisms among a population of Han Chinese were observed. Antigen association analysis suggested the existence of a novel class of RhD-negative associated haplotype in Han Chinese. This haplotype consisted of a normal RHCE allele and a nonfunctional RHD gene. It may be beneficial to redefine the RhD-negative blood group among Chinese populations upon clarification of the mechanisms of RHD gene expression and RhD antigen immunization.

  10. Distalization of maxillary molars for Class Ⅱ malocclusion with Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yin-zhong; WU Jun-jie; CHEN Xue-peng; QIAN Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs appliance on distalization of maxillary molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchorage teeth. Methods :Twenty four adolescent patients(12 boys,12 girls) with Class Ⅱ malocclusion were selected and the coil springs appliance was used during the treatment. Pre and postdistalization lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed and compared. Results: The average time for the correction of Class Ⅱ molar relationship was 4. 6 months. And the mean distance of molar distalization was 4.4 mm. The Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs also demostrated less tipping and better bodily movement of maxillary molars. Conclusion: This study suggests that the Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance distalizes the upper molar significantly, while there is no remarkable loss of anchorage because of patients' wearing headgear with J hooks at night and Class Ⅱ elastics in the day time.

  11. Genetic association between BDNF gene polymorphisms and phobic disorders: a case-control study among mainland Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Wang, Binbin; Suo, Peisu; Kou, Changgui; Wang, Jing; Meng, Xiangfei; Cheng, Longfei; Ma, Xu; Yu, Yaqin

    2011-07-01

    Phobic disorders are a common group of syndromes comprising persistently recurring, irrational severe anxiety of specific objects, activities, or situations with avoidance behavior of the phobic stimulus. The present study investigated the association between whole region polymorphisms, (including the Val66Met variant), in the BDNF gene and phobic disorders among Han Chinese young adults. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the genetic association between BDNF polymorphisms and phobic disorders among mainland Chinese. One hundred and twenty young adults with phobic disorders and 267 matched controls were recruited. Three tag SNPs of BDNF were successfully genotyped by using PCR-based ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR). We found significant differences in allele distributions of SNP rs10835210 (Pphobic disorders and BDNF haplotype CAC (P=0.004). Association was significant after 10(4) permutation tests (Petiology of phobic disorders in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  13. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  14. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  15. Moon Cakes, A Chinese Favorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINA is a nation with many ethnic groups. Thus, there are many legends to explain the nation’s many festivals. The largest and most striking of these festivals are the Spring Festival and Midautumn Festival. Anywhere Chinese people go, they will remember and celebrate these two festivals. The Mid-autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the 8th lunar month. In this festival, Chinese people eat moon cakes, a baked food, with a flour crust around a dense filling. Coming in a great variety of flavors and styles, the moon cake carries a great deal of symbolic significance. The moon cake is round like the moon. "Round" is pronounced "yuan" in Chinese. This character is full of good meanings. When used in reference to a

  16. English Loan Words in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦

    2016-01-01

    During the process of language contact, a lot of language changes may appear, among which lexical borrowing, the ori-gin lexical item from one language being used by another language, is one of the most common phenomena. As a result of glo-balization, the frequent contact with western culture and the English language has brought a huge amount of lexical borrowings to the Chinese language. This paper mainly looks at the language contact of the English loan words in Chinese in the following three methods, namely transliteration, semantic loan and a mixture of the two respectively. The discussion over the examination will contribute to the understanding of English as a lingua franca and its language contact with Chinese.

  17. Lead in Chinese villager house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan

    2016-04-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to children's blood Pb. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with geometric mean and median concentration of 54 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg, respectively. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decorative materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decorative materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Pb bearing particles appeared as cylindrical, flaky and irregular aggregates with the particle size ranging from about 10 to 800 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) suggested that Pb in the dust particles may be associated with calcium compounds. But the major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling order as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb.

  18. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  19. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  20. Writing Concepts in Chinese Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia

    1994-01-01

    This study focuses on how Chinese writing instruction can cause negative interference for Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language students writing in English. The study shows that in Chinese writing, the main idea can be more general, as a theme, or specific, as a thesis statement. It can also come at the beginning or end of a paper, and the writer…

  1. Chinese Information Processing and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Tie-Jun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents some main progresses and achievements in Chinese information processing. It focuses on six aspects, I.e., Chinese syntactic analysis, Chinese semantic analysis, machine translation, information retrieval, information extraction, and speech recognition and synthesis. The important techniques and possible key problems of the respective branch in the near future are discussed as well.

  2. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  3. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  4. Constraint-based Word Segmentation for Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...

  5. Mamma Mia!Hits Chinese Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese version of Broadway’s musical sensation set to run for six months The Chinese version of Mamma Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world,has come to China,to demonstrate the charm of the musical to Chinese citizens in three major cities in 2011.

  6. A Cultural Perspective on Chinese Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofang

    2011-01-01

    Politeness is a universal phenomenon, but its actual manifestations and the standards for judgment are culturally different. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese politeness from a cultural perspective. It aims to improve our understanding of Chinese politeness and our knowledge of Chinese traditional culture and undertake interpersonal communication successfully.

  7. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  8. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  9. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  10. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  11. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  12. Chinese Journal of Lasers (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-22

    Qi Changhong , and Dai Fengmei, Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1980, p54. [23) Nd-doped glass heat deformation group, Chinese Journal of...No. 1, 1983, p49. [46] Qi Changhong and Gan Fuxi, Chinese Journal of Optical Emission and Display, No. 3, 1983, pl. [47] Zheng He and Gan Fuxi, Laser

  13. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  14. Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs One of the most famous journals about Chinese herbal medicines in China.The journal started publication monthly since January 1970,is an academic and technical journal sponsored by Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research.The journal which has a long history over 40 years offers the columns of

  15. Investigation of Chinese Compliment Response Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽敏

    2015-01-01

    Chinese compliment response strategies are different from western’s.According to the investigation of Chinese politeness,the compliment strategies,and the analysis of the examples,writer summarizes Chinese strategies of Compliment response.The results could be benefit for the cross-cultural communication.

  16. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  17. A Cultural Context for Chinese Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the historical and cultural influences on the current Chinese legal system. The impact of Confucianism and socialism on social values and on the organization of the Chinese legal system are described. Social changes are forcing the Chinese to evolve a more formal court system. (AM)

  18. Chinese Family Culture in the Ascendant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN the mid 1980s, Chinese family culture started in Shanghai. Now, more than ten years later, it has spread to cities and the countryside all over China The rise of Chinese family culture cannot be separated from the improved economic development. Reform and opening to the outside world greatly increased the living standard of Chinese families. Many people are in pursuit of

  19. Twenty-first century Arctic climate change in the CCSM3 IPCC scenario simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Haiyan; Washington, Warren M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; Buja, Lawrence E.; Strand, Gary W. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Arctic climate change in the Twenty-first century is simulated by the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3). The simulations from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) are analyzed using eight (A1B and B1) or five (A2) ensemble members. The model simulates a reasonable present-day climate and historical climate trend. The model projects a decline of sea-ice extent in the range of 1.4-3.9% per decade and 4.8-22.2% per decade in winter and summer, respectively, corresponding to the range of forcings that span the scenarios. At the end of the Twenty-first century, the winter and summer Arctic mean surface air temperature increases in a range of 4-14 C (B1 and A2) and 0.7-5 C (B1 and A2) relative to the end of the Twentieth century. The Arctic becomes ice-free during summer at the end of the Twenty-first century in the A2 scenario. Similar to the observations, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominant factor in explaining the variability of the atmosphere and sea ice in the 1870-1999 historical runs. The AO shifts to the positive phase in response to greenhouse gas forcings in the Twenty-first century. But the simulated trends in both Arctic mean sea-level pressure and the AO index are smaller than what has been observed. The Twenty-first century Arctic warming mainly results from the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases. The 1st empirical orthogonal function (explains 72.2-51.7% of the total variance) of the wintertime surface air temperature during 1870-2099 is characterized by a strong warming trend and a ''polar amplification''-type of spatial pattern. The AO, which plays a secondary role, contributes to less than 10% of the total variance in both surface temperature and sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  20. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  1. Ikea success in chinese furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Yihong, Li

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the market exploiting and development of IKEA in China, analysis the characteristics of Chinese market and the supply-demand of the IKEA products in China. It also analyze the main Chinese consumers’ behaviour and evaluating the furniture retail market in China. IKEA is a successful case to open the china market recent years. The main goal is to acquire this information in order to provide the overseas retailers with a good starting point for creating an effective bu...

  2. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  3. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  4. Chinese Hailed "National Fitness Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN March, 1994, Liu Ji, Vice Minister of the State Physical Culture and Sports Commission (SPCSC) announced the "National Fitness Program" on behalf of Chinese government at the World Sports-for-All Congress in Uruguay. Almost all the participants thought it important to carry out the program in a country with a population of 1.2 billion. It not only helps improve Chinese people’s health but also the world’s average standard of health. The "National Fitness Program" is an overall, century-spanning, systematic project, which is snowballing. In 1994, the SPCSC issued the One-Two-One Project of the

  5. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  6. Brilliance Auto: Chinese, Global, Successful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      As the only automobile sponsor of BOAO FORUM FOR ASIA in April 2004, Brilliance Auto had a great opportunity to show her 'New Zhonghua" sedan which is an upper-medium car with completely independent intellectual property rights and repre sents the independent development philosophy of Brilliance Auto and is especially made for business personnel. The development pattern of Zhonghua sedan set a brand new model in Chinese auto industry to utilize the global resources and talents and international division of labor in the international arena, and she has become a typical sample of independent brand sedans in the contemporary Chinese auto industry.……

  7. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    between a Chinese Taijiquan master and a Western mixed- martial arts opponent.111 111...Taijiquan—which translates as supreme ultimate fist—is a style of martial arts that emphasizes softness to overcome hardness, and focuses on internal...energy instead of external, physical force. There is no equivalent to Taiji in Western pugilistic systems. Mixed- martial arts , is a pugilistic sport

  8. Chinese Network Language and Its Influences on Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧尔; 王芳芳

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet communication in China, more and more people use computers and Chinese Internet Language becomes very popular. This paper has a brief introduction of CIL from the perspective of vocabulary and tense, and discusses CIL’s influences on language teaching and multi-literacy.

  9. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  10. The influence of Chinese culture on family caregivers of stroke survivors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xichenhui; Sit, Janet W H; Koo, Fung Kuen

    2017-07-05

    To explore and describe the caregiving experiences of Chinese stroke caregivers. Previous research has indicated that culture can have a significant impact on the stroke caregiving experience. Moreover, scant research exists on stroke caregivers' experience within the Chinese culture. A qualitative descriptive design was used. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 25 family caregivers of stroke survivors. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed. Content analysis was also performed. Twenty-five family caregivers of stroke survivors were recruited for the study. On average, respondents were 66 years old (range 45-82 years). Of 25 interviewees, 76% were female, 64% were spouse-caregivers and 36% were children-caregivers. Three themes reflecting the influence of Chinese culture on stroke caregiving emerged from the interviews. (i) Caregiving role perception. Informants accepted caregiving for the sick family member as an expected part of life, a culturally prescribed obligation and an expression of reciprocal love. (ii) Coping strategies. Connecting with family resources and connecting with inner strength were frequently reported coping strategies. (iii) Self-sacrifice. Informants identified self-reliance and feeling of restraint in their utilisation or access of formal caregiving service. Chinese caregivers sacrifice themselves for the care recipients regardless of the hardships and the neglect of their own health. Our findings provide a comprehensive and culturally sensitive perspective in understanding the experience of stroke caregivers in Chinese communities. Cultural and religious backgrounds were found to influence Chinese stroke caregivers' experience, coping strategies and self-sacrifice behaviour in idiosyncratic ways. Research on the practice of culture can serve as a basis for the formulation of specific policies and effective interventions for supporting stroke caregivers of different cultural backgrounds. © 2017 The

  11. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  12. Water and Stone: Contemporary Chinese Art and the Spirit Resonance of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Bittner Wiseman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available My claim that the new art in China operates at the level of matter and gesture, below that of discourse, is twofold. First, much of the art that is being made exemplifies principles articulated by Hsieh Ho (fifth century and Shih Tao (seventeenth century and refracted through the changes wrought by Mao in 1949 and Deng in 1979. Through their art, experimental Chinese artists ask what can art be in a world turned upside down, and what can it be to be artist in such a world and, in particular, to be a Chinese artist. Second, in the course of working through these questions, the artists have resorted to an art that is an operation on matter, a matter inseparable from energy, and it is the artist’s activity, as much as what issues from it, that puts the artist in lockstep with the movement of the world of the twenty-first century.

  13. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  14. Image, Imagery Thinking and the Twenty -four Poetry Style%意象、意象思维与《二十四诗品》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金路杰

    2012-01-01

    Imagery thinking is the unique ancient Chinese way of thinking, both in poetry writing and poetry review. The author uses images to express his mind. Sikong Tu's Twenty -Your Poetry Style in the Tang Dynasty is absolutely the aesthetic model in which there are intensive image groups constituted by the refining phrases in the text, in order to reflect the classical poetics. On the other hand, Sikong Tu is not only a theorist but also a poet; the book contains a profound meaning.%意象思维是中国古代特有一种思维方式,无论是诗歌创作还是诗学评论,即通过意象来表达作者的情思。唐代司空图的《二十四诗品》无疑就是其中的美学典范,文本中有着大量的精炼性词组构成的密集意象群,以此来体现古典文人的诗歌创作论和诗歌批评论。同时由于司空图的妙笔生花,《诗品》集诗学与诗歌一体的文本特殊性,又分析了《诗品》意象下所隐含的精神内涵。

  15. Discursive Construction of Chinese Language Teacher Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL 1 (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (Bianco, 2009; Cruickshank, 2011; Gao, 2012; Zhang & Jensen, 2013; Zhang, 2013); however, whilst insightful, this research has...... not addressed the ways in which Chinese language teachers identify themselves while interacting with students and how they construct their identities as TCFL teachers in other cultures. In this study, I address this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of three native Chinese language teachers...... (NCLTs) 2 teaching Chinese to Danish students....

  16. Approaches in Treating AIDS with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维柏

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world

  17. Recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijian, E-mail: weijian@loess.llqg.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Xingjun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beck, Warren [NSF-Arizona AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kong, Xianghui; Xian, Feng; Du, Yajuan; Wu, Zhenkun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Studies of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in Chinese loess began about twenty-five years ago and since then a number of research groups worldwide have contributed to a firm understanding of the production, transport, deposition and storage of {sup 10}Be in loess. The essential characteristics that make {sup 10}Be a useful isotopic tracer in loess, include: (1) dominant atmospheric production directly linked to the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field; (2) climate-dependent deposition; and (3) subsequent immobility, so that as {sup 10}Be accumulates in a loess profile its stratigraphic integrity is preserved. This fact, combined with very high deposition rates in loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau, makes {sup 10}Be an especially valuable continental archive of paleoclimate and paleomagnetism, complementing marine and ice-core records. Here we provide in particular the most recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess, including the determination of the correct age of the Brunhes–Matuyama polarity reversal at 780 ± 3 ka B.P., in accord with marine and ice records, and quantitative reconstruction of 130-ka paleoprecipitation using {sup 10}Be from Chinese loess profiles.

  18. The biochemistry of vitamin B6 is basic to the cause of the Chinese restaurant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, K; Shizukuishi, S; Willis, R; Scudder, S L; Takemura, K; Longenecker, J B

    1984-03-01

    The concept of this basic research was that monosodium L-glutamate could reveal a deficiency of vitamin B6 by the neurological reactions known as the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. An other amino acid, tryptophan, administered to subjects, is known to reveal a deficiency of vitamin B6 by the excretory xanthurenic acid, etc. The presence and degree of a deficiency of vitamin B6 in 155 students on no supplemental B6 was determined by the differential assay of aspartate transaminase of erythrocytes which also allows each subject to be a control. Twenty-seven of 155 students had extraordinarily low basal specific activities of the transaminase, less than 0.26 mumol pyruvate/(h X 10(8) erythrocytes). These 27 were challenged with glutamate and a placebo. Twelve of 27 revealed the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, and 15 did not. By double blind trials, the 12 "responders" were treated with pyridoxine and a placebo for twelve weeks, and then were rechallenged with glutamate and a placebo. Decoding showed 3 of 12 received placebo to pyridoxine and then revealed the symptoms of the syndrome again to glutamate; 9 of 12 received pyridoxine and then 8 of 9 failed to respond to glutamate. These results show, p less than 0.01, that the symptoms of the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome to oral glutamate fail to reoccur after treatment which pyridoxine, and that the biochemistry of vitamin B6 is basic to the cause of the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.

  19. Three-dimensional facial analysis of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Siti Adibah; Aidil Koay, Noor Airin

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the facial features of Chinese children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and compared them with a normal control group using a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry camera. This cross-sectional study examined 3D measurements of the facial surfaces of 20 Chinese children with repaired UCLP and 40 unaffected Chinese children aged 7 to 12 years old, which were captured using the VECTRA 3D five-pod photosystem and analyzed using Mirror software. Twenty-five variables and two ratios were compared between both groups using independent t-test. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was determined using ten randomly selected images and analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient test (ICC). The level of significance was set at p cleft group exhibited wider alar base root width, flattened nose and broader nostril floor width on the cleft side. They tended to have shorter upper lip length and thinner upper vermillion thickness. Faces of Chinese children with repaired UCLP displayed meaningful differences when compared to the normal group especially in the nasolabial regions.

  20. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  1. Analysis on the Gap between Chinese and American Head-hunting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2014-01-01

    Although headhunter entered China more than twenty years, researches on it are far from enough. Current researches on human resource mainly focus on labor market and on-line job hunting. However, as a national strategic industry, develop-ment path of head-hunting industry deserves in-depth research. Based on previous studies and the status quo of domestic head-hunting industry, the below statements tries to analyze the domestic head-hunting industry and find out the gap between Chinese and American head-hunting industry.

  2. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteriafor Producing &alpha-Galactosidase from Chinese Traditional Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yong Du

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight kinds of Chinese traditional fermented foods were collected to isolate Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB with α-galactosidase activity, which could eliminated those α-Galactooligosaccharides (&alpha-GOS regarded as anti-nutritional factors widely existed in agricultural byproducts animal feeds. Three strains, including Lactobacillus salivarius XA1R (JX125455 and XH4B (JX125456 and Pediococcus acidilactici XS1B (JQ927329, could ferment well in soybean meal and other agricultural byproducts and had α-galactosidase activity 5.81-5.92 U/mL in soybean meal culture.

  3. Chinese Leadership Styles in Public Sector in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Considerable studies on Chinese leadership styles apply Western models to test Chinese managers, and then define Chinese leadership style with Western ideas. This study assumes that Chinese managers have their own leadership styles distinctive from Westerners and tried to investigate the cultural and historical origin of Chinese leadership style, especially to explore how Confucianism have affected and shaped Chinese leadership style in modern Chinese society. This study adopted a qualitative...

  4. Foreign Policies and Foreign Exchanges for Chinese Publishing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's present foreign publishing policies Chinese Government respects and protects intellectual property rights. Chinese Government always attaches importance to the exchange and cooperation between Chinese publishing industry and that of other countries, encourages and supports Chinese publishing industry to actively introduce foreign excellent works to Chinese readers, and meanwhile, also actively advocates introduction of Chinese excellent works to foreign readers. Our persistent guideline is to support and promote exchanges between Chinese and foreign publishing industries in all fields.

  5. Retrospective analysis on twenty Chinese cases of cystic fibrosis%20例中国人囊性纤维化回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苹莉; 景继勇; 沈华浩

    2008-01-01

    囊性纤维化(cystic fibrosis,CF)是一种常染色体隐性遗传病,因囊性纤维化跨膜传导调节因子(cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator,CFTR)的基因突变导致。该病在欧美白人中常见,发病率约1/2000,而在亚洲人中少见。日本根据1951—1993年间诊断的104例CF病例推测约每35万出生人口中有1例CF患者[1]。Powers等[2]。估计的亚洲印度人中CF发病率为1:10000~1:40750。

  6. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  7. A Model of Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    At a national conference at the end of May,the Chinese Government said partnership assistance in the past year had boosted development in northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region remarkably and called for greater support.Since March 2010,19provinces and municipalities have been each assigned a less developed region in Xinjiang to assist.

  8. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of ancient…

  9. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  10. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  11. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  12. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  13. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  14. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  15. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  16. Chinese Sculpture as Public Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinShuangxi

    2003-01-01

    Chinese arts have undergone tremendous changes thanks to the fast-growing modernization and urbanization process in China. One of the monumental changes is the emergence of “public art”, most notably, urban sculpture. This art is increasingly related to modern urban planning, architecture, and community building.

  17. Bilingual Education in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明勇

    2005-01-01

    This paper will consider both the general theory of bilingual education and the bilingual practice in Chinese universities. The necessity and possibility of carrying out bilingual education will be particularly dealt with. The current situation will be analyzed, namely, the achievements, the difficulties, and the solution and the future trend.

  18. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  19. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...

  20. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between