WorldWideScience

Sample records for twenty able-bodied subjects

  1. Physical work capacity after 7 wk of wheelchair training : effect of intensity in able-bodied subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Croonenborg, J J; Wolff, I; Dallmeijer, A J; Hollander, A P

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effects of a 7-wk wheelchair training program on physical work capacity in able-bodied subjects. Effects of training intensities of 50 and 70% heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) were studied for different subject groups. METHODS: Twenty-seven able-bodie

  2. Physical work capacity after 7 wk of wheelchair training : effect of intensity in able-bodied subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; van Croonenborg, J J; Wolff, I; Dallmeijer, A J; Hollander, A P

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effects of a 7-wk wheelchair training program on physical work capacity in able-bodied subjects. Effects of training intensities of 50 and 70% heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) were studied for different subject groups. METHODS: Twenty-seven

  3. Leg general muscle moment and power patterns in able-bodied subjects during recumbent cycle ergometry with ankle immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Straube, A; Fornusek, C

    2014-11-01

    Rehabilitation of persons with pareses commonly uses recumbent pedalling and a rigid pedal boot that fixes the ankle joint from moving. This study was performed to provide general muscle moments (GMM) and joint power data from able-bodied subjects performing recumbent cycling at two workloads. Twenty-six able-bodied subjects pedalled a stationary recumbent tricycle at 60 rpm during passive cycling and at two workloads (low 15 W and high 40 W per leg) while leg kinematics and pedal forces were recorded. GMM and power were calculated using inverse dynamic equations. During the high workload, the hip and knee muscles produced extensor/flexor moments throughout the extensions/flexions phases of the joints. For low workload, a prolonged (crank angle 0-258°) hip extension moment and a shortened range (350-150°) of knee extension moment were observed compared to the corresponding extension phases of each joint. The knee and hip joints generated approximately equal power. At the high workload the hip and knee extensors generated increased power in the propulsion phase. For the first time, this study provides GMM and power patterns for able-bodied subjects performing recumbent cycling with an immobilized ankle. The patterns showed greater similarities to upright cycling with a free ankle, than previously supposed.

  4. Gait phase detection in able-bodied subjects and dementia patients.

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    Meng, Xiaoli; Yu, Haoyong; Tham, Ming Po

    2013-01-01

    Accurate detection of gait phases allows identification of specific functional deficits at each phase of the gait cycle for motor function assessment. This paper proposes a robust gait phase detection method to identify the seven gait phases in overground walking for normal and pathologic gaits. Four inertial sensors are used to obtain knee angles, tibia angles and feet angular rate patterns in the sagittal plane. The key events segmenting the gait cycles are searched using an adaptive threshold in adaptive searching intervals to make sure it works well for different subjects with high variation in cadence and step length during walking. The subjects involved in this study are categorized into three groups: five healthy adult subjects, two healthy elderly subjects and two severe dementia patients. The experimental results have shown our method can reliably detect all gait phases for able-bodied subjects and dementia patients without subject-specific calibration.

  5. Complex network inference from P300 signals: Decoding brain state under visual stimulus for able-bodied and disabled subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Cai, Qing; Dong, Na; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Bo, Yun; Zhang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Distinguishing brain cognitive behavior underlying disabled and able-bodied subjects constitutes a challenging problem of significant importance. Complex network has established itself as a powerful tool for exploring functional brain networks, which sheds light on the inner workings of the human brain. Most existing works in constructing brain network focus on phase-synchronization measures between regional neural activities. In contrast, we propose a novel approach for inferring functional networks from P300 event-related potentials by integrating time and frequency domain information extracted from each channel signal, which we show to be efficient in subsequent pattern recognition. In particular, we construct brain network by regarding each channel signal as a node and determining the edges in terms of correlation of the extracted feature vectors. A six-choice P300 paradigm with six different images is used in testing our new approach, involving one able-bodied subject and three disabled subjects suffering from multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain and spinal-cord injury, respectively. We then exploit global efficiency, local efficiency and small-world indices from the derived brain networks to assess the network topological structure associated with different target images. The findings suggest that our method allows identifying brain cognitive behaviors related to visual stimulus between able-bodied and disabled subjects.

  6. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J

    2014-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  7. Glenohumeral contact forces and muscle forces evaluated in wheelchair-related activities of daily living in able-bodied subjects versus subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S; van der Woude, LH; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Angenot, EL; Chadwick, EK; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    Objective: To estimate the differences in glenohumeral contact forces and shoulder muscle forces between able-bodied subjects and subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia during wheelchair-related activities of daily living (ADLs). Design: Kinematics and external forces were measured during

  8. Glenohumeral contact forces and muscle forces evaluated in wheelchair-related activities of daily living in able-bodied subjects versus subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drongelen, S; van der Woude, LH; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Angenot, EL; Chadwick, EK; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the differences in glenohumeral contact forces and shoulder muscle forces between able-bodied subjects and subjects with paraplegia and tetraplegia during wheelchair-related activities of daily living (ADLs). Design: Kinematics and external forces were measured during wheelcha

  9. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini, Alberto; Berti, Lisa; Begon, Mickaël; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  10. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leardini

    Full Text Available It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  11. THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY

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    Matthew K. Seeley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles

  12. EMG-Based Continuous and Simultaneous Estimation of Arm Kinematics in Able-Bodied Individuals and Stroke Survivors

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    Jie Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the potential biological signals for human-machine interactions (brain, nerve, and muscle signals, electromyography (EMG widely used in clinical setting can be obtained non-invasively as motor commands to control movements. The aim of this study was to develop a model for continuous and simultaneous decoding of multi-joint dynamic arm movements based on multi-channel surface EMG signals crossing the joints, leading to application of myoelectrically controlled exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study including 10 stroke subjects and 10 able-bodied subjects. The subjects performed free arm reaching movements in the horizontal plane with an exoskeleton robot. The shoulder, elbow and wrist movements and surface EMG signals from six muscles crossing the three joints were recorded. A non-linear autoregressive exogenous (NARX model was developed to continuously decode the shoulder, elbow and wrist movements based solely on the EMG signals. The shoulder, elbow and wrist movements were decoded accurately based only on the EMG inputs in all the subjects, with the variance accounted for (VAF > 98% for all three joints. The proposed approach is capable of simultaneously and continuously decoding multi-joint movements of the human arm by taking into account the non-linear mappings between the muscle EMGs and joint movements, which may provide less effortful control of robotic exoskeletons for rehabilitation training of individuals with neurological disorders and arm impairment.

  13. Pelvic morphology, body posture and standing balance characteristics of adolescent able-bodied and idiopathic scoliosis girls.

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    Georgios A Stylianides

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how pelvic morphology, body posture, and standing balance variables of scoliotic girls differ from those of able-bodied girls, and to classify neuro-biomechanical variables in terms of a lower number of unobserved variables. Twenty-eight scoliotic and twenty-five non-scoliotic able-bodied girls participated in this study. 3D coordinates of ten anatomic body landmarks were used to describe pelvic morphology and trunk posture using a Flock of Birds system. Standing balance was measured using a force plate to identify the center of pressure (COP, and its anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML displacements. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to determine differences between the two groups. A factor analysis was used to identify factors that best describe both groups. Statistical differences were identified between the groups for each of the parameter types. While spatial orientation of the pelvis was similar in both groups, five of the eight trunk postural variables of the scoliotic group were significantly different that the able-bodied group. Also, five out of the seven standing balance variables were higher in the scoliotic girls. Approximately 60% of the variation is supported by 4 factors that can be associated with a set of variables; standing balance variables (factor 1, body posture variables (factor 2, and pelvic morphology variables (factors 3 and 4. Pelvic distortion, body posture asymmetry, and standing imbalance are more pronounced in scoliotic girls, when compared to able-bodied girls. These findings may be beneficial when addressing balance and ankle proprioception exercises for the scoliotic population.

  14. Step Frequency and Step Length of 200-m Sprint in Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters.

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    Hobara, H; Sano, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Heldoorn, T A; Mochimaru, M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the difference in the 200-m sprint performance of amputee and able-bodied sprinters is due to a shorter step length rather than a lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 200-m races with a total of 16 able-bodied, 13 unilateral transtibial, 5 bilateral transtibial, and 16 unilateral transfemoral amputee sprinters were analyzed from publicly available internet broadcasts. For each run, the average forward velocity, step frequency, and step length over the entire 200-m distance were analyzed for each sprinter. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 3 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency between able-bodied and transtibial amputee sprinters. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the transtibial amputee sprinters. In contrast, the step frequency and step length of transfemoral amputees were significantly lower and shorter than those of the other 3 groups. These results suggest that the differences in 200-m sprint performance between able-bodied and amputee sprinters are dependent on amputation level.

  15. Comparison of muscles activity of abled bodied and amputee subjects for around shoulder movement.

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    Kaur, Amanpreet; Agarwal, Ravinder; Kumar, Amod

    2016-05-12

    Worldwide, about 56% of the amputees are upper limb amputees. This research deals a method with two-channel surface electromyogram (SEMG) signal recorded from around shoulder to estimate the changes in muscle activity in non-amputee and the residual limb of trans humeral amputees with different movements of arm. Identification of different muscles activity of near shoulder amputee and non-amputee persons. SEMG signal were acquired during three distinct exercises from three-selected muscles location around shoulder. The participants were asked to move their dominant arm from an assigned position to record their muscles activity recorded with change in position. Results shows the muscles activity in scalene is more than the other muscles like pectoralis and infraspinatus with the same shoulder motion. In addition, STFT (Short-Time Fourier Transform) spectrogram with window length of 256 samples at maximum of 512 frequency bins using hamming window has used to identify the signal for the maximum muscles activity with best resolution in spectrum plot. The results suggest that one can use this analysis for making a suitable device for around shoulder prosthetic users based on muscles activation of amputee persons.

  16. Spatiotemporal Variables of Able-bodied and Amputee Sprinters in Men's 100-m Sprint.

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    Hobara, H; Kobayashi, Y; Mochimaru, M

    2015-06-01

    The difference in world records set by able-bodied sprinters and amputee sprinters in the men's 100-m sprint is still approximately 1 s (as of 28 March 2014). Theoretically, forward velocity in a 100-m sprint is the product of step frequency and step length. The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that differences in the sprint performance of able-bodied and amputee sprinters would be due to a shorter step length rather than lower step frequency. Men's elite-level 100-m races with a total of 36 able-bodied, 25 unilateral and 17 bilateral amputee sprinters were analyzed from the publicly available internet broadcasts of 11 races. For each run of each sprinter, the average forward velocity, step frequency and step length over the whole 100-m distance were analyzed. The average forward velocity of able-bodied sprinters was faster than that of the other 2 groups, but there was no significant difference in average step frequency among the 3 groups. However, the average step length of able-bodied sprinters was significantly longer than that of the other 2 groups. These results suggest that the differences in sprint performance between 2 groups would be due to a shorter step length rather than lower step frequency.

  17. 7 CFR 273.24 - Time limit for able-bodied adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... job that was not reported according to the requirements of § 273.12 “work.” (c) Exceptions. The time... lack of jobs in declining occupations or industries; is described in an academic study or other... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time limit for able-bodied adults. 273.24 Section...

  18. Comparison of mental health between individuals with spinal cord injury and able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia

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    Leia A. Harper, BS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research has investigated the mental health of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI, an overwhelming majority of this research has been conducted in the United States, Western Europe, and other developed countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the mental health of individuals with SCI with able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia, South America. Subjects included 40 Colombians with SCI and 42 age- and sex-matched controls (N = 82. The groups did not differ based on age, sex, years of education, or socioeconomic status. However, controls were twice as likely to be married. Four measures assessed mental health, including satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In comparison with able-bodied controls, individuals with SCI reported significantly lower mental health on both depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life. These effect sizes were medium and large, respectively. The groups did not differ significantly on measures of self-esteem or anxiety. Mental health of individuals with SCI should be considered a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, particularly in Latin America.

  19. Comparison of mental health between individuals with spinal cord injury and able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia.

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    Harper, Leia A; Coleman, Jennifer A; Perrin, Paul B; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Perdomo, Jose Libardo; Arango, Jose Anselmo; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Although research has investigated the mental health of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), an overwhelming majority of this research has been conducted in the United States, Western Europe, and other developed countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the mental health of individuals with SCI with able-bodied controls in Neiva, Colombia, South America. Subjects included 40 Colombians with SCI and 42 age- and sex-matched controls (N = 82). The groups did not differ based on age, sex, years of education, or socioeconomic status. However, controls were twice as likely to be married. Four measures assessed mental health, including satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). In comparison with able-bodied controls, individuals with SCI reported significantly lower mental health on both depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life. These effect sizes were medium and large, respectively. The groups did not differ significantly on measures of self-esteem or anxiety. Mental health of individuals with SCI should be considered a central part of SCI rehabilitation interventions, particularly in Latin America.

  20. Evaluation of a smartphone human activity recognition application with able-bodied and stroke participants.

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    Capela, N A; Lemaire, E D; Baddour, N; Rudolf, M; Goljar, N; Burger, H

    2016-01-20

    Mobile health monitoring using wearable sensors is a growing area of interest. As the world's population ages and locomotor capabilities decrease, the ability to report on a person's mobility activities outside a hospital setting becomes a valuable tool for clinical decision-making and evaluating healthcare interventions. Smartphones are omnipresent in society and offer convenient and suitable sensors for mobility monitoring applications. To enhance our understanding of human activity recognition (HAR) system performance for able-bodied and populations with gait deviations, this research evaluated a custom smartphone-based HAR classifier on fifteen able-bodied participants and fifteen participants who suffered a stroke. Participants performed a consecutive series of mobility tasks and daily living activities while wearing a BlackBerry Z10 smartphone on their waist to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data. Five features were derived from the sensor data and used to classify participant activities (decision tree). Sensitivity, specificity and F-scores were calculated to evaluate HAR classifier performance. The classifier performed well for both populations when differentiating mobile from immobile states (F-score > 94 %). As activity recognition complexity increased, HAR system sensitivity and specificity decreased for the stroke population, particularly when using information derived from participant posture to make classification decisions. Human activity recognition using a smartphone based system can be accomplished for both able-bodied and stroke populations; however, an increase in activity classification complexity leads to a decrease in HAR performance with a stroke population. The study results can be used to guide smartphone HAR system development for populations with differing movement characteristics.

  1. Analysis of structure of lumbar spine dorsopathy morbidity in able-bodied age patients

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    Manin M.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of structure of lumbar spine dorsopathy morbidity among able-bodied population of the Dnepropetrovsk area for substantiation of differentiated approach to the choice of exercise therapy methods was a research objective. The structure of dorsopathy morbidity in 371 patients in 2009-2013 period is analysed in the work. The paper presents analysis of the most frequent morphological changes in the structures of the spine, their localization and clinical course. Link of clinical manifestations of dorsopathy with structural changes of the backbone, the disease experience is revealed, efficiency of rehabilitation by means of physiotherapy exercises depending on qualitative and quantitative signs of disease is defined. Results of the research specify that more than 40% of patients were on repeated treatment, clinical manifestation in 62% of patients was observed at the most able-bodied age (from 30 to 50 years, according to the disease experience number of aggravations per a year increased, in 57,5% of cases administration of medical physical culture was limited due to development of an accompanying pathology, in 40% of cases against positive dynamics of painful syndrome insufficient changes in volume of movements of the spine segments throughout treatment were marked. It testifies to necessity of working out algorithm of differentiated approach to the choice of means medical physical culture in treatment of lumbar spine dorsopathy.

  2. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

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    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able-bodied

  3. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT (p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON (p sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able-bodied men. It is advised to include HIIT into training regimes of recreational and competitive handcyclists to improve the upper body endurance

  4. [Mortality among able-bodied population in industrial cities in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city].

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    Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu; Churanova, A N

    2013-01-01

    The article covers comparative analysis of mortality causes and levels among male able-bodied population in small and medium industrial cities of Murmansk region in accordance with specific enterprise forming a company city. Findings are that, if compared to Murmansk having no enterprise forming a company, other industrial cities in the region, situated in the same climate area, demonstrated higher levels of mortality among the male able-bodied population with the death causes associated etiologically to occupational hazards on the enterprises forming a company city.

  5. Effect of three different grip angles on physical parameters during laboratory test in handcycling in able-bodied participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAbel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Handcycling is a relatively new wheelchair sport that has gained increased popularity for people with lower limb disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three different grip positions on physical parameters during handcycling in a laboratory setting.Methods: Twenty one able-bodied participants performed three maximum incremental handcycling tests until exhaustion, each with a different grip angle. The angle between the grip and the crank was randomly set at 90° (horizontal, 0° (vertical or 10° (diagonal. The initial load was 20 W and increased by 20 W each five minutes. In addition, participants performed a 20 s maximum effort.Results: The relative peak functional performance (W/kg, peak heart rate (bpm, associated lactate concentrations (mmol/l and peak oxygen uptake per kilogram body weight (ml.min-1.kg-1 for the different grip positions during the stage test were: (a Horizontal: 1.43 ± 0.21 W/kg, 170.14 ± 12.81 bpm, 9.54 ± 1.93 mmol/l, 30.86 ± 4.57 ml/kg; (b Vertical: 1.38 ± 0.20 W/kg, 171.81 ± 13.87 bpm, 9.91 ± 2.29 mmol/l, 29.75 ± 5.13 ml/kg; (c Diagonal: 1.40 ± 0.22 W/kg, 169.19 ± 13.31 bpm, 9.34 ± 2.36 mmol/l, 29.39 ± 4.70 ml/kg. Statistically significant (p <0.05 differences could only be found for lactate concentration between the vertical grip position and the other grips during submaximal handcycling. Conclusion: The orientation of three different grip angles made no difference to the peak load achieved during an incremental handcycling test and a 20 second maximum effort. At submaximal load, higher lactate concentrations were found when the vertical grip position was used, suggesting that this position may be less efficient than the alternative diagonal or horizontal grip positions.

  6. A Comparison of Able-Bodied and Disabled College Students on Erikson's Ego Stages and Maslow's Needs Levels.

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    Kriegsman, Kay Harris; Hershenson, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Compared physically disabled and able-bodied college students on Erickson's epigenetic stages of life-span development, and Maslow's motivational needs hierarchy of personality development. The groups were more similar than dissimilar in ego development and needs level. College students with disabilities may be a select population because of their…

  7. Level of participation in robotic-assisted treadmill walking modulates midline sensorimotor EEG rhythms in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johanna; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Grieshofer, Peter; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Scherer, Reinhold

    2012-11-15

    In robot assisted gait training, a pattern of human locomotion is executed repetitively with the intention to restore the motor programs associated with walking. Several studies showed that active contribution to the movement is critical for the encoding of motor memory. We propose to use brain monitoring techniques during gait training to encourage active participation in the movement. We investigated the spectral patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that are related to active and passive robot assisted gait. Fourteen healthy participants were considered. Infomax independent component analysis separated the EEG into independent components representing brain, muscle, and eye movement activity, as well as other artifacts. An equivalent current dipole was calculated for each independent component. Independent components were clustered across participants based on their anatomical position and frequency spectra. Four clusters were identified in the sensorimotor cortices that accounted for differences between active and passive walking or showed activity related to the gait cycle. We show that in central midline areas the mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (18-21 Hz) rhythms are suppressed during active compared to passive walking. These changes are statistically significant: mu (F(1, 13)=11.2 p ≤ 0.01) and beta (F(1, 13)=7.7, p ≤ 0.05). We also show that these differences depend on the gait cycle phases. We provide first evidence of modulations of the gamma rhythm in the band 25 to 40 Hz, localized in central midline areas related to the phases of the gait cycle. We observed a trend (F(1, 8)=11.03, p ≤ 0.06) for suppressed low gamma rhythm when comparing active and passive walking. Additionally we found significant suppressions of the mu (F(1, 11)=20.1 p ≤ 0.01), beta (F(1, 11)=11.3 p ≤ 0.05) and gamma (F(1, 11)=4.9 p ≤ 0.05) rhythms near C3 (in the right hand area of the primary motor cortex) during phases of active vs. passive robot assisted walking. To our knowledge this is the first study showing EEG analysis during robot assisted walking. We provide evidence for significant differences in cortical activation between active and passive robot assisted gait. Our findings may help to define appropriate features for single trial detection of active participation in gait training. This work is a further step toward the evaluation of brain monitoring techniques and brain-computer interface technologies for improving gait rehabilitation therapies in a top-down approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of training on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied and spinal cord injured rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Hübner-Woźniak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rugby training on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied and wheelchair players. The following groups took part in the study: sedentary able-bodied men (Group M, n=10, inactive disabled men using wheelchairs (Group MW, n=10, semiprofessional rugby players (Group R, n=10, and wheelchair rugby players (Group RW, n=10. The serum triacyloglycerols (TG, the total cholesterol (TC, the LDL cholesterol (LDLchol and the HDL cholesterol (HDLchol concentrations were assayed. The total cholesterol and the LDL cholesterol concentrations were higher in able-bodied sedentary men compared to non-disable rugby players. There was also a tendency to higher HDL cholesterol concentration in rugby players compared to sedentary men (Group R vs. M. Rugby training resulted in a significant decrease of the LDL cholesterol and an increase in the HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as a tendency for lower total cholesterol levels in wheelchair players compared to sedentary tetraplegic men. The ratio of the total cholesterol to the HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in both groups of rugby players in comparison to the respective groups of sedentary men. The serum triacyloglycerols (TG concentration was similar in all studied groups. There was no difference in the serum lipid profile and the TC/HDLchol ratio between sedentary able-bodied and disabled men (Group M vs. MW, just as between non-disabled and wheelchair rugby players (R vs. RW. It seems that rugby training had a beneficial effect on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied as well as wheelchair players. These results confirm that active persons are at lower risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. The responses of an able bodied person to wheelchair training: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lakomy, H K; Williams, T

    1996-01-01

    ...; however, maximum ventilation exceeded the levels normally achieved by paraplegics. At the conclusion of the study the subject successfully completed a wheelchair marathon in a time of 2 h 9 min at an average speed of 5.17 m s1...

  10. The energy expenditure of people with spinal cord injury whilst walking compared to an able-bodied population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vosloo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of spinal cord injury (SCI research there is an emphasis on the ability to ambulate.Purpose: To determine the ambulation energy expenditure (EE and factors that affect ambulation EE in SCI participants compared to able-bodied participants.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from seven SCI rehabilitation units within the Johannesburg area. The following were used: demographic questionnaire to capture participants’ characteristics, modified Ashworth scale for spasticity; goniometer for range of movement (ROM; American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA scale for patient classification; accelerometer for EE and the six-minute walk test (6MWT for endurance. Characteristics of the study participants were summarised using descriptive statistics. Data were analysed as follows: two-sample t-test for comparison between the able-bodied and SCI sample and Pearson product moment correlations for relationship between identified factors and EE.Results: Participants comprised 45 in the SCI group and 21 in the able-bodied group. The mean energy expenditure per metre (EE/m for the SCI participants was 0.33 (± 0.29 calories compared to 0.08 (± 0.02 calories for the able-bodied participants. A decrease in walking velocity resulted in an increase in EE. For SCI participants, every decrease in degree of hip flexion ROM resulted in a 0.003 increase in EE/m walked. A unit decrease in velocity resulted in an increase of 0.41 in EE/m walked. Energy expenditure per metre decreased from ASIA A to ASIA D. Crutch walking utilised 0.34 calories per metre less energy than walking frames (p = 0.03.Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, factors to consider in order to maximise energy efficiency whilst walking are maintaining hip flexion ROM and optimising velocity of walking.Keywords: Energy expenditure; Factors affecting energy expenditure; Range of motion; Walking Velocity

  11. Zinc balance of twenty healthy elderly subjects consuming self-selected diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.; Prather, E.S.; Rhodes, D.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary zinc (Zn) intake and balance were determined in ten male and ten female free-living, healthy, elderly subjects on self-selected diets over a period of seven consecutive days. Zn content in the diet, fecal and urine composites for each subject was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean age for the 20 participants was 73.9 years. Mean Zn intakes were 8.9 and 23.3 mg/day for females and males, respectively. Female dietary intakes ranged from 8.2 to 26.8 mg Zn/day. However, three of the males took Zn supplements which extended the total intake range to 64.9 mg/day. Mean Zn balances were +0.1 and +5.1 mg/day for females and males, respectively; ranges for females were {minus}0.1 to +4.3 mg/day and for males were {minus}7.3 to +15.1 mg/day. The 1989 RDAs are 15 mg for males and 12 mg for females. Only three females consumed more than 12 mg Zn/day. Only 2 males consumed more than 15 mg/day from their diet; two other males consumed more than 15 mg due to Zn supplements. Total dietary phytate (TDP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were calculated from the 7-day weighed food records. Mean TDP intake for females was 1,159 mg/day; mean TDP for the males was 1,661 mg/day. Mean TDF intake for females was 19 g/day; mean TDF for males was 30 g/day.

  12. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40 days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  13. The Effects of Prosthesis Inertial Properties on Prosthetic Knee Moment and Hip Energetics Required to Achieve Able-Bodied Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Yashraj S; Arelekatti, V N Murthy; Winter, Amos G

    2016-07-01

    There is a major need in the developing world for a low-cost prosthetic knee that enables users to walk with able-bodied kinematics and low energy expenditure. To efficiently design such a knee, the relationship between the inertial properties of a prosthetic leg and joint kinetics and energetics must be determined. In this paper, using inverse dynamics, the theoretical effects of varying the inertial properties of an above-knee prosthesis on the prosthetic knee moment, hip power, and absolute hip work required for walking with able-bodied kinematics were quantified. The effects of independently varying mass and moment of inertia of the prosthesis, as well as independently varying the masses of each prosthesis segment, were also compared. Decreasing prosthesis mass to 25% of physiological leg mass increased peak late-stance knee moment by 43% and decreased peak swing knee moment by 76%. In addition, it reduced peak stance hip power by 26%, average swing hip power by 76%, and absolute hip work by 22%. Decreasing upper leg mass to 25% of its physiological value reduced absolute hip work by just 2%, whereas decreasing lower leg and foot mass reduced work by up to 22%, with foot mass having the greater effect. Results are reported in the form of parametric illustrations that can be utilized by researchers, designers, and prosthetists. The methods and outcomes presented have the potential to improve prosthetic knee component selection, facilitate able-bodied kinematics, and reduce energy expenditure for users of low-cost, passive knees in developing countries, as well as for users of advanced active knees in developed countries.

  14. Feature selection for wearable smartphone-based human activity recognition with able bodied, elderly, and stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Capela

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR, using wearable sensors, is a growing area with the potential to provide valuable information on patient mobility to rehabilitation specialists. Smartphones with accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are a convenient, minimally invasive, and low cost approach for mobility monitoring. HAR systems typically pre-process raw signals, segment the signals, and then extract features to be used in a classifier. Feature selection is a crucial step in the process to reduce potentially large data dimensionality and provide viable parameters to enable activity classification. Most HAR systems are customized to an individual research group, including a unique data set, classes, algorithms, and signal features. These data sets are obtained predominantly from able-bodied participants. In this paper, smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data were collected from populations that can benefit from human activity recognition: able-bodied, elderly, and stroke patients. Data from a consecutive sequence of 41 mobility tasks (18 different tasks were collected for a total of 44 participants. Seventy-six signal features were calculated and subsets of these features were selected using three filter-based, classifier-independent, feature selection methods (Relief-F, Correlation-based Feature Selection, Fast Correlation Based Filter. The feature subsets were then evaluated using three generic classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, j48 Decision Tree. Common features were identified for all three populations, although the stroke population subset had some differences from both able-bodied and elderly sets. Evaluation with the three classifiers showed that the feature subsets produced similar or better accuracies than classification with the entire feature set. Therefore, since these feature subsets are classifier-independent, they should be useful for developing and improving HAR systems across and within populations.

  15. Feature selection for wearable smartphone-based human activity recognition with able bodied, elderly, and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, Nicole A; Lemaire, Edward D; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Human activity recognition (HAR), using wearable sensors, is a growing area with the potential to provide valuable information on patient mobility to rehabilitation specialists. Smartphones with accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are a convenient, minimally invasive, and low cost approach for mobility monitoring. HAR systems typically pre-process raw signals, segment the signals, and then extract features to be used in a classifier. Feature selection is a crucial step in the process to reduce potentially large data dimensionality and provide viable parameters to enable activity classification. Most HAR systems are customized to an individual research group, including a unique data set, classes, algorithms, and signal features. These data sets are obtained predominantly from able-bodied participants. In this paper, smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data were collected from populations that can benefit from human activity recognition: able-bodied, elderly, and stroke patients. Data from a consecutive sequence of 41 mobility tasks (18 different tasks) were collected for a total of 44 participants. Seventy-six signal features were calculated and subsets of these features were selected using three filter-based, classifier-independent, feature selection methods (Relief-F, Correlation-based Feature Selection, Fast Correlation Based Filter). The feature subsets were then evaluated using three generic classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, j48 Decision Tree). Common features were identified for all three populations, although the stroke population subset had some differences from both able-bodied and elderly sets. Evaluation with the three classifiers showed that the feature subsets produced similar or better accuracies than classification with the entire feature set. Therefore, since these feature subsets are classifier-independent, they should be useful for developing and improving HAR systems across and within populations.

  16. Comparison of the metabolic demands of dance performance using three mobility devices for a dancer with spinal cord injury and an able-bodied dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkoch, Larry J; Highsmith, M Jason; Morris, Merry L

    2014-09-01

    Mobility devices for dancers with physical mobility impairments have previously been limited to traditional manual or power wheelchairs. The hands-free torso-controlled mobility chair is a unique powered mobility device which allows greater freedom and expression of movement of the trunk and upper extremities. This study compared differences in energy expenditure during a standardized dance activity using three mobility devices: the hands-free torso-controlled mobility chair, a manual sports wheelchair with hand-arm control, and an electric power chair with hand-joystick control. An experienced dancer with C7 incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) and an experienced able-bodied dancer were recruited for testing. Three measurement trials were obtained for each chair per subject. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the dance activity. Immediately following the dance activity, subjects rated perceived exertion. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) and similar linear patterns in VO2 and HR responses were observed between chairs for both dancers. When the hands-free mobility chair was used, the dance activity required a moderate level of energy expenditure compared to the manual sports chair or electric power chair for both dancers. Higher ratings of perceived exertion were observed in the manual chair compared to the other chairs for the dancer with SCI, but were similar between chairs for the able-bodied dancer. These results suggest that for a dancer with high-level SCI, the hands-free torso-controlled mobility chair may offer improved freedom and expressive movement possibilities and is an energy-efficient mobility device.

  17. The Discussion of the Disabled and the Able-bodied Blending Symbiotic and Education Promoting%论残疾人与健全人的交融性共生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳泽

    2015-01-01

    The disabled and the able-bodied blend of symbiosis deal for the survival of human intergroup schema and is a wonderful social scene. Symbiotic blend of subjectivity is combined with respect and social care the promotion of people with disabilities to understand, saving the cost of living, contributing to the moral behavior of persons with disabilities and other functions; the disabled and the able-bodied blending symbiotic implementation should be on the premise of value found for the disabled and the commitment, and blend personality as the intermediary, is conducive to participate in the interactive public space as the platform, associate with psychological breakthrough as in interactive emotion and shared culture as the link., regime justice and empower as guarantee.%残疾人与健全人的交融性共生是人类群际生存的理想图式,是一种美好的社会景象.交融性共生将对残疾人的主体性尊重和社会性关照结合起来,具有促进残疾人理解、节省生活成本、促成对残疾人的道义行为等多种功能;残疾人与健全人交融性共生应以残疾人价值发现与承诺为前提,以交融性人格为中介,以便于参与互动的公共空间为平台,以交往心理的突破为契机,以交互型情感与共享型文化为纽带,以制度正义和制度赋权为保障.

  18. A comparison of parenting stress between mothers of children with spina bifida and able-bodied controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lai Choo; Norshireen, Nazli A R; Chandran, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    To compare parenting stress between mothers of children with spina bifida (SB) and able bodied controls. Sixty-six mothers of children with SB and controls (matched for age, sex and ethnicity) completed the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI/SF) and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Each child's adaptive skills was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS). Mothers of children with SB had significantly higher scores for GHQ-12 and the Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (P-CDI) and Difficult Child (DC) sub-scales of the PSI/SF, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and caregiver status. Single parent status, having a child with SB and higher Life Stress scores were associated with higher PD and DC scores. Lower VABS scores were associated with higher P-CDI scores. Factors such as recent life change events, single parent status and the child's adaptive skills modify the impact of spina bifida on parenting stress.

  19. Changes in force production and stroke parameters of trained able-bodied and unilateral arm-amputee female swimmers during a 30 s tethered front-crawl swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey Jane; Sanders, Ross H; Payton, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined changes in the propulsive force and stroke parameters of arm-amputee and able-bodied swimmers during tethered swimming. Eighteen well-trained female swimmers (nine unilateral arm amputees and nine able-bodied) were videotaped performing maximal-effort 30 s front-crawl swims, while attached to a load cell mounted on a pool wall. Tether force, stroke rate, stroke phase durations and inter-arm angle were quantified. The able-bodied group produced significantly higher mean and maximum tether forces than the amputee group. The mean of the intra-cyclic force peaks was very similar for both groups. Mean and maximum tether force had significant negative associations with 100 m swim time, for both groups. Both groups exhibited a similar fatigue index (relative decrease in tether force) during the test, but the amputees had a significantly greater stroke rate decline. A significant positive association between stroke rate decline and fatigue index was obtained for the able-bodied group only. Inter-arm angle and relative phase durations did not change significantly during the test for either group, except the recovery phase duration of the arm amputees, which decreased significantly. This study's results can contribute to the development of a more evidence-based classification system for swimmers with a disability.

  20. [Dynamic changes in arterial hypertension prevalence and their relation to the main risk factors among able-bodied newcomers in Iamalo-Nenetskiĭ autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikova, N V; Buganov, A A; Umanskaia, E L; Novokrestova, S V

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of arterial hypertension among non-native able-bodied unorganized population of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was studied. Mean population index of the frequency was 31.0%. Important factors which promote arterial hypertension are excessive body mass, age, period of living in the Far North, psycho-emotional stress, unsatisfactory level of adaptation and its failure, dislipidemia.

  1. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (p<0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased significantly in able-bodied (p = 0.002) and paraplegic (p = 0.032) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.63). The influence of caffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328 PMID:27776149

  2. Fixed and self-paced treadmill walking for able-bodied and transtibial amputees in a multi-terrain virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitski, Emily H; Lemaire, Edward D; Baddour, Natalie; Besemann, Markus; Dudek, Nancy L; Hebert, Jacqueline S

    2015-02-01

    A self-paced treadmill automatically adjusts speed in real-time to match the user's walking speed, potentially enabling more natural gait than fixed-speed treadmills. This research examined walking speed changes for able-bodied and transtibial amputee populations on a self-paced treadmill in a multi-terrain virtual environment and examined gait differences between fixed and self-paced treadmill speed conditions. Twelve able-bodied (AB) individuals and 12 individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation (TT) walked in a park-like virtual environment with level, slopes, and simulated uneven terrain scenarios. Temporal-spatial and range-of-motion parameters were analyzed. Within the self-paced condition, all participants significantly varied walking speed (pmultiple movement scenarios in order to elicit more natural gait across various terrain. Fixed-speed treadmills may induce gait compensations to maintain the fixed speed.

  3. Freestyle race pacing strategies (400 m) of elite able-bodied swimmers and swimmers with disability at major international championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph B; Santi, Giampaolo; Mellalieu, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Freestyle race pacing strategies (400 m) were compared between elite able-bodied swimmers and those with minimal physical (International Paralympic Committee S10 classification) and visual disabilities (International Paralympic Committee S13 classification). Data comprised 50-m lap splits and overall race times from 1176 400-m freestyle swims from World Championships, European Championships and Olympic/Paralympic Games between 2006 and 2012. Five pacing strategies were identified across groups (even, fast start, negative, parabolic and parabolic fast start), with negative and even strategies the most commonly adopted. The negative pacing strategy produced the fastest race times for all groups except for female S13 swimmers where an even strategy was most effective. Able-bodied groups swam faster than their S10 and S13 counterparts, with no differences between S10 and S13 groups. The results suggest adoption of multiple pacing strategies across groups, and even where impairments are considered minimal they are still associated with performance detriments in comparison to their able-bodied counterparts. The findings have implications for the planning and implementation of training related to pacing strategies to ensure optimal swimmer preparation for competition. Analogous performance levels in S10 and S13 swimmers also suggest a case for integrated competition of these classifications in 400-m freestyle swimming.

  4. Assessment of Body-Powered Upper Limb Prostheses by Able-Bodied Subjects, using the Box and Blocks Test and the Nine Hole Peg Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, L.; Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Experimental trial. Background: The functional performance of currently available body-powered prostheses is unknown. Objective: The goal of this study was to objectively assess and compare the functional performance of three commonly used body-powered upper limb terminal devices. Meth

  5. Criterion validity of 3D trunk accelerations to assess external work and power in able-bodied gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichtry, André; Romkes, Jacqueline; Gobelet, Charles; Brunner, Reinald; Müller, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Evaluative quantification of gait disorder minimizing time-consuming and cost-intensive laboratory installations remains a challenging task in movement analysis. We examined the criterion validity of global gait mechanics assessed by trunk accelerometry. Eight female and four male volunteer subjects (mean age, 27.5 years; S.D., 5.1 years; weight, 68.7+/-11.3kg; height, 1.74+/-0.08m) without gait dysfunction participated in the study. They walked barefoot over two adjacent force-platforms at self-selected speeds. In addition to ground reaction forces, vertical, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral accelerations of the trunk were simultaneously measured by means of a light tri-axial accelerometer. Mean acceleration cycles of the trunk and the body centre of mass were calculated. Acceleration vectors were integrated twice to obtain velocity and displacement vectors of the trunk and the centre of mass, respectively. Temporal boundaries of right and left functional stance phases were defined by the two intermediate moments between maximum anterior-posterior velocity and minimal vertical displacement. Cross-correlations of the kinematics of the trunk and the centre of mass were determined. External work and corresponding symmetry indicators were computed for both methods. Centre of mass anterior-posterior displacement lagged behind the trunk by 3.5% of the gait cycle. External power correlated highly (r>0.82) between the trunk model and the centre of mass. Work correlated moderately high (r=0.77) between the two methods. Work and power asymmetry indexes correlated moderately high (r>0.64). Our findings suggest that accelerometry has the potential to assess functional kinematics and energy-related outcomes in large cohorts.

  6. Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine Consumption in a 3-min All-Out Arm Crank Test in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared With Able-Bodied Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Liener, Martina; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Krebs, Jörg; Perret, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation on 3-min all-out arm crank exercise performance in paraplegic (P) and tetraplegic (T) compared with able-bodied (AB) participants. A placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind study design was chosen to investigate the differences between caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLC). In total, 34 healthy, trained participants were tested. Seventeen were AB (median [minimum; maximum] VO2peak: 33.9 mL/min/kg [23.6; 57.6]), 10 were P (VO2peak: 34.4 mL/min/kg [19.5; 48.8]), and 7 were T (VO2peak: 13.6 mL/min/kg [8.6; 16.3]). All participants performed two 3-min all-out tests on an arm crank ergometer following the ingestion of either PLC or CAF. Power output parameters, plasma caffeine (PC), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NOR) concentrations were assessed. CAF significantly increased average power over the first 30 s (p = .028) and 60 s (p = .005) in P, but not in T (p = .61; p = .87) nor in AB (p = .25; p = .44). Peak power was increased in the CAF trial in AB (+46 W) as well as in P (+21 W) but was not significantly different from PLC (AB: p = .10; P: p = .17). PC significantly increased in all groups (AB: p = .002; P: p = .005; T: p = .018) whereas EPI showed a significant increase only in AB (p = .002) and in P (p = .018). NOR increased significantly in AB (p = .018) but did not increase in the other groups. Caffeine seems to enhance short-duration exercise performance in P. In contrast, T showed a high interindividual variability and overall no ergogenic effect was detected in this group.

  7. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    subjects. Blood samples were drawn frequently throughout the 24-h period. An insulin tolerance test was also used to determine whether weight loss altered the ability of insulin to modify plasma concentrations of tryptophan and of the other large neutral amino acids. RESULTS: Plasma tryptophan......BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects were low at all times; these effects persisted after weight reduction. Plasma concentrations of all the large neutral amino acids decreased during insulin infusion in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The low 24-h plasma tryptophan ratios in obese and formerly obese...

  8. Me acuerdo… ¿Te acuerdas?: Memory, Space and the Individualizing Transformation of the Subject in Twenty-First-Century Mexican Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Treviño Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the twentieth-century, Mexican fictions operated under a revisionist historical logic that employed national spaces to allegorize the relationship between the individual, society and the nation. Countering this trend, since the mid-nineties, Mexican literature has witnessed a departure from an interest in collectivizing discourses of identity, displaying instead a growing faith in individualism as a means to resist state-driven cultural visions. To analyze this emphasis in individual personal emergence, this paper proposes a comparative reading of subject-formation in Álvaro Enrigue's Vidas perpendiculares (2008, and in José Emilio Pacheco’s canonical novella Las batallas en el desierto (1981. The publication of Vidas and Las batallas coincides with two moments of crisis and transformation in Mexico. Consequently, these novels of formation reflect the reconceptualization of the multiple relations between individuals, communities, and the state prompted by such changes. These coming-of-age fictions use the personal recollections of their protagonists to articulate the narration of their characters’ emergence into adulthood. Vidas and Las batallas present two highly divergent visions of the subject and her or his relationship to the social body, where in the case of Vidas the individual takes primacy over the community. Following Ulrich Beck’s insights regarding individualization in industrial societies, and informed by theories of memory and nostalgia, this study explores how literary understandings of identity have transformed to reflect the experience of late modernity in Mexico. This paper argues that in recent Mexican fiction history is spatialized as a way of examining individual subjectivity outside the framework that views history in literature as a discourse directly linked to collective, often national, identity.

  9. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  10. Twenty lectures on thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Buchdahl, H A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text

  11. Twenty Years of KSHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV since its initial description in 1994.

  12. Top at Twenty

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The "Top at Twenty" workshop is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years since the top quark discovery at Fermilab in 1995. Speakers from all experiments capable of studying top quark, ATLAS, CDF, CMS and DZero, will present the most recent results of the top quark studies based on Run II of the Tevatron and Run I of the LHC. Reviews of such fundamental measurements as mass of the top quark, its spin, charge and production properties are planned with some of them orders of magnitude better in precision in comparison with original CDF and DZero papers announcing the top quark discovery. Measurements of top quark production and decay that illuminate the nature of the Higgs boson and seek new phenomena will be presented. Theoretical talks on how the top quark fits into the Standard Model and its potential extensions will also be presented. This workshop will complement the yearly Top Workshop which is held in September and will benefit from many new results expected to be presented at winter conferences in 2015...

  13. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  14. Central Cardiovascular Responses of Quadriplegic Subjects to Arm Exercise at Varying Levels of Oxygen Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figoni, Stephen F.

    The purpose of this study was to assess selected central cardiovascular functions of spinal cord injured, quadriplegic subjects at varying levels of oxygen uptake (VO sub 2). Subjects included 11 untrained, male college students with C5, C6, or C7 complete quadriplegia and 11 able-bodied reference subjects. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle…

  15. On the production of clandestine dis/abled bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    of policing technologies, repressive techniques and military technics. Instead, however, of staying at the technology of a fast patrolling boat with electronic eyes, we move on to show how exactly this EU electronic boat has clashed with a humble migrant floating device. We are interested...

  16. Discussion onHeart Rate Difference in the Same Grade Percentage Intensity between Physical Disabled and Able -bodied Male Swimming Athlete%肢残与健全男子游泳运动员相同成绩百分比强度下心率的差异探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢嘉慧; 施闻

    2012-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, experiment and mathematical statistics, taking the physical disabled and able - bodied male swimming athlete as object, according the basic theory of swimming training intensity, this paper makes analysis on the heart rate of the two groups of athletes in the three grade per- centage intensity. The results showed that in the same grade percentage intensity, the physical disabled groups, either in the immediate heart rate or in the following 1 min of recovery heart rate is far higher than the able - bod- ied group, and draw conclusions from the result: it has some limitations by using the grade percentage to formulate and evaluate training intensity. Affected by physical condition restrict, the physiological load of physical disabled athletes is more difference than able - bodied one in the use of grade percentage this physical index.%采用文献资料法、实验法、数据统计法等方法。以肢残和健全两组男子游泳运动员为对象,根据游泳训练强度的基本理论,对两组运动员在三种成绩百分比强度后的心率表现进行一定的探索。结果表明:在相同成绩百分比强度下,肢残组无论是在即刻心率还是在1分钟后恢复心率上都远远高于健全组,并从中得出结论:采用成绩百分比这一物理指标进行训练强度的制定与评价存在一定的局限性。受肢体条件的制约,肢残运动员在使用成绩百分比这一物理指标调控强度时,显示出的生理负荷差异较健全运动员来得更大。

  17. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  18. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  19. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  20. Twenty-Channel Voice Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    programs and vocabulary. 0 Telephone Company (TELCO) Switched Lines - provides access to VRS using telephones. * Bell 407C Data Sets - Converts the Touch...from the twenty 407C units. 0 DLII-E - Asynchronous interface to the 11/34 unibus for the VOTRAX unit. * 20 Channel ADPCM Decoder - a specially designed

  1. Educating the Ablest: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the current lives of thirty-five individuals who participated in high school gifted programs twenty years ago. The research specifically looked at educational attainment and career goals in terms of expressed aspirations in high school, using social media and other Internet sources. Results indicated continued support for the…

  2. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.;

    2006-01-01

    similarities; especially that entrepreneurship within universities has to be welcomed and facilitated top-down, but organically occurs and develops bottom-up. Implementing entrepreneurship at universities is thus about stimulating a culture of organic intrapreneurship and we provide practical recommendations...... studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...... by the interviewees was surveyed. We showed that the practices have been implemented only to various degrees and rather unsystematically. There are important differences among the universities, to some extent depending on the level of ambition that each university has regarding each practice. There are also important...

  3. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  4. Servicing the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D. [DTLR, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Twentieth century governments have committed themselves to the principle of sustainable development. Efforts to fulfil this goal offer an insight into changes in building services provision in the opening decades of the new century. Sustainable development indicators are used to identify possible trends. The analysis also forms the basis for some speculative conjectures as a basis for a research agenda for the twenty-first century. (Author)

  5. Twenty-first century learning in afterschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric; Stolow, David

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-first century skills increasingly represent the ticket to the middle class. Yet, the authors argue, in-school learning is simply not enough to help students develop these skills. The authors make the case that after-school (or out-of-school) learning programs are emerging as one of the nation's most promising strategies for preparing young people for the workforce and civic life. Most school systems have significant limitations for teaching twenty-first century skills. They have the limits of time: with only six hours per day there is barely enough time to teach even the basic skills, especially for those students starting already behind. They have the limits of structure: typical school buildings and classrooms are not physically set up for innovative learning. They have the limits of inertia and bureaucracy: school systems are notoriously resistant to change. And perhaps most important, they have the limits of priorities: especially with the onset of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools are laserlike in their focus on teaching the basics and therefore have less incentive to incorporate twenty-first century skills. Meanwhile, the authors argue that after-school programs are an untapped resource with three competitive advantages. First, they enable students to work collaboratively in small groups, a setup on which the modern economy will increasingly rely. Second, they are well suited to project-based learning and the development of mastery. Third, they allow students to learn in the real-world contexts that make sense. Yet the after-school sector is fraught with challenges. It lacks focus-Is it child care, public safety, homework tutoring? And it lacks rigorous results. The authors argue that the teaching of twenty-first century skills should become the new organizing principle for afterschool that will propel the field forward and more effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning.

  6. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  7. The characterization of twenty sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Pelak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of twenty human genomes to evaluate the prospects for identifying rare functional variants that contribute to a phenotype of interest. We sequenced at high coverage ten "case" genomes from individuals with severe hemophilia A and ten "control" genomes. We summarize the number of genetic variants emerging from a study of this magnitude, and provide a proof of concept for the identification of rare and highly-penetrant functional variants by confirming that the cause of hemophilia A is easily recognizable in this data set. We also show that the number of novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs discovered per genome seems to stabilize at about 144,000 new variants per genome, after the first 15 individuals have been sequenced. Finally, we find that, on average, each genome carries 165 homozygous protein-truncating or stop loss variants in genes representing a diverse set of pathways.

  8. Twenty-One: cross-language disclosure and retrieval of multimedia documents on sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, ter W.G.; Beijert, J.-H.; Bruin, de G.; Gent, van J.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Netter, K.; Smart, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Twenty-One project brings together environmental organisations, technology providers and research institutes from several European countries. The main objective of the project is to make documents on environmental issues—in particular, on the subject of sustainable development—available on CD-RO

  9. A Picturesque View to Able-Bodied Persons in the City and the Stigma of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Polat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, in Turkey, the percent of the disabled is %12. Thus, there are 10 million disabled people and when you take the disabled into account with their families half of the Turkish society is affected directly from disability. In addition to that, if we take elders, pregnant, children, obsesses and very tall or short persons who suffer from a kind of temporary or permanent disability into account, we face an incredible situation. These people in city who are limited in terms of motion feel the necessity of design approaches which minimize physical and spatial hindrances in order to travel and wander around in a safe way in places. In addition to the accessibility of the physical environment by the disabled, environmental factors being the cause of disability is quite significant in terms of urban spaces. In this paper, what cities of Turkey, urban planning and design offer to the disabled and what they do not is being investigated, in particular and in general, what is attainable by the help of a universal and inclusive design and universal and inclusive planning to reach a universal, accessible, livable, usable, fair and inclusive city.

  10. Twenty hanging Dolls and a Lynching:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Helene

    2010-01-01

    paradoxical entanglement with the enactments of citizenship and state-citizen relations, the article argues that people's attempts to remain safe constitute a permanent process of making visible and defacing (following Michael Taussig's notion of defacement) dangerousness and criminal subjects vis...

  11. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  12. Twenty Years After: Armenian Research Libraries Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aram Donabedian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since achieving statehood in 1991, Armenia has faced major economic and political obstacles which have significantly affected the nation’s research libraries. This research paper will quantitatively and qualitatively examine the challenges facing Armenian research libraries just over twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Specifically, the authors analyze their interviews with five library administrators at five major institutions, respectively. These include Yerevan State University Library, the National Library of Armenia, the Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library of Armenia, and the Papazian Library of the American University of Armenia. The instrument for the interviews consists of 73 questions based on the 2004 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Libraries in Higher Education and evaluates the following factors:• The library’s mission, goals and objectives• Public or user services• Instruction activities at the library• Resources (print, media, or electronic and collection development• Access to the library’s resources• Outcome assessment, or evaluation of the library• Staffing issues• Facility maintenance and plans for library development• Communication and cooperation both within the library and with the user community• Administration• BudgetIn addition, we will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of these libraries and investigate the growing open access movement in Armenia. Based on our findings, the authors wish to facilitate dialogue and consider possible approaches to help these libraries meet Armenia’s pressing information needs.

  13. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  14. Evaluation of the performance of paraplegic subjects during walking with a new design of reciprocal gait orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Fatoye, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) influences a person's ability to stand and walk. Various orthoses have been developed to solve these standing and walking problems, however, patients still experience high energy consumption during walking and high forces on the upper limbs. A new reciprocal gait orthosis (RGO) was designed to address these problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the new orthosis design with paraplegic subjects. Three paraplegic subjects with the lesion at level T12 and three able-bodied subjects were included in this study. Hip and pelvis range of motion and vertical ground reaction force were evaluated using the Qualysis motion analyzer system and a Kistler force plate. Energy consumption was measured with the Polar heart rate monitoring system. The differences between SCI individuals when walking with a Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis (KAFO) and the new RGO, and the differences between able-bodied and paraplegic subjects were evaluated by the use of paired sample and two sample t test, respectively. The results showed that energy consumption and gait analysis outcomes with new RGO orthosis were better than the KAFO. However, there was a large difference between paraplegic and able-bodied subjects while walking with the new orthosis. The new RGO design performed better than a KAFO in terms of energy consumption, walking style and vertical ground reaction force. Therefore, it appears that RGO may be a useful orthosis for patients with paraplegia. Implications for Rehabilitation Walking and standing of the subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) improve their physiological and physiological health. This study introduces a new type of orthosis design in order to improve the abilities of SCI subjects during walking and standing. It seems that the new design works better than available orthoses (KAFO).

  15. A twenty-seven kilometre film

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the past two weeks, Bram Conjaerts, a Belgian filmmaker, has been touring the CERN sites and surrounding countryside conducting research for his new documentary. The film will follow the entire 27 Km length of the LHC ring, but unlike most documentaries about the LHC, it will take place mostly above ground! Bram Conjaerts during his visit to CERN.While working towards his film degree in 2008, Bram Conjaerts won an award at the International Documentary Festival for his documentary "Henri and the Islands", an anthropological documentary about the smallest village in Belgium. In an unlikely change of subject matter he decided to use the prize money to make a film about the LHC. "With the money granted by the Flemish government, I wanted to create a documentary about something adventurous and something that I did not know about, " explains Conjaerts. "I started doing research about the LHC and CERN and I came across the fantasy of...

  16. About Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.

  17. [The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Y

    2013-10-01

    After Operation Desert Storm which took place in Iraq from August 1990 to July 1991 involving a coalition of 35 countries and a 700,000 strong contingent of mainly American men, some associations of war veterans, the media and researchers described a new diagnostic entity: the Gulf War Syndrome (GWS). GWS seems to be a new disorder which associates a litany of functional symptoms integrating the musculoskeletal, digestive, tegumentary and neurosensory systems. The symptoms presented do not allow a syndrome already known to be considered and the aetiology of the clinical picture remains unexplained, an increasing cause for concern resulting from the extent of the phenomenon and its media coverage. It quickly appears that there is no consensus amongst the scientific community concerning a nosographic description of GWS: where can all these functional complaints arise from? Different aetiopathogenic hypotheses have been studied by the American administration who is attempting to incriminate exposure to multiple risks such as vaccines and their adjuvants, organophosphorous compounds, pyridostigmine (given to the troops for the preventive treatment of the former), impoverished uranium, and the toxic emanations from oil well fires. But despite extremely in-depth scientific investigations, 10 years after the end of the war, no objective marker of physical suffering has been retained to account for the disorders presented. It would appear that the former soldiers are in even better objective health than the civil population whereas their subjective level of health remains low. Within this symptomatic population, some authors have begun to notice that the psychological disorders appear and persist associating: asthenia, fatigability, mood decline, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within the nosological framework, does GWS cause functional disorders or somatisation? Finally, 20 years after the end of the fighting, only PTSD has

  18. New Bachelards?: Reveries, Elements and Twenty-First Century Materialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an infusion of new ideas into material philosophy through the work of the so-called ‘new materialists’. Poignant examples appear within two recent books: the first, Vibrant Matter by Jane Bennett (2010, sets out to “enhance receptivity to the impersonal life that surrounds and infuses us” (2010: 4. The second, Elemental Philosophy by David Macauley (2010, advocates an anamnesis or recollection of the elements as imaginatively dynamic matter. Within his essays on the imagination of matter, Gaston Bachelard outlined an archetypal vision of the elements predicated upon the material imagination. He explored the manner in which the imagination inhabits the world, is triggered by the stimulus of material dynamism, and is formed from a co-constitution of subject and object. This article proposes that recent trends in materialist philosophy – as exemplified by the monographs of Bennett and Macauley – reinforce the ideas of Bachelard and take them in new directions. Bachelard provides us with a compelling argument for the rediscovery of material imagination, whereas New Materialism portrays a vision of matter filled with autonomous dynamism that lends itself to entering into a relationship with this imagination. Consequently, this article proposes that Gaston Bachelard has gained a new relevance as a result of contemporary trends in material philosophy, has taken on new possibilities through recent scholarship, and remains a force within the twenty-first century discursive landscape.

  19. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  20. Yangzhou’s Famous Twenty-fourth Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “LOOMING green moun-tains and runningstreams;grass does notwither and fall,though the autumnhas come to an end in the south.The bright moon arises overTwenty-fourth Bridge.Where doyou teach pure-jade Yangzhouwomen to play music on bambooflutes?”This poem by Du Mu(803-c.852),a famous poet of thelate Tang Dynasty,is well remem-bered today It made Yangzhou’sTwenty-fourth Bridge Known to la-ter generations.Of many ancientpoems about Twenty-fourth Bridge

  1. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    pollutant emissions on human driving the development of highly efficient low- health range from respiratory diseases (e.g., child- emission combustion...Systems (N. 101. Stein, S. E., Walker, J. A., Suryan, M. M., and Fahr , Peters and B. Rogg, eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, A., in Twenty-Third Symposium...M. M., and Fahr , A., and Kawano, H., Int. j. Chem. Kinet. 21:643-666 in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Com- (1989). bustion, The

  2. Index to the Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. July 1956 - December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject indext for the twenty-first semiannual report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from July 1956 through December 1956.

  3. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    the influence of Arctic food and lifestyle on blood pressure. Four groups of healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Group I: Danes in Denmark consuming European food; group II: Greenlanders in Denmark consuming European food; group III: Greenlanders in Greenland consuming mainly European food; and group......, outdoor temperature, and lifestyle factors. Greenlanders have a lower 24-h diastolic blood pressure than Danes, and it is suggested that genetic factors are mainly responsible for the lower blood pressure level among Greenlanders. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: Relationship...... to diet and lifestyle - ResearchGate. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11001663_Twenty-four-hour_blood_pressure_among_Greenlanders_and_Danes_Relationship_to_diet_and_lifestyle [accessed Oct 7, 2015]....

  4. [Discirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power station: a twenty-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaia, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2009-01-01

    A comparative twenty-year study of 536 liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and 436 patients without radiation anamnesis has been carried out. Discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) was more often developed in subjects exposed to radiation at the age 30 years. Compared to individuals from the general population, it is characterized by the earlier onset, malignant progression, rapid increase of signs of cerebral affection during the first two years after exposure to radiation, stability of clinical symptoms during the following 5-6 years and further progressive cerebral decompensation with early autonomic dysfunction, psychoorganic syndrome, epilepsy. Moreover, severe stroke is a common complication of DE in liquidators.

  5. Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Combustion, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993, p. 81. 12. Ross, H. D., Miller, F. J., Schiller, D. N., and Sirig- nano , W...Mech. 48:547-591 (1971). 2. Lazaro , B. J. and Lasheras, J. C, Phys. Fluids 1:1035 (1989). 3. Kiger, K. T. and Lasheras, J. C, Twenty-Fifth Sympo

  6. Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics (NSCM22), taking event 22-23 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark. The papers presented at the Optimization Seminar in Honour of Niels Olhoff, held 21 October 2009 at Aalborg University, Denmark...

  7. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  8. Educators Guide to Free Filmstrips. Twenty-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Comp.; Diffor, John C., Comp.

    A total of 453 titles of filmstrips, slide sets, and sets of transparencies available free of charge to educators are listed in this guide. More than 20,000 separate frames are offered from 95 sources. Twenty of the filmstrips may be retained permanently by the borrower. The films cover topics in the fields of accident prevention, aerospace…

  9. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  10. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  11. Powering into the twenty-first century [Singapore Power Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century power industry, Singapore Power was incorporated as a commercial entity in October 1995. As the leading energy company in Singapore, SP continues to invest heavily in infrastructure development to improve its service efficiency and reliability, and to maintain its reputation as one of the world`s best power suppliers. (UK)

  12. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.

  13. Membership, Belonging, and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motteram, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a case study approach to exploring membership, belonging, and identity amongst English language teachers in the twenty-first century. It explores findings from two membership surveys conducted for the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), and considers the impact of recommendations…

  14. Blended Instruction: The Roaring Twenties Meets Coursesites.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    The action research study described in this report outlines the design and implementation of a unit of blended instruction in a traditional high school English classroom. Twenty technical high school students in an 11th grade Honors English class engaged in a variety of internet-based activities in conjunction with traditional learning activities…

  15. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Jong, de Franciska; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  16. Twenty years of physics at MAMI -What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei. (orig.)

  17. The Presidential Platform on Twenty-First Century Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Socol, Allison Rose

    2016-01-01

    As social and economic problems change, so do the goals of education reformers. This content analysis of presidential debates transcripts, state of the union addresses, and education budgets from 2000 to 2015 reveals the ways in which presidents and presidential candidates have framed education goals thus far in the twenty-first century. Using…

  18. Twenty years of physics at MAMI --What did it mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard Mecking

    2006-06-01

    The development over the last twenty years of the physics program and the experimental facilities at the Mainz Microtron MAMI will be reviewed. Ground-breaking contributions have been made to the development of experimental techniques and to our understanding of the structure of nucleons and nuclei.

  19. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  20. Twenty-One: a baseline for multilingual multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Netter, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will give a short overview of the ideas underpinning the demonstrator developed within the EU-funded project Twenty-One; this system provides for the disclosure of information in a heterogeneous document environment that includes documents of different types and languages. As part o

  1. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Twenty-third Annual Software Engineering Workshop (SEW) provided 20 presentations designed to further the goals of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) of the NASA-GSFC. The presentations were selected on their creativity. The sessions which were held on 2-3 of December 1998, centered on the SEL, Experimentation, Inspections, Fault Prediction, Verification and Validation, and Embedded Systems and Safety-Critical Systems.

  3. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rules of engagement for force protection.19 NATO Foreign Ministers authorized the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) to begin the next stage of...the mission on 9 December 2004. The activation order for this next stage was given by SACEUR on 16 December 2004. It allowed the deployment of 300...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  4. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  5. About capital in the twenty-first century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present three key facts about income and wealth inequality in the long run emerging from my book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, and seek to sharpen and refocus the discussion about those trends. In particular, I clarify the role played by r > g in my analysis of wealth inequality. I also discuss some of the implications for optimal taxation, and the relation between capital-income ratios and capital shares.

  6. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-15

    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  7. The November $J / \\Psi$ Revolution Twenty-Five Years Later

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, A

    1999-01-01

    Exactly twenty five years ago the world of high energy physics was set on fire by the discovery of a new particle with an unusually narrow width at 3095 MeV, known popularly as the $J/\\Psi$ revolution. This discovery was very decisive in our understanding as well as formulating the current picture regarding the basic constituents of nature. I look back at the discovery, pointing out how unexpected, dramatic and significant it was.

  8. Proceedings of the twenty-second LAMPF users groupd meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1989-04-01

    The Twenty-Second Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 17--18, 1988, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  9. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  10. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  11. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  12. Comparison of foot pedal reaction time among patients with right or left hemiplegia and able-bodied controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauley, Tim; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris; Devlin, Michael; Phadke, Chetan P

    2013-01-01

    Although inpatient stroke rehabilitation provides clinicians with the opportunity to prepare patients for continuation of prestroke activities, little is known about the patients' ability to safely resume driving at the point of discharge to the community. To compare foot pedal response times of 20 stroke patients with right hemiplegia (RH) or left hemiplegia (LH) and 10 controls. A cross-sectional design was used. Response times were measured using 3 foot pedal operation techniques: (1) right-sided accelerator with right leg operating accelerator and brake, (2) right-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake, and (3) left-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake. Outcomes included reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), and total response time (TRT). Controls demonstrated faster RT than patients with RH (263 vs 348 ms; P < .001) or LH (316 ms; P < .05) for all conditions, as well as faster MT than patients with RH (P < .05 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (258 vs 251 ms; P = .82). Controls demonstrated faster TRT than patients with RH (P < .001 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (515 vs 553 ms; P = .44). When using the nonparetic leg, patients with LH had braking response times comparable to controls, but patients with RH demonstrated significant impairment of both the paretic and nonparetic legs.

  13. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  14. A Survey of Subject and Logical Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永亮

    1999-01-01

    @@ This paper discusses Subject and Logical Subject of the English language. The grammar rules complied by some grammarians will be focused on and induced in a fuller account of the survey, aiming simply at a common- sense justification of traditional sentence analysis. Subject, a familiar grammatical term, is one of the most basic to thetraditional of grammatical analysis. It reports the concept of the subject and its history conducted with learners of English who are involved in making further English programme in the education with deep grammar explorations. Both the teachers and the students face many problems in this area, which need to be made clear and definite. The non- finite verbs have their specific rules or objective laws stipulated or summed up by grammarians. These areas of intellectual inquiry ,like most other fields of language study, have represented profoundly intelligent and important investigation in to the English deep grammars.

  15. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  16. Twenty years of energy policy: What should we have learned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1994-07-01

    This report examines the past twenty years of energy market events and energy policies to determine what may be useful for the future. The author focuses on two important lessons that should have been learned but which the author feels have been seriously misunderstood. The first is that oil price shocks were a very big and very real problem for oil importing countries, a problem the has not gone away. The second is that automobile fuel economy regulation has worked and worked effectively to reduce oil consumption and the externalities associated with it, and can still work effectively in the future.

  17. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  18. Earth observations in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the achievements of earth observations from past space missions are described. Also discussed are the achievements to be anticipated from currently approved and planned earth observation missions. In looking forward to what the objectives of earth observations from space are expected to be in the future, together with what technology is expected to enable, what the earth observing program will look like during the first part of the twenty-first century is discussed. It is concluded that a key part of this program will be long-term observations holistically viewing the earth system.

  19. Vinte anos de efeito SERS Twenty years of SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. A. de Faria

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS effect was observed for the first time in 1974, but it was only considered a new effect three years later, hence, nearly twenty years ago. Since its discovery, a significant amount of investigations have been performed aiming at to clarify the nature of the observed enhancement, to improve the surface stability and to establish applications which nowadays range from the study of biomolecules to catalysis. Some of the more relevant aspects of this effect which have been examined across the last two decades are summarized in this paper which presents the introductory aspects of SERS alongside with several of its applications.

  20. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  1. Globalisation and Social Imaginaries: The Changing Ideological Landscape of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred B. Steger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of prefixes like ‘neo’ and ‘post’ that adorn conventional ‘isms’ has cast a long shadow on the contemporary relevance of traditional political belief systems like liberalism, conservatism, and Marxism. This article explores how the thickening of global consciousness finds its expression in the growing capability of today’s political ideologies to translate the rising global imaginary into concrete political programs and agendas. But these subjective dynamics of denationalization at the heart of globalisation have not yet dispensed with the declining national imaginary. The twenty-first century promises to be an ideational interregnum in which both the global and national stimulate people’s deep-seated understandings of community. The essay also offers a rough outline and basic features of a new classification scheme that divides contemporary political ideologies into ‘market globalism’, ‘justice globalism’, and ‘religious globalism’.

  2. The Worldwide Significance of Chinese Aesthetics in the Twenty-First Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingping

    2006-01-01

    Through comparisons between traditional Chinese and Western aesthetics,this article tries to explain the worldwide significance of Chinese aesthetic tradition in the twentyfirst century.In contrast to cognitive-rational spirit and the tendency to distinguish the subjectives and objectives of traditional Western aesthetics,traditional Chinese aesthetics shows a distinctive practical-emotional spirit and a tendency to harmoniously unite human beings with nature,and believes that beauty is,first and foremost,a free state or way (Dao) of human life;the most important thing for human beings is how to make their own lives and existence beautiful.Therefore,it puts forward some persuasive and valuable insights into beauty and art,thus playing an independent and constructive role in intercultural aesthetic dialogues of the twenty-first century.

  3. Uncertainties in sea level projections on twenty-year timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James; Landerer, Felix; Little, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Regional decadal changes in sea level are governed by various processes, including ocean dynamics, gravitational and solid earth responses, mass loss of continental ice, and other local coastal processes. In order to improve predictions and physical attribution in decadal sea level trends, the uncertainties of each processes must be reflected in the sea level calculations. Here we explore uncertainties in predictions of the decadal and bi-decadal changes in regional sea level induced by the changes in ocean dynamics and associated redistribution of heat and freshwater (often referred to as dynamic sea level). Such predictions are typically based on the solutions from coupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models, including a suite of climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercompasion Project (CMIP5). Designed to simulate long-term ocean variability in response to warming climate due to increasing green-house gas concentration ("forced" response), CMIP5 are deficient in simulating variability at shorter time scales. In contrast, global observations of sea level are available during a relatively short time span (e.g., twenty-year altimetry records), and are dominated by an "unforced" variability that occurs freely (internally) within the climate system. This makes it challenging to examine how well observations compare with model simulations. Therefore, here we focus on patterns and spatial characteristics of projected twenty-year trends in dynamic sea level. Based on the ensemble of CMIP5 models, each comprising a 240-year run, we compute an envelope of twenty-year rates, and analyze the spread and spatial relationship among predicted rates. An ensemble root-mean-square average exhibits large-scale spatial patterns, with the largest uncertainties found over mid and high latitudes that could be attributed to the changes in wind patterns and buoyancy forcing. To understand and parameterize spatial characteristics of the

  4. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  5. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  6. Twenty-first century power needs. Challenges, and supply options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criswell, D.R. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Solar Energy Lab.

    1997-11-01

    The challenge of providing adequate power to enable world prosperity in the twenty-first century to continue was discussed. It was estimated that by 2050, a prosperous world of 10 billion people will require 60 TWt of thermal power. Conventional power systems will not be able to provide the needed energy because of limited fuels, contamination of the biosphere and costs. A viable, cost effective alternative will be solar energy that is captured in space and from facilities on the Moon, and that is imported to Earth by microwaves. Global electric power systems that use the Moon and deliver 1,000 TWe-Y of energy by 2070 was suggested as the most obvious alternative. Despite the huge initial cost of 20 to 100 trillion dollars, the long-term cost was said to be small compared to terrestrial and Earth-orbital options. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  8. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  9. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  10. Subject in first person--subject in third person: subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, R

    2001-09-01

    In this article, the author traces the history of the concepts of subject, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity in different psychoanalytic theories in the last decades. She argues that the uniqueness of these concepts and their different implications were not emphasized enough. The author discusses the various implications and contexts of the concept of subject in psychoanalytic theory proper and to relate as to: (1). The need to distinguish between the concepts of subject and subjectivity; (2). The mutual interdependence of the subject and his subjectivity and the intersubjective domain (both in the development of the individual and in theoretical thought pertaining to it). Her point of departure is from the position of the subject as a free creature, the centrality of the experiencing individual, from his/her perspective--the subject in the first person. She tries to explain the paradox implicit in the experiential dimension, the place of the other as participant, as both negating and recognizing--the subject in the third person. She suggests the interdependency of the first-person experience of subjectivity on the intersubjective dimension.

  11. The Subject of Exemption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault’s understa...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated.......This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault...

  12. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  13. Educators Guide to Free Filmstrips. Twenty-Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkheimer, Mary Foley, Comp.; Diffor, John C., Comp.

    Slightly more than 500 titles, including 122 new this year, which are available free from 99 sources are listed in this guide to help teachers and librarians select current relevant materials for their students. One hundred and fifty silent filmstrips, 113 sound films, and 243 slide sets are cataloged, covering the following subjects: aerospace…

  14. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  15. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, G.P. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK).

  16. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  17. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  18. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  19. Familial Sarcoidosis: An Analysis of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildar Duman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease, exact cause of disease is unknown but it is assumed that genetic predisposition and ethnic factors play a role in etiology. Studies related with familial sarcoidosis is limited and only case reports about familial sarcoidosis is available from our country. We aimed to evaluate the prevelance of familial sarcoidosis and clinical findings of cases with familial sarcoidosis. Methods: We retrospectively documented file records of 678 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis and followed up in outpatient clinic of sarcoidosis from January 1996 to February 2016. 28 familial sarcoidosis cases in 14 families were enrolled into the study. Their demographic findings, family relationship, symptoms, laboratory and pulmonary function test results, radiological apperances, diagnostic methods, treatments were recorded. Results: Twenty-eight sarcoidosis patients out of 678 reported as familial cases, giving a prevelance of familial sarcoidosis as 4%. There were 8 sarcoidosis sib, 4 sarcoidosis mother-child, 1 sarcoidosis father-child and 1 sarcoidosis cousin relationship. Female/male ratio was 1.8, mean age of the study population was 43, most freguent symptoms were cough and dyspnea, stage 2 was mostly seen according to chest X-ray, most common CT appearance was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and mediastinoscopy was the most freguent diagnostic method. Conclusion: This study is important to lead interrogation of family in patients with suspected sarcoidosis and future studies investigating familial aggregation in sarcoidosis.

  20. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  1. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  2. Twenty years on: Poverty and hardship in urban Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bryant-Tokalau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Through ‘official statistics’, academic and donor interpretations as well as the eyes of Suva residents, this paper presents an overview and case study of twenty years of growing poverty and hardship in the contemporary Pacific. Focusing on the past two decades, the paper notes how much, and yet so little, has changed for those attempting to make a living in the rapidly developing towns and cities. Changing interpretations of poverty and hardship are presented, moving from the ‘no such thing’ view, to simplification, and finally to an understanding that Pacific island countries, especially Fiji, are no longer an ‘extension’ of Australia and New Zealand, but independent nations actively trying to find solutions to their issues of economic, social and political hardship whilst facing challenges to traditional institutions and networks. Fiji is in some respects a very particular case as almost half of the population has limited access to secure land, but the very nature of that vulnerability to hardship and poverty holds useful lessons for wider analysis.

  3. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  4. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  5. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  6. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the reason

  7. Cumulative Index to Twenty Five Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The first twenty five semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through January 1959. In addition to the semiannual summaries, a series of special reports on important atomic energy programs were included in many of the semiannual reports. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports. Beginning in 1960, the Commission will be issuing annual reports, each separately indexed, ceasing the semiannual reporting.

  8. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  9. Twenty years of minimally invasive surgery in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Duda

    2011-03-01

    increased over the last twenty years, and the range of types of surgical therapies has enlarged.

  10. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  11. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  12. [Maximal exercise in spinal cord injured subjects: effects of an antigravity suit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi-Grossin, C; Bonnin, P; Bailliart, O; Bazzi, H; Kedra, A W; Martineaud, J P

    1996-01-01

    Paraplegics have low aerobic capacity because of the spinal cord injury. Their functional muscle mass is reduced and usually untrained. They have to use upperbody muscles for displacements and daily activities. Sympathic nervous system injury is responsible of vasomotricity disturbances in leg vessels and possible abdominal vessels, proportionally to level injury. If cord injury level is higher than T5, then sympathic cardiac efferences may be damaged. Underbody muscles atrophy and vasomotricity disturbances contribute to phlebostasis. This stasis may decrease venous return, preload and stroke volume (Starling). To maintain appropriate cardiac output, tachycardia is necessary, especially during exercise. Low stroke volume, all the more since it is associated with cardio-acceleration disturbances, may reduce cardiac output reserve, and so constitutes a limiting factor for adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to verify if use of an underlesional pressure suit may increase cardiac output reserve because of lower venous stasis, and increase performance. We studied 10 able-bodied and 14 traumatic paraplegic subjects. Able-bodied subjects were 37 +/- 6 years old, wellbeing, not especially trained with upperbody muscles: there were 2 women and 8 men. Paraplegics were 27 +/- 7 years old, wellbeing except paraplegia, five of them practiced sport regularly (athletism or basket for disabled), and the others just daily propelled their wheelchair; there were 5 women and 9 men. For 8 of them, cord injury levels were located below T7, between T1 and T6 for the others. The age disability varied from 6 months to 2 years for 9 of them, it was approximately five years for 4 of them, and 20 years for one. We used a maximal triangular arm crank exercise with an electro-magnetic ergocycle Gauthier frame. After five minutes warm up, it was proceeded in one minute successive stages until maximal oxygen consumption is raised. VO2, VCO2, RER were measured by direct method with

  13. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  14. Decadal potential predictability of twenty-first century climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, George J. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, PO Box 3065, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Decadal prediction of the coupled climate system is potentially possible given enough information and knowledge. Predictability will reside in both externally forced and in long timescale internally generated variability. The ''potential predictability'' investigated here is characterized by the fraction of the total variability accounted for by these two components in the presence of short-timescale unpredictable ''noise'' variability. Potential predictability is not a classical measure of predictability nor a measure of forecast skill but it does identify regions where long timescale variability is an appreciable fraction of the total and hence where prediction on these scale may be possible. A multi-model estimate of the potential predictability variance fraction (ppvf) as it evolves through the first part of the twenty-first century is obtained using simulation data from the CMIP3 archive. Two estimates of potential predictability are used which depend on the treatment of the forced component. The multi-decadal estimate considers the magnitude of the forced component as the change from the beginning of the century and so becomes largely a measure of climate change as the century progresses. The next-decade estimate considers the change in the forced component from the past decade and so is more pertinent to an actual forecast for the next decade. Long timescale internally generated variability provides additional potential predictability beyond that of the forced component. The ppvf may be expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and takes on values between 0 and 1. The largest values of the ppvf for temperature are found over tropical and mid-latitude oceans, with the exception of the equatorial Pacific, and some but not all tropical land areas. Overall the potential predictability for temperature generally declines with latitude and is relatively low over mid- to high-latitude land. Potential predictability for

  15. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  16. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  17. [Twenty five years of residency training in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, W

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 25 years in the Netherlands the residency training programme for psychiatry has been concerned primarily with teaching students to use practice guidelines, providing science education, promoting internationalisation and satisfying society's requirement for transparency. This has led to the transformation of the classical training programme with its paternalistic 'master-apprentice' relationship to a programme in which the required professional competencies are taught and assessed by supervisors who in the future will need to be explicitly qualified in particular areas. The dramatic increase in the number of women wanting to become psychiatrists has made it clear that the classical training programme puts a heavy burden on students who are struggling to combine private life with a heavy work-load and enthusiasm for their chosen subject. The compulsory personal therapy in the curriculum may be helpful in solving this problem.

  18. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...... such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development...

  19. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document...... such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  20. Subjective Rationalizability in Hypergames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sasaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution concept for hypergames called subjective rationalizability is proposed. Hypergame theory is a game theoretical framework that deals with agents who may misperceive game structures and explicitly takes into account hierarchy of perceptions, that is, an agent’s view about another agent’s view and so on. An action of an agent is called subjectively rationalizable when the agent thinks it can be a best response to the other’s choices, each of which the agent thinks each agent thinks is a best response to the other’s choices, and so on. Then it is proved that subjective rationalizability is equivalent to the standard notion of rationalizability under a condition called inside common knowledge. The result makes the new solution concept a practical tool in hypergame analyses. Theoretically, it is characterized as such a concept that provides the precise implication, that is, predicted outcomes, of a given hypergame structure.

  1. The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.

  2. Finitude, Aging and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Rodrigues Correa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship of man with death and its deployment in subjectivity and in aging. With this intent, we first present a brief history of the vision of death over time and after an analysis of the process of aging and dying according to the logic of biopolitical management. With death and old age increasingly distant from the horizons of life, subjectivity has been weakened. Thus, incorporating these aspects as part of existence constitutes one of the challenges to the thought as well as to the building of the self.  

  3. Community, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronick, Karen

    2002-08-01

    This paper deals with the notions of "subjectivity," "intersubjectivity," and "community" from several different points of view that include subjective and intersubjective agency, a sense of community, the community as a social institution, and the idea of social justice. The context of these considerations can be found in the Community-Social-Psychological approach to social action as it is often practiced in Latin America. A review of these themes is considered important because different models of community intervention and practice may lead to different expressions of community interaction.

  4. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...

  5. Twenty Years of Ablative Photodecomposition (Industrial Applications of Physics Prize Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rangaswamy

    2004-03-01

    It was a little over twenty years ago that two groups, one in the U.S. and another in Hull, U.K. working independently, reported that ultraviolet laser pulses of nanosecond duration were capable of etching organic polymer films without any need for further development.In 1982, our group at the IBM Research Center which studied this phenomenon at 193nm named the process "Ablative Photodecomposition". Dyer and his group in Hull reported similar results at 248nm and 308nm in 1983. We also showed that the process worked well in the etching of tissue and had the potential to be of use in surgery since there was no detectable heat damage around the exposed area. These reports led to a burst of activity from numerous groups all over the world which has not slowed down significantly to the present day. The driving force behind the activity was and continues to be the potential for applications in several areas of computer hardware technology as well as in corneal refractive surgery. Today these applications can be said to be firmly in place and well-accepted. Strangely, the science behind the process is still a subject for serious discussion. The reason for this is the mix of physicists, chemists, medical doctors and engineers who have stepped into the debate. The result is a true 'Babel' which will be pointed out.

  6. Diasporic Reparations: Repairing the Social Imaginaries of Central America in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Central American diasporic writers like Horacio Castellanos Moya, Francisco Goldman, Héctor Tobar, and Marcos McPeek Villatoro, in Senselessness (2008, The Art of Political Murder: Who Killed the Bishop? (2007, The Tattooed Soldier (1998, and the Romilia Chacón detective series, write in response to various forms of violence. They grapple with the image of Central America as a site of unsustainable violence, inhospitable material conditions, and unresolved historical issues that extend into the lives of Central Americans in the United States. The past is not easily dismissed, but lies at the core of transnational Central American subject formation. This essay examines how violence and impunity are closely tied in Central American diasporic texts and hold cognitive relevancy for Central Americans in and outside of the isthmus. While US Central Americans seek to understand the origins and conditions of their diaspora, writers reflect critically on Central American historiography, diaspora, and the construction of transnational “Centroamericanidades” in the twenty-first century. These writers engage in a literature of reparation that reveals the (impossibility of repairing and re-writing or righting the past in societies where violence and impunity have been institutionalized.

  7. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  8. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23 subjec

  9. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  10. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  11. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  12. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing....../reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  13. SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF TRAINEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THIS REPORT GIVES A SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL POPULATION FROM WHICH TRAINEES FOR THE MODESTO MULTI-OCCUPATIONAL PROJECT WERE SELECTED. IT INCLUDES AN EXTENSIVE STUDY OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF A GROUP OF WHITE MIGRANTS WHO MOVED FROM THE EASTERN UNITES STATES TO CALIFORNIA. THE AUTHOR ALSO INCLUDED REFERENCES TO THE CHANGING…

  14. Active control of combustors after twenty years' efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culick, F. E. C.; Palm, S.

    2009-09-01

    Active control of combustion was proposed by Bollay [1]. Following that idea, Tsien [2] worked out an analysis of controlling low-frequency oscillations in a liquid rocket but no successful experimental results followed. More than thirty years passed before the first laboratory demonstrations were performed at Cambridge University. Interest grew rapidly in the 1990s due to potentially wonderful applications to practical combustion systems including liquid and solid rockets, gas turbines, and thrust augmentors. Dreams have not materialized: There are presently no operational control systems, despite considerable efforts, and examples of partially controlled phenomena. Only one practical installation for control of oscillations has been documented, for a large Siemens machine [3]. Its use has been rendered unnecessary by further experimental work leading to development of successful passive control with modifications of hardware [4]. The purpose of this paper is to examine briefly some of the reasons that active control of combustion has failed to become the panacea widely anticipated two decades ago. The authors' view is that the subject is far from exhausted, but rather requires carefully planned research to understand the basis of successful applications.

  15. Hemodynamic characterization of recombinant inbred strains: twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunes, Jaroslav; Dobesová, Zdenka; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Vorlícek, Jaroslav; Pravenec, Michal; Kren, Vladimír; Zicha, Josef

    2008-08-01

    Recombinant inbred (RI) strains (Prague HXB/BXH set) represent a unique model that allows for permanent summation of genetic and physiological information as well as the study of age-dependent changes in phenotypes and/or gene regulation. This study compared blood pressure (BP) measured in adult animals of RI strains by radiotelemetry with BP values obtained in conscious rats of comparable age subjected to short-term carotid catheterization or with those obtained by direct carotid puncture under ether anesthesia (almost 20 years ago). After radiotelemetry recording, the contribution of major vasoactive systems to BP maintenance was studied by consecutive inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and nitric oxide synthase. We found highly significant interrelationships among baseline BP values obtained by radiotelemetry, carotid catheterization, or carotid puncture. This indicates considerable stability of RI strains over the course of their long existence, and confirms the reliability of BP values used for genetic studies performed in the past. Subsequent analysis of vasoactive system participation revealed the importance of SNS for the maintenance of BP, as determined by either radiotelemetry or catheterization. The BP of catheterized rats also correlated closely with acute captopril-induced BP changes, but this was not the case for rats measured by radiotelemetry. NO-dependent vasodilatation matched the BP effects of SNS and RAS in both measuring conditions. Residual BP (recorded at sodium nitroprusside-induced dilatation of resistance vessels) was also responsible for a significant portion of the BP variation in RI strains. Our study confirms the validity of RI strains for the further genetic and physiological research of hypertension.

  16. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  17. High Temperature Superconductivity in the Past Twenty Years Part 1-Discovery, Material, and Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of high- temperature superconductors (HTSs), the HTS mate- rials now have been well developed. Meanwhile the mechanism of superconductivity is still one of the topical interests in physics. The achievements made on HTS materials and theories during the last twenty years are reviewed comprehensively in this paper.

  18. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  19. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  20. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  1. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  2. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical...

  3. Subject to Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bouwer

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For Plantier, language constitutes reality and is male dominated. Readers of texts, she says, are at a disadvantage because the author imposes a logic that we must accept in order to understand the text. The discourses shaping our social reality have the same effect. Plantier has struggled against individual voices, discourses, and the very fabric of language informed by these discourses. "Subject to Instability" examines the impact on her generic evolution of a changing sense of self, of who her interlocutors are, and of those for whom she is speaking. I argue that her increasing attempt to juggle many different voices destabilizes her "monologic," poetical voice, resulting in a blurring of generic boundaries and eventually the abandonment of poetry. Recognizing that our entry into language is a form of alienation also unsettles Plantier because it undermines the very identity that allows her to speak for others. She concludes that each woman needs to become a Subject in her own right, but she continues to struggle against dominant discourses, modeling "resisting reader" strategies. If she can no longer practice "monologic steadfastness," this does not deter her from attempting to dismantle patriarchal language and striving to make her voice prevail over others.

  4. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Twenty-fourth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.; McCone, John A.

    1958-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-fourth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1958.

  6. Twenty-second Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-07-31

    The document represents the twenty-second semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1957.

  7. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented la

  8. Skeletal pattern in subjects with temporomandibular joint disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almăşan, Oana Cristina; Almăşan, Horea Artimoniu; Bran, Simion; Lascu, Liana; Iancu, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To establish the skeletal pattern in subjects with malocclusions and temporomandibular disorders (TMD); to assess the relationship between craniofacial skeletal structures and TMD in subjects with malocclusions. Material and methods Sixty-four subjects with malocclusions, over 18 years of age, were included in the study. Temporomandibular disorders were clinically assessed according to the Helkimo Anamnestic Index. Subjects underwent a lateral cephalogram. Subjects were grouped according to the sagittal skeletal pattern (ANB angle) into class I, II and III. Parametric Student tests with equal or unequal variations were used (variations were previously tested with Levene test). Results Twenty-four patients with TMD (experimental sample); 40 patients without TMD (control group); interincisal angle was higher in class I and II (p overjet was larger in experimental subjects; midline shift and Wits appraisal were broader in the experimental group in all three classes. In class III subjects, the SNB angle was higher in the experimental group (p = 0.01). Joint noises followed by reduced mandible mobility, muscular pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain were the most frequent symptoms in subjects with TMD and malocclusions. Conclusions Temporomandibular joint status is an important factor to consider when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with severe malocclusions; midline shift, large overjet and deep overbite have been associated with signs and symptoms of TMD. PMID:23515361

  9. Proceedings of the twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Twenty-first Workshop in Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, held at Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA, January 22-24, 1996. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions including: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling/hot-dry-rock, low enthalpy, fluid injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption, and well stimulation.

  10. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  11. Chronic subjective dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, Micaela; Maire, Raphaël

    2008-10-01

    Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) is frequent and affects twice as many women as men. Anxiety is a strong predisposing factor. The pathophysiologic concept of this disorder assumes that balance function and emotion share common neurologic pathways, which might explain that the balance disorder can provoke fear and vice versa, giving rise to a problem in perception of space and motion. In anxious patients this can turn into a space and motion phobia, with avoidance behaviour. CSD is a diagnosis based on the hypothesis of an interaction between the vestibular system and the psychiatric sphere. Patients complain of chronic imbalance, worsened by visual motion stimulation, and frequently suffer from anxiety. Vestibular examination reveals no anomalies. We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of CSD in patients referred to our neuro-otology centre (tertiary hospital outpatient clinic). This was a retrospective study of 1552 consecutive patients presenting with vertigo. CSD was diagnosed in 164 patients (female:male=111:53). CSD represents 10.6% of the dizzy patients in our clinic. Psychiatric disorder, mainly anxiety, was found in 79.3% of the cases. Other frequently associated factors were fear of heights and former vestibular lesion (healed). In all, 79.0% of the patients with CSD had poor balance performance on dynamic posturography testing.

  12. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  13. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The 1970s Nigeria witnessed oil boom which turns out to be a disaster to people ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of ..... that demand high intelligence, proper planning and long term preparation.

  14. Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarin, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of educational theory in light of the challenges confronting education in the twenty-first century. The author examines how our ideas about the methods for managing the transmission of culture, the subject of education, and the consequences of these changes for the theory of education have changed. The author…

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Subjected to Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Pérez-Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to sudden temperature changes during its life cycle. Adaptation to these variations is crucial for parasite survival, reproduction, and transmission. Some of these conditions may change the pattern of genetic expression of proteins involved in homeostasis in the course of stress treatment. In the present study, the proteome of T. cruzi epimastigotes subjected to heat shock and epimastigotes grow normally was compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. Twenty-four spots differing in abundance were identified. Of the twenty-four changed spots, nineteen showed a greater intensity and five a lower intensity relative to the control. Several functional categories of the identified proteins were determined: metabolism, cell defense, hypothetical proteins, protein fate, protein synthesis, cellular transport, and cell cycle. Proteins involved in the interaction with the cellular environment were also identified, and the implications of these changes are discussed.

  16. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  17. Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty Eight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is also true that each culture affects their writers' language and style differently in works ... Thus it calls for a cautious and positive use of words .... Memory is also fragrance from withered flowers. Memory is also the music from broken guitars.

  18. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  19. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  20. The cybernetic rehabilitation aid: preliminary results for wrist and elbow motions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Erhan; Shima, Keisuke; Kataoka, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Masaki; Otsuka, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes the cybernetic rehabilitation aid (CRA) based on the concept of direct teaching using tactile feedback with electromyography (EMG)-based motor skill evaluation. Evaluation and teaching of motor skills are two important aspects of rehabilitation training, and the CRA provides novel and effective solutions to potentially solve the difficulties inherent in these two processes within a single system. In order to evaluate motor skills, EMG signals measured from a patient are analyzed using a log-linearized Gaussian mixture network that can classify motion patterns and compute the degree of similarity between the patient's measured EMG patterns and the desired pattern provided by the therapist. Tactile stimulators are used to convey motion instructions from the therapist or the system to the patient, and a rehabilitation robot can also be integrated into the developed prototype to increase its rehabilitation capacity. A series of experiments performed using the developed prototype demonstrated that the CRA can work as a human-human, human-computer and human-machine system. The experimental results indicated that the healthy (able-bodied) subjects were able to follow the desired muscular contraction levels instructed by the therapist or the system and perform proper joint motion without relying on visual feedback.

  1. Projection of drought hazards in China during twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulian; Wang, Yongli; Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenbin; Jin, Shaofei; Han, Mingchen

    2017-06-01

    Drought is occurring with increased frequency under climate warming. To understand the behavior of drought and its variation in the future, current and future drought in the twenty-first century over China is discussed. The drought frequency and trend of drought intensity are assessed using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is calculated based on historical meteorological observations and outputs of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. The simulation results of drought period, defined by PDSI class, could capture more than 90% of historical drought events. Projection results indicate that drought frequency will increase over China in the twenty-first century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the mid-twenty-first century (2021-2050), similar patterns of drought frequency are found under the three emission scenarios, and annual drought duration would last 3.5-4 months. At the end of the twenty-first century (2071-2100), annual drought duration could exceed 5 months in northwestern China as well as coastal areas of eastern and southern China under the RCP8.5 scenario. Drought is slightly reduced over the entire twenty-first century under the RCP2.6 scenario, whereas drought hazards will be more serious in most regions of China under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  2. Effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on the brain activity of subjects with psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Yeun, Young-Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of manual lymph drainage for abdomen on electroencephalography in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects were randomly allocated to undergo a 20-min session of either manual lymph drainage or abdominal massage on a bed. [Results] Analysis of electroencephalograms from the manual lymph drainage group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute, relative alpha activity and a decrease in relative gamma activity. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the application of manual lymph drainage from the abdomen provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress. PMID:28356638

  3. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  4. The spatial preference map of Dutch entrepreneurs : Subjective rating of locations, 1983, 1993 and 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, Wilhelm J.; Pellenbarg, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Location decisions are often based on inaccurate information about potential locations. Decision-makers seem to be guided by their subjective interpretation of reality, not so much by reality itself. Twenty years ago this fundamental idea was the starting point for a research programme of the Facult

  5. Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…

  6. Subjective Applicant Qualifications and Interpersonal Attraction as Mediators within a Process Model of Interview Selection Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kim J.; Kinicki, Angelo J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four professional recruiters interviewed 91 college seniors. Interviewers' subjective impressions of applicants completely mediated effects of applicants' relevant qualifications, but not academic achievement. A positive relationship between interpersonal attraction and interview outcomes suggests interviewers are measuring applicant fit in…

  7. Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…

  8. Measuring Quality of Life in Stroke Subjects Receiving an Implanted Neural Prosthesis for Drop Foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, Anke I.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G.; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the treatment of a drop foot by means of an implantable two-channel peroneal nerve stimulator improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All subjects were measured at baseline and after a follow-up period of 12 and 26 weeks. Twenty-nine stroke survivors with chronic

  9. Circadian fluctuations in three types of sensory modules in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Nam, Ki Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to observe and compare the circadian fluctuations in tactile sense, joint reposition sense and two-point discrimination in healthy subjects. Twenty-one healthy adult subjects received perceptual ability tests through these three different sensory modules at approximately 9:00, 13:00 and 18:00 in a day. The distribution of ranking for perceptual ability was significantly different among the three different time points in each individual, with highest perceptual ability ...

  10. The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yan Xu; Jin-Sheng Yang; Bing Zhu; Li Yang; Ying-Ying Wang; Xin-Yan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 ...

  11. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  12. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  13. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  14. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  15. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  16. The combined effects of guidance force, bodyweight support and gait speed on muscle activity during able-bodied walking in the Lokomat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Anne M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Reinders - Messelink, Heelen; den Otter, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to provide automated movement guidance is unique for robot assisted gait trainers such as the Lokomat. For the design of training protocols for the Lokomat it is crucial to understand how movement guidance affects the patterning of muscle activity that underlies walking, and

  17. The combined effects of guidance force, bodyweight support and gait speed on muscle activity during able-bodied walking in the Lokomat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kammen, Klaske; Boonstra, Anne M; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; den Otter, Rob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to provide automated movement guidance is unique for robot assisted gait trainers such as the Lokomat. For the design of training protocols for the Lokomat it is crucial to understand how movement guidance affects the patterning of muscle activity that underlies walking, and

  18. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  19. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  20. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  1. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  2. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  3. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  4. Non-International Armed Conflict in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    political and ecological aspirations, rather than by a sound analysis of State practice. State practice during non-international armed conflicts does...Chipka were visited in the English Channel, the German Las Palmas twenty-two nautical miles south of Cape Vicent and the German Archsum fifty-four

  5. 22 CFR 181.5 - Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Twenty-day rule for concluded agreements. 181.5 Section 181.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COORDINATION, REPORTING AND..., including the Department of State, that concludes an international agreement within the meaning of the Act...

  6. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...

  7. Twenty Years of Research on RNS for DSP: Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of issues emerged from our twenty-year long experience in applying the Residue Number System (RNS) to DSP systems. In early days, RNS was mainly used to reach the maximum performance in speed. Today, RNS is also used to obtain powerefficient (tradeoffs speed...

  8. Twenty-One Ways to Use Music in Teaching the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Aldo F.

    Twenty-one activities that integrate music and the language arts in order to capitalize on children's interests are described in this paper. Topics of the activities are as follows: alphabetical order, pantomime, vocabulary building from words of a favorite song, words that are "the most (whatever)" from songs, mood words, a configuration clue…

  9. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  10. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  11. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N.; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunitie

  12. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  13. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  14. An investigation of twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of low-frequency noise complaints were thoroughly investigated with the aim of answering the question whether it is real physical sound or low-frequency tinnitus that causes the annoyance. Noise recordings were made in the homes of the complainants taking the spatial variation...

  15. 38 CFR 8.31 - Total disability for twenty years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.31 Total disability for twenty years or more. Where the Disability Insurance Claims activity has made a finding of total disability for insurance purposes... will not be discontinued thereafter, except upon a showing that such a determination was based on fraud...

  16. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive…

  17. Land and Freedom [Twenty Lessons for High School American Studies Classroom Instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Stan

    Twenty self-contained lessons about land and freedom feature activities that can be used with high school social studies classes. The lessons are: Indian Land Ownership, The Dutch and the New World, Colonial Mercantilism, the Declaration and Natural Rights, Jefferson and Liberty, Louisiana Purchase, the Tariff Issue of 1824, Panic of 1837, John…

  18. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  19. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  20. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  1. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  2. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  3. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  4. EXOGENOUS CHALLENGES FOR THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  5. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  6. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  7. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  8. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  9. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  10. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1957-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  11. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  12. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. The Kerner Report Twenty Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fred R., Ed.; Wilkins, Roger W., Ed.

    This book grew out of the national conference "The Kerner Commission: Twenty Years Later." The Kerner Commission found in its 1968 Report that America was moving toward two separate and unequal societies, divided along racial lines, and that major efforts to combat poverty, unemployment, and racism were mandated. The essays in this book…

  13. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  14. Web-based evaluation of Parkinson's disease subjects: objective performance capacity measurements and subjective characterization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is classified as a progressively degenerative movement disorder, affecting approximately 0.2% of the population and resulting in decreased performance in a wide variety of activities of daily living. Motivated by needs associated with the conduct of multi-center clinical trials, early detection, and the optimization of routine management of individuals with PD, we have developed a three-tiered approach to evaluation of PD and other neurologic diseases/disorders. One tier is characterized as 'web-based evaluation', consisting of objective performance capacity tests and subjective questionnaires that target history and symptom evaluation. Here, we present the initial evaluation of three representative, self-administered, objective, web-based performance capacity tests (simple visual-hand response speed, rapid alternating movement quality, and upper extremity neuromotor channel capacity). Twenty-one subjects (13 with PD, 8 without neurologic disease) were evaluated. Generally good agreement was obtained with lab-based tests executed with an experienced test administrator. We conclude that objective performance capacity testing is a feasible component of a web-based evaluation for PD, providing a sufficient level of fidelity to be useful.

  15. Sonoelastography of Plantar Fascia: Reproducibility and Pattern Description in Healthy Subjects and Symptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díaz, José; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto J; del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; de Groot-Ferrando, Ana; Botía-Castillo, Paloma; Fernández-Rodríguez, David

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to describe the sonoelastographic appearance of the plantar fascia of healthy volunteers and patients with fasciitis. Twenty-three healthy subjects and 21 patients with plantar fasciitis were examined using B-mode and real-time sonoelastography (RTSR) scanning. B-Mode examination included fascia thickness and echotexture. Echogenicity and echovariation of the color histogram were analyzed. Fasciae were classified into type 1, blue (more elastic); type 2, blue/green (intermediate); or type 3, green (less elastic). RTSE revealed 72.7% of fasciae as type 2, with no significant association with fasciitis (χ(2) = 3.6, df = 2, p = 0.17). Quantitative analysis of the color histogram revealed a significantly greater intensity of green (mean = 77.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.9-83.6) and blue (mean = 74.2, 95% CI = 69.7-78.8) in healthy subjects. Echovariation of the color red was 33.4% higher in the fasciitis group than in the healthy group (95% CI = 16.7-50.1). Sonoelastography with quantitative analysis of echovariation can be a useful tool for evaluation of plantar fascia pathology. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  17. Twenty four hour insulin infusion impairs the ability of plasma from healthy subjects and Type 2 diabetic patients to promote cellular cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Removal of cholesterol from peripheral cells by high density lipoproteins (HDL) is regarded as an important defence mechanism against atherosclerosis development. PLTP is involved in the generation of pre beta -HDL that can act as initial accepters of cellular cholesterol. Exogenous

  18. Me acuerdo… ¿Te acuerdas?: Memory, Space and the Individualizing Transformation of the Subject in Twenty-First-Century Mexican Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Treviño Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth-century, Mexican fictions operated under a revisionist historical logic that employed national spaces to allegorize the relationship between the individual, society and the nation. Countering this trend, since the mid-nineties, Mexican literature has witnessed a departure from an interest in collectivizing discourses of identity, displaying instead a growing faith in individualism as a means to resist state-driven cultural visions. To analyze this empha...

  19. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills.

  20. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  1. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, Michael J. K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

  2. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  3. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  4. A twenty-year follow-up survey of medical emergency education in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Morris S; Wall, Benjamin E; Tholström, Tad C; Christensen, Edward H; Payne, Brandon C

    2006-12-01

    This article reports the results of a 2003 survey of medical emergency education taught in U.S. dental schools and compares the results to findings from surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. A questionnaire was sent to the deans of all U.S. dental schools, requesting completion of the survey by the faculty member responsible for medical emergency education. Forty-three of fifty-four U.S. dental schools responded, and the data were compared to similar surveys conducted in 1983 and 1992. Special attention was given to changes in technology (pulse oximetry and automated external defibrillators), teaching methods (audiovisual, role-playing, and simulation), and subject matter (CPR, venipuncture, and endotracheal intubation) that affect medical emergency education. The study found a large disparity in number of hours dedicated to medical emergency training among dental schools. Surprisingly, CPR certification/recertification for both students and faculty was not provided at three of the reporting U.S. dental schools. Most schools included venipuncture and endotracheal intubation in their curriculum. Routine monitoring of vital signs remained fairly consistent over the past twenty years with a slight dip in the 1992 survey. A standardization of medical emergency education needs to take place to ensure an appropriate level of training for all dental students.

  5. TWENTY-FIVE-GAUGE CANNULA-ASSISTED FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY OF CHOROIDAL MELANOMA: Cytopathological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D; Aziz, Hassan A; Pelayes, David; Biscotti, Charles V

    2017-09-01

    To report cytopathological observations on the cells retrieved from the 25-G cannula used during prognostic transvitreal fine-needle aspiration biopsy of choroidal melanoma. Transvitreal fine-needle aspiration biopsy of choroidal melanoma was performed through a 25-G valved cannula. Twenty samples from 20 consecutive patients were obtained. Most tumors were treated with plaque radiation therapy (16/20, 80%) following standard clinical guidelines. Four enucleated globes (4/20, 20%) were subjected to a similar transvitreal biopsy before enucleation. Cytopathological analysis of the cells retrieved from the cannula revealed the absence of any cells in 4 of 20 samples (20%). In the remaining 16 samples, definite melanoma cells and atypical cells (probable melanoma cells) were observed in 2 samples each (total 4, 25%). Histiocytes (4/16, 25%) and lymphocytes (1/16, 6%) were also observed. Thirteen samples (13/16, 81%) contained conjunctival epithelial epithelium. Prognostication could be performed on all fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples (20, 100%). Use of a 25-G valved cannula offers potential advantages by isolating the needle tract and by allowing retrieval of the contaminating cells without affecting the prognostic yield of the fine-needle aspiration biopsy sample.

  6. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  7. Dysfunctional attitudes in depressed patients before and after clinical treatment and in normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, E D; Robins, C; Block, P; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1990-04-01

    To evaluate the role of maladaptive thinking patterns in depression, the authors administered the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale to 112 depressed patients before and after 3-6 weeks of treatment with antidepressants or placebo. Twenty-two normal subjects were also assessed twice. Depressed patients had a significantly higher initial mean score than control subjects, but during treatment their score significantly decreased, and the posttreatment score of those with complete recoveries was nearly as low as the control subjects' final score. The higher the initial dysfunctional attitude score the poorer the response to treatment. Patients with endogenous depression had significantly lower scores than nonendogenously depressed patients.

  8. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  9. Gnathological features in growing subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Baldini, Alberto; Pavoni, Chiara; Bollero, Patrizio; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of consecutive subjects. Materials and methods TMDs were recorded in a sample of 580 subjects (279 M, 301 F; mean age: 13.4y). For each subject a case history was compiled to evaluate the social and demographic parameters. An extraoral exam was effected to point out the face proportions, and an intraoral exam was performed to analyze dental occlusion, mandibular deviation during opening, presence of cross-bites, overjet and overbite. A functional exam was carried out to evaluate mandibular movements and to find joint sounds and myofascial pain. The sample was divided into 6 groups according to the: gender, age (ages 6y–11y and 12y–16y), Angle Dental Class, cross-bite, midline deviation and chewing side. For this investigation latex gloves, a millimeter calipers (precision 0,01 mm) and a phonendoscope were used. The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the ?2-test with Yates correction to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMDs, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain. Results The prevalence of TMDs in the total sample was 13,9%. Among 6y–11y subjects the percentage of TMD was 7,3% while it was 16,1% among 12y–16y subjects (?2=1.634;; p=0.201). Females showed a percentage of 16,6% of TMDs while males one of 10,8% (?2=0.556;; p=0.456). According to angle malocclusion, the prevalence was 14% in subjects with Class I malocclusion, 15% in sample with Class II and 9% in patients with Class III (?2=0.540;; p=0.763). According to presence or absence of crossbite, prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was 13,8% among subjects without crossbite and 14,3% among subjects with crossbite, with no significant difference between the two subgroups (?2= 0,047619;; p=0.050). In relation of midline deviation, prevalence of TMDs was 15% in subjects without deviation, 15,8% in functional deviation

  10. New Poetics of the Film Body: Docility, Molecular Fundamentalism and Twenty First Century Destiny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Susan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty first century film evokes a new topology of the body. Science and technology are the new century’s ‘sovereign power’ which enforces biopolitics through bodies which, by virtue of being seen at their most fundamental level, have become docile surfaces. The film body is at once manipulated and coerced into an ethos of optimization; a thoroughly scientific and ‘molecular’ optimization which proffers ‘normalization’ and intimately regulated bodies. In the film bodies of this millennium, bodily intervention results in surveillance becoming internalized. Now the body is both a means and an end of social control. This essay applies the philosophies Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose to twenty first century Hollywood film, elucidating a new tropos, a new film body/body of film.

  11. Population and business exposure to twenty scenario earthquakes in the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of an initial analysis of population and business exposure to scenario earthquakes in Washington. This analysis was conducted to support the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Northwest Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) and an ongoing collaboration between the State of Washington Emergency Management Division (WEMD) and the USGS on earthquake hazards and vulnerability topics. This report was developed to help WEMD meet internal planning needs. A subsequent report will provide analysis to the community level. The objective of this project was to use scenario ground-motion hazard maps to estimate population and business exposure to twenty Washington earthquakes. In consultation with the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program and the Washington Division of Geology and Natural Resources, the twenty scenario earthquakes were selected by WEMD (fig. 1). Hazard maps were then produced by the USGS and placed in the USGS ShakeMap archive.

  12. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  13. Twenty Years of Evolutionary Change in the Department of Defense’s Civil Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    should include the foregoing statement.) ii ABSTRACT TWENTY YEARS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S... gasping for air flooded television and print outlets across the globe. The casualty figures from the attack included twelve dead, fifty four...Biological Incident Response Force, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Indian Head, MD,” Marines: The Official Website of the United States Marine Corps

  14. Results of miconazole therapy in twenty-eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R; Rubinstein, P; Herrmann, A; Gimenez, A

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of treatment with miconazole, orally and intravenously, in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Twenty-eight male patients aged from 34 to 66 years and exhibiting various clinical forms of the disease were studied. Twenty-five came from endemic areas in north east Argentina (Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, Corrientes and northern Santa Fe) and the remaining three from Paraguay. Twenty patients were engaged in agricultural work or at woodmills. single or multiple lesions were observed in 24 cases. Thirteen were suffering from infection of the larynx and in two of them a tracheotomy was necessary. Twenty-three showed pulmonary lesions on X-rays. Twelve had ganglionic lesions, eight had cutaneous lesions and one patient had osteoarthritis of the knee. One patient had hepatomegaly which was unrelated to chronic alcoholism. Fourteen patients had received previous treatments such as sulphonamides and amphotericin B (7 cases); sulphonamides (3), sulphonamides and the combination sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim (3), and one patient had received all three medications. All patients had relapsed before starting miconazole therapy. Diagnosis was established by the presence of P. brasiliensis in all cases, recovered either from cutaneous or mucosal biopsy samples or from the sputum. Complement fixation tests were positive in all patients at the onset of the treatment and the immunodiffusion reactions showed precipitation bands in 27/28 patients. Skin tests with P. brasiliensis antigens proved to be positive in 18 cases and negative in 10. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was markedly accelerated in 22 patients (greater than 20 mm in the first hour).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p24-a Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:122643

  15. A Brief Analysis of O. Henry’s Writing Characteristics in"After Twenty Years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠林

    2014-01-01

    O. Henry was one of the three world’s masters of short stories. He was known as the father of the modern American short stories. Even till today O. Henry’s short stories still enjoy a lot of popularity. This article analyzes the writing characteristics of O. Henry’s short stories by probing into one of his short stories"After Twenty Years".

  16. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  17. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    sources of power supply. Estonia is the only country in the world where oil shale is the primary source of energy, supplying over 75 percent of its total...Unclassified The contributions of Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania ("the Baltic States") to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European...23 vi TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY EUROPE: EMERGENCE OF THE BALTIC STATES INTO EUROPEAN ALLIANCES BACKGROUND Estonia , Latvia, and Lithuania are often

  18. Monetary Policy Implementation and Results in Twenty Inflation-Targeting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel.; Matías Tapia

    2002-01-01

    Inflation targeting is an increasingly popular monetary regime among industrialized and developing central banks. However, there is little cross-country comparative information about commonalties and differences in monetary policy implementation and results across inflation-targeting countries. This paper presents the results of a survey on monetary policy conducted among the world’s twenty central banks that currently target inflation. Survey responses highlight operational features of monet...

  19. Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, G.R.; Bacho, A.; Karmis, M. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research are presented. The Conference was held in Blacksburg, Virginia on August 28-30, 1995 and covered such topics as themes of change, miner`s safety, personal and corporate liability, behavioral changes and positive reinforcement, and meeting health and safety objectives in mining operations. A separate abstract was prepared for the thirteen papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. A Summary of the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (AAAI-15) was held in January 2015 in Austin, Texas (USA) The conference program was cochaired by Sven Koenig and Blai Bonet. This report contains reflective summaries of the main conference, the robotics program, the AI and robotics workshop, the virtual agent exhibition, the what's hot track, the competition panel, the senior member track, student and outreach activities, the student abstract and poster program, the doctoral conso...

  1. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  2. Twenty-first century Arctic climate change in the CCSM3 IPCC scenario simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Haiyan; Washington, Warren M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; Buja, Lawrence E.; Strand, Gary W. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Arctic climate change in the Twenty-first century is simulated by the Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM3). The simulations from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) are analyzed using eight (A1B and B1) or five (A2) ensemble members. The model simulates a reasonable present-day climate and historical climate trend. The model projects a decline of sea-ice extent in the range of 1.4-3.9% per decade and 4.8-22.2% per decade in winter and summer, respectively, corresponding to the range of forcings that span the scenarios. At the end of the Twenty-first century, the winter and summer Arctic mean surface air temperature increases in a range of 4-14 C (B1 and A2) and 0.7-5 C (B1 and A2) relative to the end of the Twentieth century. The Arctic becomes ice-free during summer at the end of the Twenty-first century in the A2 scenario. Similar to the observations, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is the dominant factor in explaining the variability of the atmosphere and sea ice in the 1870-1999 historical runs. The AO shifts to the positive phase in response to greenhouse gas forcings in the Twenty-first century. But the simulated trends in both Arctic mean sea-level pressure and the AO index are smaller than what has been observed. The Twenty-first century Arctic warming mainly results from the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases. The 1st empirical orthogonal function (explains 72.2-51.7% of the total variance) of the wintertime surface air temperature during 1870-2099 is characterized by a strong warming trend and a ''polar amplification''-type of spatial pattern. The AO, which plays a secondary role, contributes to less than 10% of the total variance in both surface temperature and sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  3. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  4. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  5. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  6. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  7. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  8. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  9. Subject position affects EEG magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Justin K; Rorden, Christopher; Little, Jessica S; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-01-01

    EEG (electroencephalography) has been used for decades in thousands of research studies and is today a routine clinical tool despite the small magnitude of measured scalp potentials. It is widely accepted that the currents originating in the brain are strongly influenced by the high resistivity of skull bone, but it is less well known that the thin layer of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) has perhaps an even more important effect on EEG scalp magnitude by spatially blurring the signals. Here it is shown that brain shift and the resulting small changes in CSF layer thickness, induced by changing the subject's position, have a significant effect on EEG signal magnitudes in several standard visual paradigms. For spatially incoherent high-frequency activity the effect produced by switching from prone to supine can be dramatic, increasing occipital signal power by several times for some subjects (on average 80%). MRI measurements showed that the occipital CSF layer between the brain and skull decreases by approximately 30% in thickness when a subject moves from prone to supine position. A multiple dipole model demonstrated that this can indeed lead to occipital EEG signal power increases in the same direction and order of magnitude as those observed here. These results suggest that future EEG studies should control for subjects' posture, and that some studies may consider placing their subjects into the most favorable position for the experiment. These findings also imply that special consideration should be given to EEG measurements from subjects with brain atrophy due to normal aging or neurodegenerative diseases, since the resulting increase in CSF layer thickness could profoundly decrease scalp potential measurements.

  10. On philosophical subjects and methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Fuchun

    2006-01-01

    With the consideration of some issues in contemporary philosophy,this thesis attempts to analyze being,thinking and language as philosophical subjects,and clear up the multiple meanings for each of them.It will also inquire the traditional methods in both Chinese and Western philosophy,and those in contemporary thinking.Finally,it puts forward a theory of"the critique without principles".The thesis aims to explore a new way to solve the problems of contemporary philosophy by changing its subjects and methods.

  11. [Psychological problems of thalassemic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasco, G; La Mantia, A; Cuniolo, A

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychological problems of the thalassemic subject shown with these following tests: Der Baumtest, drawing of the human figure. Moreover, we made meetings with all boys and their parents during their stay in the day-hospital. These tests have shown subjective conflicts (fear and uncertainty of future due to illness felt as aggression and fault, depressive moods and loneliness, problems of communication, hope in a magic recovery opposite to the constant discomfort of the therapeutic dependence) and relational conflicts (ambivalence towards parents, difficulties in becoming a part of the social and school environment).

  12. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology...

  13. Subject Departments as Professional Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Adrie J.; Witziers, Bob

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that when schools become professional communities there are expected benefits in terms of teacher learning, school improvement and student achievement. In this article the concept of professional communities is examined for certain subject departments in Dutch secondary schools. The authors report on research…

  14. Protecting human subjects in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orticio, Lily P

    2009-01-01

    The quest for advancing scientific knowledge through human experimentations using vulnerable groups is traced back to ancient history, when Herophilus performed vivisections on prisoners. The violation of the rights of human subjects through the 20th century led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. In the United States, the most infamous was the Tuskegee public health study that resulted in the enactment of the National Research Act that authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. In spite of existing federal regulations, the system of protecting human subjects is still flawed. Transparency of conflict ofinterest, clarity, and strict adherence to institutional guidelines are critical in safeguarding the rights and safety of human subjects and the integrity of research. Education on ethics and emerging complex ethical issues, global awareness, and governmental cooperation and sanctions are important steps in addressing the inadequacies in protecting the most vulnerable populations in experimentations worldwide. Investigators must always remember that the primary safeguards of protecting human life rest in their hands.

  15. Reliability of subjective wound assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.T. Bloemen; P.P.M. van Zuijlen; E. Middelkoop

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Assessment of the take of split-skin graft and the rate of epithelialisation are important parameters in burn surgery. Such parameters are normally estimated by the clinician in a bedside procedure. This study investigates whether this subjective assessment is reliable for graft take a

  16. Subject departments as professional communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Adrie J.; Witziers, Bob

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that when schools become professional communities there are expected benefits in terms of teacher learning, school improvement and student achievement. In this article the concept of professional communities is examined for certain subject departments in Dutch s

  17. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  18. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  19. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  20. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  1. Objective To explore the difference on mental rotation ability between major depressive disorders and healthy subjects.Methods Twenty-three patients with major depressive disorders and 24 healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢卫红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) on the contribution of dopamine D1receptor(DRD1) to schizophrenia.Methods One single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)(Val66Met,rs6562)

  2. Establishing the R&D agenda for twenty-first century learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    An infusion of twenty-first century skills into American public education necessitates a plan for research and development to further such reform. While the nation agrees that students must obtain critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills to succeed in the current global marketplace, this chapter puts forth a long-term, proactive agenda to invest in targeted research to propel and sustain this shift in education. The authors examine the impact such an R&D agenda would have on pedagogy and assessment and the implications for institutions of higher education. As the United States struggles to maintain dominance in the international economy, it faces a great challenge in keeping up with European and Asian competitors' strategies for preparing youth for the global marketplace. The authors hope the global reality will help contextualize the debate around American education--the current trend toward basics and accountability needs to be broadened. Building on frameworks created by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this chapter proposes questions to guide research around teaching, professional development, and assessment significant to twenty-first century skills. Knowing that educational change depends on providing teachers with the tools, support, and training to make fundamental changes in their practice, the authors argue for extensive research around best practices. In addition, if assessments are created to measure the desired outcomes, such measuring tools can drive reform. Furthermore, large-scale changes in teacher preparation programs must take place to allow teachers to adequately employ twenty-first century teaching and assessment strategies.

  3. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  4. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbahn, John A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  5. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  6. Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, R. K. [ed.

    1977-12-01

    Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  7. Managing the twenty-first century reference department challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Learn the skills needed to update and manage a reference department that efficiently meets the needs of clients today?and tomorrow! Managing the Twenty-First Century Reference Department: Challenges and Prospects provides librarians with the knowledge and skills they need to manage an effective reference service. Full of useful and practical ideas, this book presents successful methods for recruiting and retaining capable reference department staff and management, training new employees and adapting current services to an evolving field. Expert practitioners address the changing role of the r

  8. Digital images and art libraries in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Wyngaard, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Increase your knowledge of the digital technology that is essential for art librarianship today! Digital Images and Art Libraries in the Twenty-First Century is your key to cutting-edge discourse on digital image databases and art libraries. Just as early photographers tried to capture the world to make it accessible, now information professionals in art libraries and art museums are creating and sharing digital collections to make them broadly accessible. This collection shares the experience and insight of art information managers who have taken advantage of digital technology to exp

  9. Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-first Century

    OpenAIRE

    Puleio, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-First CenturyThe relevance of modern dance being performed today has been a growing topic in the dance field as legacy companies age and the field of contemporary dance continues to expand. This thesis begins with critical response to mid-century modern dance in the work of well-known dance critics John Martin, Edwin Denby and Louis Horst and how they substantiated modern dance’s place in dance history. My interviews with dance critics Alastair...

  10. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  11. Twenty of China's best physics PhD students visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Twenty of the top physics PhD students in China were honoured with the 'E=mc2 to modern science' Einstein Award and received a three week tour of major laboratories in Germany and Switzerland, including CERN, DESY and the Max Planck Institute. The Einstein Award is co-sponsored by the German and Swiss Embassies in celebration of the 'Year of Physics' in 2005. For many years, Germany, Switzerland and China have been involved in numerous areas of scientific research and cooperation.

  12. Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease (1995-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S F; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Robertson, I D; Malik, R

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease were identified retrospectively. The criteria for inclusion were consistent clinical signs or histopathology and no other identifiable aetiology. Patient records were analysed to determine historical, clinical, clinicopathologic and radiographic features. The main presenting complaints were coughing and dyspnoea. The most common physical finding was dyspnoea. The majority of radiographs had a bronchial pattern either as the sole change or as a component of a mixed pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology was neutrophilic or eosinophilic in the majority of cats. There was no association between age, breed, sex, clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology or radiographic severity and disease severity.

  13. Twenty natural organic pigments for application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D.; Sánchez Juárez, A.; Espinosa Tapia, S.; Guaman, A.; Obregón Calderón, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the results of a study of twenty natural pigments obtained from plants and insects from southern Ecuador. Many of them will be considered as a potential natural sensitizer for the construction of DSSCs. The results indicate that these pigments have a good performance in the absorbance and wavelength spectra. Were selected four best pigments for the construction of DSSCs, Rumex tolimensis Wedd, Raphanus sativus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Prunus serótina, however the conversion efficiency is lower than 1%.

  14. Authority in the Virtual Sangat : Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsh, Doris R.

    2006-01-01

    In her paper Authority in the Virtual Sanga. Sikhism, Ritual and Identity in the Twenty-First Century, Doris Jakobsh analyses the change of authority based on her research on Sikhs on the Internet. She stresses the Web as a ‘third place’ of communication among the Sikhs as well as the phenomenon of new authorities online. However, this does not imply the replacement of the traditional seats of authority, the Akal Takht, SGPC, or gurdwara managements, but one can recognize a significant shift ...

  15. A perspective of dental education in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D L; Finnegan, W N

    1989-04-01

    With the beginning of the twenty-first century only twelve years away, it is clearly not too early for dental educators to be planning for it. If one compares the practice of dentistry and the nature of dental education in 1888 with that of 1988, and then tries to project what they will be like in the year 2088, we have a difficult task indeed. As Alvin Toffler has pointed out in his book Future Shock, we are in an ever escalating period of change. Dentistry and dental education will change much more in the next one hundred years than they have in the last one hundred years.

  16. The economics of urologic practice in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1998-02-01

    Our nation's health care has been undergoing an economic revolution. The practice of urology has not escaped. Speculation regarding the economics of urologic practice in the twenty-first century must be based on the continuation of policy trends begun over the last decade by government and managed care coupled with the impact of changes in the science of urology, shifting population demographics, and changing social factors. The hallmarks of the years ahead include increased physician accountability, expanded use of clinical care guidelines, continued relentless penetration of managed care, and reduced reimbursement for surgical services.

  17. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  18. Twenty years of „post-communism”: the radiography of a political failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This empirical view on the current „state” of Romania has as main objective to emphasize that the contemporary economic crisis actually revealed some other escalated crises in the very heart of the Romanian society. The vicious circle determined by three crises – one political, another social-institutional and last, but not least, a cultural one, continuously weakened the state for the last twenty years. Romania will overcome the economic crisis but the key for walking out of the above-mentioned circle would be the real transformation of its core systems – political, institutional and educational.

  19. Rethinking Individual Authorship: Robert Burns, Oral Tradition, and the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Knezevich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The songs of late-eighteenth-century Scottish poet Robert Burns provide a rich case study of literature that challenges existing notions of the author as an autonomous entity. Responding to twenty-first-century examples of contested issues of intellectual property and plagiarism in an age of digital media, this project illustrates the ways in which precepts of oral tradition can inform our thinking about cultural production within contexts seemingly permeated by ever-present literacy or text-based thinking in order to provide a new outlook on such situations of artistic borrowing or “plagiarism.”

  20. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  1. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Nariman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDue to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infections. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured by tubeand agar dilution methods for the biologically active plant extracts.ResultsOf the twenty plant extracts analyzed, sixteen exhibited good anti-H. pylori activity, using disc diffusion.The ten most active extracts were Carum bulbocastanum, Carum carvi, Mentha longifolia, Saliva limbata,Saliva sclarea, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus caramanicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations measured for the 10 biologically activeplant extracts were within the range of 31.25 to 500 μg/ml.ConclusionAmong the ten plant extracts effective against H. pylori clinical isolates, Carum carvi, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum showed the highest activity.Keywords: Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Iranian plants, Organic extracts

  3. Secondary battery which flaps in the twenty-first century; 21seiki ni habataku nijidenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Z. [kansai University, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-25

    The development of a secondary battery of large safety and high-power high energy density will be advanced in the twenty-first century, while both sides in environment and resources are considered. The high tension battery will be advantageous, and the development of this battery will be promoted mainly by the lithium secondary battery. The battery which uses manganese system compounds for cathode active material was used in the early time practically, and in addition, it will develop to the ferrous compounds. In the electrolyte, the metallic lithium is used in negative electrode active materials, and an organic polymer thin film including an ion cluster which is active in the nonaqueous solvent will be developed. The secondary battery which has only a power generation function at the inside of a container and has active material at the outside of the container is suitable for large-sized and large-capacity secondary batteries. The battery of this conformer of which belongs the redox, flow battery which possesses active material in liquid electrolyte and the fuel cell using a gas active material. The development of the lithium secondary battery using the new material will be promoted competitively with the development of the fuel cell and the redox, flow battery, etc., when the field where the application of the battery expanded in the twenty-first century was considered. (NEDO)

  4. Proceedings of Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockosh, G.R. [ed.] [Pittsburgh Research Center, US Dept. of Energy (United States); Langton, J. [ed.] [Mine Safety and Health Administration, US Dept. of Labor (United States); Karmis, M. [ed.] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dept. of Mining and Minerals Engineering, Blacksburg (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This Proceedings contains the presentations made during the program of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining Health, Safety and Research held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, on August 26-28, 1996. The Twenty-Seventh Annual Institute on Mining, Health, Safety and Research was the latest in a series of conferences held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, cosponsored by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, United States Department of Labor, and the Pittsburgh Research Center, United States Department of Energy (formerly part of the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of Interior). The Institute provides an information forum for mine operators, managers, superintendents, safety directors, engineers, inspectors, researchers, teachers, state agency officials, and others with a responsible interest in the important field of mining health, safety and research. In particular, the Institute is designed to help mine operating personnel gain a broader knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of mining health and safety, and to present them with methods of control and solutions developed through research. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  5. Impact of Power Play Overs on the Outcome of Twenty20 Cricket Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyojyoti Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find if better performance in power play leads a team to victory in a Twenty20 match. Based on the methodology devised to do so, the study tries to measure the performance of both the teams during power play overs in terms of batting and bowling. The developed measure is called ‘Prod’ which is a product of the difference of batting and bowling performance of the teams during power play overs. The team with better performance in both the skills during power play is expected to win the match. But it would be difficult to predict the outcome of a match if the performance of a team is better in bowling and worse in batting and vice-versa. A total of 261 matches from different seasons of Indian Premier League (IPL are considered for the study. The outcomes of 220 matches are predicted based on the performance of two teams in power play out of which 153 of them were correctly predicted. Remaining 41 matches could not be predicted as it is not clear which team performed better during power play. Thus, out of the matches where the dominance of a team was clear in the power play, 70 percent cases that team ultimately won the match in Twenty20 cricket.

  6. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in finishing cattle housed outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, D A; Thomason, J D; Reinhardt, C; Bartle, S; Rethorst, D; Loneragan, G H; Thomson, D

    2017-04-01

    Atrial premature complexes have been reported to be the most common arrhythmia in cattle and is suspected to be secondary to systemic disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmia in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence should be defined. The objective of this study was to determine the normal heart rate, rhythm, number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs), and atrial premature complexes (APCs) in unrestrained Angus steers. Twenty-seven client owned steers with unremarkable physical examinations and serum biochemical analyses were used. Twenty-four hour Holter monitors, attached by a custom-made harness, were retrospectively evaluated. Three lead electrocardiographic registrations of good quality and normal sinus rhythm were obtained from all steers in the study. The mean heart rate was 66.8 bpm ± 16.4 bpm. Ventricular premature complexes were rare (noted in 14.8% of steers), and APCs were common (noted in 85% of the steers). Simple second degree AV block was observed in 18.5% of the steers. In summary, healthy steers have rare single VPCs, although it is possible for an individual animal to have apparent more frequent VPCs. Mean heart rate varies with a diurnal pattern similar to other species. Atrial premature complexes are the most prevalent abnormality observed in feedlot steers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Twenty-first century changes in snowfall climate in Northern Europe in ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Changes in snowfall in northern Europe (55-71°N, 5-35°E) are analysed from 12 regional model simulations of twenty-first century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. As an ensemble mean, the models suggest a decrease in the winter total snowfall in nearly all of northern Europe. In the middle of the winter, however, snowfall generally increases in the coldest areas. The borderline between increasing and decreasing snowfall broadly coincides with the -11 °C isotherm in baseline (1980-2010) monthly mean temperature, although with variation between models and grid boxes. High extremes of daily snowfall remain nearly unchanged, except for decreases in the mildest areas, where snowfall as a whole becomes much less common. A smaller fraction of the snow in the simulated late twenty-first century climate falls on severely cold days and a larger fraction on days with near-zero temperatures. Not only do days with low temperatures become less common, but they also typically have more positive anomalies of sea level pressure and less snowfall for the same temperature than in the present-day climate.

  8. Subjective memory complaints in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel J; Amariglio, Rebecca; Protas, Hillary; Chen, Kewei; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pulsifer, Brendan; Castrillon, Gabriel; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Tariot, Pierre; Langbaum, Jessica B; Reiman, Eric M; Lopera, Francisco; Sperling, Reisa A; Quiroz, Yakeel T

    2017-10-03

    To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing. Self-reported SMC were greater in carriers than noncarriers (p = 0.02). Study partner-based SMC did not differ between groups (p = 0.21), but in carriers increased with age (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and decreased with hippocampal volume (r = -0.35, p = 0.08). Cognitively unimpaired PSEN-1 carriers have elevated SMC. Self-reported SMC may be a relatively early indicator of preclinical AD, while partner- reported SMC increases later in preclinical AD, closer to clinical onset. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  10. High-frequency Trader Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the recent shift in financial markets toward high-frequency trading (HFT). This turn is being legitimized with reference to how algorithms are allegedly more rational and efficient than human traders, and less prone to emotionally motivated decisions. We argue...... that although HFT does not render humans irrelevant, it is leading to a reconfiguration of both the ideal trading subject and the human–machine relations. Drawing on interviews with and ethnographic observations of high-frequency traders, as well as HFT ‘how to’ books, we analyze the subjectivity and self......-techniques of the ideal high-frequency trader. We demonstrate that these traders face the challenge of avoiding emotional interference in their algorithms and that they deploy a set of disciplinary self-techniques to curb the importance of emotional attachment....

  11. ROMANTIC DISCOURSE AND FEMININE SUBJECTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukkoyuncu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda's short story, “La dama de Amboto” (TheDame of Mt. Amboto), is classified under the genre of Romantic legends.The authoress develops a fictive narrative in which the theme, characters andmotives inscribe themselves perfectly in the discourse of canonicalRomanticism. However, the reading of this text in the light of the theories offeminist criticism exposes to us a discourse in which develop and take shapea whole network of subject matter and na...

  12. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  13. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  14. Backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Manckoundia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Manckoundia1,2, France Mourey1,2, Dominic Pérennou2,3, Pierre Pfitzenmeyer1,21Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2INSERM/ERIT-M 0207 Motricity-Plasticity University of Burgundy, Dijon, France; 3Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Hospital, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Backward disequilibrium is observed frequently in daily clinical practice. However, there are no epidemiological data concerning this postural disorder. Defined by a posterior position of the centre of mass with respect to the base of support, backward disequilibrium is abnormal postural behavior, usually characterized by a posterior trunk tilt in standing and sitting positions, which predisposes subjects to backward falls. Many afflictions whether they are somatic (degenerative, ischemic and traumatic brain lesions, psychosomatic (psychomotor disadaptation syndrome, confinement to bed, nonuse situations or psychological (depression can cause backward disequilibrium. A vicious circle of falls, and loss of autonomy can arise and this is the main consequence of backward disequilibrium. Thus, in this paper, we review backward disequilibrium in elderly subjects with regard to the causes, consequences, assessment, and management.Keywords: backward disequilibrium, balance, elderly subject, falls, posture

  15. Effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the unique checking constraint (UCC) hypothesis and the usage-based approach concerning why young children variably use tense and agreement morphemes in obligatory contexts by examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is. Twenty typically developing 3-year-olds were included in this study. The children's production of auxiliary is was elicited in sentences with pronominal subjects, high-frequency lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects (e.g., the dog), and low-frequency lexical NP subjects (e.g., the deer). As a group, children did not use auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects. Furthermore, individual data revealed that although some children used auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical NP subjects, the majority of children did not show this trend. The symmetry observed between lexical and pronominal subjects supports the predictions of the UCC hypothesis, although additional mechanisms may be needed to account for the asymmetry between subject types in some individual children. Discrepant results between the present study and previous studies were attributed to differences in task formats and children's developmental levels.

  16. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  17. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  18. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: a rapidly increasing incidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. George (Elvira K.); M.L. Mearin (Maria Luisa); H.C.M. Franken; R.H.J. Houwen (Roderick); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Vandenbroucke (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. __Aims__ To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. __Subjects__ Identified cases of childhood

  19. Relationship between lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese and iron in hair of environmentally exposed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Mehra; Amit Singh Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Trace level analysis of two toxic metals lead and cadmium and three essential metals zinc, manganese and iron was examined in hair of 25 workers of metals finishing units and metal recycling units of State of Rajasthan, India, as Exposed Group (EG). Twenty-five subjects as controls were selected from the office staff of the same units Control Group A (CGA) and 25 subjects selected from the population of State of Rajasthan, India, who were not exposed to metal pollution at their work place wer...

  20. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G;

    1995-01-01

    1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic...... excretion rate was 6.6 micrograms/min. Twenty-seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 6.6-150 micrograms/min), and 56 age- and sex-matched control subjects with persistent normoalbuminuria (UAER ...% confidence interval 0.1-0.7; n = 83), r = 0.29, P microalbuminuria is an independent marker...

  1. The role of AGG interruptions in fragile X repeat expansions: A twenty year perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. Latham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 it was suggested that AGG interruptions affect the stability of the fragile X triplet repeat. Until recently, however, this hypothesis was not explored on a large scale due primarily to the technical difficulty of determining AGG interruption patterns of the two alleles in females. The recent development of a PCR technology that overcomes this difficulty and accurately identifies the number and position of AGGs has led to several studies that examine their influence on repeat stability. Here we present a historical perspective of relevant studies published during the last twenty years on AGG interruptions and examine those recent publications that have refined risk estimates for repeat instability and full mutation expansions.

  2. Classification of Groups with Strong Symmetric Genus up to Twenty-Five

    CERN Document Server

    Fieldsteel, Nathan; London, Tyler; Tran, Holden; Xu, Haokun

    2011-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group is the minimum genus of a compact Riemann surface on which the group acts as a group of automorphisms preserving orientation. A characterization of the infinite number of groups with strong symmetric genus zero and one is well-known and the problem is finite for each strong symmetric genus greater than or equal to two. May and Zimmerman have published papers detailing the classification of all groups with strong symmetric genus two through four. Using the computer algebra system GAP, we extend these classifications to all groups of strong symmetric genus up to twenty-five. This paper outlines the approach used for the extension.

  3. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  4. Children's inquiry strategies in referential communication and in the game of twenty questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, M L

    1989-08-01

    Young listeners perform poorly on referential communication tasks because they respond to ambiguous messages by guessing rather than by seeking clarification. 2 experiments addressed the ability of 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old listeners to perform competently following training in the skill of asking categorical questions. Training was presented either in the context of a Listener task or a Twenty Questions task. As these tasks require common strategies of information seeking, it was predicted that training in one task context would lead to improved performance on that task and to generalization of skill to the untrained task. The hypothesis was supported, although there were age differences in the effectiveness of training and efficiency of strategy use. The implications of the results for children's developing communication abilities were discussed.

  5. Twenty Years of Co-operation between Spain and France: Friends, Partners or Allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Mestres i Camps

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in the relations between France and Spain at the 18th Spanish- French Summit, held in Paris on 10 November 2005, demonstrate that relations between France and Spain are passing through a good moment, and at the same time it allows us to go deeper into the analysis of the co-operation between these two neighbours over the past twenty years. This article aims to examine the evolution of relations between Spain and France, which must administer a dense bilateral agenda as neighbours and anothermultilateral agenda as European partners. In other words, it will analyse the extent to which French-Spanish relations can become a balanced, stable alliance.

  6. Twenty-Year Optical Variability of The Blazar PKS 1749+096: Exponential Outbursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Lam, M. T.; Patrick, P. A.; Scott, E. L.; Kaercher, A. J.; Rupert, J.; Taber, T.; Hegel, P.; Tam, Y. H. N.; Morin, A.; Levandowski, K.; Graber, E. L.; Quirk, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the twenty-year R-band optical variability light curve for the BL Lac type quasar PKS 1749+096. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensity of outbursts and flares by fitting exponential profiles to the variations. PKS 1749+096 underwent strong optical outbursts during the summers of 2007 and 2008, reaching its brightest optical level in two decades, and exhibited an inactive period during summer 2009. We compare these two outbursts with lower amplitude well-sampled variations in 2000 through 2003. Observations were obtained as part of the intensive blazar variability monitoring program at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, the NASA / New York Space Grant, and the Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research Fund at Colgate University.

  7. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

  8. A Farewell to Innocence? African Youth and Violence in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ugochukwu Ukeje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a broad examination of the issue of youth violence in twenty-first-century Africa, looking at the context within which a youth culture of violence has evolved and attempting to understand the underlining discourses of hegemony and power that drive it. The article focuses specifically on youth violence as apolitical response to the dynamics of (disempowerment, exclusion, and economic crisis and uses (postconflict states like Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeriato explain not just the overall challenge of youth violence but also the nature of responses that it has elicited from established structures of authority. Youth violence is in many ways an expression of youth agency in the context of a social and economic system that provides little opportunity.

  9. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium: mine decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The symposium covered a spectrum of reclamation issues relevant to mining in British Columbia. The proceedings contain the twenty-one technical papers presented and a report by the awards subcommittee concerning citations awarded. Papers are included on native species in reclamation, bat conservation, biological removal of selenium, wetland cells for removing heavy metals leachates, end land use plan for a copper mine, environmental projects at Fording Coal, reclamation at a nickel plate tailings facility, forestry for end use, contaminated site legislation, compliance, environmental management considerations, acid rock drainage prediction, granular cover system for tailings management, long-term management of tailings and tailings dams at decommissioned mining properties, mine subsidence risk management, reclaiming subsidence in abandoned mining areas, and reclamation of mine openings. Two papers are abstracted separately.

  10. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  11. [Development of health promotion in Brazil in the last twenty years (1988-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Carvalho, Antonio Ivo de

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the institutionalization of health promotion (HP) in Brazil in the twenty years following the proclamation of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The legal and institutional foundations of HP are delineated, as well as its recent reassertion as a national policy. Moreover, the praxis of HP within the health system and other instances are analyzed, and the institutional capacity building - by means of research and training of human resources - is examined. Around 100 papers were revised, including institutional policy documents, decrees, laws, and annals of congresses and other events. The authors' personal experience in the ideational conception of the area and in the institutionalization of health promotion as a public policy in the country was also drawn upon. Finally, major restrictions to the theoretical and practical development of health promotion are criticized and a few ideas that might benefit such development are presented.

  12. Screening of twenty five plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of twenty five plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus at 1 000 ppm concentration. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 and 48 h. Results: The hexane extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Murraya koeingii (M. koeingii) plants showed 100 percent mortality at 24 h bioassay followed by diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of C. collinus, Leucas aspera (L. aspera), Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica), M. koeingii, Sphaeranthus indicus (S. indicus) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Z. limonella) after 48 h exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus and further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  13. Little Dorrit’s Fourth Volume. Twenty-first Century Remediation of a Victorian Classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Falchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current interest in the Victorian period is particularly evident in the multitude of successful period dramas and cinema productions deriving their inspiration from Victorian history and culture. Dickens’s Little Dorrit, generated by the difficulties of understanding a ‘new’ world dominated by more and more complicated machines, and markets, is possibly the ideal paradigm to explore this ‘Victorianomania’ because this novel strikes us “no less forcefully today in its indictment of society's ability to destroy through greed and crushing self-interest” (Kirschner 2009.This study carries out a threefold analysis of Little Dorrit's remediation in the twenty-first century: visual remediation – Xue’s 2012 Little Dorrit; audio-visual remediation – the BBC series; and web remediation – fan fiction – in order to investigate Dickens’s appeal and longevity in contemporary media.

  14. Topical melagenine for repigmentation in twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱娥; 尉晓冬

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical melagenine for repigmentation in child patients with vitiligo on the scalp. Methods Twenty-two child patients with vitiligo on the scalp were treated with 1.2 mg/ml aqueous melagenine in combination with 20 minutes of infrared exposure twice daily. Results In 4 patients (18.2%), melagenine treatment in combination with infrared exposure led to complete recovery; in 6 patients (27.3%), treatment was shown to be effective; in 8 patients(36.3%), treatment led to improvements in patient condition; and only 4 patients (18.2%) showed no response after 1 -2 treatment sessions. The general effective rate of melagenine-infrared combination treatment was 45. 5% for the children with vitiligo on the scalp, and treatment was accompanied by minimal side effects.Conclusion Melagenine may be efficacious and a safe treatment option for childhood vitiligo affecting the scalp.

  15. Life on hold: Staying in identity diffusion in the late twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria; Frisén, Ann

    2016-02-01

    This study adds to the understanding of the dark side of identity development by investigating what it means to experience long-term identity diffusion during the late twenties. In a study of change and stability in identity status between ages 25 and 29 (N = 124; 63 women), seven participants were assigned to identity diffusion at both ages. Longitudinal analysis of interviews with these participants showed that long-term experiences of identity diffusion may be described through individuals' approach to changing life conditions, the extent to which they engage in meaning making, and how they develop their personal life direction. In questionnaires, participants reported few signs of psychological distress. Even so, qualitative analyses showed a general trend among participants to keep life on hold through decreased activity or increased haphazard activity in relation to changing life conditions, to make little new meaning, and in some cases to dissolve their personal life direction.

  16. Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons: twenty-five years of doing MATH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mel

    2006-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago this past autumn, we published a short article entitled 'Adherence of bacteria to hydrocarbons: a simple method for measuring cell-surface hydrophobicity' in Volume 9 of FEMS Microbiology Letters. Together with my Ph.D. supervisors, Eugene Rosenberg and David Gutnick, we proposed a method of measuring bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity based on bacterial adherence to hydrocarbon ('BATH', later known as 'MATH', for microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon). The method became popular soon after it was published, and the paper was, for at least the following decade, the Journal's most cited article. It became an ISI 'citation classic' in 1991. This minireview is a rather personal look at the development of the method and its various modifications and other scientific offspring, with the perspective of a quarter-century.

  17. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-23

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion.

  18. TWENTIES Project. Wind power for wide-area control of the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Juan Carlos; Combarros, Clara; Veguillas, Roberto; Hermosa, Mikel Joseba [Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, David [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (Spain); Egido, Ignacio [Comillas Univ. (ES). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT)

    2011-07-01

    Europe faces a great challenge with the 2020 scenario in which the renewable energy installed capacity in Europe should increase from its present value of approximately 80 GW to 230 GW in 2020. The future high penetration levels of wind and other renewable energies in the power system require decision makers and stakeholders of the electrical sector to work together to develop new ancillary services and to make the necessary changes to the grid infrastructure in Europe. This background is in line with the SYSERWIND demonstration lead by Iberdrola Renovables and included in the TWENTIES project, with three more partners taking part in this package: Red Electrica de Espana (REE), IIT and Gamesa Eolica. This paper introduces a first phase of preliminary work to define, install and test a Secondary Frequency Control and a Voltage Management System in a wide area, along a transport line. (orig.)

  19. Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in children; clinical and electrophysiological features of twenty-seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakize Karaoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Brain injuries occurring at a particular time may cause damages in well-defined regions of brain. Perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and hypoglycemia are some of the most common types of brain injuries. Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause abnormal myelination in parietal and occipital lobes resulting in parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. There is a small number of studies about clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. They might have important neurologic sequelae such as cortical visual loss, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the causes of parieto-occipital encephalomalacia and evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological features of children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Settings and Design: We evaluated clinical features and EEGs of 27 children with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Hospitalization during the neonatal period was the most common cause (88.9% of parieto-occipital brain injury. Eleven patients (40.7% had a history of neonatal hypoglycemia. Twenty-three patients (85.2% had epilepsy and nine of the epileptic patients (39% had refractory seizures. Most of the patients had bilateral (50% epileptic discharges originating from temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (56.2%. However, some patients had frontal sharp waves and some had continuous spike and wave discharges during sleep. Visual abnormalities were evident in 15 (55.6% patients. Twenty-two (81.5% had psychomotor retardation. Fine motor skills, social contact and language development were impaired more than gross motor skills. Conclusions: In our study, most of the patients with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia had an eventful perinatal history. Epilepsy, psychomotor retardation, and visual problems were common neurologic complications.

  20. Is telomere length socially patterned? Evidence from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Robertson

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is strongly associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality, but it is not known if the same is true for telomere length, a marker often used to assess biological ageing. The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study was used to investigate this and consists of three cohorts aged approximately 35 (N = 775, 55 (N = 866 and 75 years (N = 544 at the time of telomere length measurement. Four sets of measurements of SES were investigated: those collected contemporaneously with telomere length assessment, educational markers, SES in childhood and SES over the preceding twenty years. We found mixed evidence for an association between SES and telomere length. In 35-year-olds, many of the education and childhood SES measures were associated with telomere length, i.e. those in poorer circumstances had shorter telomeres, as was intergenerational social mobility, but not accumulated disadvantage. A crude estimate showed that, at the same chronological age, social renters, for example, were nine years (biologically older than home owners. No consistent associations were apparent in those aged 55 or 75. There is evidence of an association between SES and telomere length, but only in younger adults and most strongly using education and childhood SES measures. These results may reflect that childhood is a sensitive period for telomere attrition. The cohort differences are possibly the result of survival bias suppressing the SES-telomere association; cohort effects with regard different experiences of SES; or telomere possibly being a less effective marker of biological ageing at older ages.

  1. Why the twenty-first century tropical Pacific trend pattern cannot significantly influence ENSO amplitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Soon-Il; Choi, Jung

    2015-01-01

    Although the climate is highly expected to change due to global warming, it is unclear whether the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will be more or less active in the future. One may argue that this uncertainty is due to the intrinsic uncertainties in current climate models or the strong natural long-term modulation of ENSO. Here, we propose that the global warming trend cannot significantly modify ENSO amplitude due to weak feedback between the global warming induced tropical climate change and ENSO. By analyzing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and observation data, we found that the zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature [SST; warming in the eastern Pacific and cooling in the western Pacific or vice versa; `Pacific zonal mode' (PZM)] is highly correlated to change in ENSO amplitude. Additionally, this PZM is commonly identified in control experiments (pre-industrial conditions), twentieth century observations, and twenty-first century scenario experiments [representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 W m-2 (RCP 4.5, 8.5)]. PZM provides favorable conditions for the intensification of ENSO by strengthening air-sea coupling and modifying ENSO pattern. On the other hand, the twenty-first century SST trend pattern, which is different from PZM, is not favorable towards changing ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, we performed an intermediate ocean-atmosphere coupled model simulations, in which the SST trend pattern and PZM are imposed as an external anomalous heat flux or prescribed as a basic state. It was concluded that the SST trend pattern forcing insignificantly changes ENSO amplitude, and the PZM forcing intensifies ENSO amplitude.

  2. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  3. [Dynamic posturography in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, A; Guglielmetti, G; Bindi, G F; Dellepiane, M

    1990-01-01

    The relative lack of data on the dynamic posturography led us to start a study in order to give our contributions to the standardization of M1, M2, M3, response parameters in normal subjects. Our research was carried out on 35 normal subjects aged 21 to 50. All of them were standing in Romberg's position on a Tönnies model board in a normally lit and ventilated room. We performed two tests: the first one open-eyed staring at no point, the second, 5 minutes later, closed-eyed. The EMG signals were obtained by surface electrodes on triceps sural and front tibial muscles. The EMG recording was determined by a "tilt" movement of the board at a steady speed of 50 per sec. and 4 wide. We use a XT 286 IBM computer with "T POST" software for checking and testing the data. Our results showed a significant variation in the value of the duration parameter in open-eyed and closed-eyed tests. Latency and area values were inferior to those obtained by other authors, except for Diener and Dichgans (3) whose results differ in latency value only.

  4. Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview of the use of subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Unconscious knowledge is knowledge we have, and could very well be using, but we are not aware of. Hence appropriate methods for indicating unconscious knowledge must show that the person (a) has knowledge but (b) does not know that she has it. One way of determining awareness of knowing is by taking confidence ratings after making judgments. If the judgments are above baseline but the person believes they are guessing (guessing criterion) or confidence does not relate to accuracy (zero-correlation criterion) there is evidence of unconscious knowledge. The way these methods can deal with the problem of bias is discussed, as is the use of different types of confidence scales. The guessing and zero-correlation criteria show whether or not the person is aware of knowing the content of the judgment, but not whether the person is aware of what any knowledge was that enabled the judgment. Thus, a distinction is made between judgment and structural knowledge, and it is shown how the conscious status of the latter can also be assessed. Finally, the use of control over the use of knowledge as a subjective measure of judgment knowledge is illustrated. Experiments using artificial grammar learning and a serial reaction time task explore these issues.

  5. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them.

  6. Basal and exercise-induced neuroendocrine activation in patients with heart failure and in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Appel, Jon; Hildebrandt, Per

    2004-01-01

    : Twenty-three newly-diagnosed CHF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were exercised at two workloads, which were calculated to correspond to 50 and 75% of each individual's heart rate response. RESULTS: In CHF patients, baseline levels of ANP, BNP, AVP, PRA and ET-1 were elevated...... compared to healthy subjects. Exercise induced an increase in ANP, A and NA in both CHF patients and in normal subjects, however BNP was only increased in CHF patients and not in normal subjects. CONCLUSION: When CHF patients exercise at the same relative and submaximal level as age-matched healthy......BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine activation is a pathophysiological response and an important prognostic marker in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although chronic activation is well described, data on the responsiveness of the hormone systems are more limited. Most previous studies have...

  7. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    motion. In the symptomatic shoulder, there was a significantly greater EMG activity during abduction in the supraspinatus and latissimus muscles and less activity in serratus anterior compared to the healthy subjects. During external rotation, there was significantly less activity of the infraspinatus...... and serratus anterior muscles on the symptomatic side compared to the healthy subjects. On the asymptomatic side, the groups showed different muscle activity during external rotation. Our findings of an altered shoulder muscle activity pattern on both the symptomatic and asymptomatic side in patients indicate...... in patients with SI. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the activity pattern of the shoulder muscles in subjects with and without SI. Twenty-one subjects with SI and 20 healthy controls were included. Electromyography (EMG) was assessed from eight shoulder muscles from both shoulders during...

  8. Male perceptions of female attractiveness: the effects of targets' personal attributes and subjects' degree of masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, B L; Gynther, M D

    1993-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the degree of sexist beliefs held toward women by male subjects and their perceptions of attractiveness of females described as possessing either masculine or feminine personality characteristics. One hundred twenty-two undergraduate males were given the Macho Scale, the Auburn University Personal Behavior Summary, a biodata sheet, and were asked to judge previously rated photographs of women along a dimension of attractiveness. Results demonstrated that males perceived physically unattractive and average females described as affectionate and compassionate as more attractive than similarly rated females described as independent and assertive. High Macho subjects viewed females as less attractive than low Macho subjects. Physical attractiveness of the male subjects was largely unrelated to their ratings of the females.

  9. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  10. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect......A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...

  11. Traumatic subjective experiences invite suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsberger, John T; Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Weinberg, Igor; Schechter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming events that lead to posttraumatic stress disorders and similar states are commonly understood to arise from noxious external events. It is however the unmasterable subjective experiences such events provoke that injure the mind and ultimately the brain. Further, traumatic over-arousal may arise from inner affective deluge with minimal external stimulation. Affects that promote suicide when sufficiently intense are reviewed; we propose that suicidal crises are often marked by repetitions (flashbacks) of these affects as they were originally endured in past traumatic experiences. Further, recurrent overwhelming suicidal states may retraumatize patients (patients who survive suicide attempts survive attempted murders, albeit at their own hands). We propose that repeated affective traumatization by unendurable crises corrodes the capacity for hope and erodes the ability to make and maintain loving attachments.

  12. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  13. High dynamic range subjective testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  14. University of Zimbabwe Institute of Mining Research twenty-fourth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A.E. (comp.)

    1993-02-01

    Provides brief summaries of investigations in the following subject areas during 1992: analytical chemistry, applied mineralogy, economic geology and metallurgy. Various papers relating to metals and non-fuel minerals are presented under these subject headings and under the headings: agrogeology, rock mechanics and mineral economics. The IMR coal laboratory saw an increase in the number of solid fuel analyses carried out compared to the previous year; a total of 759 coals and their by-products were received for approximately 8,000 analyses.

  15. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...... of subjective probabilities in subjects with certain Non-Expected Utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions that we identify....

  16. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd;

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  17. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in

  18. Twenty-six years of HIV science: an overview of anti-HIV drugs metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Horta Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From the identification of HIV as the agent causing AIDS, to the development of effective antiretroviral drugs, the scientific achievements in HIV research over the past twenty-six years have been formidable. Currently, there are twenty-five anti-HIV compounds which have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs, protease inhibitors (PIs, cell entry inhibitors or fusion inhibitors (FIs, co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs, and integrase inhibitors (INIs. Metabolism by the host organism is one of the most important determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Formation of active or toxic metabolites will also have an impact on the pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. Therefore, it is widely recognized that metabolism studies of a new chemical entity need to be addressed early in the drug discovery process. This paper describes an overview of the metabolism of currently available anti-HIV drugs.Da identificação do HIV como o agente causador da AIDS, ao desenvolvimento de fármacos antirretrovirais eficazes, os avanços científicos na pesquisa sobre o HIV nos últimos vinte e seis anos foram marcantes. Atualmente, existem vinte e cinco fármacos anti-HIV formalmente aprovados pelo FDA para utilização clínica no tratamento da AIDS. Estes compostos são divididos em seis classes: inibidores nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INTR, inibidores nucleotídeos de transcriptase reversa (INtTR, inibidores não-nucleosídeos de transcriptase reversa (INNTR, inibidores de protease (IP, inibidores da entrada celular ou inibidores de fusão (IF, inibidores de co-receptores (ICR e inibidores de integrase (INI. O metabolismo consiste em um dos maiores determinantes do perfil farmacocinético de um fármaco. A forma

  19. Twenty years of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands: A rapidly increasing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, E.K.; Mearin, M.L.; Franken, H.C.M.; Houwen, R.H.J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background - The incidence of coeliac disease varies internationally. Aims - To assess the incidence of childhood coeliac disease in The Netherlands and to study the clinical features and the presence of associated disorders. Subjects - Identified cases of childhood coeliac disease in The

  20. The Houle Typology after Twenty-two Years: A Large-Scale Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Rogier; Collins, John B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, Education Participation Scale data from 13,442 learners in Africa, Asia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States were combined and subjected to a cluster analysis designed to examine the extent to which Houle's typology fitted the phenomenological reality that exists within adult education participants. Results are described.…

  1. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  2. The Art of Negotiation: What the Twenty-First Century Business Student Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Bill; Burke, Debra D.; Willey, Lorrie

    2010-01-01

    Negotiation skills are vital for concluding international treaties on subjects ranging from arms agreements, and rights in outer space to trade agreements. Yet the importance of being able to negotiate effectively is not limited to international treaties or crises situations. Using negotiation exercises represents a student-centered approach to…

  3. Post-Enlightenment theorising and global polity in the twenty-first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    astounding scientific discoveries; such discoveries require a viable ethical backcloth for ... African indigenous knowledge systems, the main postulations in this paper ... a sociological analysis of the Enlightenment would posit that it led to the ... attendant on constructions of subjectivity in colonial/postcolonial, gender and.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…

  5. Twenty-first Century Managers and Intuition: An Exploratory Example of Pedagogic Change for Business Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Holtham, C.; Rich, M.; Dove, A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, business organizations have been subject to and have contributed to enormous changes in the way they work and the situations with which they have to deal, from revolutionary technology developments to the changing competitive environment. Since 2007, business has changed following the financial crisis. Management…

  6. [Evaluation of mental and communication functions in mapuche and non mapuche elderly subjects in rural communities in Southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Rebeca; Alvear, María; Carrillo, Berta; Caire, Victor

    2003-11-01

    The main predictors of functional impairment in the elderly are alterations in mental or communication functions. To study mental and communication functions in rural elderly subjects of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin. Elderly subjects coming from a rural Mapuche community and a non Mapuche community were studied. Subjects were interviewed at their homes. The communication and mental function assessments of the Functional Autonomy Measurement System were applied. Fifty one Mapuche and 49 non Mapuche subjects with a mean age of 71 +/- 7 and 74 +/- 8 years respectively, were studied. Fifty four percent were female and 31% were illiterate. Twenty six percent had impairment in mental functions. The item with the highest difficulty was memory. The visual function was the most severely impaired among communication items. Mapuche elderly subjects had significantly higher degrees of impairment in mental and communication functions. There is a higher degree of mental and communication impairment among rural Mapuche elderly subjects than in their non Mapuche counterparts.

  7. Facial asymmetry in subjects with skeletal Class III deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Seiji; Takada, Kenji; Yasuda, Yoshitaka

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the frequency, site, amount, and direction of facial asymmetry in human adults with mandibular prognathism and examined if these characteristics were associated postnatally with cardinal clinical signs that may indicate a predisposition to facial asymmetry. Two hundred twenty young Japanese adults (69 men and 151 women) who exhibited skeletal Class III malocclusions were selected. The sample was divided into a Postnatal Factor Group and a Nonpostnatal Factor Group. The former group included those who had: (1) received orthodontic treatment using a chin cap; (2) exhibited clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder; (3) reported a history of maxillofacial trauma; or (4) radiographic abnormality of the condyles. Subjects with a deviation of more than 2 mm from the facial midline associated with any of the 4 landmarks (ANS, U1, L1 and Me) were classified as asymmetric and the asymmetry was measured on a postero-anterior (P-A) cephalogram. Radiographic facial asymmetry was found frequently (70%-85%, for Menton), and most obviously in the lower jaw (P Factor Group showed a higher proportion of subjects with lateral deviation toward the right side (P = .0031) and a greater amount (P factor showed no directional uniqueness in jaw deviation and exhibited a longer distance of deviation.

  8. Governmentality of Youth: Managing Risky Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Tina A. C.

    2010-01-01

    This article poses the question: How do understandings of governmentality play out in discourses of youth? In the twenty-first-century neoliberal contexts of consumer capitalist societies, discourses of youth need now to move beyond the valuable earlier understandings based on psychological and cultural/subcultural studies to harness Foucault's…

  9. A single-subject design of ergonomic intervention effectiveness for university employees in a new facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra

    2008-01-01

    As clinicians are searching for evidence to support their practice interventions, it is sometimes hard to find the "real-world" studies that incorporate the complexities of actual practice. Following calls in the public health, nursing and medical literature for clinicians to participate in practice-based evidence, this pilot study explores the effectiveness of a single-subject design for practice-based evidence. Twenty-five "well" university employees participated in an ergonomic intervention over the course of one academic semester that consisted of a 15 min ergonomic intake session, a 45 min group hands-on ergonomic educational session and a 15 min individual ergonomic consult in their offices. Participants were sent postural comfort surveys weekly and their subjective ratings were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention to decrease their perceived postural discomfort at a computer work station. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants reported an improvement in postural comfort over the course of the study. This pilot study suggests that further investigation needs to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of hands-on ergonomic education and consultation for well populations working at computer workstations.

  10. New and newer[The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. [Electron and Optical Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)]. E-mail: clark@mail.nist.gov

    2006-09-15

    Stephen Hawking's inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1980 caused quite a stir. Its title - 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics?' - raised the prospect of a unified 'theory of everything'. Hawking suggested that there was a good chance of resolving the remaining inconsistencies between the two big 'theories of something' - quantum mechanics and general relativity - before the turn of the century. My first impression on reading The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century, a collection of essays edited by science journalist Gordon Fraser, is that a theory of everything may still be attainable by the turn of the century. However, there is now 20 times more of everything in the universe than there was in the past century, 95% of which no-one has ever actually seen, or had even heard of until a few years ago - as summarized in articles by Wendy Freedman, Edward Kolb and Ronald Adler. Despite this, Michael Green describes amazing developments in string theory that could tie everything together, if one could just figure out which, if any, of the apparently infinite varieties of string theory applies to our world, and why. (U.K.)

  11. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  12. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusel, Luke D.; Frey, Karen E.; Das, Sarah B.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van Meijgaard, Erik; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated, at times catastrophically. This decay supports hypotheses of thermal limits of viability for ice shelves via surface melt forcing. Here we use a polar-adapted regional climate model and satellite observations to quantify the nonlinear relationship between surface melting and summer air temperature. Combining observations and multimodel simulations, we examine melt evolution and intensification before observed ice shelf collapse on the Antarctic Peninsula. We then assess the twenty-first-century evolution of surface melt across Antarctica under intermediate and high emissions climate scenarios. Our projections reveal a scenario-independent doubling of Antarctic-wide melt by 2050. Between 2050 and 2100, however, significant divergence in melt occurs between the two climate scenarios. Under the high emissions pathway by 2100, melt on several ice shelves approaches or surpasses intensities that have historically been associated with ice shelf collapse, at least on the northeast Antarctic Peninsula.

  13. Indication to Open Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Maria Bove

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Advances in endourology have greatly reduced indications to open surgery in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones. Nevertheless in our experience, open surgery still represents the treatment of choice in rare cases. Case Report. A 71-year-old morbidly obese female patient complaining about occasional left flank pain, and recurrent cystitis for many years, presented bilateral staghorn kidney stones. Comorbidities were obesity (BMI 36.2, hypertension, type II diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmunary disease (COPD hyperlipidemia. Due to these comorbidities, endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches were not indicated. We offered the patient staged open anatrophic nephrolithotomy. Results. Operative time was 180 minutes. Blood loss was 500 cc. requiring one unit of packed red blood cells. Hospital stay was 7 days. The renal function was unaffected based on preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels. Stone-free status of the left kidney was confirmed after surgery with CT scan. Conclusions. Open surgery can represent a valid alterative in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones of very selected cases. A discussion of the current indications in the twenty-first century is presented.

  14. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  15. Revision of Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 (Diptera: Chironomidae), with the description of twenty new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Mendes, Humberto Fonseca; Andersen, Trond

    2013-11-02

    The genus Beardius Reiss et Sublette, 1985 is revised and twenty new species, Beardius abbadi sp. n., B. arawak sp. n., B. bizzoi sp. n., B. bucephalus sp. n., B. curticaudatus sp. n., B. dioi sp. n., B. hirtidorsum sp. n., B. krenak sp. n., B. kumadueni sp. n., B. longicaudatus sp. n., B. mileneae sp. n., B. nebularius sp. n., B. neusae sp. n., B. novoairensis sp. n., B. phoenix sp. n., B. sapiranga sp. n., B. tupinamba sp. n., B. vanessae sp. n., and B. yperoig sp. n. from Brazil and Beardius chapala sp. n. from Mexico are described and figured. Further, the female, pupa and larva of B. urupeatan Pinho, Mendes et Andersen and the female and larva of B. cristhinae Trivinho-Strixino et Siqueira are described, and new records of Brazilian species are provided. Emended diagnoses for all stages and sexes are given. The phylogeny of the genus is outlined and seven tentative species groups, the parcus group, the truncatus group, the tupinamba group, the triangulatus group, the bucephalus group, the xylophilus group, and the roquei group, are proposed. Keys to males, females, pupae and larvae are provided.

  16. Ukrainian Issues in Geopolitical thought of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia-Zacharski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian lands in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have been in proximity of great geopolitical changes several times. During that time the Ukrainian nation – due to various factors – encountered a number of “windows of opportunity” for achieving the realization of dreams about independence and national sovereignty. The author identified in the period considered four “general moments,” of which two have been completed successfully. The first of these occurred in 1990–1991, when for the first time in modern history, Ukrainians managed to achieve a lasting and relatively stable independence. The second of the “moments” – still unresolved – are events that began in the late autumn of 2013. The process, called “Revolution of Dignity”, represents a new quality in the history of the Ukrainian nation, therefore, that the Ukrainians have to defend the status quo (independence, territorial integrity, sovereignty, etc. but not to seek to achieve an independent being. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the ability of Ukrainians to achieve and maintain independence is largely a function of the relative power of the Russian state as measured with respect to the shape and quality of international relations.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY: TWENTY YEARS AFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glosiene, Audrone

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, reading culture, library skills’ development used to be one of the core directions in research and teaching policy of the Department of Library Science at Vilnius University. Lateron, the topic was marginalized and today we return to the field that meanwhile has developed huge knowledge and experience base worldwide. A stimulus for the return was participation in BIBLIONOVA project. The aim of the article is to present a holistic approach towards information competency development in a modern academic institution. Prescriptive approach based on information literacy standards proved to be limited and not always effective in the academic environment.Information competency development is problem-specific, domain-specific, and disciplinespecific. It is interrelated with critical thinking, analytical skills as well as creativity and computerliteracy skills. Holistically, information competency development is an integral part of university’s life-long learning strategy. Critical success factors for information competency development areopen and problem-based learning and cooperative, inclusive strategies of the whole university. Academic libraries continue to play a major role in the process but the connections with faculty and administration in the process are of major importance.

  18. [The first Obesity Unit in Czechoslovakia was established twenty years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    The first Obesity Unit in former Czechoslovakia was established at the Fourth Department of Internal Medicine of the Faculty of General Medicine and Faculty Hospital I twenty years ago. Both personal resources (physicians specialized in metabolism and obesity, psychologist, dietician, physiatrist and medical nurses trained in the care of obese patients) and diagnostic tools (body composition assessment by hydrodensitometry, determination of energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, evaluation of energy and nutrient intake by PC assessment of dietary records, hormonal and biochemical examinations etc.) enabled comprehensive examinations of obese patients. Obesity unit included a specialized in-patient department where the patients with severe and complicated obesity underwent a comprehensive treatment programme which consisted of very low energy diet developed in collaboration with the Obesity Unit. The article summarizes not only clinical experiences of the unit but also its engagement in education on obesity, in research projects and international collaboration over the past 20-years period. Obesity unit succeeded to keep its continuity in spite of repeated moving between 1997-2002. Since 2002 Obesity Unit has been a part of the Institute of Endocrinology which provided additional modern facilities for hormonal and molecular genetic examinations.

  19. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko [National Hospital Organization, Higashi-Hiroshima Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 {+-} 3.6 mm and 5.6 {+-} 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 {+-} 4.1 mm and 2.0 {+-} 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  20. Clinical characters of pregnancy complicated with epilepsy——with twenty cases reported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Liang-kun; Huang Yan; Yang Jian-qiu; Bian Xu-ming; Liu Jun-tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and perinatal management of pregnancy complicated with epilepsy.Methods: Twenty patients of pregnancy complicated with epilepsy from January 1995 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.Results: The incidence of pregnancy complicated with epilepsy was 0.08%.The average age was 29.2 ± 5.3 years and average gestational week was 37.9 ± 3.7 week.Fifteen patients were diagnosed with epilepsy before pregnancy.Two patients who stopped the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before pregnancy and five patients who continued the AEDs before and during pregnancy had good seizure control.The other seven patients who discontinued the AEDs had convulsive seizures during pregnancy.One patient has never been treated and had generalized tonic-clonic seizures frequently.Five patients experienced their first seizures during pregnancy.There were no obvious predisposing factors except for severe viral encephalitis in one patient.Fourteen patients had cesarean section.The preterm delivery rate,small for gestational age rate and perinatal mortality rate were 20%,20% and 5 % respectively.Follow up of the children born by the epilepsy mothers showed no mental retardation or epilepsy.Conclusions: Proper preconception planning and good compliance with antiepileptic drugs are essential for women with epilepsy to have favorable pregnancy outcome.The cooperation of obstetric,neurology and anaesthesia doctor is important for pregnant women with epilepsy.

  1. Twenty-five Years of PTHrP Progress from Cancer Hormone to Multifunctional Cytokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Laurie K.; Martin, T. John

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a ‘new’ protein was identified from cancers that caused hypercalcemia. It was credited for its ability to mimic parathyroid hormone, and hence was termed parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Today it is recognized for its widespread distribution, its endocrine, paracrine, and intracrine modes of action driving numerous physiologic and pathologic conditions with a central role in organogenesis. The multiple biological activities within a complex molecule with paracrine modulation of adjacent target cells present boundless possibilities. The protein structure of PTHrP has been traced, dissected and deleted comprehensively and conditionally, yet numerous questions lurk in its past that will carry into the future. Issues of the variable segments of the protein including the enigmatic nuclear localization sequence are only recently being clarified. Aspects of PTHrP production and action in the menacing condition of cancer are emerging as dichotomies that may represent intended temporal actions of PTHrP. Relative to PTH, the hormone regulating calcium homeostasis, PTHrP ‘controls the show’ locally at the PTH/PTHrP receptor throughout the body. Great strides have been made in our understanding of PTHrP actions, yet years of exciting investigation and discovery are imminent. PMID:22549910

  2. Twenty-one years of child advocacy: an editorial retrospective of the Teuscher years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D W

    1990-01-01

    On the eleventh anniversary of his Editorship of JDC, Dr. George Teuscher took stock of the state of the Journal, noting progress made and challenges ahead, writing that, "A good journal cannot ride on its reputation... Constant effort to improve, resourcefulness, and prolific reading and study are required of the editor of a prestigious journal." He has written extensively on the importance of writing and effective communication in the face of an information explosion, stating that, "The journal is still the best means of presenting new information to the professions." Writing a note of encouragement to the editor of a new dental journal, he observed, "Of course the dental and medical literature can boast of some great editors, who earned their reputations because they were able to apply intelligence, writing ability, knowledge of the scientific method, and imagination to a new undertaking." After twenty-one years, it is safe to say that Dr. Teuscher is such an Editor; he has filled our minds with knowledge and our hearts with wisdom; he has reminded us of the best that is in us; he has helped us to feel the anguish of the afflicted and oppressed; he has brought knowledge and skill to help the infirm: and he has taught us to stand in awe before the mystery of being.

  3. Twenty years of experience with the rabbit model, a versatile model for tracheal transplantation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margot Den Hondt; Bart M Vanaudenaerde; Pierre Delaere; Jan J Vranckx

    2016-01-01

    Pathologies comprising more than half the length of the trachea are a challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Innovative tracheal transplantation techniques aim to offer the patient a curative solution with a sustained improvement in quality of life. This review summarizes the authors’ experience with the rabbit as a versatile model for research regarding tracheal transplantation. Because of the segmental blood supply of the trachea, it is not feasible to transplant the organ together with a well-defined vascular pedicle. As such, the key element of successful tracheal transplantation is the creation of a new blood supply. This vascularized construct is created by prelaminating the rabbit trachea heterotopically, within the lateral thoracic fascia. After prelamination, the construct and its vascular pedicle are transferred to the orthotopic position in the neck. This model has become gold standard because of the advantages of working with rabbits, the anatomy of the rabbit trachea, and the reliability of the lateral thoracic artery flap. In this paper, the key elements of surgery in the rabbit are discussed, as well as the tracheal anastomosis and the harvest of the lateral thoracic artery flap. Practical tips and tricks are presented. The data described in this review represent the fundaments of ongoing translational research in the center over the past twenty years.

  4. Twenty-five astronomical observations that changed the world and how to make them yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Marett-Crosby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human history is also the record of our fascination with the sky, and to look upwards is to follow in the steps of such greats as Galileo and Newton. What they and others once saw in the heavens for the first time, amateur astronomers can discover anew using this guide to twenty-five of the greatest journeys through space.   Starting with our most visible companion the Moon, each chapter offers a step-by-step walk-through of famous astronomical observations from the history of science. Beginning with the easiest targets, sometimes even accessible with the naked eye, the challenges become progressively more difficult. Beginner astronomers and more experienced hobbyists alike can reacquaint themselves with the wonders of our fellow planets and even reach far beyond our own solar system to touch on such incredible phenomena as the birth of new stars in nebula systems and the deceptive nothingness of black holes. The would-be astronaut can spy the International Space Station in orbit with binoculars or the dooms...

  5. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Retreat of mountain glaciers is a significant contributor to sea-level rise and a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability and regional hydrology. Like most of Earth’s mountain glaciers, those in western North America are experiencing rapid mass loss. Projections of future large-scale mass change are based on surface mass balance models that are open to criticism, because they ignore or greatly simplify glacier physics. Here we use a high-resolution regional glaciation model, developed by coupling physics-based ice dynamics with a surface mass balance model, to project the fate of glaciers in western Canada. We use twenty-first-century climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations; the results indicate that by 2100, the volume of glacier ice in western Canada will shrink by 70 +/- 10% relative to 2005. According to our simulations, few glaciers will remain in the Interior and Rockies regions, but maritime glaciers, in particular those in northwestern British Columbia, will survive in a diminished state. We project the maximum rate of ice volume loss, corresponding to peak input of deglacial meltwater to streams and rivers, to occur around 2020-2040. Potential implications include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, alpine tourism and water quality.

  6. Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Mansfield

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as a group, are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens to humans and are the primary vector for pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife. The role of ticks in the transmission of viruses has been known for over 100 years and yet new pathogenic viruses are still being detected and known viruses are continually spreading to new geographic locations. Partly as a result of their novelty, tick-virus interactions are at an early stage in understanding. For some viruses, even the principal tick-vector is not known. It is likely that tick-borne viruses will continue to emerge and challenge public and veterinary health long into the twenty-first century. However, studies focusing on tick saliva, a critical component of tick feeding, virus transmission, and a target for control of ticks and tick-borne diseases, point toward solutions to emerging viruses. The aim of this review is to describe some currently emerging tick-borne diseases, their causative viruses, and to discuss research on virus-tick interactions. Through focus on this area, future protein targets for intervention and vaccine development may be identified.

  7. The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb and Predicaments of the Feminist Movement in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anru Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb” is the collective burial site of the female workers who died in a ferry accident on their way to work in 1973. The fact that of the more than 70 passengers on board all 25 who died were unmarried young women, and the taboo in Taiwanese culture that shuns unmarried female ghosts, made the Tomb a fearsome place. Feminists in Gaoxiong (高雄 had for some years wanted the city government to change the tomb’s public image. Their calls were not answered until the Gaoxiong mayor’s office finally allocated money to clean up the gravesite and, as part of the city’s plans to develop urban tourism, to remake it into the tourist-friendly “Memorial Park for Women Labourers”. Consequently, even though the tomb renovation seemed to indicate a triumph of the feminist endeavour, it was more a result of the Gaoxiong city government’s efforts towards culture-led urban revitalization.

  8. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  9. Seasonal frost effects on the dynamic behavior of a twenty-story office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Dutta, U.; Xiong, F.; Biswas, N.; Benz, H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that seasonal frost can significantly affect the seismic behavior of a bridge foundation system in cold regions. However, little information could be found regarding seasonal frost effects on the dynamic behavior of buildings. Based on the analysis of building vibration data recorded by a permanent strong-motion instrumentation system, the objective of this paper is to show that seasonal frost can impact the building dynamic behavior and the magnitude of impact may be different for different structures. Ambient noise and seismic data recorded on a twenty-story steel-frame building have been analyzed to examine the building dynamic characteristics in relationship to the seasonal frost and other variables including ground shaking intensity. Subsequently, Finite Element modeling of the foundation-soil system and the building superstructure was conducted to verify the seasonal frost effects. The Finite Element modeling was later extended to a reinforced-concrete (RC) type building assumed to exist at a similar site as the steel-frame building. Results show that the seasonal frost has great impact on the foundation stiffness in the horizontal direction and a clear influence on the building dynamic behavior. If other conditions remain the same, the effects of seasonal frost on structural dynamic behavior may be much more prominent for RC-type buildings than for steel-frame buildings. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  11. Molecular characterization of twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the polyploid fruit tree species Syzygium samarangense (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J M; Tsai, C C; Yen, C R; Ko, Y Z; Chen, S R; Weng, I S; Lin, Y S; Chiang, Y C

    2015-10-21

    Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry (wax apple) is an important commercial fruit tree in Southeast Asia. Here, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and distinguish cultivars in this species. In total, 161 microsatellite loci with sufficient flanking sequences to design primer sets were isolated from wax apple using a magnetic bead-enrichment method. Fifty-eight primer sets were designed based on the flanking sequences of each single sequence repeat (SSR) locus and were tested using 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. Twenty SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and transferable across the 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. The number of alleles and effective number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4 to 12 and from 1.697 to 9.800, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.150 to 0.595 (mean = 0.414). Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.502 to 0.866 (mean = 0.763). These new microsatellite loci will be of value for characterization of genetic diversity in wax apples and for the identification of cultivars.

  12. Twenty-five winters of unexpected Eurasian cooling unlikely due to Arctic sea-ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Kelly E.; Fyfe, John C.; Sigmond, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Surface air temperature over central Eurasia decreased over the past twenty-five winters at a time of strongly increasing anthropogenic forcing and Arctic amplification. It has been suggested that this cooling was related to an increase in cold winters due to sea-ice loss in the Barents-Kara Sea. Here we use over 600 years of atmosphere-only global climate model simulations to isolate the effect of Arctic sea-ice loss, complemented with a 50-member ensemble of atmosphere-ocean global climate model simulations allowing for external forcing changes (anthropogenic and natural) and internal variability. In our atmosphere-only simulations, we find no evidence of Arctic sea-ice loss having impacted Eurasian surface temperature. In our atmosphere-ocean simulations, we find just one simulation with Eurasian cooling of the observed magnitude but Arctic sea-ice loss was not involved, either directly or indirectly. Rather, in this simulation the cooling is due to a persistent circulation pattern combining high pressure over the Barents-Kara Sea and a downstream trough. We conclude that the observed cooling over central Eurasia was probably due to a sea-ice-independent internally generated circulation pattern ensconced over, and nearby, the Barents-Kara Sea since the 1980s. These results improve our knowledge of high-latitude climate variability and change, with implications for our understanding of impacts in high-northern-latitude systems.

  13. The Third Revolution: Philosophy into Practice in Twenty-first Century Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KWM (Bill Fulford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three revolutions in psychiatry characterised the closing decade of the twentieth century: 1 in the neurosciences, 2 in patient-centred models of service delivery, and 3 in the emergence of a rapidly expanding new cross-disciplinary field of philosophy and psychiatry. Starting with a case history, the paper illustrates the impact of this third revolution - the new philosophy of psychiatry - on day-to-day clinical practice through training programmes and policy developments in what has become known as values-based practice. Derived from philosophical value theory and phenomenology, values-based practice is a partner to evidence-based practice in supporting clinical decision-making in the highly complex environment of mental health care. The paper concludes by setting values-based practice in context with other potentially practical important areas of the new philosophy of psychiatry arguing that all three revolutions need to be brought together if psychiatry is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.

  14. Waving or Drowning? Perceptions of Second Wave Feminism Through a Twenty-First Century Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Bralesford, Helen Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to explore some twenty-first century perceptions of second wave feminism with as little mediation from the academy as possible by employing the lens of popular culture to tease out and examine some of the assumptions about the second wave that have become culturally embedded at a grass roots level. The first chapter takes Betty Friedan���������������¢��������������������������������s seminal text The Feminine Mysti...

  15. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted.

  16. Projections of glacier change in the Altai Mountains under twenty-first century climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2016-11-01

    We project glacier surface mass balances of the Altai Mountains over the period 2006-2100 for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using daily near-surface air temperature and precipitation from 12 global climate models in combination with a surface mass balance model. The results indicate that the Altai glaciers will undergo sustained mass loss throughout the 21st for both RCPs and reveal the future fate of glaciers of different sizes. By 2100, glacier area in the region will shrink by 26 ± 10 % for RCP4.5, while it will shrink by 60 ± 15 % for RCP8.5. According to our simulations, most disappearing glaciers are located in the western part of the Altai Mountains. For RCP4.5, all glaciers disappearing in the twenty-first century have a present-day size smaller than 5.0 km2, while for RCP8.5, an additional 7 % of glaciers in the initial size class of 5.0-10.0 km2 also vanish. We project different trends in the total meltwater discharge of the region for the two RCPs, which does not peak before 2100, with important consequences for regional water availability, particular for the semi-arid and arid regions. This further highlights the potential implications of change in the Altai glaciers on regional hydrology and environment.

  17. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1990. Twenty-third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This is the 23rd in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and DOE contractor facilities during 1990. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1990 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimated from expert groups. This report is the third that is based on detailed exposure data for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. Prior to 1988, only summarized data from each facility were available. This report contains information on different types of radiation doses, including total effective, internal, penetrating, shallow, neutron, and extremity doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report also continues the precedent established in the Twenty-First (1988) Annual Report by conducting a detailed, one-time review and analysis of a particular topic of interest. The special topic for this report is a comparison of total effective, internal, and extremity dose equivalent values against penetrating dose equivalent values.

  18. Phenotypic Responses of Twenty Diverse Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. Accessions to Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Habiyaremye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, little research has been conducted on the phenotypic responses of proso millet to drought and deficit irrigation treatments in the dryland wheat-based cropping systems of the Palouse bioregion of the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate critical agronomic traits of proso millet, including emergence, plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, and grain yield, with and without supplemental irrigation. Twenty diverse proso millet accessions, originating from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Morocco, the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and the United States, were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments under organic conditions in Pullman, WA, from 2012 to 2014. Irrigation was shown to significantly improve emergence and increase plant height at stem extension and to hasten ripening of all the varieties, whereas heading date was not affected by irrigation in two of the three years tested. Irrigation resulted in higher mean seed yield across all varieties, with ‘GR 665’ and ‘Earlybird’ performing best under irrigation. Seed yield was highest in ‘GR 658’ and ‘Minsum’ in the non-irrigated treatment, suggesting the importance of identification and utilization of varieties adapted to low rainfall conditions. The highest yielding varieties in irrigated systems are unlikely be the highest yielding in dryland systems. Our results suggest that millet has potential as a regionally novel crop for inclusion in traditional dryland cropping rotations in the Palouse ecosystem, thereby contributing to increased cropping system diversity.

  19. Santiago: Modernisation, segregation and urban identities in the twenty first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses research carried out in Santiago, Chile, and addresses the origin and construction of urban identities in this segregated city of the twenty first century. Based on sociological and ethnographic evidence, urban identity building processes are analysed by observing the occupation, use and appropriation of territory. The hypothesis is that, despite evidence of segregation, modernisation and globalisation, urban people reinvent lifestyles within their territories in order to harmonise their bonds of affection and belonging by using distinguishing markings or “brands” and by adopting typical everyday habits. The modern, segregated and global city is filled with “islands” that convey imagery and desires for a friendlier urban life. This paper analyses areas with community identities, neo community identities and border identities. It suggests that, just as community identities shelter nostalgia for a lost community (by finding refuge or reinventing ways to make the fringes of the city habitable in the background or on the “other side��� of the Mapocho River and very near the historical centre of the city, border identities have also arisen and persisted; these subvert the orderly and hegemonic city, resulting in a diverse, heterogeneous and multicultural lifestyle. The result is a synthesis and an urban lifestyle.

  20. Waving or Drowning? Perceptions of Second Wave Feminism Through a Twenty-First Century Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Bralesford, Helen Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to explore some twenty-first century perceptions of second wave feminism with as little mediation from the academy as possible by employing the lens of popular culture to tease out and examine some of the assumptions about the second wave that have become culturally embedded at a grass roots level. The first chapter takes Betty Friedan���������������¢��������������������������������s seminal text The Feminine Mysti...

  1. Projections of glacier change in the Altai Mountains under twenty-first century climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    We project glacier surface mass balances of the Altai Mountains over the period 2006-2100 for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using daily near-surface air temperature and precipitation from 12 global climate models in combination with a surface mass balance model. The results indicate that the Altai glaciers will undergo sustained mass loss throughout the 21st for both RCPs and reveal the future fate of glaciers of different sizes. By 2100, glacier area in the region will shrink by 26 ± 10 % for RCP4.5, while it will shrink by 60 ± 15 % for RCP8.5. According to our simulations, most disappearing glaciers are located in the western part of the Altai Mountains. For RCP4.5, all glaciers disappearing in the twenty-first century have a present-day size smaller than 5.0 km2, while for RCP8.5, an additional ~7 % of glaciers in the initial size class of 5.0-10.0 km2 also vanish. We project different trends in the total meltwater discharge of the region for the two RCPs, which does not peak before 2100, with important consequences for regional water availability, particular for the semi-arid and arid regions. This further highlights the potential implications of change in the Altai glaciers on regional hydrology and environment.

  2. Twenty years of renewable energy law; 20 Jahre Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The present volume was compiled as part of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, one event under which was the seventh Wuerzburg conference on environmental energy law with the title ''Twenty Years of Renewable Energy Law'' which took place on 13/14 October 2010. It comprises 36 contributions which, from different scientific perspectives, take stock of the significance of renewable energies for climate protection and the energy supply, examine the developments of the past 20 years and draw conclusions for the future use of renewable energy. The authors are scientists from the areas of climate research, economics, political science, engineering, environmental psychology and jurisprudence who have dedicated their work to issues that directly or indirectly relate to the expansion of renewable energies. Together they have created an overall picture of renewable energies with its many different aspects and related topics, a picture that necessarily cannot be complete but which nevertheless provides many rich insights. The great majority of articles were written around the turn of the year to 2011, just after the granting of lifetime extension for German nuclear power plants. They thus only take sparse account of the diverse and for some part far-reaching changes in German energy policy that came about after the reactor disaster in Fukushima.

  3. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxing Shi; Yang Yao; Yingying Zhu; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as a functional food is growing;however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3%of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4%and 36.1%of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70%ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  4. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  5. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  6. Red eyes in the necropsy floor: twenty cases of hyphema in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessie Beck Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyphema (hemorrhage within the anterior chamber of the eye can be caused by several mechanisms and can easily be detected in routine ophthalmic or necroscopic examination as discolored red eye(s. The purpose of this study is to report the cause of hyphema diagnosed as a postmortem finding in dogs and cats. Twenty cases, 14 dogs and six cats of several ages and breeds and of both sexes were included in the study. Hyphema presented as a unilateral (14 cases out of 20 or bilateral (6/20 disorder in dogs and cats and extension of hemorrhage varied from minimal to diffuse. Hyphema was secondary to systemic disease (15/20 or occurred as a primary ocular lesion (5/20 in four dogs and one cat. Primary hyphema was always unilateral. In four of these cases, the cause of hyphema was trauma and remaining case was caused by phacoclastic uveitis in a dog with bilateral hypermature cataract. Various causes of bleeding disorders were found related to secondary hyphema: in decreasing order of frequency, they included vasculitis (8/15, systemic hypertension (5/15, and acquired coagulopathies (2/15. Vasculitis due to feline infectious peritonitis accounted for half of the cases (n=3 of systemic hyphema in cats. The various pathological aspects and pathogenesis of hyphema in dogs and cats are described and discussed.

  7. Between vanguard and exclusion- young people of the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been narrowed down to reveal a paradox. Here the vanguard of culture and civilization - which is regarded as young people of the twenty-first century – is embroiled in a discourse of exclusion: economic, political and cultural life. In secondary school programs and high schools we do not find specific references and studies, primarily based on the needs of students, about the theory of popular culture and cultural education in the area of pop culture. The paradox of exclusion of mainstream culture from educational discourse is schizophrenic. The political exclusion of young people of the XXI century I consider all the disparaging scientific discourse, which skips the actual media and communication competence of young people. Prosumers, cognitarchy, digital natives, C-generation – they are for the modern economy “Silicon Valley” - their market power to exclude is already unstoppable. In other areas it remains to be considered whether excluding young people from the cultural discourse will not deprive our future teachers and translators of the next civilization revolution of social reality...

  8. Conceptual change, subjectivity and Psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villani

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the Conceptual Change Model (Posner et al., 1982 and detach how the presence of student’s subjectivity deeply marks the four conditions for the accomodation. The fundamental metaphor which supports the model, student as a little scientist, is limited, because does not consider the subjet’s relation with his community via language. We propose another metaphor: the learning process is similar with the psychoanalytic process. The analogy allow us to delineate in a sufficiently precise manner the functions and the importance of inicial diagnostic. Its goal are to problematize the unknown, to establish a pedagogical transfer and to categorize the basic structures of student’s thought by his relations with scientific principles. Finally, to mantain the envolvment of the student in the process, is fundamental the teacher’s attitude and ability to listen with attention, to create a school environment that allows the student to be free to speak, making his/her point of view explicit and to tackle challenges and conflicts.

  9. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  10. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  11. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...... with popular non-expected utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions....

  12. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...... of subjective probabilities in subjects with certain Non-Expected Utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions that we identify....

  13. Twenty-first century science as a relational process: from eureka! to team science and a place for community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Thai, Nghi D; Matlin, Samantha L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we maintain that twenty-first century science is, fundamentally, a relational process in which knowledge is produced (or co-produced) through transactions among researchers or among researchers and public stakeholders. We offer an expanded perspective on the practice of twenty-first century science, the production of scientific knowledge, and what community psychology can contribute to these developments. We argue that: (1) trends in science show that research is increasingly being conducted in teams; (2) scientific teams, such as transdisciplinary teams of researchers or of researchers collaborating with various public stakeholders, are better able to address complex challenges; (3) transdisciplinary scientific teams are part of the larger, twenty-first century transformation in science; (4) the concept of heterarchy is a heuristic for team science aligned with this transformation; (5) a contemporary philosophy of science known as perspectivism provides an essential foundation to advance twenty-first century science; and (6) community psychology, through its core principles and practice competencies, offers theoretical and practical expertise for advancing team science and the transformation in science currently underway. We discuss the implications of these points and illustrate them briefly with two examples of transdisciplinary team science from our own work. We conclude that a new narrative is emerging for science in the twenty-first century that draws on interpersonal transactions in teams, and active engagement by researchers with the public to address critical accountabilities. Because of its core organizing principles and unique blend of expertise on the intersection of research and practice, community psychologists are well-prepared to help advance these developments, and thus have much to offer twenty-first century science.

  14. The United States and Brazil: A Naval Partnership for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    World Bank and International Development Bank are pressuring Brazil to cease its deforestation of the Amazon . So far, 5% of the jungle has been 9 2Scott...Monterey, Ca., March 1990, p. 82. 72 deforested and in December of 1988, Chico Mendez, a leading crusader against Amazon development, was killed by...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP Brazil, Brazilian Navy, Combined

  15. Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Twenty-eight Hatha Yoga Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sylvia J; Hager, Ron; Lockhart, Barbara; Seeley, Matthew K

    Adherents claim many benefits from the practice of yoga, including promotion of bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. However, no known studies have investigated whether yoga enhances bone mineral density. Furthermore, none have estimated reaction forces applied by yoga practitioners. The purpose of this study was to collect ground reaction force (GRF) data on a variety of hatha yoga postures that would commonly be practiced in fitness centers or private studios. Twelve female and eight male volunteers performed a sequence of 28 hatha yoga postures while GRF data were collected with an AMTI strain-gauge force platform. The sequence was repeated six times by each study subject. Four dependent variables were studied: peak vertical GRF, mean vertical GRF, peak resultant GRF, and mean resultant GRF. Univariate analysis was used to identify mean values and standard deviations for the dependent variables. Peak vertical and resultant values of each posture were similar for all subjects, and standard deviations were small. Similarly, mean vertical and resultant values were similar for all subjects. This 28 posture yoga sequence produced low impact GRF applied to upper and lower extremities. Further research is warranted to determine whether these forces are sufficient to promote osteogenesis or maintain current bone health in yoga practitioners.

  16. Investigating the pace of temperature change and its implications over the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-12-01

    In most studies, climate change is approached by focusing on the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future, emphasizing stronger warming as we move further from the current climate. Under climate conditions that are continuously evolving, human systems might have to constantly adapt to a changing target. We propose here an alternative approach, and consider indicators of the pace of temperature change and its effects on temperature distributions estimated from projections of an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models. The pace is represented by a rate defined by the difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. Under the strongest emission pathway (RCP 8.5), the warming rate strongly increases over the twenty-first century, with a maximum reached before 2080. Whilst northern high-latitudes witness the highest temperature rise, all other latitudes highlight at least a doubling in the warming rate compared to the current period. The spatial extent of significant shifts in annual temperature distributions between two subsequent 20-year periods is projected to be at least four times larger than in the current period. They are mainly located in tropical areas, such as West Africa and South-East Asia. The fraction of the world population exposed to these shifts grows from 8% to 60% from around 2060 onwards, i.e. reaching 6 billions people. In contrast, low mitigation measures (RCP 6.0) are sufficient to keep the warming rate similar to current values. Under the medium mitigation pathway (RCP 4.5), population exposure to significant shifts drops to negligible values by the end of the century. Strong mitigation measures (RCP 2.6) are the only option that generates a global return to historical conditions regarding our indicators. Considering the pace of change can bring an alternative way to interact with climate impacts and adaptation communities.

  17. Personal networks and mortality risk in older adults: a twenty-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ellwardt

    Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have

  18. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  19. On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

  20. Surgical treatment of pelvic sarcoma in children: outcomes for twenty six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Muayad; Womer, Richard B; Dormans, John P

    2017-07-27

    Pelvic sarcoma is uncommon in children and challenging to treat. This study examined different surgical approaches to treat pelvic sarcoma with the aim of assessing the oncologic, and functional outcomes. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent surgery for pelvic sarcoma at our institution from 1992 to 2010. The functional status of the patients was examined after a minimum follow-up of two years. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. Nineteen (73%) patients were male and seven (27%) were female. Mean age at presentation was 12.0 ± 3.9 years. Nineteen patients had Ewing sarcoma (73%), five had osteosarcoma (19%), one had chondrosarcoma (4%) and one had rhabdomyosarcoma (4%). Iliac wing resection with no reconstruction was done in three patients. Reconstruction with free fibular graft A-frame was performed in four patients, saddle endoproshtesis in five patients, iliac autoclave in one patient, and internal hemipelvectomy in nine patients. Hindquarter amputation was performed in five patients. Median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 2.6-16 years). Nineteen patients were alive (73%); of those, 13 were known to be without disease, three were with disease and three did not have known tumor status. Six patients were reported deceased, three had osteosarcoma and three had Ewing sarcoma. Function was assessed in 17 patients; 64% were asymptomatic and ambulatory and 36% were symptomatic and ambulatory. Salvage reconstruction for pelvic sarcoma can be performed through various procedures on the extent of necessary bony resection. Survival rate and functional outcomes were promising in the performed study.

  1. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  2. Malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy:a clinicopathological study of twenty-one cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xue-ying; Huang Hui-fang; Lian Li-juan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinicopathological characters of malignant ovarian tumors during pregnancy. The rationale for appropriate management was discussed.Methods: Twenty-one cases of malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy treated between 1985 and 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. In reference with the reports from the current literatures, the rationale of the treatment for the best outcome of both mother and child was discussed.Results:In the patients reviewed, 9 were found with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary, 6 with low malignant potential tumors, 4 with invasive epithelial tumors, and 2 with sex cord-stromal tumors. Sixteen (76.2 %) of the patients diagnosed in stage I, and all had achieved complete response to the treatment. Three of the four patients in advanced stage died, of which two were invasive epithelial cancers and one stage Ⅳ endodermal sinus tumor. All patients had surgery, and fourteen of them got conservative surgery. All sixteen patients accepted for chemotherapy took adjuvant chemotherapies after abortions or deliveries. Fourteen healthy live births were recorded in this group and there were no documented birth defects, but one died of respiratory distress syndrome.Conclusion: The managements of malignant ovarian cancers during pregnancy differed in different histological types. In ovarian borderline tumors and malignant germ cell tumors including stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, surgery can be conservative. For advanced epithelial cancers, aggressive surgery should be instituted. Chemotherapy could be considered for the malignant germ cell tumor during the second and third trimester. Ovarian borderline tumors should not take chemotherapy.Epithelial cancer should be given combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Hysterectomy during pregnancy is rarely indicated unless it contributes significantly to tumor debulking, and pregnancy often could be allowed to continue until near-term.

  3. The summer institute in clinical dental research methods: still going and growing after twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouen, Timothy A; Wiesenbach, Carol

    2012-11-01

    The first Summer Institute in Clinical Dental Research Methods, a faculty development program at the University of Washington, was offered in the summer of 1992 for sixteen participants. The primary objective of the program was to give clinical faculty members in dentistry an introduction to and an understanding of the fundamental principles and methods used in good clinical research. In the twentieth offering of the institute in 2011, there were thirty-five participants, and over the twenty institutes, there has been a cumulative total of 463 participants who have come from thirty U.S. states as well as forty-three countries outside the United States. The curriculum has expanded from the initial offering of biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, behavioral research methods, and ethics in clinical research to now include clinical trials, grantsmanship, data analysis, an elective in molecular biology, and a team project that provides participants with hands-on experience in research proposal development as members of an interdisciplinary team. Enrollment has doubled since the first year, yet exit evaluations of the program content have remained consistently high (rated as very good to excellent). One of the indicators of program quality is that at least 50 percent of recent participants indicated that they attended because the program was recommended by colleagues who had attended. There seems to be an ever-increasing pool of dental faculty members who are eager to learn more about clinical research methodology through the institute despite the intensive demands of full-time participation in a six-week program.

  4. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  5. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of twenty mung bean cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. as a functional food is growing; however, studies on the nutritional composition of major mung bean cultivars planted in China are limited. Twenty Chinese mung bean cultivars were collected and their nutritional compositions including starch, fat, protein, and phytochemicals were analyzed. The cultivars were found to have a high amount of resistant starch, accounting for 16.1%–22.3% of total starch, and balanced amino acid constitutions. Palmitic acid and linoleic acid were the two dominant fatty acids, accounting for respectively 32.4% and 36.1% of all of the assayed fatty acids. Four bound phenolic acids (syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and two free phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids were identified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of 70% ethanol extracts from the 20 mung bean cultivars was evaluated. Their DPPH and ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 28.13 ± 2.24 to 35.68 ± 0.71 μmol g−1 and from 3.82 ± 0.25 to 13.44 ± 1.76 μmol g−1, respectively. Significant positive correlations of ABTS+ free-radical-scavenging capacity with total phenolic acids and total flavonoid contents were observed. These results suggest that Chinese mung bean cultivars are rich in balanced nutrients and that their phytochemicals should be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  6. Pediatric and congenital heart transplant: twenty-year experience in a tertiary Brazilian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Miana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage cardiomyopathies and congenital heart defects in pediatric patients. Objective: This study aims to report on 20 years of experience since the first case and evaluate our results. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the database and outpatient follow-up. Between October 1992 and April 2012, 109 patients underwent 114 transplants. 51.8% of them being female. The age of patients ranged from 12 days to 21 years with a mean of 8.8±5.7 years and a median of 5.2 years. The underlying diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 61.5%, congenital heart disease in 26.6% and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 11.9%. All patients above 17 years old had congenital heart disease. Results: Survival rate at 30 days, 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 90.4%, 81.3%, 70.9%, 60.5%, 44.4% and 26.7%, respectively. Mean cold ischemic time was 187.9 minutes and it did not correlate with mortality (P>0.05. Infectious complications and rejection episodes were the most common complications (P<0.0001, occurring, respectively, in 66% and 57.4% of the survivors after 10 years. There was no incidence of graft vascular disease and lymphoproliferative disease at year one, but they affected, respectively, 7.4% and 11% of patients within 10 years. Conclusion: Twenty-year pediatric heart transplant results at our institution were quite satisfactory and complication rates were acceptable.

  7. [Analysis of twenty trace elements in ling zhi by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-zhe; Kui, Xiao-yun; Yang, Kai; Shao, Pin; Sun, Pei-long

    2009-05-01

    Twenty trace elements, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se and Zn were determined by ICP--AES with wet digestion from two kinds of different ling zhi fruitbody materials (Zhongzhi and Xianyuan), Ling Zhi root, ling zhi mixture, unbroken and broken ling zhi spore powder. The common feature about the element content showed that there were rich trace elements in different Ling Zhi materials, and the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, P and S in all kinds of ling zhi samples were relatively high. Besides, there were trace elements, Cu, Co, Grand Ni, and potentially physiologically toxic elements, Al, As, Hg, Pb and Cd, in all samples. Elements Se and Ge with anticancer efficacy were not found in ling zhi samples. The concentrations of heavy metal elements were lower in spore powders than in other ling zhi samples. Trace element contents in the broken and unbroken spore powders showed minor difference, The concentrations of Fe and Se in ling zhi mixtures were obviously higher than in other kinds of Ling Zhi samples, due to factitious addition of these elements to Ling Zhi mixture sample. There was some difference between two kinds of Ling Zhi fruitbody from deferent plant places, which may have some relations with the soil and environment. The concentrations of Ca, Cu and Zn in ling zhi root were higher than in other ling zhi materials. According to the analyses, these elements in ling zhi were helpful to improving cardiovascular function.

  8. Twenty five years of antismoking movement started by medical students: some further goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizic-Borjanovic, S; Jerinic, M; Igic, R

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, medical students of the former Yugoslavia accepted an idea that emerged from the Medical School in Tuzla to carry out a national preventive campaign "January 31st, a Day without Cigarette". This campaign was soon recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of "the most successful preventive achievement of medical students in Europe". The only contribution that the government made was printing and releasing a postal stamp on January 31st, 1990. During the war in Bosnia, the UN sanctions imposed to Serbia, and the NATO bombing campaign of the F.R. Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) weakened this antismoking campaign. At the time of the civil war in several Yugoslav republics, more citizens, including children and youth, started to smoke than in previous years. In 2002, January 31st was proclaimed as the National Antismoking Day in Serbia and the "Republic of Srpska" in Bosnia & Herzegovina; the Republic of Slovenia, and to a smaller extent the rest of the "Bosnian Federation", continued to observe this antismoking campaign. In the future, the medical professionals have to look for new ways to help smokers quit smoking and to maintain abstinence. In addition to education and professional advice, they may use smoking cessation interventions, especially to smokers that require elective surgery. Medical students should continue to participate in the national antismoking campaigns, and they could be included in the comprehensive smoking intervention programs to improve their smoking cessation counseling skills. However, the governments should plan and rigorously realize needed measures to control smoking at public places, offices, and other closed working places. Such measures are especially needed in poor and developing countries where many people die unnecessarily.

  9. Some Observations on Cultural Opposites in Contemporary China: Kunming and Beijing Twenty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the cultural opposites observed in various segments of Chinese culture during the author's three stays in China over a period of twenty years. The first and second stay, in 1986 and 1989 respectively, coincided with the initial period of the implementation of modernization reforms in China, when their results were just beginning to be felt. The third stay was in 2009, towards the end of the third decade of reform implementation, at the time of an already developed marketoriented communism. The paper's main thesis is that most of the phenomena observed in present-day urban China can be assigned to opposite categories, namely Chinese-Western and traditional- contemporary. Cultural opposites have been observed in the sphere of tourism and the behavior of both Chinese and foreign visitors, in the use of Chinese and English in notices and signs in public places, and in the promotion of traditional and modern architecture. In addition, they have been noted in the presentation of arts and crafts and industrial products, in the manner of consumption of hot drinks, and in the combining of Chinese and foreign cuisine. They are also evident in a Beijing Opera performance adapted both to the modern Chinese and to foreigners, and in the traditional Chinese exercises and western dances performed in public parks. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the process of establishing connections between China and the West is being carried on in a moderate and controlled way. In the globalization process cultural opposites coexist and merge, imparting new features to Chinese culture.

  10. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money.

  11. Preparation of European Public Health Professionals in the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Otok, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The public health profession in Europe has a leadership role for ensuring European’s health in the twenty-first century and therefore must assume responsibility for advancing education for research and practice. Three fundamental questions are explored: (1) What are the main public health problems facing public health professionals; (2) What are their existing competencies after training; and (3) What competencies do European employers expect? The European Schools of Public Health assessed their best success to be in the field of health promotion, followed by disease prevention including identification of priority health problems, and elimination of health hazards in the community. Conversely, they see the least success in dealing with preparedness and planning for public health emergencies. From an employer’s perspective, significant gaps between current and desired levels of performance at the job exist for all Essential Public Health Operations of World Health Organization. Based on prior research and recent European surveys of Schools and Departments of Public Health, the following recommendations are made, which emphasize the leadership role of the European public health community: (1) the preparation of public health professionals requires an interface between public health functions, competencies, and performance; (2) competence-based education is important and allows debates on the scope of the required education; (3) governments have to realize that the present lack of infrastructure and capacity is detrimental to the people’s health; (4) as public health challenges are increasingly global, educational institutions have to look beyond the national boundaries and participate in European and global networks for education, research, and practice. PMID:28261578

  12. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components...

  13. Circadian lfuctuations in three types of sensory modules in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hyun Kwon; Ki Seok Nam

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to observe and compare the circadian fluctuations in tactile sense, joint reposition sense and two-point discrimination in healthy subjects. Twenty-one healthy adult subjects received perceptual ability tests through these three different sensory modules at approximately 9:00, 13:00 and 18:00 in a day. The distribution of ranking for perceptual ability was signiifcantly different among the three different time points in each individual, with highest perceptual ability in the evening compared with noon and morning, in terms of tactile sense and two-point discrimination. These ifndings suggest that the perceptual ability of healthy subjects lfuctuates according to the time points in a day.

  14. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  15. VENETIAN TRACE IN PHILOSOPHY OF SUBJECT

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the research on social roots of New European concept of subject. The authors found the basic reason of subject concept change in economical practice of Venetian republic. It was the image of Venetian merchant which not only became the catalyzer of feudal order, but determined the connotations of subsequent New European philosophy of subject.

  16. Promoting Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly shown the relationship between subjective well-being and work performance, even though there is debate over the causality of that relationship (i.e., does subjective well-being cause higher work performance or does greater work performance lead to subjective well-being?). Regardless, researchers and practitioners would agree…

  17. Comparison of Features for Movement Prediction from Single-Trial Movement-Related Cortical Potentials in Healthy Subjects and Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of movement intention from the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG signals has shown to be important in combination with assistive devices for effective neurofeedback in rehabilitation. In this study, we compare time and frequency domain features to detect movement intention from EEG signals prior to movement execution. Data were recoded from 24 able-bodied subjects, 12 performing real movements, and 12 performing imaginary movements. Furthermore, six stroke patients with lower limb paresis were included. Temporal and spectral features were investigated in combination with linear discriminant analysis and compared with template matching. The results showed that spectral features were best suited for differentiating between movement intention and noise across different tasks. The ensemble average across tasks when using spectral features was (error = 3.4 ± 0.8%, sensitivity = 97.2 ± 0.9%, and specificity = 97 ± 1% significantly better (P0.001. Results imply that frequency information is important for detecting movement intention, which is promising for the application of this approach to provide patient-driven real-time neurofeedback.

  18. Twenty-five year Consolidation project for the CERN’s Injector Machines of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2010-01-01

    The 25 year consolidation project was a result of a major re-thinking of CERN’s strategy for consolidating the LHC operation and the decision not to build a new PS Ring or a new Superconducting Proton Linac in early 2010. The work packages envisaged under this consolidation exercise came to a budget estimation of nearly 500 MCHF and were subjected to risk analyses to establish priorities and allocated funds based on limited spending profiles permitted under the CERN’s rolling Medium Term Plan, MTP.

  19. 78 FR 52605 - Announcing the Twenty First Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... Researchers can review data and share expertise, which may lead to a better understanding of crash injury... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Announcing the Twenty First Public Meeting of the Crash... Meeting of members of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. CIREN is a collaborative...

  20. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  1. Noise Management in Twenty-First Century Libraries: Case Studies of Four U.S. Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Janet E.; Asher, Darla C.

    2014-01-01

    University libraries have had to provide acceptable noise levels for many years and this pressure has not diminished in the twenty-first century. Library space has to be utilized to ensure noise levels are best managed. A study was undertaken across four university libraries in South Florida to determine how universities utilized their limited…

  2. Insights into Finnish First-Year Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Kukkonen, Jari; Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Finnish pre-service teachers' perceptions of their twenty-first century skills, especially their learning strategies, collaboration and teamwork, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to ICT in education. The target group consist of 263 first-year pre-service teachers from three universities. The results outline how…

  3. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  4. A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,…

  5. Towards regional projections of twenty-first century sea-level change based on IPCC SRES scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Katsman, C.A.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Riva, R,E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sea-level change is often considered to be globally uniform in sea-level projections. However, local relative sea-level (RSL) change can deviate substantially from the global mean. Here, we present maps of twenty-first century local RSL change estimates based on an ensemble of coupled climate model

  6. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  7. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  8. Teaching and Learning for the Twenty-First Century: Educational Goals, Policies, and Curricula from Six Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Fernando M., Ed.; Chung, Connie K., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book describes how different nations have defined the core competencies and skills that young people will need in order to thrive in the twenty-first-century, and how those nations have fashioned educational policies and curricula meant to promote those skills. The book examines six countries--Chile, China, India, Mexico, Singapore, and the…

  9. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri

    2017-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher…

  10. Pressure effects on regional mean sea level trends in the German Bight in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Frauke; Weisse, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on regional mean sea level projections in the German Bight in the twenty-first century are considered. A developed statistical model is applied to climate model data of sea level pressure for the twenty-first century to assess the potential contribution of large-scale atmospheric changes to future sea level changes in the German Bight. Using 78 experiments, an ensemble mean of 1.4-cm rise in regional mean sea level is estimated until the end of the twenty-first century. Changes are somewhat higher for realisations of the special report on emission scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, but generally do not exceed a few centimeters. This is considerably smaller than the changes expected from steric and self-gravitational effects. Large-scale changes in sea level pressure are thus not expected to provide a substantial contribution to twenty-first century sea level changes in the German Bight.

  11. Impact of the Twenty-First Century Afterschool Program on Student Achievement in Mathematics and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the academic impacts of the Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers on students who participated in this program. The following research questions guided the study: (a) are there significant differences between the Criterion Reference Competency Test English Language Arts scores of…

  12. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  13. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  14. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  15. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri

    2016-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  16. A Model for Reform. Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers (TYC21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C., Ed.

    This book describes the TYC21 project (Two-Year Colleges in the Twenty-First Century: Breaking Down Barriers), which provided a framework to implement reform in science, engineering, and physics education at two-year colleges via the cooperative efforts of faculty in cross-educational activities. The project sought to increase the quality of…

  17. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

  18. Moving the Law School into the Twenty-First Century--Embedding Technology into Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Beverley; Panesar, Sukhninder; Wood, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past twenty years phenomenal developments in technology have changed the nature of education. Students now have access to a vast range of resources 24/7. This instant access has created a certain expectation on the part of the student and there must now be very few, if any, courses taught in higher education where the lecturer does not…

  19. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests o

  20. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri

    2017-04-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  1. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.

    2014-01-01

    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests

  2. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  3. Walking strategies in subjects with congenital or early onset strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAprile

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In congenital strabismus, sensory adaptations occur hampering the correct development of normal binocular vision. The aim of this study is to investigate if patients with congenital or early onset exotropic or esotropic strabismus adopt different walking strategies with respect to healthy subjects. Our hypothesis is that the abnormal binocular cooperation, occurring in patients with exotropic or esotropic strabismus, could influence neurosensorial adaptation of the gait pattern. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients were enrolled:19 with esotropic (ESO and 6 with exotropic strabismus (EXO. All patients underwent a ophthalmological and orthoptic evaluation. Biomechanical data were collected using a stereophotogrammetric system and a force platform. Twenty-seven age-matched healthy subjects (HS were used as controls. Results. The comparison between patients with ESO and patients with EXO strabismus showed that the maximal power at the knee and at the ankle was lower in EXO group (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. The step width was statistically different between ESO and EXO groups (p<0.01, lower in patients with ESO and higher in patients with EXO strabismus when compared with HS (though not statistically significant. The deviation angle values showed a relationship with the step width (at the near fixation p<0.05 and with the maximal power at the knee and at the ankle (at the far fixation for the knee p<0.001 and for the ankle p<0.05; at the near fixation for the knee p<0.05: in the patients with EXO the increased angle deviation is related to larger step width and to lower power at the knee and at the ankle. In the patients with ESO strabismus this relationship is less robust. Discussion. Patients with EXO and ESO strabismus adopt different strategies to compensate their walking difficulties, and these strategies are likely due to an expanded visual field in patients with EXO and to a reduced visual field in patients with ESO

  4. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  5. Twenty Years of Litter and Root Manipulations: Insights into Multi-Decadal SOM Dynamics and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, J.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Reforestation, reducing deforestation, and sustainable forest management are often recommended by policy makers to mitigate the greenhouse gas contributions of the forestry sector. However, underlying many of these policy recommendations is the assumption that increasing above-ground carbon stocks corresponds to long-term increases in ecosystem carbon stocks, the majority of which is stored in soils. We analyzed soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forest soils that had undergone twenty years of continuous manipulations of above- and below-ground organic inputs as part of the Detritus Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) network. Although we expected that increased C inputs would correspond to significantly elevated C in surface mineral soils, our data suggest that increasing above-ground litter inputs has had a positive priming effect in this soil. Positive priming occurs when increased rates of litter addition to soil lead to disproportionate increases in microbial respiration rates of native soil C, resulting in a net decrease of soil C. Soil respiration rates in a year-long laboratory incubation support this theory: increased above-ground litter inputs led to decreased respiration rates, suggesting a relative deficit of labile organic matter. Removal of below ground inputs, either with or without above-ground litter inputs, also led to decreased respiration in laboratory incubations, demonstrating the importance of fresh root inputs to labile C. Trends in non-hydrolyzable C fractions, a proxy for the more stable C pool, agree with our respiration measurements. Data from sequential density fractionation are consistent with the hypotheses that priming has occurred in response to increased above-ground litter inputs and that root inputs are an important control of the labile C pool. The importance of roots inputs for C stabilization is well documented in the literature, and our hypothesis that increased above-ground litter inputs leads to priming is supported by

  6. Twenty Years of Data Management in the British Atmospheric Data Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Pepler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC has existed in its present form for 20 years, having been formally created in 1994. It evolved from the GDF (Geophysical Data Facility, a SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council facility, as a result of research council reform where NERC (Natural Environment Research Council extended its remit to cover atmospheric data below 10km altitude. With that change the BADC took on data from many other atmospheric sources and started interacting with NERC research programmes. The BADC has now hit early adulthood. Prompted by this milestone, we examine in this paper whether the data centre is creaking at the seams or is looking forward to the prime of its life, gliding effortlessly into the future. Which parts of it are bullet proof and which parts are held together with double-sided sticky tape? Can we expect to see it in its present form in another twenty years’ time? To answer these questions, we examine the interfaces, technology, processes and organisation used in the provision of data centre services by looking at three snapshots in time, 1994, 2004 and 2014, using metrics and reports from the time to compare and contrasts the services using BADC. The repository landscape has changed massively over this period and has moved the focus for technology and development as the broader community followed emerging trends, standards and ways of working. The incorporation of these new ideas has been both a blessing and a curse, providing the data centre staff with plenty of challenges and opportunities. We also discuss key data centre functions including: data discovery, data access, ingestion, data management planning, preservation plans, agreements/licences and data policy, storage and server technology, organisation and funding, and user management. We conclude that the data centre will probably still exist in some form in 2024 and that it will most likely still be reliant on a file system. However, the

  7. Ten Years, Twenty Issues, and Two Hundred Papers of Numeracy: Toward International Reach and Transdisciplinary Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue completes the first ten years of Numeracy. The purpose of this introductory editorial is to review what has happened to the journal in those ten years. In the twenty issues, Numeracy’s output has been 201 papers counting the one or two editorials per issue. More than 50% of the papers are full, peer-reviewed articles, including 13 papers in two theme collections. The others are peer-reviewed notes and perspectives, editor-reviewed book reviews (15% of the total, and a column by contributing co-editor, Dorothy Wallace. The current issue marks an upswing in the number of notes, and our first discussion/reply. The number of papers per year has been increasing (e.g., 66% more in the last three years than in the first three years. The download rate has increased from about 5,000 in the first two years to 5,000 in about 40 days now. The editorial goes on to document two main outcomes. First, the journal is gaining an international reach: more than half the downloads occur outside the United States now, and the number of contributions from outside the United States has increased from 4 in the first five years to 15 in the second five years. Second, the across-the-curriculum nature of quantitative literacy is coming to the fore. The transdisciplinarity of QL is strikingly evident in this issue, which is discussed in some detail, especially how it conforms to the mission of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. The editorial ends with some results from a small ad hoc study of Google Scholar Citation Profiles. The question was, of the profiles that used “numeracy” or “quantitative literacy” as keywords, what other keywords did those profiles use, and what were the source countries? The results show that (1 QL is very much an American term, (2 there is, metaphorically, a vast and interesting numeracy ecosystem out there for Numeracy to engage and serve, and (3 as we become more global, the transdisciplinary relevance

  8. Structure-activity relationship of dendrimers engineered with twenty common amino acids in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Hu, Ke; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-01-01

    Systematic explorations on the structure-activity relationship of surface-engineered dendrimers are essential to design high efficient and safe gene vectors. The chemical diversity of residues in naturally occurring amino acids allows us to generate a library of dendrimers with various surface properties. Here, we synthesized a total number of 40 dendrimers engineered with the twenty common amino acids and investigated their performances in gene delivery. The results show that gene transfection efficacy of the synthesized materials depends on both the type of amino acid and the conjugation ratio. Dendrimers engineered with cationic and hydrophobic amino acids possess relatively higher transfection efficacies. Engineering dendrimers with cationic amino acids such as arginine and lysine facilitates polyplex formation and cellular uptake, with histidine improves endosomal escape of the polyplexes, and with hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenylalanine modulates the balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity on dendrimer surface, which is beneficial for efficient cellular internalization. Dendrimers engineered with anionic or hydrophilic amino acids show limited transfection efficacy due to poor DNA binding capacity and/or limited cellular uptake. In the aspect of cytotoxicity, dendrimers engineered with arginine, lysine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan show much higher cytotoxicity than other engineered dendrimers. These results are helpful for us to tailor the surface chemistry of dendrimers for efficient gene delivery. Cationic polymers such as dendrimers were widely used as gene vectors but are limited by relatively low delivery efficacy and high toxicity. To achieve efficient and low toxic gene delivery, the polymers were modified with various ligands. However, these ligand-modified polymers in gene delivery are reported by independent researchers using different polymer scaffolds and cell lines. It is hard to provide structure

  9. [Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity test of N-(fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Y; Tsuda, M; Naito, K; Saitoh, M; Isama, K; Ikarashi, Y; Kawasaki, Y; Momma, J; Kitajima, S; Kaniwa, M

    1995-01-01

    N-(Fluorodichloromethylthio)phthalimide (Fluor-folpet) has been widely used as an anti-mold and anti-bacterial agent. In this study, 28 days repeated-dose oral toxicity study of fluor-folpet was carried out in Slc:Wistar rats. An oral toxicity study for fluor-folpet, the twenty-eight days test, repeated-dose, oral administration, was performed as follows: Five week-old rats, male and female, 10 rats, each/group, were treated with intragastric administration of fluor-folpet with a dose of 0 (1% Sodium CMC, control), 20, 80 and 320 mg/kg, body weight. Recovery test, for 14 days after the last treatment, was examined for the control and the 320 mg/kg groups. The 320 mg/kg groups, both males and females, showed significantly reduced their body-weight gain compared with the control group. In the 320 mg/kg group, five out of 20 male rats and four out of 20 female rats died from dyspnea during the treatment period. In the female rats in the 320 mg/kg group, serum ChE level was decreased to 50% of control level and gamma-GT was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but these serum levels recovered after 14 days non-treatment period. No histopathological change, relating to the treatment, in liver was observed. Increased weight of the kidney and vacuolation in renal tubules were found in both sexes of 320 mg/kg group. Hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia of the stomach epithelium were observed at the dose more than 80 mg/kg in male, and more than 20 mg/kg in female. A supplemental study, repeated-dose, oral administration in rats carried out to examine the dyspnea revealed that severe acute toxic damages in epithelium of nasal cavity and meatus nasopharyngeus were induced by intragastric administration of fluor-folpet. Fluor-folpet is shown to be cytotoxic. In conclusion, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for fluor-folpet was not found under the experimental conditions employed in this repeated-dose toxicity study.

  10. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanah Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students’ attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online. These learning strategies are part of the pedagogical technique known as active learning. Active learning is a strategy that became popular in the early 1990s and has proven itself as a valid tool for helping students to be engaged with learning. Methodology: This work follows a systematic method for identifying and coding previous research based on an aspect of interest. The authors identified and assessed research through a search of ABI/Inform scholarly journal abstracts and keywords, as well as additional research databases, using the search terms “active learning” and “information systems” from 2000 through June 2016. Contribution: This synthesis of active learning exercises provides guidance for information technology faculty looking to implement active learning strategies in their classroom by demonstrating how IS faculty might begin to introduce more active learning techniques in their teaching as well as by presenting a sample teaching agenda for a class that uses a mix of active and passive learning techniques to engage student learning. Findings: Twenty successful types of active learning exercises in IS courses are presented. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: This paper offers a “how to” resource of successful active learning strategies for IS faculty interested in implementing active learning in the classroom. Recommendation for Researchers: This work provides an example of a systematic literature review as a means to assess successful implementations of active learning in IS. Impact on Society: An updated definition of active learning is presented as well as a meaningful

  11. Twenty Years of Stereotype Threat Research: A Review of Psychological Mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte R Pennington

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review appraises critically the mediating variables of stereotype threat. A bibliographic search was conducted across electronic databases between 1995 and 2015. The search identified 45 experiments from 38 articles and 17 unique proposed mediators that were categorized into affective/subjective (n = 6, cognitive (n = 7 and motivational mechanisms (n = 4. Empirical support was accrued for mediators such as anxiety, negative thinking, and mind-wandering, which are suggested to co-opt working memory resources under stereotype threat. Other research points to the assertion that stereotype threatened individuals may be motivated to disconfirm negative stereotypes, which can have a paradoxical effect of hampering performance. However, stereotype threat appears to affect diverse social groups in different ways, with no one mediator providing unequivocal empirical support. Underpinned by the multi-threat framework, the discussion postulates that different forms of stereotype threat may be mediated by distinct mechanisms.

  12. Twenty Years of Stereotype Threat Research: A Review of Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew R; Larkin, Derek T

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review appraises critically the mediating variables of stereotype threat. A bibliographic search was conducted across electronic databases between 1995 and 2015. The search identified 45 experiments from 38 articles and 17 unique proposed mediators that were categorized into affective/subjective (n = 6), cognitive (n = 7) and motivational mechanisms (n = 4). Empirical support was accrued for mediators such as anxiety, negative thinking, and mind-wandering, which are suggested to co-opt working memory resources under stereotype threat. Other research points to the assertion that stereotype threatened individuals may be motivated to disconfirm negative stereotypes, which can have a paradoxical effect of hampering performance. However, stereotype threat appears to affect diverse social groups in different ways, with no one mediator providing unequivocal empirical support. Underpinned by the multi-threat framework, the discussion postulates that different forms of stereotype threat may be mediated by distinct mechanisms.

  13. Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  14. A Twenty-Four-Year-Old Woman with Left Flank Lipoma-Like Hibernoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Shackelford

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a left flank mass that was painful on palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10.0 × 6.0 × 2.5 cm mass consistent with lipoma. A fatty lobulated mass was excised and subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses. The specimen consisted of mature univacuolated adipocytic cells, with intermixed multivacuolated eosinophilic granular cells. No atypia or hyperchromasia was identified. Most of the cells were S100 positive and Ki-67 immunonegative. A diagnosis of a lipoma-like hibernoma was rendered. Hibernomas are rare benign lipomatous tumors that show differentiation toward brown fat. The lipoma-like hibernoma subtype is rare and can be misdiagnosed as atypical lipoma or well-differentiated liposarcoma. Here we describe an example of this rare tumor.

  15. Holter monitoring to detect silent atrial fibrillation in high-risk subjects: the Perugia General Practitioner Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Valentina; Becattini, Cecilia; Laureti, Stefano; Baglioni, Gregorio; Germini, Fabrizio; Grilli, Piero; Guercini, Francesco; Filippucci, Esmeralda; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed for the first time in about 5 % of patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke. Advanced aged and arterial hypertension are risk factors for AF. We evaluated the prevalence of silent AF in subjects with advanced age and systemic arterial hypertension. Subjects of both gender, aged 65 years or more with systemic arterial hypertension were randomly identified from the patient lists of the participating general practitioners in the Perugia area, in Italy. Study subjects underwent baseline 12-lead ECG and, if this did not show AF, 48-h Holter monitoring was performed. AF was known and confirmed by 12-lead ECG in 4 out of the 308 evaluated subjects (1.3 %). Baseline 12-lead ECG showed no cases of silent AF. Holter monitoring was performed in 300 subjects, mean age 70 ± 4. Twenty-six recordings were not evaluable for the presence of artifacts; therefore, 274 subjects were included in the analysis. Holter monitoring showed AF in 27 out of 274 subjects (10 %; 95 % confidence interval 6.4-13.5 %); AF was longer than 30 s in four of the subjects. In 56 additional subjects, Holter monitoring revealed excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (20 %; 95 % confidence interval 15.3-24.7 %). Holter monitoring was able to detect silent AF in about 10 % of subjects aged 65 or above with systemic arterial hypertension. The risk of stroke associated with screened silent AF should be carefully evaluated.

  16. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    solution is no longer easily justifiable. The research efforts undertaken to better understand and control calcium carbonate precipitation and scale formation have paid off and have resulted in the standardisation of the treatment process and the control procedure of the cooling circuits by ELECTRABEL. The initial experience gained in the fossil power plants of AMERCOEUR (2 x 125 MW units) was finally successfully applied to plants 2 and 3 at TIHANGE. Since then, all of the conventional or combined cycle power plants have adopted the same treatment philosophy. Six units of between 125 and 1000 MW have been treated in this manner, some of them for over twenty years, without showing any signs of scale deposits. It is true that adaptations have had to be made in the control recommendations defined during the pilot trials, in order to allow for the impact of cathodic protections and certain cooling tower fills. (authors)

  17. Projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sushil K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Pattnayak, Kanhu C.; Mamgain, Ashu; Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Giuliani, Graziano

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present the projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the regional model RegCM4 driven by the global model GFDL-ESM2M. RegCM4 is integrated from 1970 to 2099 at 50 km horizontal resolution over the South Asia CORDEX domain. The simulated mean summer monsoon circulation and associated rainfall by RegCM4 are validated against observations in the reference period 1975 to 2004 based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) data sets. Regional model results are also compared with those of the global model GFDL which forces the RegCM4, showing that the regional model in particular improves the simulation of precipitation trends during the reference period. Future projections are categorized as near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099). Comparison of projected seasonal (June-September) mean rainfall from the different time slices indicate a gradual increase in the intensity of changes over some of the regions under both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. RegCM4 projected rainfall decreases over most of the Indian land mass and the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean, while it increases over the Arabian Sea, northern Bay of Bengal, and the Himalayas. Results show that the monsoon circulation may become weaker in the future associated with a decrease in rainfall over Indian land points. The RegCM4 projected decrease in June, July, August, September (JJAS) rainfall under the RCP8.5 scenario over the central, eastern, and peninsular India by the end of the century is in the range of 25-40 % of their mean reference period values; it is significant at the 95 % confidence level and it is broadly in line with patterns of observed change in recent decades. Surface evaporation is projected to increase over the Indian Ocean, thereby

  18. Prevalence of Keratoconus and Subclinical Keratoconus in Subjects with Astigmatism Using Pentacam Derived Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Serdarogullari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of keratoconus (KCN and subclinical KCN among subjects with two or more diopters (D of astigmatism, and to compare Pentacam parameters among these subjects. Methods: One hundred and twenty eight eyes of 64 subjects with astigmatism ≥2D were included in the study. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination which included refraction, visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, retinoscopy, fundus examination, conventional corneal topography and elevation-based topography with Pentacam. The diagnosis of KCN and subclinical KCN was made by observing clinical findings and topographic features; and confirmed by corneal thickness and elevation maps of Pentacam. Several parameters acquired from Pentacam were analyzed employing the Mann-Whitney U Test. Results: Mean age of the study population was 29.9±9.8 (range 15-45 years which included 39 (60.9% female and 25 (39.1% male subjects. Maximum corneal power, index of vertical asymmetry, keratoconus index and elevation values were significantly higher and pachymetry was significantly thinner in eyes with clinical or subclinical KCN than normal astigmatic eyes (P< 0.05. Conclusion: The current study showed that subjects with 2D or more of astigmatism who present to outpatient clinics should undergo corneal topography screening for early diagnosis of KCN even if visual acuity is not affected. Pentacam may provide more accurate information about anterior and posterior corneal anatomy especially in suspect eyes.

  19. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions) based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; James, Trefor; Kountouris, Alex; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men's cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008-09). In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game - Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket). It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15-20 injuries per team per defined 'season') are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season), perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury) have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is unlikely to be reduced in future years, teams may need to develop a squad rotation for fast bowlers, similar to pitching staff in baseball, to reduce the injury rates for fast bowlers. Consideration should

  20. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.