WorldWideScience

Sample records for twentieth-century united states

  1. Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States – An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700's, virtually no ... expected that, by the middle of the 19th Century, as machine tools began to be manufactured .... Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States. 873. DESIGN ... Merchant M E 1961 The manufacturing system concept in production ...

  2. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  3. Glacier variability in the conterminous United States during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Fountain, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers of the conterminous United States have been receding for the past century. Since 1900 the recession has varied from a 24 % loss in area (Mt. Rainier, Washington) to a 66 % loss in the Lewis Range of Montana. The rates of retreat are generally similar with a rapid loss in the early decades of the 20th century, slowing in the 1950s–1970s, and a resumption of rapid retreat starting in the 1990s. Decadal estimates of changes in glacier area for a subset of 31 glaciers from 1900 to 2000 are used to test a snow water equivalent model that is subsequently employed to examine the effects of temperature and precipitation variability on annual glacier area changes for these glaciers. Model results indicate that both winter precipitation and winter temperature have been important climatic factors affecting the variability of glacier variability during the 20th Century. Most of the glaciers analyzed appear to be more sensitive to temperature variability than to precipitation variability. However, precipitation variability is important, especially for high elevation glaciers. Additionally, glaciers with areas greater than 1 km2 are highly sensitive to variability in temperature.

  4. Multi-year climate variability in the Southwestern United States within a context of a dynamically downscaled twentieth century reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carlos M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I.; Luong, Thang M.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation evaluates whether there is coherency in warm and cool season precipitation at the low-frequency scale that may be responsible for multi-year droughts in the US Southwest. This low-frequency climate variability at the decadal scale and longer is studied within the context of a twentieth-century reanalysis (20CR) and its dynamically-downscaled version (DD-20CR). A spectral domain matrix methods technique (Multiple-Taper-Method Singular Value Decomposition) is applied to these datasets to identify statistically significant spatiotemporal precipitation patterns for the cool (November-April) and warm (July-August) seasons. The low-frequency variability in the 20CR is evaluated by exploring global to continental-scale spatiotemporal variability in moisture flux convergence (MFC) to the occurrence of multiyear droughts and pluvials in Central America, as this region has a demonstrated anti-phase relationship in low-frequency climate variability with northern Mexico and the southwestern US By using the MFC in lieu of precipitation, this study reveals that the 20CR is able to resolve well the low-frequency, multiyear climate variability. In the context of the DD-20CR, multiyear droughts and pluvials in the southwestern US (in the early twentieth century) are significantly related to this low-frequency climate variability. The precipitation anomalies at these low-frequency timescales are in phase between the cool and warm seasons, consistent with the concept of dual-season drought as has been suggested in tree ring studies.

  5. A Tale of Two Tails : Establishment Size and Labour Productivity in United States and German Manufacturing at the Start of the Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Joost; de Jong, Herman

    This paper studies the importance of establishment size for the German/US labour-productivity gap in manufacturing at the start of the twentieth century. First, we show that the left tail of the employment distribution by establishment size was larger in Germany than in the USA. Second, using US

  6. The architecture and artistic features of high-rise buildings in USSR and the United States of America during the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovina Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Skyscraper is a significant architectural structure in the world's largest cities. The appearance of a skyscraper in the city's architectural composition enhances its status, introduces dynamics into the shape of the city, modernizes the existing environment. Its architectural structure which can have both expressive triumphal forms and ascetic ones. For a deep understanding of the architecture of high-rise buildings must be considered by several criteria. Various approaches can be found in the competitive development of high-rise buildings in Moscow and the US cities in the middle of the twentieth century In this article we will consider how and on the basis of what the architectural decisions of high-rise buildings were formed.

  7. The architecture and artistic features of high-rise buildings in USSR and the United States of America during the first half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Svetlana; Oblasov, Yurii

    2018-03-01

    Skyscraper is a significant architectural structure in the world's largest cities. The appearance of a skyscraper in the city's architectural composition enhances its status, introduces dynamics into the shape of the city, modernizes the existing environment. Its architectural structure which can have both expressive triumphal forms and ascetic ones. For a deep understanding of the architecture of high-rise buildings must be considered by several criteria. Various approaches can be found in the competitive development of high-rise buildings in Moscow and the US cities in the middle of the twentieth century In this article we will consider how and on the basis of what the architectural decisions of high-rise buildings were formed.

  8. Credible Leadership-In the Eyes of the Follower: A Historical Review of Leadership Theory throughout the Twentieth Century in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharon C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review was to trace the credible leadership construct of trustworthiness, integrity, honesty, and consistency in leadership theory development during the last 100 years in the United States. Theory focus, key U.S. pivotal events, and follower importance influenced the construct's occurrence in leadership theory. …

  9. Hydrotherapy in state mental hospitals in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie

    2009-08-01

    This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.

  10. The State of Native America at the End of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Robison

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available When stereotypes of modern Native Americans are brought forward, these usually manifest themselves in visions of poor Indians living on reservations, which are on lands no one else wanted. Modern Native Americans are often stereotyped as drunks or succumbing to the pressure of gamblers to open their reservations to casinos. One place to start in order to disprove these stereotypes is the statistical data. What follows is not an interpretive essay in the classic scholarly vein, but an informative one that provides a picture of the state of Native America at the end of the Twentieth Century based on current statistical data.

  11. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  12. Demography in the United States: Some Twentieth Century Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Robert L.

    Five demographic myths related to education pose dangers to educational planning and thinking. The first myth says the return of service personnel after World War II caused the baby boom. Actually the baby boom began in 1939 and was not related to service personnel. The second myth claims the Great Depression decreased the birth and fertility…

  13. Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the music education in the United States and the Russian Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. In both countries, music educators struggled to secure a permanent role for vocal music in the school. By comparing Russian music instruction to that in the United States, educators can better understand not…

  14. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  15. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  16. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  17. Frontiers twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a si

  18. Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Miroslava Lukić Krstanović. Spektakli XX veka: Muzika i moć. [Twentieth Century Spectacle. Music and Power]. 2010. Beograd: Etnografski institut SANU. Posebna izdanja 72

  19. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  20. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  1. The twentieth century in European Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Twentieth Century in European Memory investigates contested and divisive memories of conflicts, world wars, dictatorship, genocide and mass killing. Focusing on the questions of transculturality and reception, the book looks at the ways in which such memories are being shared, debated...

  2. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of commonalities in the contributions of five key thinkers in twentieth century phenomenology are discussed in relation to both original aims and contemporary projects. It is argued that, contrary to the claims of Husserl, phenomenology can only operate as hermeneutic phenomenology. Hermeneutics arose ...

  3. Erving Goffman's asylums and institutional culture in the mid-twentieth-century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Sociologist Erving Goffman based his seminal work Asylums (1961) on a year of field research at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, DC. Goffman described the mental hospital as a "total institution," in which regimentation dominated every aspect of daily life and patients were denied even the most basic means of self-expression; rather than promote recovery, such conditions produced the sorts of disordered behavior for which men and women were ostensibly admitted. A closer look at the changes transforming St. Elizabeths around the time of Goffman's research reveals a far richer portrait of institutional culture. Group therapy, psychodrama, art and dance therapy, patient newspapers, and patient self-government-each of which debuted at the hospital in the 1940s and 1950s-provided novel opportunities for men and women to make themselves heard and to take their fate into their own hands. While these initiatives did not reach all of the patients at St. Elizabeths, surviving documentation suggests that those who participated found their involvement rewarding and empowering. Goffman explicitly set out to describe "the social world of the hospital inmate." His failure to appreciate fully the capacities of his subjects, however, appears to have led him to underestimate the importance of these developments.

  4. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    , i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  5. Global generations: social change in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, June; Turner, Bryan S

    2005-12-01

    The concept of generation within sociology has until recently been a marginal area of interest. However, various demographic, cultural and intellectual developments have re-awakened an interest in generations that started with the classic essay by Karl Mannheim. To date, the sociological literature has generally conceptualized generations as nationally bounded entities. In this paper we suggest that the sociology of generations should develop the concept of global generations. This conceptual enhancement is important because the growth of global communications technology has enabled traumatic events, in an unparalleled way, to be experienced globally. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the era of international generations, united through print media, and the mid-twentieth century saw the emergence of transnational generations, facilitated by new broadcast communications. However, the latter part of the twentieth century is the period of global generations, defined by electronic communications technology, which is characterized, uniquely, by increasing interactivity. The 1960s generation was the first global generation, the emergence of which had world-wide consequences; today with major developments in new electronic communications, there is even more potential for the emergence of global generations that can communicate across national boundaries and through time. If in the past historical traumas combined with available opportunities to create national generations, now globally experienced traumas, facilitated by new media technologies, have the potential for creating global generational consciousness. The media have become increasingly implicated in the formation of generational movements. Because we are talking about generations in the making rather than an historical generation, this article is necessarily speculative; it aims to provoke discussion and establish a new research agenda for work on generations.

  6. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  7. Women and political struggles: achievements and limitations lived in the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Carvalhaes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century was a period marked by important achievements and setbacks in the struggle for women's rights field. This study mapped out and described part of speeches, images and movements undertaken in that historical period and its effects on people's lives. Adopting a perspective of historical and theoretical analysis, the description looked up, first, the struggles carried out in some countries of Europe and the United States, highlighting its main challenges and difficulties. Then, the struggles undertaken are mapped in Brazil, with the analysis axis facing women inequality. Finally, it is considered that the political struggles carried out in the analyzed period had as greatest merits the disruption and exploitation of gender boundaries.

  8. Alfred Owre: revisiting the thought of a distinguished, though controversial, early twentieth-century dental educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2013-08-01

    Many in dental education are unfamiliar with the professional life and thought of Dr. Alfred Owre, a distinguished though controversial dental educator in the early twentieth century. Owre served as dean of dentistry at both the University of Minnesota, 1905-27, and Columbia University, 1927-33. He was also a member of the Carnegie Foundation's commission that developed the report Dental Education in the United States and Canada, written by Dr. William J. Gies. Owre was a controversial leader due to his creative and original ideas that challenged dental education and the profession. His assessment and critique of the problems of dental education in his era can readily be applied to contemporary dental education and the profession, just as his vision for transformative change resonates with ideas that continue to be advocated by some individuals today. This article also documents his tumultuous relationship with Gies.

  9. Financial crises of the early twentieth century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.

  10. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  11. No issue, no problem? Co-education in dutch secondary physical education during the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, H.W.

    This article places the current state of Dutch co-education in physical education into a longitudinal perspective. Occasionally, comparisons are made with Germany and England. The dominant, twentieth-century, co-educational tradition in the Netherlands including its pragmatic argumentation has

  12. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  13. Jews, Music-Making, and the Twentieth Century Maghrib

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Christopher Benno

    2017-01-01

    From the early twentieth century and through at least mid-century, indigenous North African Jews came to play an outsized role as music-makers and music-purveyors across the Maghrib. In Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, all under French rule until the middle of the twentieth century, Jewish vocalists and instrumentalists, record label artistic directors and concessionaires, commercial agents, and sonic impresarios utilized the phonograph and recording technology to safeguard and promote traditio...

  14. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  15. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5).......Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5)....

  16. An Overview of Literacy Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Wanda Dauksza

    Emphasis on adult literacy education in the United States began in the first decade of the twentieth century, which was characterized by heavy immigration from countries whose populations were not uniformly educated. Special attention was paid to adult literacy during times of crisis such as World War I and II when it was learned that many adults…

  17. Contributions to a historical review of biological anthropology in Brazil from the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verlan Valle Gaspar Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides a preliminary historical survey of Brazilian biological anthropology from the second half of the twentieth century. Even today, little historiographic information on the last 50 or 60 years is available and/or has been explored, while few allusions to bioanthropology can be found in existing works on the history and contemporary state of anthropology in Brazil; this article attempts to span this gap. The first section examines various aspects of the general development of biological anthropology as it radiated from the centers (Europe and the United States outward over time. This initial survey affords a clearer understanding of the Brazilian case, which is the topic of the second section. This is followed by a brief historical and bibliographic account of the most recent state of biological anthropology in the country, including a number of specialized areas of research. The article concludes with a short discussion of the material covered.

  18. The Use of Primitivism in Some Twentieth Century Western Art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    primitive in its basic sense is “primary in time” and by extension under developed, simple, crude and unsophisticated. He further postulates that to him, primitive art is none of these and that the most primitive art is the Old. Stone Age cave paintings of Europe. And that a great deal of the twentieth century Western art should ...

  19. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  20. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Changes in African smallholder agriculture in the twentieth century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in African smallholder agriculture in the twentieth century and the challenges of the twenty-first. ... These occurred in situations where the growing of perennial crops or access to markets encouraged people to abandon a truly shifting cultivation for a more static lifestyle. A striking feature of these developments was ...

  2. Qadimism and Jadidism in Twentieth-Century Daghestan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.; Shikhaliev, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the interplay of Jadidism and "Qadimism" in the North Caucasus region of Daghestan, through the twentieth century, with a focus on educational methods for teaching Arabic and Islam. In the multi-ethnic context of Daghestan the issue of pedagogy was important not only for

  3. Norman Mailer - the most influental critic of contemporary reality in the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Potočnik Topler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norman Mailer, one of the most influential authors of the second half of the twentieth century, faithfully followed his principle that a writer should alsobe a critic of contemporary reality. Therefore, most of his works portray the reality of the United States of America and the complexities of the contemporary American scene. Mailer described the spirit of his time - from the terror of war and numerous dynamic social and political processes to the 1969 moon landing. Conflicts were often in the centre of his writing, as was the relationship between an individual and the society; he speaks of politicalpower and the dangerous power of capital, while pointing to the threat of totalitarianism in America. Mailer spent his entire career writing about violence, power, perverted sexuality, the phenomenon of Hitler, terrorism, religion and corruption. He continually pointed out that individuals were in constant danger of losing freedom and dignity.

  4. The German genius Europe's third renaissance, the second scientific revolution, and the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Peter Watson's virtuoso sweep through modern German thought and culture, from 1750 to the present day, will challenge and confound both the stereotypes the world has of Germany and those that Germany has of itself. From the end of the Baroque era and the death of Bach to the rise of Hitler in 1933, Germany was transformed from a poor relation among Western nations into a dominant intellectual and cultural force—more creative and influential than France, Britain, Italy, Holland, and the United States. In the early decades of the twentieth century, German artists, writers, scholars, philosophers, scientists, and engineers were leading their freshly unified country to new and unimagined heights. By 1933, Germans had won more Nobel Prizes than any other nationals, and more than the British and Americans combined. Yet this remarkable genius was cut down in its prime by Adolf Hitler and his disastrous Third Reich—a brutal legacy that has overshadowed the nation's achievements ever since. How did the Germans t...

  5. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  6. The gas industry at the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williot, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)

  7. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  8. Women Emancipation in the Early Twentieth Century in France Portrayed in Coco Before Chanel Movie

    OpenAIRE

    HIKMAYANTI, INDAH

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : Women Movement, Liberal Feminism, France, Early TwentiethCentury, Coco Before ChanelWomen movement is a women's action to break down the patriarchy system which evolves in society. The patriarchy system states that women is minority in the society. Their role is only to take care of their family. They can not go to work outside and interact with others in the society. In France society, women and men have difference of right. French women then start the women movement to break the ...

  9. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  10. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  11. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends and accreted characteristics - one might call them "systemiccontradictions" - that promise to send the world capitalist geo-economy in a radically differentdevelopmental direction as US hegemony wanes. Arrighi 's assessment of these contradictionscompel him to make a provocative suggestion: in all likelihood, no singular concentration of stateand economic power possesses the territorial scale or the organizational capacities required tolead the global system through another round of restructuring and expansion. Properly framed,this illuminating insight could serve as the starting point for a theoretical exploration of thesocio-ecological constraints to global capitalist reproduction, but such is a journey (mostly nottaken by Arrighi in The Long Twentieth Century. In fact, to the degree that he subsequentlycontemplates the prospect of a China-centered reconstitution of the world geo-economy, Arrighimarginalizes the question of global systemic contradictions altogether.

  12. Women, work and health between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from a national and international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Silvana

    2014-11-16

    A few years after a series of meetings of Italian scientists were convened prior to the unification of Italy, the first women qualified in medicine and other dedicated women participated in founding a movement for the improvement of living and working conditions of women and children in Italy. analysis of Italian women's contributions in the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses and their impact on increasing the number of women's occupational health studies presented at the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome in 1914. Analysis of the proceedings of the International Council of Women Congresses (Washington, Chicago, London), and of the Women's National Council and other documents so as to obtain a picture of Italian women's working conditions at that time. Women and children worked an excessive number of hours per day, were underpaid, and had a legal status of inferiority. The main work sectors were sewing, embroidery, lace making, ironing, cooking, washing, dressmaking, millinery, fashion design, typing, weaving, artificial flowers, etc. The same sort of work was available to Italian women who emigrated to the United States of America. The success achieved by the women's movement is shown in the paper presented by Irene de Bonis "Occupational diseases among women" and published in the proceedings of the fourth National Congress on Occupational Diseases held in Rome, 9-14 June 1914. The article outlines the main features of the women's movement at the turn of the twentieth century, focussing on their publications describing Italian women's working conditions, considered in an international context. The movement's engagement in the promotion of women's occupational health at international and national level was successful but the First World War was to transform this achievement into the women's peace movement.

  13. Radioactivity in the twentieth century and some of its implications for the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity has always been present in the Earth, as well in the Universe at large. However, the discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity occurred just over 100 years ago. It is well known today that nuclear processes are directly related to the nucleosynthesis in starts. As a matter of fact, all types of nuclear reactions, like fission and captures, occur in stars at different stages of stellar evolution. The sequence of episodes that took place between 1896 and 1898, involving Henry Becquerel, and Marie and Pierre Curie, led to the discover of the phenomena that would greatly influence the twentieth century. It took, however, until 1939 for the phenomenon of fission to be explained by Otto Frish and Lise Meitner, based on experimental results obtained earlier by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman. Aware of the potential military implications of fission Leo Szilard exhorted Albert Einstein to write a letter to the President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Such letter is regarded as the initial step of the mammoth Manhattan Project to build the first nuclear weapons. The aftermath of nuclear attacks to Japan, at the end of the Second World War, created dramatic changes in the relations among the nations. The escalation of the nuclear arsenals throughout the world created peculiar and secretive that, by and large, produced wastes of many kinds and a variety of radioactive concentrations which were held by the governments and/or the military industries themselves. The paper will discuss some possible international cooperative efforts to reduce some of the deleterious implications for the third millennium of the inheritance left behind by the military nuclear programs. (author)

  14. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  15. PROBLEM UNACCOMPANIED MINORS IN THE 20 YEARS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (NIZHNY NOVGOROD PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vasilyevna Bystrovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the scientific, historical and socio-pedagogical bases of juvenile delinquency in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the context of Russia's historical and educational space. The causes of homelessness among children from 1917 to 1930.: The First World War, revolution, civil war, the policy of «war communism».The dynamics of the state in social and legal protection of minors in the period.Goal Is to determine the scientific, historical and socio-pedagogical bases of juvenile delinquency problem in the 20 years of the twentieth century (the Nizhny Novgorod region.Method or the methodology of work Implementing the principles of scientific and historicism, used for general historical science methods (identification, analysis, synthesis, study of archival and published materials, concrete historical, theoretical and system analysis, also found their application specific methods inherent historical and theoretical research: comparative comparative, historical situational, historical, genetic, specific historical, textual analysis.Results Suggested and scientifically substantiated system characteristic juvenile delinquency in the 20 years of the twentieth century in the Nizhny Novgorod region in the changing socio-political sphere in Russia.Practical implications The result is of obvious interest to educators, sociologists conducting research question juvenile delinquency.

  16. Landlordism, Rent Regulation and the Labour Party in mid-twentieth century Britain, 1950-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Phil

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the politics of private renting in 1950s and early 1960s Britain, through the radical approach taken by Labour Party towards private landlords. Through setting the radical aims of Labour in a mid-twentieth-century context of decrepit housing, rising rents and sluggish public housing programmes, Labour's rationale in arguing for the 'abolition' of the private landlord is more transparent. This article takes a chronological approach, investigating what actions Labour actors took, at local and national level, and what effect this had on the wider housing market. Part one takes a long view of Labour attitudes to the private rented sector. Part two explores the policy of 'municipalization'-the attempt to place rented homes under local authority control. Part three discusses the post-1962 policy shift to state-sponsored 'improvement' of private rented housing, prior to Labour's victory at the 1964 general election. Three key arguments are made: that Labour's radicalism hastened the collapse of the post-war private rented sector; that rental market weaknesses indicated the confused place of renting in the 'tenurial pattern'; and that the proposed 'abolition' of private landlords had a direct effect on slum clearance and the composition of British cities. The conclusion suggests that Labour's pursuit of the private landlord can shed light on the vast urban transformations of the post-war period. It invites greater attention to be paid to the effects that political ideas had on the composition of the twentieth-century British housing market.

  17. Contributions to a genealogy of democracy in the twentieth century starting from the opposition Kelsen/Schmitt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fortunato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work I analyze the theories of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen of democracy in the light of the weberian topic of rationalization. My thesis is that this counterpoint does not escape the contemporary split that characterizes the nineteenth century modernity and continues in the twentieth century. At last, I’ll maintain that the political manifestation of this aporeticalbackground –over which one must understand the challenge of democracy– is what Schmitt calls the total State.

  18. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  19. Riemannian geometry during the second half of the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    In the last fifty years of the twentieth century Riemannian geometry has exploded with activity. Berger marks the start of this period with Rauch's pioneering paper of 1951, which contains the first real pinching theorem and an amazing leap in the depth of the connection between geometry and topology. Since then, the field has become so rich that it is almost impossible for the uninitiated to find their way through it. Textbooks on the subject invariably must choose a particular approach, thus narrowing the path. In this book, Berger provides a truly remarkable survey of the main developments in Riemannian geometry in the last fifty years, focusing his main attention on the following five areas: Curvature and topology; the construction of and the classification of space forms; distinguished metrics, especially Einstein metrics; eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian; the study of periodic geodesics and the geodesic flow. Other topics are treated in less detail in a separate section. Berger's survey p...

  20. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  1. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Siewert, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The analysis

  2. Twentieth-century English Bible translations | Naudé | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The twentieth century has emerged as a major period of Bible translations and publications. The article explores both the cultural and social circumstances under which the English Bible translations of the twentieth century were produced and aspects relating to the translation process and reception. It offers insights into the ...

  3. Twentieth-century global-mean sea level rise: Is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J.M.; White, N.J.; Church, J.A.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Box, J.E.; Van den Broeke, M.R.; Cogley, J.G.; Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Leclercq, P.W.; Marzeion, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Tamisiea, M.E.; Wada, Y.; Wake, L.M.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in projections of global-mean sea level rise (GMSLR) depends on an ability to account for GMSLR during the twentieth century. There are contributions from ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, groundwater extraction, and reservoir impoundment. Progress has been made toward solving the “enigma” of twentieth-century GMSLR, which is that the observed GMSLR has previously been found to exceed the sum of estimated contributions, especially for the earlier decades. The authors propose the following: thermal expansion simulated by climate models may previously have been underestimated because of their not including volcanic forcing in their control state; the rate of glacier mass loss was larger than previously estimated and was not smaller in the first half than in the second half of the century; the Greenland ice sheet could have made a positive contribution throughout the century; and groundwater depletion and reservoir impoundment, which are of opposite sign, may have been approximately equal in magnitude. It is possible to reconstruct the time series of GMSLR from the quantified contributions, apart from a constant residual term, which is small enough to be explained as a long-term contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet. The reconstructions account for the observation that the rate of GMSLR was not much larger during the last 50 years than during the twentieth century as a whole, despite the increasing anthropogenic forcing. Semiempirical methods for projecting GMSLR depend on the existence of a relationship between global climate change and the rate of GMSLR, but the implication of the authors' closure of the budget is that such a relationship is weak or absent during the twentieth century.

  4. From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the twentieth century, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.

  5. The Establishment of a Car-Based Leisure Regime in Twentieth Century Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassamagnaghi, Silvia; Moretto, Giovanni; Wagner, Michael

    Comparative analysis of tourism and of its development in three different countries – Denmark, Italy and Soviet Union – has revealed the importance of the car as the keystone for changes in the habits of leisure time consumption all over in Europe. Even considering the specific features (social......, economic and political) of each country, and the different decades in which this phenomenon has occurred, “individual” travel and stay has become, in Twentieth Century, the characteristics of dominance over other forms of organized and “collective” tourism. “Gentlemen, we do not make this tour to drive. We...... wishes. A better mobility created also a new situation about Italian tourism national demand, transforming – sometimes radically – the landscape and the Italian “hospitality industry”, in order to satisfy the needs of a “democratic” holiday. The Soviet State-Party had carefully considered what...

  6. Making Space for Red Tide: Discolored Water and the Early Twentieth Century Bayscape of Japanese Pearl Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    "Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture. As akashio, discolored water went from curiosity to marine livestock pest, one that at times left dead pearl oysters in its wake. Red tide arose from the sustained study of the mechanisms by which changes in the biological and chemical composition of seawater might become deadly to exclusively-claimed shellfish along Japanese coastlines, but came to be seen as a way to understand aquatic manifestations of harm in other parts of the littoral world.

  7. Key textbooks in the development of modern american plastic surgery: the first half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    A number of historical texts published during the first half of the twentieth century played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.

  8. Blackett physics, war, and politics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2004-01-01

    This is a lively and compact biography of P. M. S. Blackett, one of the most brilliant and controversial physicists of the twentieth century. Nobel laureate, leader of operational research during the Second World War, scientific advisor to the British government, President of the Royal Society, member of the House of Lords, Blackett was also denounced as a Stalinist apologist for opposing American and British development of atomic weapons, subjected to FBI surveillance, and named as a fellow traveler on George Orwell’s infamous list. His service as a British Royal Navy officer in the First World War prepared Blackett to take a scientific advisory role on military matters in the mid-1930s. An international leader in the experimental techniques of the cloud chamber, he was a pioneer in the application of magnetic evidence for the geophysical theory of continental drift. But his strong political stands made him a polarizing influence, and the decisions he made capture the complexity of living a prominent twen...

  9. Memoirs a twentieth-century journey in science and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Teller, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The story of Edward Teller is the story of the twentieth century. Born in Hungary in 1908, Teller witnessed the rise of Nazism and anti-Semitism, two world wars, the McCarthy era, and the changing face of big science. A brilliant and controversial figure whose work on nuclear weapons was key to the American war effort, Teller has long believed in freedom through strong defense, a philosophy reflected in his stance on arms control and nuclear policy. These extraordinary recollections at last reveal the man behind the headlines-passionate and humorous, devoted and loyal. In clear and compelling prose, Teller tells of the people, events, and ideas that shaped him as a scientist, beginning with his early love of music and math, and continuing with his study of quantum physics with Werner Heisenberg. Present at many of the pivotal moments in modern science, Teller also describes his friendships with some of the century's greatest minds-Einstein, Bohr, Fermi, Szilard, von Neumann, Oppenheimer-and offers an honest a...

  10. Biography of a technology: North America's power grid through the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Julie A.

    North Americans are among the world's most intense consumers of electricity. The vast majority in the United States and Canada access power from a network of transmission lines that stretch from the East Coast to the West Coast and from Canada to the Mexican Baja. This network, known as the largest interconnected machine in the world, evolved during the first two thirds of the twentieth century. With the very first link-ups occurring at the end of the 1890s, a wide variety of public and private utilities extended power lines to reach markets, access and manage energy resources, balance loads, realize economies of scale, provide backup power, and achieve economic stability. In 1967, utility managers and the Bureau of Reclamation connected the expansive eastern and western power pools to create the North American grid. Unlike other power grids around the world, built by single, centrally controlled entities, this large technological system emerged as the result of multiple decisions across eighty-five years of development, and negotiations for control at the economic, political, and technological levels. This dissertation describes the process of building the North American grid and the paradoxes the resulting system represents. While the grid functions as a single machine moving electricity across the continent, it is owned by many independent entities. Smooth operations suggest that the grid is a unified system; however, it operates under shared management and divided authority. In addition, although a single power network seems the logical outcome of electrification, in fact it was assembled through aggregation, not planning. Interconnections intentionally increase the robustness of individual sub-networks, yet the system itself is fragile, as demonstrated by major cascading power outages. Finally, the transmission network facilitates increased use of energy resources and consumption of power, but at certain points in the past, it also served as a technology of

  11. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  12. Introduction: the struggle for Shakespeare's text: twentieth-century editorial theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter was published in the book, The Struggle for Shakespeare's Text Twentieth-Century Editorial Theory and Practice [© Cambridge University Press]. The publisher's website is at: http://www.cambridge.org/ We know Shakespeare's writings only from imperfectly-made early editions, from which editors struggle to remove errors. The New Bibliography of the early twentieth century, refined with technological enhancements in the 1950s and 1960s, taught generations of editors how to...

  13. When Appearances Are not Deceptive: A Comparative History of School Uniforms in Argentina and the United States (Nineteenth--Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Appearances are deceptive, the saying goes. However, we devote much time to the presentation of ourselves, and ties and necklaces can take up more energy than other "substantial" matters. This article analyzes the history of the presentation of selves in schools through the study of school uniforms. It will be claimed that modernity…

  14. Educating the Young Mathematician: The Twentieth Century and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Educational programs for young children emerged reasonably early in the history of the United States of America. The movements of Child-Centered Education, the Nursery School, the Project Method, Curriculum Reform, and contemporary research have all influenced mathematics in early childhood education. The Froebelian kindergarten and the Montessori…

  15. Anthropocene landscape change and the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Catchment, Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.

    2018-01-01

    Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  17. Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen

    2018-03-01

    This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in twentieth-century Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and twentieth-century British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.

  18. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Persano

    2016-01-01

    ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States) nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ ...

  20. Embodiments of Human Identity: Detecting and Interpreting Hidden Narratives in Twentieth-Century Design History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the practice and influence of design history can benefit from new forms of visual and chronological analysis. Identifies and discusses a unique phenomenon, the "historical visual narrative." Examines special instances of this phenomenon in twentieth-century design and visual culture, which are tied to the theme of the…

  1. American Art Music in the Twentieth-Century: An Assessment of the Basic Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alan Anthony

    This assessment of 62 reference sources that contain information on U.S. art (classical) music of the twentieth century examines the following categories of sources: (1) Pilot Sources; (2) Lexica; (3) Histories and Chronologies; (4) Gesamtausgaben, Denkmaler, and Thematic catalogs; (5) Indexes and Bibliographies of Literature; (6) Lists of Music…

  2. Psychiatric Cultures Compared : Psychiatry and Mental Health Care in the Twentieth Century: Comparisons and Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke; Oosterhuis, Harry; Vijselaar, Joost; Freeman, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    The history of mental health care in the twentieth century is a relatively uncharted territory. Exemplifying a new emphasis on the comparative approach, this volume offers overviews of various national psychiatric cultures and explores new research subjects. By confronting Dutch psychiatry with

  3. Introduction: The era of management:a historical perspective on twentieth-century management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, D.B.R.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century is a special period in the history of management. It is characterised by an extraordinary dissemination and diversification of management. However, the era consists of different phases. Inspired by the work of historians and philosophers of history who wrote on periodization as

  4. The Era of Management: A Historical Perspective on Twentieth-Century Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.J.; Kroeze, D.B.R.

    2014-01-01

    The twentieth century is a special period in the history of management. It is characterised by an extraordinary dissemination and diversification of management. However, the era consists of different phases. Inspired by the work of historians and philosophers of history who wrote on periodization as

  5. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  6. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  7. Bookends of the Twentieth Century: Irving Babbitt, E. D. Hirsch, and the Humanistic Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, Kipton D.

    2013-01-01

    Irving Babbitt and E.D. Hirsch defended the humanistic curriculum at both the beginning and end of the twentieth century, respectively. Both claimed that a set of specific knowledge needed to be passed from one generation to the next. Both found this knowledge primarily, though certainly not exclusively, through the classical Western tradition.…

  8. Alternative stories about race, gender and interracial intimacies at the turn of the twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Based on empirical material from Danish exhibitions of so-called exotic people in which people of color were exhibited as mass entertainment at the turn of the twentieth century, the article aims at nuancing established scholarly understandings of interracial relationships and Asian masculinity. ...

  9. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  10. Predictability of twentieth century sea-level rise from past data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittermann, Klaus; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Perrette, Mahé; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of global sea-level rise is one of the major challenges of climate science. While process-based models are still being improved to capture the complexity of the processes involved, semi-empirical models, exploiting the observed connection between global-mean sea level and global temperature and calibrated with data, have been developed as a complementary approach. Here we investigate whether twentieth century sea-level rise could have been predicted with such models given a knowledge of twentieth century global temperature increase. We find that either proxy or early tide gauge data do not hold enough information to constrain the model parameters well. However, in combination, the use of proxy and tide gauge sea-level data up to 1900 AD allows a good prediction of twentieth century sea-level rise, despite this rise being well outside the rates experienced in previous centuries during the calibration period of the model. The 90% confidence range for the linear twentieth century rise predicted by the semi-empirical model is 13–30 cm, whereas the observed interval (using two tide gauge data sets) is 14–26 cm. (letter)

  11. Monolingualism and Prescriptivism: The Ecology of Slovene in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savski, Kristof

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the ecology of Slovene in the twentieth century by focusing on two key emergent themes. It focuses firstly on monolingualism as a key goal for Slovene language planners, starting with their efforts to create a standard language with no German influences in the nineteenth century, and continuing in their work to prevent…

  12. Intellectual Portraits: Politics, Professions and Identity in Twentieth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together six talented women historians in twentieth-century England whose scholarly productions helped shape modern historical practice but who are little known in the canonical accounts of history-writing in the period. The author is looking to map and describe historical communities from a grounded and qualitative perspective…

  13. Westward Bound? Dutch Education and Cultural Transfer in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the transition from philosophy to psychology as the main source of inspiration for education during the mid-twentieth century in the Netherlands, situated between Germany in the east and the English-speaking world in the west. Claims have been made that educational theory in the Netherlands was dominated by German philosophy…

  14. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  15. Writing the Nation : Transculturation and nationalism in Hispano-Filipino literature from the early twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villaescusa Illán, I.

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores a fairly unknown corpus of literature written by Filipino authors in Spanish in the first part of the twentieth century. Spanish speaking Filipinos from this period were caught in a transition between colonial powers: the end of 300 years of Spanish colonialism in 1898 led

  16. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  17. One hundred years of alcoholism: the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Hermann, D; Heinz, A

    2000-01-01

    The past 100 years witnessed the formation of a disease concept of alcoholism and a rapid increase in the knowledge of its aetiopathology and treatment options. In the first half of the century, public sanctions aimed at the abolition of alcoholism. In the United States, alcohol prohibition was revoked in the economic turmoil of the Great Depression. In Germany, proposed medical procedures to reduce the fertility of alcoholics had catastrophic consequences during the fascist dictatorship. A revived focus on alcoholics as patients with a right to medical treatment came out of self-organized groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous. The current disease concept includes the psychosocial and neurobiological foundations and consequences of alcoholism. Neurobiological research points to the dispositional factor of monoaminergic dysfunction and indicates that neuroadaptation and sensitization may play a role in the maintenance of addictive behaviour. New treatment options include pharmacological approaches and indicate that behaviour and motivational therapy and the attendance of patient groups may equally reduce the relapse risk. The task of the future will be to apply scientific discoveries in the best interest of the patients and to support their efforts to be respected like subjects suffering from other diseases.

  18. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  19. Ranking GCM Estimates of Twentieth Century Precipitation Seasonality in the Western U.S. and its Influence on Floristic Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K. L.; Eischeid, J. K.; Garfin, G. M.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Floristic provinces of the western United States (west of 100W) can be segregated into three regions defined by significant seasonal precipitation during the months of: 1) November-March (Mediterranean); 2) July- September (Monsoonal); or, 3) May-June (Rocky Mountain). This third region is best defined by the absence of the late spring-early summer drought that affects regions 1 and 2. Each of these precipitation regimes is characterized by distinct vegetation types and fire seasonality adapted to that particular cycle of seasonal moisture availability and deficit. Further, areas where these regions blend from one to another can support even more complex seasonal patterns and resulting distinctive vegetation types. As a result, modeling the effects of climates on these ecosystems requires confidence that GCMs can at least approximate these sub- continental seasonal precipitation patterns. We evaluated the late Twentieth Century (1950-1999 AD) estimates of annual precipitation seasonality produced by 22 GCMs contained within the IPCC Fourth Assessment (AR4). These modeled estimates were compared to values from the PRISM dataset, extrapolated from station data, over the same historical period for the 3 seasonal periods defined above. The correlations between GCM estimates and PRISM values were ranked using 4 measures: 1) A map pattern relationship based on the correlation coefficient, 2) A map pattern relationship based on the congruence coefficient, 3) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation amounts, and, 4) The ratio of simulated/observed area averaged precipitation based on the seasonal precipitation percentages of the annual total. For each of the four metrics, the rank order of models was very similar. The ranked order of the performance of the different models quantified aspects of the model performance visible in the mapped results. While some models represented the seasonal patterns very well, others

  20. The concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy a philosophical thematic atlas

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...

  1. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  2. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large.

  3. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  4. The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Perhaps against the odds, they sustained many of their traditional socioeconomic activities and continued to follow a land-based lifestyle through much of the twentieth century. With a few notable exceptions, historical accounts of this period were written by cultural outsiders who conveyed their own perspectives on Inuvialuit culture. This paper focuses on the social memories of present-day Inuvialuit Elders who recount aspects of their lifeways throughout the twentieth century, including seasonal practices, traditional skills they maintained, and responses to the historical events that challenged their ways of living and spurred continuous change. These oral narratives form part of a larger history for succeeding generations, and a platform from which to construct contemporary identities and to negotiate a collective future.

  5. Qur'anic Invocations: Narrative Temporalities in Twentieth Century Maghrebi Literature

    OpenAIRE

    El Shakry, Hoda

    2012-01-01

    "Qur'anic Invocations: Narrative Temporalities in Twentieth Century Maghrebi Literature" investigates the dialogic relationship between literary and theological discourse in modern Arabophone and Francophone literature of the Maghreb. The novels of al-Tahir Wattar, Assia Djebar, Driss Chraibi and Mahmud al-Mas'adi critically explore the complex colonial histories and conflicted articulations of national identity, language and literature in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. While the 130-year Fr...

  6. Challenges in the twentieth century and beyond: Computer codes and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen major changes in computer architecture. From the early fifties to the early seventies, the word open-quotes computerclose quotes demanded reverence, respect, and even fear. Computers, then, were almost open-quotes untouchable.close quotes Computers have become the mainstream of communication on rapidly expanding communication highways. They have become necessities of life. This report describes computer codes and packaging, as well as compilers and operating systems

  7. Coupled model simulations of twentieth century climate of the Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    models showed serious problems in simulating the northward seasonal migration of the Inter- tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) into the Indian landmass. They have also shown .... state-of-the-art AGCMs when forced by observed. SST are unable to simulate properly Asian–Pacific summer monsoon rainfall. In their analysis ...

  8. Mutant utopias: evening primroses and imagined futures in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Hugo de Vries's mutation theory is now little more than a footnote to the history of biology, a failed theory that briefly led a few biologists astray. However, for the first quarter of the twentieth century it attracted considerable attention from both professional biologists and laypeople. De Vries's theory--together with the plant, Oenothera lamarckiana, that had supplied most of his evidence--became the focus of a surprising variety of imaginative hopes. Scientists and their various publics were fascinated by the utopian possibilities that the primrose seemed to offer, and their discussions shaped a public culture around biology that would help define the twentieth century as the "century of the gene." From a conventional history of science perspective (which, in the case of twentieth-century biology, often remains focused on the content of scientific theories and the professional communities that shaped them), the mutation theory seems unimportant. However, while De Vries's new theory of evolution ultimately failed to persuade the scientific community, it was much more important than is now realized, particularly because it helped make biology part of a wide variety of public debates. Understanding the mutation theory's story more fully suggests that we may need to rethink much of the rest of the century of the gene's history, to think less in terms of what happened in the lab and more about how biology came to function as public culture.

  9. Western United States Dams Challenges Faced, Options, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western United States relies significantly upon a fleet of small to very large engineered dams to store water during times of runoff and distribute that water during times of need. Much of this infrastructure is Federally owned and/or operated, and was designed and funded during the first half of the twentieth century through a complex set of repayment contracts for Federally authorized purposes addressing water supply, recreation, and hydropower, and other water management objectives. With environmental laws, namely the Endangered Species Act, and other environmental concerns taking a more active role in water resources in the mid to latter half of the twentieth century, this infrastructure is being stressed even greater than anticipated to provide authorized purposes. Additionally, weather and climate norms being experienced are certainly near the edges, if not outside, of anticipated variability in the climate and hydrology scenarios for which the infrastructure was designed. And, finally, these dams, economically designed for a lifespan of 50 - 100 years, are experiencing maintenance challenges from routine to significant. This presentation will focus on identifying some of the history and challenges facing the water infrastructure in the Western United States. Additionally, some perspectives on future paths to meet the needs of western irrigation and hydropower production will be provided.

  10. The influence of the State Policy of Collectivization on the Marginalization of the Traditional Peasant Family Values in Poland in the Mid-Twentieth Century [Wpływ kolektywizacyjnej polityki państwa na marginalizację tradycyjnych wartości rodziny w chłopskiej w Polsce w połowie XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SKONIECZNY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews, autobiographical materials, and archival documents from the mid-twentieth century, there is an attempt made to find answers to the question of how much the collectivization of agriculture in Poland broke young people’s emotional and economic ties with the family and their farms. The government’s decision on the necessity of making agriculture collective as soon as possible liberated the young from the previous obligation to inherit farms and allowed them to work outside agriculture without risking parental dissatisfaction. The establishment of production cooperatives enabled them to continue their studies in secondary school and made the dreams of those young people come true, namely to live in the city. It was much easier because the developing industries needed labour. This way the idea of patrimony, developed throughout decades as the sole basis of life of the peasant child was overthrown. Thus, with the move to the city such traditional peasant values as the authority of the father, piety, respect for bread faded away. The situation led to numerous conflicts with the family remaining in the countryside.

  11. "Do grandmas have husbands?" Generational memory and twentieth-century women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This essay uses memory in the ancient and modern sense of the "inner life of thought" to describe the formation of generational memory in a modern professional family whose twentieth-century history has been fractured by migration, war, education, and divorce. It is about the power of feeling and law, which framed the practical freedoms of twentieth-century women's lives and introduced the modern citizen in the aftermath of universal suffrage and world war. The first part of the essay emphasizes the psychic dimension of bodily feeling and drive in the formation of memory; a dimension overlooked by oral history and social movements, yet confirmed by autobiography and memoir. My granddaughter's questions provoked resistance as well as family stories, and let me observe the thought process in a child. Social history, autobiography, and personal memory confirm the common experience of everyday life reaching back through generations of London families; folklore, commerce, and family story make narratives of dreams, hopes, terrors, and events; a child's comprehension of the outside world is grasped through curiosity, imagination, and play in which bodily feeling is as powerful as speech and prohibition to make meanings that flow between inner world and external reality. The second half of the essay reflects on Joan Riviere's description of the self. Leading British psychoanalyst, translator of Freud, writing in the 1950s, Riviere's language of the inner world resonates with the liberal social ethics -- empathy, public service, common good -- which underpinned women's and human rights mid-twentieth century and the egalitarian and reproduction reforms whose universalism has been challenged since the 1970s. Negative feeling is striking in Riviere's description of the self -- fear, shame, shock, and trauma, which are confirmed in memoir and autobiography. In contrast, liberal social democratic accounts of the time idealized English character. Today, the future uncertain

  12. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  13. A "His Story" of Insanity: Madness and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bumeistere, Lilita

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is an interdisciplinary study of the largely neglected relationship between madness and masculinity based on three American literary works written during different periods of the twentieth century. The study utilizes literary, social, and medical research in order to provide a holistic view of madness and masculinity as two social constructs that interact with and are contingent on each other. In Sherwood Anderson’s “Hands,” Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, and David F...

  14. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  15. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  16. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associ...

  17. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth ra...

  18. Buddhism, Christianity, and psychotherapy: A three-way conversation in the mid-twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the scope of 'religion-psy dialogue' in the mid-twentieth century, via a case study from Japan: Kosawa Heisaku, a Buddhist psychoanalyst based in Tokyo. By putting this case study in brief comparative perspective, with the conversation that took place in 1965 between Paul Tillich and Carl Rogers, the article discusses both the promise and the pitfalls of the modern and contemporary world of 'religion-psy dialogue', alongside the means by which specialists in a variety of fields might investigate and hold it to account.

  19. Governmental public health in the United States: the implications of federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, Bernard J; Atchison, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Governmental public health activities in the United States have evolved over time as a result of two forces: the nature and perceived importance of threats to the population's health and safety, and changing relationships among the various levels of government. Shifts toward a more state-centered form of federalism in the second half of the twentieth century weakened key aspects of the governmental public health enterprise, including its leadership and coordination, by the century's end. These developments challenge governmental public health responses to the new threats and increased societal expectations of the early twenty-first century.

  20. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  1. The concept of ‘transcendence’ in modern Western philosophy and in twentieth century Hindu thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando SARDELLA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transcendence’ has been a key subject of Western philosophy of religion and history of ideas. The meaning of transcendence, however, has changed over time. The article looks at some perspectives offered by the nineteenth and the twentieth century Anglo‑American and continental European philosophers of religion and presents their views in relation to the concept of transcendence formulated by the Bengali Hindu traditionalist Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati (1874–1937. The questions raised are what transcendence in the philosophy of religion is, how one can speak of it, and what its goal is. The paper points to parallels and differences in epistemology, ontology and practice. One difference is that the nineteenth and the twentieth century Western philosophy of religion tended to assume an ontological difference between self and transcendence inherited from personalities such as Søren Kierkegaard, but also to explore the concept of transcendence beyond the idea of a metaphysical God. Bhaktisiddhanta, whose foundational thought mirrors medieval Hindu philosophy of religion and the theistic schools of Vedānta, suggests that transcendence has a metaphysical and personal dimension that is to some degree ontologically similar to and directly knowable by the self. Bhaktisiddhanta’s approach to transcendence differs from Kierkegaard’s and other Western philosophers’ and revolves around the idea of God as a transcendent person that can be directly known morphologically and ontologically through devotion. The article is a contribution to the history of ideas and the philosophy of religion in Eurasia and beyond.

  2. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-06-01

    The terms 'genotype', 'phenotype' and 'gene' originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. © 2014 The Author. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  3. The acceleration of the masculine in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, David James

    2012-01-01

    In early-twentieth-century Berlin, agents of speed and industrialisation, such as the railway, contributed to the seemingly unbridled velocity of urban life. Doctors and cultural critics took an ambivalent stance toward the impact of speed and technology on the human body. Critics argued that these factors, in conjunction with sexual excess and prostitution, accelerated the sexual maturation of young men, thereby endangering ‘healthy’ male sexuality. This comparison of Hans Ostwald's socio-literary study Dunkle Winkel in Berlin (1904) with Georg Buschan's sexual education primer Vom Jüngling zum Mann (1911) queries the extent to which speed shaped the understanding of ‘the masculine’ in pre-World-War-I Germany. The essay thus examines Ostwald's and Buschan's arguments and postulates that speed in the city (Berlin) can be seen as a feminised, sexualised force that determined sex in the city. According to this reading, the homosexual urban dandy resisted the accelerated modernist urban tempo, whereas the heterosexual man and hegemonic, heteronormative masculinity yielded to speed. ‘“Das Verhältnis”’ became a fleeting, momentary alternative to stable marital relationships, which in turn contributed to the general ‘crisis’ of – and in– masculinity in early-twentieth-century Berlin.

  4. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  5. Continuum mechanics through the ages from the renaissance to the twentieth century : from hydraulics to plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2016-01-01

    Mixing scientific, historic and socio-economic vision, this unique book complements two previously published volumes on the history of continuum mechanics from this distinguished author. In this volume, Gérard A. Maugin looks at the period from the renaissance to the twentieth century and he includes an appraisal of the ever enduring competition between molecular and continuum modelling views. Chapters trace early works in hydraulics and fluid mechanics not covered in the other volumes and the author investigates experimental approaches, essentially before the introduction of a true concept of stress tensor. The treatment of such topics as the viscoelasticity of solids and plasticity, fracture theory, and the role of geometry as a cornerstone of the field, are all explored. Readers will find a kind of socio-historical appraisal of the seminal contributions by our direct masters in the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of the teaching and research texts by Duhem, Poincaré and Hilbert on cont...

  6. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  7. Real Men Wear Uniforms: Photomontage, Postcards, and Military Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Otto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines early twentieth-century German representations of men and women in uniform to consider how mass culture allowed individuals to participate in aspects of gender construction. It also reveals how masculinity was increasingly linked to military ideals. The pictures under scrutiny here were made in two significant but as yet under-researched types of pictures: pre-avant-garde photomontaged soldier portraits and popular postcards. Both of these visual forms originated in the 1870s, the decade that Germany was itself founded, and they both were in wide circulation by the early twentieth century. Individualized soldier portraits and postcards offered a glorious vision of a man’s military service, and they performed what Theodor Lessing has called Vergemütlichung, the rendering harmless of history. These idealized images of soldierly life were available to a broad swath of the public, but their democratization only extended so far. Representations of women in uniform served to reinforce—through stereotyping and humor—the unquestionably male nature of military institutions and, by extension, of public space. At the same time, by making apparent their own constructed nature, these portraits and postcards offered viewers a glimpse behind the masquerade of masculinity. This essay thus also identifies these images’ links to the subsequent work of avant-garde artists and to the National Socialists’ return to the ideal of uniformed masculinity.

  8. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  9. Industrial Growth in Araraquara and São Carlos Region in the First Decades of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carvalho De Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the formation of the first manufacturing activities and the industrial growth in Araraquara and São Carlos region in the early twentieth century. It shows that from the development of the coffee economy in the region, were created the initial conditions for the emergence of a variety of industrial transformation activities of goods for local and regional consumption that could survive while the conditions for its operation and reproduction prevailed. However, changes in the state economy after the 1929 crisis brought deep changes in industry course in the region. Classic studies on the industry origin in São Paulo are taken as reference. From a methodological point of view the research that led to this study had an exploratory and investigative nature of primary and secondary sources. The conclusions point to the cyclical nature of regional productive activities, to changes in the production cycle of the region from the 30s, and to the reasons for the survival of some companies that have managed to overcome the initial difficulties and till the XXI century are part of the regional productive structure.

  10. Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods, and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Heim, Richard R.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kaiser, Dale P.; Brooks, Harold; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Dole, Randall M.; Giovannettone, Jason P.; Guirguis, Kristen; Karl, Thomas R.; Katz, Richard W.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Ryberg, Karen R.; K Wolter, BS Silva; Schubert, Siegfried; Silva, Viviane B. S.; Stewart, Brooke C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Villarini, Gabriele; Vose, Russell S.; Walsh, John; Wehner, Michael; Wolock, David; Wolter, Klaus; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Weather and climate extremes have been varying and changing on many different time scales. In recent decades, heat waves have generally become more frequent across the United States, while cold waves have been decreasing. While this is in keeping with expectations in a warming climate, it turns out that decadal variations in the number of U.S. heat and cold waves do not correlate well with the observed U.S. warming during the last century. Annual peak flow data reveal that river flooding trends on the century scale do not show uniform changes across the country. While flood magnitudes in the Southwest have been decreasing, flood magnitudes in the Northeast and north-central United States have been increasing. Confounding the analysis of trends in river flooding is multiyear and even multidecadal variability likely caused by both large-scale atmospheric circulation changes and basin-scale “memory” in the form of soil moisture. Droughts also have long-term trends as well as multiyear and decadal variability. Instrumental data indicate that the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the drought in the 1950s were the most significant twentieth-century droughts in the United States, while tree ring data indicate that the megadroughts over the twelfth century exceeded anything in the twentieth century in both spatial extent and duration. The state of knowledge of the factors that cause heat waves, cold waves, floods, and drought to change is fairly good with heat waves being the best understood.

  11. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  12. The reinvention of twentieth century microscopy for three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Lachlan W; McArthur, Kate; Geoghegan, Niall D; Rogers, Kelly L

    2017-07-01

    In just over a decade, the field of biomedical research has witnessed a radical evolution in technologies for the 3- and 4-dimensional imaging of biological samples. Light sheet fluorescence microscopy is quickly developing into a powerful approach for fast, volumetric imaging of cells, tissues and living organisms. This review touches on the development of 3-dimensional imaging, from its foundations, namely from the invention of confocal microscopy in the twentieth century to more recent examples, notably the IsoView SPIM, the Lattice Light Sheet Microscope and swept confocally aligned planar excitation. These technologies overcome the limitations of conventional optical sectioning techniques and enable unprecedented levels of spatio-temporal resolution with low levels of phototoxicity. Developing in parallel with powerful computational approaches, light sheet based methods promise to completely transform cell biology as we know it today.

  13. Hidden in plain sight marketing prescription drugs to consumers in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Herzberg, David

    2010-05-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices.

  14. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  15. Thomson, his discovery of the electron and the twentieth century science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    1997-01-01

    Sir J. J. Thomson was the first to discover a subatomic particle i. e. electron. Due to this discovery he is remembered in the history as T he Atom Smasher . He was a great experimentalists and a devoted physicist. He himself, his son and his seven pupils earned Noble prizes on the basis of their scientific discoveries. The discovery of electron by Sir Thomson in 1897, at Cavendish Laboratory, has rewritten the entire physical science. Although electron has wide spread applications in almost every field, yet its exact nature is not fully known. This article briefly describes the life of Sir Thomson, his achievements and the impact of his discovery of electron on the twentieth century science and technology. (author)

  16. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  17. Léon Rosenfeld physics, philosophy, and politics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2012-01-01

    This book is a social-intellectual biography of the Belgian physicist Léon Rosenfeld (1904-1974). Rosenfeld was at the center of modern theoretical physics and he became the Danish physicist Niels Bohr's right-hand man. Rosenfeld was a perceptive, polyglot cosmopolitan, whose life crossed those of many important people in many countries. He was also a strong integrated personality capable of performing exotic calculations at one moment, while disentangling subtle philosophical questions or intervening in a political discussion the next — all at the highest level. This book aims at a broad audience interested in contextual history of twentieth century physics. No specialized knowledge of physics is required to read it.

  18. HIDDEN in PLAIN SIGHT Marketing Prescription Drugs to Consumers in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices. PMID:20299640

  19. Market Research and Socio-Political Consciousness in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    of marketing as a professional field and academic discipline in the twentieth century. Design/methodology/approach – Based on archival research, the paper firstly establishes the biographical details of Abrams’ life and work. Secondly, the paper uses methodological and theoretical tools of historical sociology......Purpose – This paper investigates the case of the eminent British market researcher and social scientist Mark Alexander Abrams (1906 – 1994). Abrams’ career as a researcher spanned the six decades between the late 1920s and the late 1980s, and it bridged the gap between commercial market...... and consumer research on the one side and governmental social research on the other. By focusing on Abrams’ research strategies and career moves over these six decades, the paper establishes an alternative historical narrative to those that privilege the impact of capitalist market structures on the making...

  20. Natural histories of infectious disease: ecological vision in twentieth-century biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, disease ecology emerged as a distinct disciplinary network within infectious diseases research. The key figures were Theobald Smith, F. Macfarlane Burnet, René Dubos, and Frank Fenner. They all drew on Darwinian evolutionism to fashion an integrative (but rarely holistic) understanding of disease processes, distinguishing themselves from reductionist "chemists" and mere "microbe hunters." They sought a more complex, biologically informed epidemiology. Their emphasis on competition and mutualism in the animated environment differed from the physical determinism that prevailed in much medical geography and environmental health research. Disease ecology derived in part from studies of the interaction of organisms - micro and macro - in tropical medicine, veterinary pathology, and immunology. It developed in postcolonial settler societies. Once a minority interest, disease ecology has attracted more attention since the 1980s for its explanations of disease emergence, antibiotic resistance, bioterrorism, and the health impacts of climate change.

  1. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  2. Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part II: Understanding the effect of Indian Ocean warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerling, M.P.; Xu, T.; Bates, G.T. [Climate Diagnostics Center NOAA, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Hurrell, J.W.; Phillips, A.S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are used in an effort to understand the boreal winter Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical climate response to the observed warming of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the last half of the twentieth Century. Specifically, we inquire about the origins of unusual, if not unprecedented, changes in the wintertime North Atlantic and European climate that are well described by a linear trend in most indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The simulated NH atmospheric response to the linear trend component of tropic-wide SST change since 1950 projects strongly onto the positive polarity of the NAO and is a hemispheric pattern distinguished by decreased (increased) Arctic (middle latitude) sea level pressure. Progressive warming of the Indian Ocean is the principal contributor to this wintertime extratropical response, as shown through additional AGCM ensembles forced with only the SST trend in that sector. The Indian Ocean influence is further established through the reproducibility of results across three different models forced with identical, idealized patterns of the observed warming. Examination of the transient atmospheric adjustment to a sudden ''switch-on'' of an Indian Ocean SST anomaly reveals that the North Atlantic response is not consistent with linear theory and most likely involves synoptic eddy feedbacks associated with changes in the North Atlantic storm track. The tropical SST control exerted over twentieth century regional climate underlies the importance of determining the future course of tropical SST for regional climate change and its uncertainty. Better understanding of the extratropical responses to different, plausible trajectories of the tropical oceans is key to such efforts. (orig.)

  3. From Bureaucracy to Professionalism: An Essay on the Democratization of School Supervision in the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to…

  4. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  5. The creation of play spaces in twentieth-century Amsterdam: from an intervention of civil actors to a public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    This case study uncovers a turning point in the production of play space in Amsterdam. Whereas over the first half of the twentieth century the creation of play spaces used to be the primary responsibility of the Amsterdam civil society, this situation started to change after the Second World War.

  6. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  7. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  8. Reading to the Soul: Narrative Imagery and Moral Education in Early to Mid-Twentieth-Century Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which narratives, including stories and poetry, have been used in school texts relating to moral instruction. The paper will draw on texts used in Queensland classrooms in the early part of the twentieth century to demonstrate the ways in which description of sights and the experiences of the senses, and of…

  9. Social Rehabilitation of Minors in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczykowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America was one of the first countries in the world, which at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century took to building the justice and social rehabilitation system for minors. To date, many reforms have been made, initiated by a variety of circumstances, with their participation. Currently, due to the increase in juvenile criminality, the high costs and low efficiency, questions are posed about the future of the American social rehabilitation system. Next to the typical social rehabilitation trends, ideas of strict punishment of juveniles, on an equal footing with adults, are being implemented. In light of the above, this article is to show the historical and institutional conditions of actions undertaken towards minors, and an attempt to answer the question of what direction the American juvenile social rehabilitation system is heading.

  10. Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century: the intellectual field in Criminalogia Moderna magazine and its relation to the positivist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Carvalho Quinta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.

  11. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method suitable in

  12. "For ever and ever": Child-raising, domestic workers and emotional labour in twentieth century Britain

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    Lucy Delap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of physical and emotional labour which exist between children, parents and domestic workers are historically fluid. Different styles of parenting, discourses of social class, and material contexts of care have given rise to very diverse degrees of delegation of childcare to servants. Servants themselves have often invested emotionally in their relationships with children, and the relationship has clearly not been simply commodified in being delegated. However, the relationships that result have sometimes been troubled and ambivalent. A simple narrative of exploitation does little to capture the experiences of servants who cared for children, and the recent historiography of emotions and emotional labour can help to trace a fuller picture. In this paper, I examine the roles of laughter as a form of emotional expression that can shed light on the affects of care – the shared jokes, failed jokes and forms of mockery that characterised the management of servants by mothers who employed them, or the experiences of servants and children in late nineteenth and twentieth century servant-keeping houses.

  13. The history of optic chiasm from antiquity to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana

    2017-11-01

    The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth century works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth century bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth century with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.

  14. Twentieth-Century Hydrometeorological Reconstructions to Study the Multidecadal Variations of the Water Cycle Over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R.; Boé, J.; Dayon, G.; Martin, E.

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing and understanding the multidecadal variations of the continental hydrological cycle is a challenging issue given the limitation of observed data sets. In this paper, a new approach to derive twentieth century hydrological reconstructions over France with an hydrological model is presented. The method combines the results of long-term atmospheric reanalyses downscaled with a stochastic statistical method and homogenized station observations to derive the meteorological forcing needed for hydrological modeling. Different methodological choices are tested and evaluated. We show that using homogenized observations to constrain the results of statistical downscaling help to improve the reproduction of precipitation, temperature, and river flows variability. In particular, it corrects some unrealistic long-term trends associated with the atmospheric reanalyses. Observationally constrained reconstructions therefore constitute a valuable data set to study the multidecadal hydrological variations over France. Thanks to these reconstructions, we confirm that the multidecadal variations previously noted in French river flows have mainly a climatic origin. Moreover, we show that multidecadal variations exist in other hydrological variables (evapotranspiration, snow cover, and soil moisture). Depending on the region, the persistence from spring to summer of soil moisture or snow anomalies generated during spring by temperature and precipitation variations may explain river flows variations in summer, when no concomitant climate variations exist.

  15. Ninety-Eight Atheists: Atheism among the Non-Elite in Twentieth Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Sheard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread atheism in the general population is one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century British society, yet until very recently, it has largely been unregarded by historians. This study attempts to contribute to the remedy of this omission by considering autobiographies and oral histories of non-elite atheists between 1890 and 1980. It shows that atheisation (the transition from religious belief to atheism is principally a phenomenon of childhood and adolescence, with 80% of the sources becoming atheist by the age of twenty. The reasons the subjects gave for their irreligion were varied, of greatest significance were nearly two thirds who regarded religion as irrelevant to their lives, showing a lack of engagement with religion, its concepts and rituals. Many of these were from weakly religious or irreligious backgrounds who experienced ‘irreligious socialisation’, rendering religion irrelevant and contributed significantly to the progress of atheisation. Religious trauma, criticism of religion, personal trauma, radical politics, and rationalism accounted for similar proportions of reasons, and were mentioned by only 12–18% of sources. The potential influence of parental attitude to religion, other childhood experiences, religious education, reducing existential threat, historic events, and the social revolution of the 1960s are also considered as ‘unarticulated causes’ of the subjects’ irreligion.

  16. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  17. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth rate figures in the 1960s, the populists’ views of the 1930s resurfaced in public discourse in the 1960s and 1970s and up to the present day. The concern about the increasing trend of single-child families in rural settlements as well as in urban areas appeared in the various works of Hungarian writers and journalists throughout the previous century. The present paper intends to focus on the intellectual background to the public debates on the population issue, outlining the accounts of the interwar ‘village explorers’ briefly, and the way they are related to the pre-Second World War populist movement. Finally the reappearance of the debates between populists and non-populists of the 1970s is discussed, a debate that is still continuing.

  18. Theory versus Practice in the Twentieth-Century Search for the Ideal Anaesthetic Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, an anaesthetist could choose between nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether (diethyl ether) for the induction of painrelieving unconsciousness. By the end of century, the choice was between a small number of fluorinated aliphatic ethers such as Enflurane, Desflurane, and Sevoflurane, and (in some jurisdictions) the rare gas, xenon. Between these endpoints researchers had identified a surprisingly broad range of hydrocarbons, noble gases, organohalogens, and aliphatic ethers that possessed anaesthetic properties. None was entirely satisfactory, but clinicians at various times and in various places employed substances in each of these categories. Behind the search for new anaesthetic gases was a theory of action (Meyer- Overton theory) that was known to be inadequate, but as no alternative was strong enough to displace it the search continued on purely empirical grounds, while lip-service was paid to the theory. By the time a theory couched in more modern terms was proposed, a suite of modern anaesthetic gases was in place, and there have been no attempts to use that theory to drive a new search.

  19. Communal Cattle in Mixteca Alta: From Colonial Times to the Twentieth Century. The Case of Tepelmeme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Mendoza García

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an analysis of the political  and economic factors than allowed the keeping of a herd of goats as communal property from the  república de indios of the colonial period until municipal administrations at the beginning of the twentieth century  in the region called the Mixteca Alta. The case of Tepelmeme, Oaxaca, is the basis of an account of the economic importance of communal property in the local governments of villages and  municipios, as well of the opposition of villages to liberal laws of the nineteenth century. In short, during the colonial period and part of the nineteenth century,  communal property was the main economic support of Indian villages. Not only was this property equivalent to communal  savings kept  for  critical  moments, but  also  an  economic means  that  allowed financing public  administration and  paying for religious services. Moreover, it was a factor that gave cohesion to these villages and inserted them into a regional economy.

  20. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Representation of Jews in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Hungarian Proverb Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rosen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs are concise formulations of folk wisdom and as such, when seen in masses, they may well express the spirit of their time and place. In Hungarian proverbial lore Jews figure prominently in nineteenth-century proverb collections but fade out of such collections as of the mid-twentieth century. In the nineteenth-century proverb collections Jews are invariably portrayed as faithless, dishonest, greedy, physically weak and unattractive. Largely, this portrayal as well as the dynamics of the earlier presence of Jews versus their later disappearance from Hungarian proverb collections match the shared history of Hungarians and Hungarian Jews since the 1867 Emancipation of the country's Jews and possibly even earlier, through their growing integration in significant arenas of their host society, up to their persecution and annihilation in the Holocaust, and later their decade long forced merging into the general Hungarian society under communism. This article traces the occurrence and disappearance of Jews in Hungarian proverb collections throughout the last two centuries and analyzes the language, content and messages of the proverbs about Jews in these collections.

  2. Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the twentieth-century cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the twentieth-century study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge.

  3. On the history of medicine in the United States, theory, health insurance, and psychiatry: an interview with Charles Rosenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles; Mantovani, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    An interview with Charles Rosenberg conducted by Rafael Mantovani in November 2013 that addressed four topics. It first focused on the way in which Rosenberg perceived trends and directions in historical research on medicine in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century. The second focus was on his experience with other important historians who wrote about public health. Thirdly, he discussed his impressions about the current debate on health policy in his country. Finally, the last part explores some themes related to psychiatry and behavior control that have appeared in a number of his articles.

  4. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreska J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

  6. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  7. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  8. Speeches and political practices towards infancy in the province of Buenos Aires. Girls and boys in the early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Paz Trueba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concern that abandoned and vulnerable children represented for governmental and intellectual elites in Argentina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this paper analyses the vicissitudes around installation of a Patronato de Menores in the province of Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to the relationship between budgetary issues and the political dimension, which colored parliamentary debate. I maintain that political centralization and the question of municipal autonomy crossed over into the debate surrounding children.

  9. Attitude of ukrainian left Galicia institutions to church and religion (late nineteenth century – the first third of the twentieth century

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    I. I. Begej

    2015-05-01

    Nevertheless, sometimes, frankly erroneous judgment, theoretical and practical heritage activities Ukrainian Galicia from the left end of the XIX i in the first third of the twentieth century church religious sphere remain valid and instructive.

  10. Potentially induced earthquakes during the early twentieth century in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence that early to mid‐twentieth‐century earthquakes in Oklahoma and Texas were likely induced by fossil fuel production and/or injection of wastewater (Hough and Page, 2015; Frohlich et al., 2016). Considering seismicity from 1935 onward, Hauksson et al. (2015) concluded that there is no evidence for significant induced activity in the greater Los Angeles region between 1935 and the present. To explore a possible association between earthquakes prior to 1935 and oil and gas production, we first revisit the historical catalog and then review contemporary oil industry activities. Although early industry activities did not induce large numbers of earthquakes, we present evidence for an association between the initial oil boom in the greater Los Angeles area and earthquakes between 1915 and 1932, including the damaging 22 June 1920 Inglewood and 8 July 1929 Whittier earthquakes. We further consider whether the 1933 Mw 6.4 Long Beach earthquake might have been induced, and show some evidence that points to a causative relationship between the earthquake and activities in the Huntington Beach oil field. The hypothesis that the Long Beach earthquake was either induced or triggered by an foreshock cannot be ruled out. Our results suggest that significant earthquakes in southern California during the early twentieth century might have been associated with industry practices that are no longer employed (i.e., production without water reinjection), and do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.

  11. The Diversity of Cloud Responses to Twentieth-Century Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L. G.; Paynter, D.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of the global temperature response to forcing. Previous work has shown strong connections between cloud feedbacks and climate change, and between these feedbacks and changing patterns of surface temperature. We show that strong variability of the climate feedback parameter is present in three GFDL atmospheric general circulation models (AM2.1, AM3, AM4) over the twentieth century. This variability is highly correlated with the global mean cloud radiative effect (CRE) and low-cloud cover (LCC) anomalies. The decadal variability is characterized by a period of high climate sensitivity (1925-1955) and a period of low climate sensitivity (1975-2005). Observed trends of surface temperature also show distinct differences over these two periods. Although it is the SST that drives the atmospheric response, the estimated inversion strength (EIS) is necessary to reproduce the changing LCC field. During both periods, trends of EIS are shown to closely mirror trends of LCC over much of the globe, not only in the typical stratocumulus regions. Trends of the shortwave CRE (SWCRE), LCC, and the EIS are analyzed in particular geographic regions. All of these regions show a consistent relationship between LCC, SWCRE, and EIS, as well as significant differences between the two time periods. This study uses a 15 member ensemble of amip-piForcing simulations from 1870 -2005. These experiments are driven by observed SST patterns and hold greenhouse gases and other atmospheric forcing agents fixed at constant pre-industrial levels. This allows for a clean analysis of how clouds respond to changing patterns of SST and the resulting influence on the climate feedback parameter. The cloudy response of the atmosphere to changing SST patterns is critical in driving the variability of the climate feedback parameter during periods of both high and low climate sensitivity.

  12. History and development of Carboniferous palynology in North America during the early and middle twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, A.T.; Kosanke, R.M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Three main roots of upper Palaeozoic palynology in North America date from the opening of the twentieth century. These are Gresley`s recognition of spores in Iowa coal balls in 1901, analyses of spores by Sellards from Mazon Creek compressions in 1902, and Thiessen`s analyses of dispersed spores from coal maceration and thin sections in 1913. The Pollen Analysis Circular brought workers into contact in the 1940s and generated interest in older fossils. The Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America (1936) and the Coal Geology Division of the Geological Society of America (1955) encouraged palynologists to participate in meetings and field trips. Fundamental papers by Schopf et al. in 1944 and Kosanke in 1950 established Carboniferous palynology in North America. Active teaching and research centers at the University of Chicago in the 1920s and the University of Illinois and Coe College in the 1930s spawned new palynological centers, particularly throughout the Midwest. Palynological contributions on dispersed spores, mainly from coals and associated rocks, appeared from educational centers from 1929 through the 1950s. Limited reviews of early researches at early palynologic centers are here included by region. Palynology applied to petroleum exploration appeared in the 1940s and major petroleum companies had palynology laboratories in place by 1960. The first international palynology journals appeared in the 1950s and catalogs first appeared in the mid-1960s, except the Catalog of Fossil Spores and Pollen, which began in 1957. The first specific palynology organization, the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologisst, was founded in 1968. 304 refs., 38 figs

  13. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  14. Vagabond Figures in Slovenian Visual Art and Literature at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Simonišek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between visual and literary motifs in Slovenian painting (and illustration, graphics, and drawing and literature (both prose and poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century. It uses examples to show the popularity and rich variety of vagabond figures and their transformations and reciprocity at the level of the painting/text. However, a distinctive feature of this article is that it places the subject within the context of hermeneutics, a method that has not been used in Slovenian art history. In addition, it also reveals the symbolic complexity of the vagabond figure in the context of writers, other works, and social-historical circumstances. The emphasis is placed on artists that showed enthusiasm for this figure as a subject during the Belle Époque and also those that followed the very popular bohemian lifestyle in their everyday lives. The reception of Slovenian folk and traditional motifs from the past produced visual and semantic oscillation in which the phenomena of vagabond figures were systematized and interpreted. Many painters (e.g., Gvidon Birolla, and Maksim Gaspari and writers (e.g., Oton Župančič, Cvetko Golar, and Ivan Cankar clung to the Slovenian tradition with romantic overtones and, in line with their artistic atmosphere, integrated vagabond figures into typical Slovenian landscapes or environments. Some of them followed Symbolism and modernized the figures with autobiographical references (e.g., Fran Tratnik. The situation among the youngest generation of artists in particular showed that they managed to “escape” from copying traditional motifs and instead used them in a modern form in the “here and now” (e.g., Ivan Cankar. The discrepancy between the lack of the vagabond theme in oil painting and strong diversification in illustration, drawing, graphics, and literature could be explained by consumers’ perceived difference between “high” and “popular” art.

  15. The Home Front and War in the Twentieth Century. The American Experience in Comparative Perspective: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (10th) Held at the United States Air Force Academy on 20-22 October 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    dues, an unaccustomed charge for the recently unemployed ; for the federal income tax, for the first time collected on a pay-as-you-go basis; and for... psychic shock and physical stress. Schlieffen was by no means alone in his assertion that the armed forces available to modem nations could be maintained...measures concerned with creating employment-the most important political task considering six million unemployed -should be closely coordinated with the idea

  16. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  17. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  18. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  19. [The medical, social and institutional challenges resulting from poliomyelitis: comprehensive rehabilitation in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis on an epidemic scale gave rise to several challenges, one of which was the rehabilitation from the after-effects on many of the people who suffered from the disease. Paralysis and the ways it transformed the concept of physical rehabilitation (where the objective was only to restore the mobility of the affected muscles) and comprehensive rehabilitation that included social, educational and professional aspects in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century are the themes addressed in this article. It uses the methodology of institutional history that interacts in an ongoing manner with the history of health and disease.

  20. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Soprano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  1. The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of twentieth century science.

  2. Salamanca’s theater and musical activity in the first quarter of twentieth century through the local press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Álvarez García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The theaters at the beginning of twentieth century are one of the main focuses in which condenses the musician-artistic activity of small and large Spanish cities. Salamanca could not be less and in the three capitals theaters “Liceo”, “Bretón” and “Moderno” we find a very rich musical activity like Zarzuelas, Concerts, Lyric Theatre, Tunas, etc., which will make to Salamanca the most important center of the music scene in the province until almost the Second Spanish Republic.

  3. The Role of Degeneration Theory in the Understanding of Mental Illness, Colombia First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Vásquez Valencia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on medical journals and theses from the first half of the twentieth century, this article analyzes the role played by the theory of degeneration in the understanding of mental illness in Colombia. It is particularly interesting to show how Colombian physicians have appropriated concepts such as degeneration, diathesis, morbid heredity and stigmas of degeneration since the early 20th century to describe, classify and define mental illnesses present in Colombian territory. During this period the theory of degeneration served as the conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding the etiology, genesis and evolution of mental illness.

  4. The losting memory and the mourning writing in two Portuguese novels of the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Kirst de Lima Girola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to analyze how is the writing of the mourning in two Portuguese novels, A Sibila (1954 by Agustina Bessa-Luís and Não entres tão depressa nessa noite escura (2000 by António Lobo Antunes. These novels have different literary styles and were published in different moments in the second half of the twentieth century, but both use the memory as an important resource for telling about traumatic events in the life of those characters who responsible for the writing.

  5. The other woman and her child: extra-marital affairs and illegitimacy in twentieth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya Evans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the numbers of 'other women' and their children up until the 1960s in Britain. It analyses 'irregular and illicit unions' in the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child (now One Parent Families/Gingerbread), and explores evidence on these unions in the debates over the passage of the Divorce Acts of 1923 and 1937 as well as the Legitimacy Acts of 1926 and 1959. It suggests that the prevalence of illicit unions throughout the twentieth century and before allows us to question contemporary concerns about our supposed 'divorcing society' and the decline of family life in modern Britain.

  6. A historical perspective on the development of modern concepts of tissue perfusion: prehistory to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathan; Squiers, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The historical development of the concept of perfusion is traced, with particular focus on the development of the modern clinical concepts of perfusion through the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. This article reviews many of the significant contributors to the changing ideas of perfusion up through the twentieth century that have influenced the modern physiologic circulatory and metabolic models. The developments outlined have provided the modern model of perfusion, linking the cardiopulmonary circulation, tissue oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production, food intake, tissue waste production and elimination, and ultimately the production and utilization of ATP in the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mexican immigrants in the United States. A review of the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Pérez-Soria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reviews the literature on integration, segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States. It is an assessment of the different theoretical approaches and empirical research results published from the first decades of the twentieth century until present days. Our review suggests that the assimilation model is the dominant theoretical approach, while empirical findings in the field reveal the permanence of patterns of occupational and residential segregation among Mexican-born population and their offspring. Results reported by studies on discrimination vary broadly, as a result of the different methodological perspectives adopted in each study. We conclude with a note encouraging the use of new approaches and complementary methodologies in the study about segregation and discrimination against Mexican immigrants in the United States.

  8. Nursing body and soul in the parish: Lutheran deaconess motherhouses in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    In Lutheran Germany, parish nursing traditionally constituted the deaconesses' principal work. As "Christian mothers of the parish" they were charged with a wide spectrum of tasks, including nursing, social service, and pastoral care. At the center of the Christian understanding of nursing was the idea of nursing body and soul as a unity. This article analyzes the conception and transformation of Protestant parish nursing in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Germany and the United States, which developed very differently. In West Germany, parish nursing proved surprisingly resistant to modernization even in the face of upheavals of the 1960s, and in some places this traditional model survived as late as the 1980s and 1990s. In the United States, by contrast, an understanding of nursing rooted in the division of labor between care for body and care for soul had come to prevail by the 1920s and '30s, pushing out the German model of the parish deaconess altogether.

  9. Changes in the Authority of the Father in the Polish Family in the Twentieth Century. The Interpretation from the Historical and Pedagogical Perspective [Przemiany autorytetu ojca w rodzinie polskiej w XX wieku. Interpretacja z perspektywy historyczno-pedagogicznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł ŚPICA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays numerous researchers are interested in the subject area concerning fatherhood, including the father’s role in bringing up the child. It is not coincidental. In the last couple of years the position of men has significantly changed in Polish families. Jerzy Witczak has indicated that since the 1970s the role of man has not been thoroughly defined. The changes have led to the modification the roles of fathers, previously which were traditionally based on taking care of material needs and representing the family to the outside world. While in the first half of the twentieth century the role of man in family was clearly defined, in the second half of the twentieth century the father’s authority was increasingly contested. The reasons for this state of affairs lie in the transformations that took place in Polish culture and in socio-economic policy. Consequently traditional educational methods upon which parents used to build their authority ceased to be effective in the educational practise. Increasingly, researchers have begun to ask questions concerning the importance of father in the process of raising a child. However, the transformation of family life in the twentieth-century Poland did not proceed equally in all social classes. Fathers from the villages held different positions than men living in the cities. The latter group adopted the so-called urban lifestyle. There is no doubt, however, that in the first and second environment – although in varying degrees – the father as the head of the family has lost its dominant position. In order to understand why the old methods stopped working, we should look through the prism of social history and we should not forget about the consequences of political and economical transformations, which directly and indirectly influenced the transformations of Polish families in the twentieth century. The main aim of the article is to provide the historical context and the scholars

  10. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    considered to correct monthly precipitation and temperature time series. The first one applies two new analogy steps, using the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale two-meter temperature. The second method is a calendar selection that keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. A sensitivity study has been performed to assess the final number of analogues dates to retain for each method. A comparison to Safran over 1958-2010 shows that biases on the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are strongly reduced with both methods. Using two supplementary analogy levels moreover leads to a large improvement of correlation in seasonal temperature time series. These two methods have also been validated before 1958 thanks to both raw observations and homogenized time series. The two post-processing methods come with some advantages and drawbacks. The calendar selection allows to slightly better correct for seasonal biases in precipitation and is therefore adapted in a forecasting context. The selection with two supplementary analogy levels would allow for possible season shifts and SST trends and is therefore better suited for climate reconstruction and climate change studies. Compo, G. P. et al. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137:1-28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 Radanovics, S., Vidal, J.-P., Sauquet, E., Ben Daoud, A., and Bontron, G. (2013). Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17:4189-4208. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4189-2013 Vidal, J.-P ., Martin, E., Franchistéguy, L., Baillon, M., and Soubeyroux, J.-M. (2010). A 50-year high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the Safran system. International Journal of Climatology, 30:1627-1644. doi:10.1002/joc.2003

  11. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  12. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  13. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  14. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  15. Nursing, social contexts, and ideologies in the early United States birth control movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwey, M D

    1999-12-01

    Using historical discourse analysis, this study provides a thematic analysis of writings of nursing and birth control as found in The Birth Control Review from 1917 to 1927. The author contrasts this publication with the official journal of the American Nurses Association, the American Journal of Nursing from the same years to explore nursing voices and silences in early birth control stories. In dialogue with social contexts, nursing endeavors and inactivity have played important yet conflicting roles in the birth control movement in the United States. Nursing writings from the early twentieth century reflect eugenic beliefs, national fears of immigrants, and ambivalence about women's roles in society and the home. Nurses simultaneously empowered women to choose when to become pregnant and reinforced nativist and paternalistic views of the poor.

  16. Development of Accounting Theories Specific to the National Accounting Literature of the First Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Damian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Need to identify plausible explanations of the principles underlying the double entry accountingover time determined by various manifestations of thought that have resulted in many theories. All thesetheories have proposed to explain and substantiate dopic formalism, but many of them no longer a valuetoday than a purely historical perspective. The representative of such theories has been many pages writtenRomanian and foreign authors in the first half of the twentieth century. Some Romanian authors mention theIoan E. Evian, D. Voina, CG Demetrescu, S. Iacobescu, Al. Sorescu, C. Pantu, C. Petrescu, Grigore-TrancuIaşi and others. Bibliography time accounting theories shared accounts: embryos of theories and scientifictheories.

  17. Conference Report: Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    the environment. Notably, IOs were central forums for negotiating and placing environmental protection on the international political agenda. It is widely assumed that 1972 – the year of the first UN conference on the human environment in Stockholm and of the publication of the Club of Rome report "Limits...... entrepreneurs, selecting, defining, diffusing and translating ideas about the environment in the course of the twentieth century? Secondly, which structural conditions facilitated – and at times inhibited – the diffusion or transfer of policy ideas? It can safely be assumed that the embedding of IOs in national...... and influential individuals – who transmitted and translated environmental ideas from the OECD Environment Committee in the early 1970s to the Brundtland Commission in the 1980s. The latter sought to overcome the apparent contradictions between developmental and environmental goals, advocating the notion...

  18. Winners, Socially Displaced and Cinderellas: Representations of Race and Social Climbing in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the study of articles published in Colombian magazines (particularly Cromos magazine in the second half of the twentieth century, this article proposes the analysis of some representations about upward mobility of black people. Consideration is given to the stories of some characters at different times: the judge Jose Antonio Camacho, the boxer Kid Pambelé, the model Laura Mosquera and the pianist Teresa Gómez. Although they emerged in different professional contexts, narratives about their paths have in common the emphasis on how the class representations articulated with the race and gender ones and were used to show the difficulty for a black person to be inserted in a social context different from the popular sectors, showing both their alleged incompatibility with the values of the middle class as well as the inability to fully integrate into a society dominated by whites.

  19. Italian news coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea; Pasquarè Mariotto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This work uses a qualitative approach coupled with a quantitative software-based methodology to examine the Italian news media coverage of radiation in the early decades of the twentieth century. We analyze 80 news stories from two of the most influential Italian newspapers from that time: La Stampa (a daily newspaper) and La Domenica del Corriere (an Italian Sunday supplement). While much of previous research on media coverage of scientific topics was generally focused on present-day news, our work revolves around the ground-breaking discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the dawn of the last century. Our analysis aims to identify journalistic frames in the news coverage of radiation that journalists might have used to emphasize the benefits (or the risks) of the new discoveries. We also hypothesize how this kind of news coverage might have influenced public perception of technological, commercial, and public health applications of the new scientific advancements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  1. Planning ideology and geographic thought in the early twentieth century: Charles Whitnall's progressive era park designs for socialist Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lorne A

    2010-01-01

    As Milwaukee’s chief park planner in the early to mid-twentieth century, Charles Whitnall responded to the various underlying ideologies of the period within which he worked. His preference for parks was a political and physical response to and remedy for the industrialized and heavily congested city he called home. By examining the Progressive Era discourse associated with planning, this article situates Whitnall’s work within the political, aesthetic, and environmental contexts of geographic thought that influenced his plans for Milwaukee. In promoting a physical awareness associated with the natural features of the region and responding to the sociopolitical framework of contemporaries such as Ebenezer Howard, Whitnall incorporated a sense of compassion within his planning. He responded to the preexisting beer gardens of Pabst and Schlitz, as well as Olmsted-designed park spaces, by advocating for decentralization as part of a broader socialist agenda that had swept through Milwaukee during the early 1900s.

  2. Techniques for nothingness: Debate over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen in early-twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores a debate that took place in Japan in the early twentieth century over the comparability of hypnosis and Zen. The debate was among the first exchanges between psychology and Buddhism in Japan, and it cast doubt on previous assumptions that a clear boundary existed between the two fields. In the debate, we find that contemporaries readily incorporated ideas from psychology and Buddhism to reconstruct the experiences and concepts of hypnosis and Buddhist nothingness. The resulting new theories and techniques of nothingness were fruits of a fairly fluid boundary between the two fields. The debate, moreover, reveals that psychology tried to address the challenges and possibilities posed by religious introspective meditation and intuitive experiences in a positive way. In the end, however, psychology no longer regarded them as viable experimental or psychotherapeutic tools but merely as particular subjective experiences to be investigated and explained.

  3. Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe.

  4. The limited effect of increasing educational attainment on childlessness trends in twentieth-century Europe, women born 1916–65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujouan, Eva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Zeman, Kryštof

    2016-01-01

    During the twentieth century, trends in childlessness varied strongly across European countries while educational attainment grew continuously across them. Using census and large-scale survey data from 13 European countries, we investigated the relationship between these two factors among women born between 1916 and 1965. Up to the 1940 birth cohort, the share of women childless at age 40+ decreased universally. Afterwards, the trends diverged across countries. The results suggest that the overall trends were related mainly to changing rates of childlessness within educational groups and only marginally to changes in the educational composition of the population. Over time, childlessness levels of the medium-educated and high-educated became closer to those of the low-educated, but the difference in level between the two better educated groups remained stable in Western and Southern Europe and increased slightly in the East. PMID:27545484

  5. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  6. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  7. Fumigating the Hygienic Model City: Bubonic Plague and the Sulfurozador in Early-Twentieth-Century Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    The 1899/1900 arrival of bubonic plague in Argentina had thrown the model status of Buenos Aires as a hygienic city into crisis. Where the idea of foreign threats and imported epidemics had dominated the thinking of Argentina's sanitarians at that time, plague renewed concerns about hidden threats within the fabric of the capital's dense environment; concerns that led to new sanitary measures and unprecedented rat-campaigns supported by the large-scale application of sulphur dioxide. The article tells the story of early twentieth-century urban sanitation in Buenos Aires through the lens of a new industrial disinfection apparatus. The Aparato Marot, also known as Sulfurozador was acquired and integrated in the capital's sanitary administration by the epidemiologist José Penna in 1906 to materialise two key lessons learned from plague. First, the machine was supposed to translate the successful disinfection practices of global maritime sanitation into urban epidemic control in Argentina. Second, the machine's design enabled public health authorities to reinvigorate a traditional hygienic concern for the entirety of the city's terrain. While the Sulfurozador offered effective destruction of rats, it promised also a comprehensive - and utopian - disinfection of the whole city, freeing it from all imaginable pathogens, insects as well as rodents. In 1910, the successful introduction of the Sulfurozador encouraged Argentina's medico-political elite to introduce a new principle of 'general prophylaxis'. This article places the apparatus as a technological modernisation of traditional sanitary practices in the bacteriological age, which preserved the urban environment - 'el terreno' - as a principal site of intervention. Thus, the Sulfurozador allowed the 'higienistas' to sustain a long-standing utopian vision of all-encompassing social, bodily and political hygiene into the twentieth century.

  8. Sound Objects and Sound Products: Standardizing a New Culture of Listening in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter I develop the psychological underpinnings of environmental music towards an understanding of how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psycholo-gists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. I begin with an examination of nineteenth-century concerns about both the physical and psychological effects of music and fraught debate among experi-mental psychologists of the role of musical expertise in the laboratory. These con-cerns were, I argue, rooted in the assumption of a direct, corporeal connection between the generation and reception of music, usually bound within a single, individual body. In the twentieth century, new technology liberated the listener from a temporally- and geographically-bound experience of music. The Tone Tests, Re-Creation Recitals, and Mood Change “parties” of Thomas Edison and the psychologist Walter Bingham show that recording technology allowed for a normalization and standardization of listening not previously possible in the music halls and laboratories of the nineteenth century. Rather paradoxically, since it also made music more accessible to the individual listener, recorded music, mobilized by industrial psychologists and record companies alike, created a new sound experience actively designed for the lowest common denominator of mass listen-ing. It also contributed to the cultivation of a new practice of mass listening. The new mass listening practice presents broader questions about the definition of music and its functional role – If the function of music is to be ignored, is it still music?

  9. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  10. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  11. Twentieth-century fire patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana, and the Gila/Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Rollins; Tom Swetnam; Penelope Morgan

    2000-01-01

    Twentieth century fire patterns were analyzed for two large, disparate wilderness areas in the Rocky Mountains. Spatial and temporal patterns of fires were represented as GIS-based digital fire atlases compiled from archival Forest Service data. We find that spatial and temporal fire patterns are related to landscape features and changes in land use. The rate and...

  12. Corporate science education: Westinghouse and the value of science in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G; Shapiro, Leigh

    2015-02-01

    This study examines a largely neglected aspect of the history of science popularization in the United States: corporate depictions of the value of science to society. It delineates the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's portrayals of science to its shareholders, employees and consumers, and schoolchildren and educators during World War Two and the postwar era. Annual reports to shareholders, in-house news publications, publicity records, advertising campaigns, and educational pamphlets distributed to schools reveal the company's distinct, but complementary, messages for different stakeholders about the importance of science to American society. Collectively, Westinghouse encouraged these audiences to rely on scientists' expert leadership for their nation's security and material comforts. In an era of military mobilization, the company was able to claim that industry-led scientific research would fortify the nation and create unbounded prosperity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. From Halsted to prevention and beyond: advances in the management of breast cancer during the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B

    1999-12-01

    This commentary evaluates progress made in the treatment of breast cancer during the twentieth century. Most of the period from 1900 to 1970 was governed by the 'non-science' of anecdotalism and classical inductivism and was marked by the absence of a scientific gestalt. In keeping with the Halstedian concept that breast cancer was a local disease that spread throughout the body by contiguous extension and could be cured by more expansive surgery, the disease was treated with radical surgery. In 1950, however, a new era of enlightenment began to emerge. The awareness that there was a scientific process in which hypotheses generated from laboratory and clinical investigation could be tested by means of randomised clinical trials was a seminal advance, as were findings from studies that laid the groundwork for the modern era of steroid hormone action, including identification of oestrogen receptors. Expanding knowledge regarding tumour cell kinetics, tumour heterogeneity, and technological advances related to mammography and radiation therapy were also to play a role in making possible the advances in therapy that were subsequently to occur. In the past 30 years, as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation, the Halstedian thesis of cancer surgery was displaced by an alternative hypothesis that was supported by findings from subsequent clinical trials. A new paradigm governed surgery for breast cancer, and lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy became accepted practice. A second paradigm that governed the use of adjuvant systemic therapy arose as a result of laboratory and clinical investigation. Treating patients who were free of identifiable metastatic disease with systemic adjuvant therapy because some of them might develop distant disease in the future was a revolutionary departure from prior treatment strategy and became a new exemplar. Not only did the chemotherapy favourably alter the outcome of breast cancer patients, but the anti

  14. Consumption of materials in the United States, 1900-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, G.; Wagner, L.; ,

    1998-01-01

    The flows of nonfood and nonfuel materials through the economy have significant impact on our lives and the world around us. Growing populations and economies demand more goods, services, and infrastructure. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the types of materials consumed in the United States have significantly changed. In 1900, on a per-weight basis, almost half of the materials consumed were from renewable resources, such as wood, fibers, and agricultural products, the rest being derived from nonrenewable resources. By 1995, the consumption of renewable resources had declined dramatically, to only 8% of total consumption. During this century, the quantity of materials consumed has grown, from 161 million metric tons in 1900 to 2.8 billion metric tons by 1995, an equivalent of 10 metric tons per person per year. Of all the materials consumed during this century, more than half were consumed in the last 25 years. This paper examines the general historical shifts in materials consumption and presents an analysis of different measurements of materials use and the significance of their trends.

  15. Sex discrimination from the acetabulum in a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France using digital photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P J

    2011-02-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were used to collect diameter, area, and perimeter data of the acetabulum for a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France (Georges Olivier Collection, Musée de l'Homme, Paris) consisting of 46 males and 36 females. The measurements were then subjected to both discriminant function and logistic regression analyses in order to develop osteometric standards for sex assessment. Univariate discriminant functions and logistic regression equations yielded overall correct classification accuracy rates for both the left and the right acetabula ranging from 84.1% to 89.6%. The multivariate models developed in this study did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex bias ratios ranged between 1.1% and 7.3% for the majority of models. The results of this study, therefore, demonstrate that metric analysis of acetabular size provides a highly accurate, and easily replicable, method of discriminating sex in this documented skeletal collection. The results further suggest that the addition of area and perimeter data derived from digital images may provide a more effective method of sex assessment than that offered by traditional linear measurements alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Charles Darwin's reputation: how it changed during the twentieth-century and how it may change again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Charles Darwin died in 1882. During the twentieth century his reputation varied through time, as the scientific foundation of evolutionary theory changed. Beginning the century as an intellectual hero, he soon became a virtual footnote as experimental approaches to evolution began to develop. As the Modern Synthesis developed his reputation began to rise again until eventually he was identified as a founding father of the Modern Synthesis itself. In the meantime, developmental approaches to evolution began to challenge certain aspects of the Modern Synthesis. Synthesis authors attempted to refute the relevance of development by methodological arguments, some of them indirectly credited to Darwin. By the end of the century, molecular genetics had given new life to development approaches to evolution, now called evo devo. This must be seen as a refutation of the aforesaid methodological arguments of the Modern Synthesis advocates. By the way, we can also see now how the historiography that credited Darwin with the Synthesis was in error. In conclusion, one more historical revision is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Il futurismo polacco nella critica letteraria dell’epoca [Polish Futurism in Literary Criticism of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. De Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the critical voices raised against the young poets and artists who promoted Futurism in Poland during the first half of the Twentieth century. Futurist manifestos influenced the new Polish poetry, stimulating a lively debate among intellectuals of the calibre of Stefan Żeromski and Karol Irzykowski. In general, the coeval criticism of Polish Futurism focused on three main points: the lack of originality and servile imitation of foreign literary models; the repudiation of the past and national traditions; Futurism as an expression of ideologies such as Fascism in Italy and Bolshevism in Russia. In this article, specific attention is devoted to an analysis of the essay Snobizm i postęp (Snobbery and Progress, 1923 by Żeromski. The writer, criticising Polish imitators of Russian Futurism, affirmed that Polish literature and culture, in the context of national reconstruction after three partitions of Poland, needed to maintain its natural connection with the past and at the same time, without losing its national nature, to weave some universal suggestions into the plot of purely Polish themes. The goal of this article is to reveal that Żeromski and Irzykowski’s critical stance towards the Polish Futurists, which influenced the critics of the next generation, was dictated by a shallow analysis of Futuristic works and by their inability to understand Futuristic efforts to modernise Polish art and literature.

  18. The Silwood Circle a history of ecology and the making of scientific careers in late twentieth-century Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This is an original and wide-ranging account of the careers of a close-knit group of highly influential ecologists working in Britain from the late 1960s onwards. The book can also be read as a history of some recent developments in ecology. One of the group, Robert May, is a past president of the Royal Society, and the author of what many see as the most important treatise in theoretical ecology of the later twentieth century. That the group flourished was due not only to May's intellectual leadership, but also to the guiding hand of T. R. E. Southwood. Southwood ended his career as Linacre Professor of Zoology at the University of Oxford, where he also served a term as Vice-Chancellor. Earlier, as a professor and director of the Silwood Park campus of Imperial College London, he brought the group together. Since it began to coalesce at Silwood it has been named here the Silwood Circle. Southwood promoted the interests of its members with the larger aim of raising the profile of ecological and environmental ...

  19. Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  20. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early Twentieth Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226 Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period

  1. The Significance Of Space In Iris Murdoch’s The Unicorn As A Twentieth-Century Irish Gothic Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarząb Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century almost all literary genres came back to prominence in different and alternative forms. The Gothic is no exception to this phenomenon as many a writer made an attempt at using this eighteenth-century genre once again, but adding to it some contemporary elements. Consequently, an abundance of new techniques have been introduced to Gothic fiction to evoke the feeling of horror and terror among the more and more demanding readers of modern times. Still, some writers prefer to return to the traditional concept of the Gothic – as does Iris Murdoch in her novel The Unicorn. The purpose of this article is to analyse the text from the perspective of the Irish Gothic. Those features of the genre which are traditional as well as local are going to be discussed in the context of space as the dominating aspect of the novel. The typical Irish landscape abounding in marshes, bogs and the sea will be contrasted with the inner space of the house, and its resemblance to the old Victorian mansions popular among the Anglo-Irish ascendancy of nineteenth-century Ireland. In what follows, the paper aims at showing how Murdoch’s skilful play with the spatial differentiation between the inside and the outside dislodges other more universal issues, such as the question of freedom, of social taboos and of the different anxieties still present in Irish society today.

  2. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided sisterhood which itself may be traced back to a suppression of expression of female solidarity embedded in western culture and manifested in western literary heritage.  Typically, such stories depict a conflict sourced in the need to develop self-identity and framed within the constraints imposed by separate social roles.  This kind of conflict results potentially in rivalry, antagonism, ambivalence, and the domination of one sibling by another.  Daughters/sisters are often depicted in these stories both as competing with each other for limited resources and also as seeking a sense of personal identity through mutual polarisation.  There are also stories into which are woven undertones of domination disguised as sisterly closeness, for which the actual motivation seems to be a repressed aspiration for intimacy.

  3. Holocaust and strategic bombing: case studies in the psychology, organization, and technology of mass killing in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markusen, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    After preliminary discussion of the unprecedented scale of mass killing in the twentieth century, the threat of nuclear war, and the widespread neglect of these issues, the literature on two major types of government sanctioned mass killing is reviewed; genocide, in which a government slaughters its own citizens or subjects, and total war, in which two or more governments slaughter each other's civilian citizens or subjects. This literature review reaches two basic conclusions: (1) there is considerable inconsistency and ambiguity among definitions of genocide and total war; and (2) there is a controversy regarding how distinct or similar the two forms of mass killing actually are. A comparative historical analysis was undertaken in which the Nazi Holocaust was selected as an example of genocide, and the Allied strategic bombing campaigns during World War II were selected to exemplify total war. The two cases are compared in terms of a conceptual framework of five hypothesized facilitating factors. On the basis of this comparative analysis, four or the five hypothesized facilitating factors are found to have played important roles in both cases. The findings of the study are discussed, and their implications for the threat of nuclear holocaust are explored.

  4. The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late Twentieth-Century Explanations for War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late twentieth century, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century: Identity, Agency and Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Gilles-Félix

    2017-01-01

    Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. — Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century : Identity, Agency and Performance Practice. New York, University of Rochester Press ; Eastman, Rochester Studies in Ethnomusicology, 2012, 285 p., bibl., ill., CD. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century de Bodé Ọmọ̀jọ́lá déconstruit efficacement la notion d'une culture musicale yorùbá singulière, découvrant à la place une tapisserie pittoresque de traditions socialement et esthétiquement diverses, lesquelles sont unies, dans bien des ...

  6. Detection and attribution of streamflow timing changes to climate change in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H.G.; Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Bala, G.; Mirin, A.; Wood, A.W.; Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Nozawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article applies formal detection and attribution techniques to investigate the nature of observed shifts in the timing of streamflow in the western United States. Previous studies have shown that the snow hydrology of the western United States has changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Such changes manifest themselves in the form of more rain and less snow, in reductions in the snow water contents, and in earlier snowmelt and associated advances in streamflow "center" timing (the day in the "water-year" on average when half the water-year flow at a point has passed). However, with one exception over a more limited domain, no other study has attempted to formally attribute these changes to anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Using the observations together with a set of global climate model simulations and a hydrologic model (applied to three major hydrological regions of the western United States_the California region, the upper Colorado River basin, and the Columbia River basin), it is found that the observed trends toward earlier "center" timing of snowmelt-driven streamflows in the western United States since 1950 are detectably different from natural variability (significant at the p analysis, and it is the only basin that showed a detectable signal when the analysis was performed on individual basins. It should be noted that although climate change is an important signal, other climatic processes have also contributed to the hydrologic variability of large basins in the western United States. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.

  7. Victor W. Page's Early Twentieth-Century Automotive and Aviation Books: "Practical Books for Practical Men."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, R. John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Victor Page, one of the first people to make a living as a technical communicator. Focuses on his 33 automotive and aviation books, popular with the public and critics, which contained information on novel technology, profuse illustrations, and easy-to-access information. States that Page published quickly, had firsthand expertise, and…

  8. Public Mass Modern Education and Inter-Religious Human Capital Differentials in Twentieth-Century Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Public mass modern education was a major pillar of state-led development in the post-Colonial developing world. I examine the impact of Egypt’s transformation in 1953 of traditional elementary schools (kuttabs), which served the masses, into public modern primary schools on the Christian-Muslim educational and occupational differentials, which were in favor of Christians. The reform allowed kuttabs’ graduates access to higher stages of education, which were confined to modern primary schools’...

  9. BEYOND GUNS AND BUTTER: Finnish Central Government Spending Patterns the in Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the long-run demand for central government spending in Finland by analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes in the spending behavior, examining possible links between variables in a VAR-framework, and performing multivariate analysis of the demand factors. The results was shoved that a explained  by a lack of military versus social spending tradeoff effect. Even though certain other variables were found to be relevant in explaining this demand, this lack of a tradeoff increased the Finnish spending levels substantially during the twentieth centurt welfare state expansion.

  10. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Catharina

    2014-07-01

    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

  11. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  12. Evaluation of CMIP5 twentieth century rainfall simulation over the equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the performance of 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of rainfall over East Africa (EA) against reanalyzed datasets during 1951-2005. The datasets were sourced from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Climate Research Unit (CRU). The metrics used to rank CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) based on their performance in reproducing the observed rainfall include correlation coefficient, standard deviation, bias, percentage bias, root mean square error, and trend. Performances of individual models vary widely. The overall performance of the models over EA is generally low. The models reproduce the observed bimodal rainfall over EA. However, majority of them overestimate and underestimate the October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) rainfall, respectively. The monthly (inter-annual) correlation between model and reanalyzed is high (low). More than a third of the models show a positive bias of the annual rainfall. High standard deviation in rainfall is recorded in the Lake Victoria Basin, central Kenya, and eastern Tanzania. A number of models reproduce the spatial standard deviation of rainfall during MAM season as compared to OND. The top eight models that produce rainfall over EA relatively well are as follows: CanESM2, CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CESM, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, EC-EARTH, INMCM4, and MICROC5. Although these results form a fairly good basis for selection of GCMs for carrying out climate projections and downscaling over EA, it is evident that there is still need for critical improvement in rainfall-related processes in the models assessed. Therefore, climate users are advised to use the projections of rainfall from CMIP5 models over EA cautiously when making decisions on adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

  13. Serbian music criticism in the first half of the twentieth century: Its canon, its method and its educational role

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    Vasić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian music criticism became a subject of professional music critics at the beginning of the twentieth century, after being developed by music amateurs throughout the whole previous century. The Serbian Literary Magazine (1901- 1914, 1920-1941, the forum of the Serbian modernist writers in the early 1900s, had a crucial role in shaping the Serbian music criticism and essayistics of the modern era. The Serbian elite musicians wrote for the SLM and therefore it reflects the most important issues of the early twentieth century Serbian music. The SLM undertook the mission of educating its readers. The music culture of the Serbian public was only recently developed. The public needed an introduction into the most important features of the European music, as well as developing its own taste in music. This paper deals with two aspects of the music criticism in the SLM, in view of its educational role: the problem of virtuosity and the method used by music critics in this magazine. The aesthetic canon of the SLM was marked by decisively negative attitude towards the virtuosity. Mainly concerned by educating the Serbian music public in the spirit of the highest music achievements in Europe, the music writers of the SLM criticized both domestic and foreign performers who favoured virtuosity over the 'essence' of music. Therefore, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, and even Peter Tchaikowsky with his Violin concerto became the subject of the magazine's criticism. However their attitude towards the interpreters with both musicality and virtuoso technique was always positive. That was evident in the writings on Jan Kubelík. This educational mission also had its effect on the structure of critique writings in the SLM. In their wish to inform the Serbian public on the European music (which they did very professionally, the critics gave much more information on biographies, bibliographies and style of the European composers, than they valued the interpretation

  14. Women as food producers and suppliers in the twentieth century. The case of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntemba, S

    1982-01-01

    marketable crop, to the disadvantage of sufficient food supplies for the producers themselves. The case of Zambia is presented, and it is concluded that the situation of women producers and of food production worsened at a pace responding to the nature of capitalist appropriation of land and labor and the intensification of cash crop production. Thus the phenomenon became more marked after 1945 when colonial states intensified cash crop production. The situation persisted after formal independence. Another Development must tackle the problem areas of land, labor, the sexual division of labor, the state, and men.

  15. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics; Einfuehrung in die Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Quantenmechanik, Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, David J. [Reed College, Portland, OR (United States). Howard-Vollum-Professur fuer Naturwissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  16. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

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    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  17. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

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    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  18. State and food in South Korea : moulding the national diet in wartime and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Kyoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the governmental policies through which people’s food practices were intervened in, controlled and modified in twentieth-century South Korea. The main focus is on the wars that occurred in twentieth-century Korea, as it acted as an important stimulus in increasing state

  19. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  20. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How the nerves reached the muscle: Bernard Katz, Stephen W. Kuffler, and John C. Eccles-Certain implications of exile for the development of twentieth-century neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system. The reflex model of neuromuscular action had already been advanced by neuroanatomists such as Georg Prochaska (1749-1820) in Bohemia since the eighteenth century. It became a major component of neurophysiological theories during the nineteenth century, based on the law associated with the names of François Magendie (1783-1855) in France and Charles Bell (1774-1842) in Britain regarding the functional differences of the sensory and motor spinal nerves. Yet, it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that both the histological and the neurophysiological understanding of the nerve-muscle connection became entirely understood and the chemical versus electrical transmission further elicited as the mechanisms of inhibition. John C. Eccles, Bernard Katz, and Stephen W. Kuffler helped to provide some of the missing links for modern neurophysiology. The current article explores several of their scientific contributions and investigates how the context of forced migration contributed to these interactions in contingently new ways.

  2. Welfare State e emprego em saúde nos países avançados desde o Pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial Welfare State and employment in health activities in developed countries since the Post-Second World War

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    Luiz Marcos de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the economic importance of the health activities in the developed countries in the last decades of the twentieth century. It takes into consideration the evolution of the weight of the employment in the health activities in European countries' and also in the United States' labour markets, which will be compared in an historical perspective. The evolution and the weight of the public expenditure in the health activities will also be taken into account so as to analyze the economic importance of the sector in the last decades of twentieth century. The role played by the political, economic and social context of the Post-Second World War in the construction of the system of social protection (Welfare State and its effects over the health activities will be also considered.

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. Family ties and intergenerational relationships in European families in the twentieth century [Więzy rodzinne i relacje międzypokoleniowe w rodzinach europejskich w XX wieku

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    Marie MAREČKOVÁ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intergenerational family relationships still performed an important social function in rural society in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. The situation within the Czech family illustrates the current problems in family ties and intergenerational relationships that have surfaced since the nineteen nineties. Negative developmental trends are being seen, particularly in comparison with family circumstances in other European countries, most significantly the continuing ageing of the population and the wide-ranging activities of seniors. Looser relationships with their families and a decline in their engagement in caring for their grandchildren mean that Czech grandparents tend to rank alongside more socially developed countries in this respect. Under Czech conditions, however, this can lead to great strain on the active roles played by seniors. The growing number of adult offspring, particularly men, living with their parents is a far from progressive trend in social and economic development, and corresponds more closely with southern European traditions. A preference for alternative forms of cohabitation, particularly among partners with primary education, the postponing of the birth of the first child, the growth in the number of single-person households and, perhaps most importantly, the enormous rise in the number of households comprised of young or middle-aged individuals in the economically productive age group may, it is true, rank the Czech Republic among socially developed countries and at around the European average, though in view of the unfavourable demographic trend a fundamental change in state support for marriage and the family is, however, also essential in the Czech Republic. The fact is that more than a third of families with children are threatened with poverty. The conclusion arising from the analyses performed indicates that the current problems in state social and family policy are reflected in the increasing

  5. Representing and Coping with Early Twentieth-Century Chongqing: “Guide Songs” as Maps, Memory Cells, and Means of Creating Cultural Imagery

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    Igor Chabrowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chongqing’s “guide songs” form an interesting subgenre among the broad category of haozi 號子 (workers’ songs. These early twentieth-century songs were a form of rhythm-based oral narrative describing Chongqing’s urban spaces, river docks, and harbors. Each toponym mentioned in the lyrics was followed by a depiction of the characteristic associations, whether visible or symbolic, of the place. This article aims to analyze the verbal images of Chongqing presented in these songs in order to understand how the city was remembered, reproduced, and represented. The article deconstructs representations of the city produced by the lower classes, mainly by Sichuan boatmen, and links culturally meaningful images of urban spaces with the historical experiences of work, religion, and historical-mythical memory. It also points to the functions that oral narratives had in the urban environment of early twentieth-century Chongqing. Rhythmic and easy to remember, the songs provided ready-to-use guides and repositories of knowledge useful to anyone living or working there. A cross between utilitarian resource books and cultural representations, they shaped modes of thinking and visualizations of urban spaces and Chongqing. Finally, this article responds to the need to employ popular culture in our thinking about Chinese cities and the multiplicity of meanings they were given in pre-Communist times.

  6. 'Conservation Education' and the Foundations of National Prosperity: Comparative Perspectives from Early Twentieth-Century North America and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the development of conservation education in North America and Britain. Reports that the focus of British conservation education was on preserving the countryside, while the United States focused on protecting natural resources. Finds that a major difference was that the label of 'conservation education' did not appear in Britain. (CMK)

  7. The Origins of Creationism in the Netherlands: The Evolution Debate Among Twentieth-Century Dutch Neo-Calvinists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Netherlands is, besides the United States, one of the few countries where debates about creationism have been raging for decades. Strict creationism has become deeply rooted in traditional Reformed (Calvinist) circles, which is all the more remarkable as it stemmed from a very different culture

  8. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  9. Changes to the chemical state of the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere during the second half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Mike J.; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David R.; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, William T.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2017-07-01

    The NOx (NO and NO2) and HOx (OH and HO2) budgets of the atmosphere exert a major influence on atmospheric composition, controlling removal of primary pollutants and formation of a wide range of secondary products, including ozone, that can influence human health and climate. However, there remain large uncertainties in the changes to these budgets over recent decades. Due to their short atmospheric lifetimes, NOx and HOx are highly variable in space and time, and so the measurements of these species are of limited value for examining long-term, large-scale changes to their budgets. Here, we take an alternative approach by examining long-term atmospheric trends of alkyl nitrates, the production efficiency of which is dependent on the atmospheric [NO] / [HO2] ratio. We derive long-term trends in the alkyl nitrates from measurements in firn air from the NEEM site, Greenland. Their mixing ratios increased by a factor of 3-5 between the 1970s and 1990s. This was followed by a steep decline to the sampling date of 2008. Moreover, we examine how the trends in the alkyl nitrates compare to similarly derived trends in their parent alkanes (i.e. the alkanes which, when oxidised in the presence of NOx, lead to the formation of the alkyl nitrates). The ratios of the alkyl nitrates to their parent alkanes increased from around 1970 to the late 1990s. This is consistent with large changes to the [NO] / [HO2] ratio in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere during this period. Alternatively, they could represent changes to concentrations of the hydroxyl radical, OH, or to the transport time of the air masses from source regions to the Arctic.

  10. Nursery Schools for the Few or the Many? Childhood, Education and the State in Mid-Twentieth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, successive presidents and officials at the Board of Education made it clear that they believed there were three types of children in Britain--those who needed nursery schools to rescue them from degradation, those for whom a less expensive nursery class would do the job adequately and those who would…

  11. The historical significance of the Trepça mine in the Region of Stan-Terg during the twentieth century

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    Mustafë Haziri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The historical significance of the Trepça’s mine in Stan-Terg is so big, that it is impossible to be presented in this scientific paper, because of its historic, economic and social character. This paper analyses chronologically the importance of Trepça mine, focusing with particular emphasis on the period of the twentieth century where in 1926 the first research that was implemented by the British government began. In 1930 began the modern exploitation of Trepça which was followed by some union movements which lasted until 1939. In 1941, Trepça fell into the hands of the nazi regime of Germany. Other aspects of this work include the period of the Second World War, when the nationalization of property was implemented during the communist regime in former Yugoslavia until the great strike of 1989.

  12. The Preparation of the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile. Printed Culture and Working-class Sociability in the Early Twentieth Century

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    Juan David Murillo Sandoval

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Printed between 1910 and 1919, the Diccionario biográfico obrero de Chile was the first book of its kind produced in Latin America in the twentieth century. Coordinated by journalist Osvaldo López, this dictionary sought to show the trajectories of leaders and representatives of the Chilean labor world to the beginning of the century. Although this work has served as a source for many investigations, little is known about its production process, and even less about their general contents, and what they indicate about the labor elites, their self-images, objectives or print culture. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute to the analysis of this collective biography, by rebuilding its publishing history and examining the key feature which identified the workers: sociability.

  13. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2017-05-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  14. The sea as science: ocean research institutions and strategies in Portugal in the twentieth century (from the First Republic to democracy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Maria Fernanda; Queiroz, Maria Inês; Brandão, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Historical perspective has revealed the many aspects of Portugal's interest in the sea, evident in a series of initiatives and entities throughout the twentieth century. From the beginning of the century until the 1974 Revolution, the genesis of organizations devoted to the scientific study of the sea is analyzed, observing their specific missions in the context of the formulation of science policy, and more specifically "ocean policies." The Portuguese valued knowledge of the sea due to their maritime vocation, coastal life and geographic position. Traversing different historical and political contexts and development cycles, the assumptions and political implications that accentuate the strategic dimension of science policy, visible in the geopolitical affirmation of oceanography, are studied.

  15. Love Practices in the Colombian School during the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Notes for a History of Feminine Love

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    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America women increasingly detach themselves from feminine representations produced by certain discourses of modernity. However, unequal relations, binary constructions of sex and gender, and exclusion whenever there is any sign of resistance are still signs of contemporaneity. In response to this situation, this research paper shows, through an archaeological and genealogical study, how love, as a feeling and emotion, was a subject of education for girls in the Colombian school during the first half of the twentieth century. In that sense, the author reflects upon emotions, feelings and discourses, and reveals how society shaped practices and legitimized truths that, even today, define both men’s and women’s nature.

  16. The Innovative Work of S. S. Glagolev: Theism in Russian Theological Academies of the Beginning of the Twentieth Century and Its Focusing on the Problem of Man

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    Marjana Ershova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author details the results of her study of the works of Sergey Sergeyevich Glagolev, a prominent professor of the Moscow Theological Academy. Glagolev’s heritage produces a profound impression by means of its versatility, its original way of looking at diverse problems as well as his unique solutions to the same problems. For this reason, it possesses enduring relevance. Despite this fact, his correspondence is still not well known nor understood. The author focuses on Glagolev’s analysis of the human problem. This choice may be explained by the fact that Sergey Sergeevich considered the problem of man to be the key issue behind the collision of religion and science taking place during the early twentieth century. Glagolev attempted to solve this problem by focusing on certain aspects of the subject: the origin of mankind, the interaction of the spirit and the body, the immortality of the soul, the origin of religion, as well as the way in which religious faith came about. A vital aspect of Glagolev’s treatment of the problem of man is his criticism of Charles Darwin and Darwinism, and thereby of the entire theory of evolution. Glagolev disagreed with the basic premises of this theory as well as with some of its specific conclusions. While opposing the concept of anthropo-genesis, Glagolev formulated his own theory regarding the origins of mankind. Thus, Glagolev viewed the origins and later history of mankind through the prism of his theory of degradation, which allowed him to seamlessly link the biblical narrative of the origins of man with contemporary scientific data. The author concludes that Glagolev was a major influence in the development of Russian theology during the first years of the twentieth century.

  17. THE HUMAN RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT AS AN IDENTITY OF THE AMERICAN QUAKERS IN THE ERAS BEFORE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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    Nuriadi .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how and why the Quakers dealt with human rights issues in the United States before 20th century, ranging from the mid 17th century to the mid 19th century. It applies Nash Smith’s interdisciplinary theory as a theoretical approach. The Quakers, as a Christian religious group, had got several features or identities since George Fox declared its existence in England in the mid of 17th century. They lived in simplicity, adopted the principle of pacifism, rejected paying tith and tax, rejected taking off hat, used archaic words, and so forth. However, the Quakers in the United States had shown a new feature or identity; namely, the enforcement of human rights in the eras before the 20th century. The human rights enforcement was motivated by their piety and loyality to the Quakerism. In other words, it was an expression of their belief in Quakerism. This theology empowered their thoughts and actions in responding issues pertaining to human rights of the minorities i.e. the Indians or Native Americans, the African-Americans, and women along the span of time. Their goal was to let the minorities enjoy their unalienable rights as what most of white men had enjoyed.

  18. Climate change: Potential impacts and interactions in wetlands of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Kusler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Wetlands exist in a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial environments which can be altered by subtle changes in hydrology. Twentieth century climate records show that the United States is generally experiencing a trend towards a wetter, warmer climate; some climate models suggest that his trend will continue and possibly intensify over the next 100 years. Wetlands that are most likely to be affected by these and other potential changes (e.g., sea-level rise) associated with atmospheric carbon enrichment include permafrost wetlands, coastal and estuarine wetlands, peatlands, alpine wetlands, and prairie pothote wetlands. Potential impacts range from changes in community structure to changes in ecological function, and from extirpation to enhancement. Wetlands (particularly boreal peatlands) play an important role in the global carbon cycle, generally sequestering carbon in the form of biomass, methane, dissolved organic material and organic sediment. Wetlands that are drained or partially dried can become a net source of methane and carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, serving as a positive biotic feedback to global warming. Policy options for minimizing the adverse impacts of climate change on wetland ecosystems include the reduction of current anthropogenic stresses, allowing for inland migration of coastal wetlands as sea-level rises, active management to preserve wetland hydrology, and a wide range of other management and restoration options.

  19. Do Bananas Have a Culture? United Fruit Company Colonies in Central America 1900-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalia Shragai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the processes underlying the development of the unique identifications and culture which evolved among the First Class Workers of the United Fruit Company - the vast majority of whom were citizens of the United States, working alongside Europeans and Central Americans - during the first half of the twentieth century. Examining the social and cultural practices widespread among the Company’s colonies, I trace the nature of the ‘Banana Culture’, a term coined by the members of this group.

  20. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  1. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  2. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  3. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? [Review of: M.B. Frank, D. Adler German art history and scientific thought: beyond formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, A.

    2012-01-01

    German Art History and Scientific Thought - Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a

  4. [Health Centers: science and ideology in the re-organization of public health in the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila

    2011-12-01

    Health Centers appeared in the United States around 1910. They provided social assistance in conjunction with some type of medical care. Their original separation between preventive and curative medicine was superseded by the concept of whole health in the 1940s, when Health Center discourse became part of medical education. In the 1960s, the notion of community medicine arose out of the war on poverty. These ideas spread through Brazil in the 1920s and were strengthened under the Vargas policy of national construction, but it was the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Public Health Service) that was primarily responsible for lending them their practical and conceptual shape in this country.

  5. Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. 11...twentieth century, Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966), an Egyptian Islamic radical, referencing al-Wahhab, developed a modified concept of jahiliyya. In Qutb’s...It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. When ibn Taymiyya was asked if the murderous. Mongols, who

  6. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  7. All Over the World: Mid-Twentieth Century Radio Astronomy and the Origin of the International SETI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Cold War mythology is rife with stories about secrecy, competition, espionage, and animosity. Yet the history behind the myth-- the overlooked scientists collaborating outside of the aims of the state-- also tells an interesting story. This paper examines the challenges of international scientific collaboration during the Cold War, focusing especially on a case study concerning Soviet radio astronomer Iosif Samuilovich Shklovskii and U.S. astrophysicist Carl Sagan, and their collaborative work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Despite the hyper-politics that instigated and fueled the Space Race, SETI was held up as an ideal internationalist science, with the lofty goal of uniting all of humanity by situating it within a cosmic community. Although the internationalism of SETI discourse is not entirely unfounded due to its roots in international collaboration, further research indicates that such internationalism was in reality instilled with geopolitics, international conflict, and even espionage. That said, however, the cultural and philosophical perspectives of individual SETI scientists led them to operate within the tensions between national and ideological restraints and their own personal philosophical perspectives. In reviewing the letters of correspondence, conference proceedings, interviews, transcripts of lectures, and autobiographical writings of early-SETI radio astronomers, this paper ultimately argues that, although SETI was not the ideal internationalist science it was portrayed as, SETI pioneers were able to connect and form international networks within a contentious system which often centred on the restriction of free information and international collaboration through their mutual unconventional scientific interests, and facilitated by their personal utopian futurist philosophies.

  8. Climate and hydrological changes in the northeastern United States: recent trends and implications for forested and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Richardson, Andrew D.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    We review twentieth century and projected twenty-first century changes in climatic and hydrologic conditions in the northeastern United States and the implications of these changes for forest ecosystems. Climate warming and increases in precipitation and associated changes in snow and hydrologic regimes have been observed over the last century, with the most pronounced changes occurring since 1970. Trends in specific climatic and hydrologic variables differ in their responses spatially (e.g., coastal vs. inland) and temporally (e.g., spring vs. summer). Trends can differ depending on the period of record analyzed, hinting at the role of decadal-scale climatic variation that is superimposed over the longer-term trend. Model predictions indicate that continued increases in temperature and precipitation across the northeastern United States can be expected over the next century. Ongoing increases in growing season length (earlier spring and later autumn) will most likely increase evapotranspiration and frequency of drought. In turn, an increase in the frequency of drought will likely increase the risk of fire and negatively impact forest productivity, maple syrup production, and the intensity of autumn foliage coloration. Climate and hydrologic changes could have profound effects on forest structure, composition, and ecological functioning in response to the changes discussed here and as described in related articles in this issue of the Journal.

  9. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  10. [Nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century: a descriptive bibliometric study of the journal Anales de Bromatologia (1949-1993)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Mestre, J; Ureña Alberola, M T; Esplugues Pellicer, J X; Trescastro-López, E M; Galiana-Sánchez, M E; Castelló Botía, I

    2012-11-01

    To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka's law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain.

  11. From Danger and Motherhood to Health and Beauty: Health Advice for the Factory Girl in Early Twentieth-Century Britain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, VICKY; MARLAND, HILARY

    2015-01-01

    A survey of government reports and the archives and journals of other agencies interested in industrial health in early twentieth-century Britain has led us to conclude that, in addition to apprehension about the potentially harmful impact of industrial work on the reproductive health of women, there was a great deal of interest in the health of young, unmarried girls in the workplace, particularly the factory. Adopting a broader time frame, we suggest that the First World War, with its emphasis on the reproductive health of women, was an anomalous experience in a broader trend which stressed the growing acceptability of women’s work within industry. Concern with girls’ health and welfare embraced hygiene, diet, exercise, recreation, fashion and beauty within and outside of the workplace, as well as the impact of the boredom and monotony associated with industrial work. The health problems of young women workers tended to be associated with behaviour and environment rather than biology, as were anxieties about the impact of work on morals, habits and character. Efforts to ensure that young female factory workers would be equipped to take their place as citizens and parents, we argue, often dovetailed rather than diverged with the ‘boy labour’ question. PMID:20481061

  12. A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the Twentieth Century as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the twentieth century, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.

  13. Illustrating phallic worship: uses of material objects and the production of sexual knowledge in eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.

  14. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  15. Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America / Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Benito Narváez Tijerina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. Ettinger, Catherine R. (coord. (2015. Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. México: Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 259 páginas. ISBN: 978-6074019681.

  16. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  17. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but…

  18. A study on spectral energy for the end of the twentieth century the basis of the NCEP reanalysis-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, A. F.; Veiga, J. A.; Yoshida, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    The energy cycle proposed by Lorenz (1955) is composed of the behavior of the average energy from the atmosphere and characteristics of atmospheric energy deviations from this average, respectively called basic state and perturbed state. However, it is possible to discretize the energy contained in the atmosphere disturbed state, decomposing the fields of the various disturbances or harmonics wave type, so as to measure and analyze the energy of these disorders according to their number or wavelength, this methodology described second Saltzman (1957). Therefore, in view of the spectral analysis as a methodological basis, this work aims to study the energy contained by the atmosphere in disturbed state. Considering the terms of power generation potential available for nth waves due to diabatic heating, represented by (G(n)), potential energy of nth wave (P(n)) and kinetic energy of nth wave (K(n)) and the conversion of energy between the energy nth kinetic and potential energy of waves nth waves given by (C(n)). The variables used in the calculation of the terms above are, temperature (T) orthogonal components of the wind (u, v, w) and geopotential height (G) from a data set from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) considering daily shared values on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 2.5° × 2.5°, distributed in 12 pressure levels (1000, 925, 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100 hPa ) for the 1970 to 1999 period. The results show that for kinetic energy of disturbance to nth wave, the amount of energy is somewhat dammed during for the first 10 wave numbers in this range are the planetary waves and waves. Observing this way, we can conclude that these waves are responsible for much of the kinetic energy in disturbed state. A characteristic and a difference in the distribution of energy between kinetic energy and potential energy disturbed total available to disturbance, is the derivative of the energy wavenumber presented by

  19. Politics and pellagra: the epidemic of pellagra in the U.S. in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollet, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known. Politicians and the general public felt that it was more acceptable for pellagra to be infectious than for it to be a form of malnutrition, a result of poverty and thus an embarrassing social problem. Retrospectively, a change in the method of milling cornmeal, degermination, which began shortly after 1900, probably accounted for the appearance of the epidemic; such a process was suggested at the time, but the suggestion was ignored. PMID:1285449

  20. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  1. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  2. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  3. URBAN DISPLACEMENT AND LOW-INCOME COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN CITY FROM THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Knight

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How can urban redevelopment benefit existing low-income communities? The history of urban redevelopment is one of disruption of poor communities. Renewal historically offered benefits to the place while pushing out the people. In some cases, displacement is intentional, in others it is unintentional. Often, it is the byproduct of the quest for profits. Regardless of motives, traditional communities, defined by cultural connections, are often disrupted. Disadvantaged neighborhoods include vacant units, which diminish the community and hold back investment. In the postwar period, American cities entered into a program of urban renewal. While this program cleared blight, it also drove displacement among the cities’ poorest and was particularly hard on minority populations clustered in downtown slums. The consequences of these decisions continue to play out today. Concentration of poverty is increasing and American cities are becoming more segregated. As neighborhoods improve, poorer residents are uprooted and forced into even more distressed conditions, elsewhere. This paper examines the history of events impacting urban communities. It further reviews the successes and failures of efforts to benefit low-income communities.

  4. [The strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of the visiting nurse in the early twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Lílian Fernandes Arial; Amorim, Wellington Mendonça de; Piva, Teresa Cristina de Carvalho; Porto, Fernando Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Based on the historical and social perspective, the scope of this documentary study were the strategies of the symbolic struggle for the training of agents in home visitation in the Courses for Visiting Nurses of the Brazilian Red Cross and the National Department of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro (Federal District), with repercussions in the Department of Health and Welfare of the State of Pernambuco between 1920 and 1926. We adopted the thinking of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu as a theoretical benchmark, showing the symbolic struggle in the field of public health between sanitarians Amaury de Medeiros and José P. Fontenelle and public health nurse Ethel Parsons, to analyze who was responsible for the scientific authority and competence of the training of visiting nurses.

  5. Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Patrick J; Thorne, James H; Dolanc, Christopher R; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D

    2015-02-03

    We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees (Forest composition in California in the last century has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.

  6. Features of the development of health care in Ukraine in the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Y. Stupak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article an attempt to show the features of development of health protection in Ukraine in first половиі of ХХ of century. Is done it is Marked that in the Russian empire numerous commissions were created on questions a health protection, that carefully studied medical business in a country, gave sound suggestions in relation to her reorganization. Organization of medicare the submission of organs and establishments of health protection to the different departments interfered with in a country. The first world war became the real test for the медико­санітарної system and weight lay down on Ukraine. As a result of soldiery failures of Russia there was the directed stream of refugees and migrants to the different cities of Ukraine. The list of negative parties of health protection pre­soviet period over is brought. In a period the Ukrainian state system one of the first is created in the world Ministry of folk health and guardianship that testifies to understanding and confession of priority of questions of health protection population the state. In a soviet pre­war period decided the question of organizational construction of the system of health protection in new socio­economic terms, forming of soviet organs of management, fight against epidemics and hunger, searches of new organizational forms of grant of medicare. On business quality improvement of industry of health protection that developed the justified by then extensive way, it was done quite a bit: foundation of the that system of medical help, that passed muster in the years of Great Patriotic war 1941­1945, is stopped up. A help to the injured and sick servicemen, medical service of workers of rear, health protection children and wide antiepidemic events, became the main tasks of health protection in the years of Great Patriotic war.

  7. Estimating long-term statistics for annual precipitation for six regions of the United States from tree-ring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, H.C.; DeWitt, E.; Gordon, G.A.; Hunt, J.H.; Lofgren, G.R.

    1979-12-01

    Spatial anomalies of seasonal precipitation for the United States and southwestern Canada have been reconstructed from 1602 through 1961 using dendrochronological and multivariate techniques on 65 arid-site tree-ring chronologies from western North America. Seasonal reconstructions are averaged to obtain mean annual precipitation values for six regions of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP). Statistics calculated from the regionally averaged annual values for 25-year and longer intervals show annual precipitation in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries to be lower than in the twentieth century for three regions in the American Southwest and higher for one region in the Northwest and two regions in the East. The variability of precipitation generally was higher in the past three centuries than in the present century. Twenty-five-year intervals with noteworthy statistics are identified and important results are summarized and tabulated for use in the hydrologic modeling of the NWMP. Additional research is recommended to incorporate temperature and precipitation into a single hydrologic parameter

  8. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Olszewska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish as Determinants of Identity: As Illustrated in the Jewish Press of the First Half of the Twentieth Century The paper shows an image and functions of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish languages among Jewish Diaspora groups – the Balkan Sephardim and the Ashkenazim (the Ostjuden group – in the period from the beginning of the twentieth century until the outbreak of World War II. The study is based on the articles from Jewish weeklies, magazines and newspapers from pre-war Bosnia and Hercegovina and from Germany/Poland. It demonstrates a double-sided attitude towards the languages. On the one hand – an image of the languages as determinants of Jewish identity. Touching on this theme, the authors of the paper also try to highlight the images of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish and as determinants in a narrower sense – of the Sephardi/Ashkenazi identity in that period. On the other hand, the paper shows a tendency to treat the languages as “corrupted” and “dying” languages, and as factors slowing down the assimilation of Jewish groups and also as an obstacle for Zionist ideologies.   Języki jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpański jako wskaźniki tożsamości – na przykładzie żydowskich tekstów prasowych pierwszej połowy XX wieku Artykuł ukazuje obraz i funkcje języków jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego wśród żydowskich grup diasporowych – bałkańskich Sefardyjczyków oraz Aszkenazyjczyków (Ostjuden – w okresie od początków wieku XX do wybuchu II wojny światowej. Opis oparty jest na artykułach z żydowskich magazynów, tygodników, prasy codziennej z przedwojennej Bośni i Hercegowiny oraz Niemiec/Polski. Ukazany jest ambiwalentny stosunek wobec języków. Z jednej strony – obraz języków jako wskaźników żydowskiej tożsamości, jak również obraz jidysz i żydowsko-hiszpańskiego jako wskaźników tożsamości w węższym ujęciu: tożsamości sefardyjskiej/aszkenazyjskiej w omawianym okresie. Z drugiej

  9. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17 th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17 th " played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests

  10. The Social Composition and Main Tasks of Russian Right-Monarchist and Centrist Political Parties of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Zabolotskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the social composition of the political parties of the Russian Empire in the early XX century and a real reflection of interests of different social groups. The estates principle of social organization of pre-revolutionary Russia, seems, was to be decisive to formation of the party organizations. However, in practice, many public organizations (in particular, the Black Hundred Party declared their all-estates character, trying to become the spokesman of the greatest possible number of social groups. By the beginning of XXcen tury in Russia there were about 60 parties, which could be called the all-Russian. Comparing the most famous of them, the author concludes that representatives of the Black Hundreds largely managed to realize the proclaimed all-estates construction principle of political organization. As stated by the leader of the Monarchist Party V.A.Gringmut, "Black Hundred-monarchists - are thousands, millions, it's - the whole Russian Orthodox people, remaining faithful to the oath unlimited Orthodox tsar" [10, p. 156]. The ideology of the Black Hundreds, which had the universal Christian character, reflecting the traditionalist outlook of the country's population, contributed to their penetration into the masses. Contrary to popular belief, the big bourgeoisie and the landlord class were not the only groups that are members of the «Union of October 17th». However Octobrists faced with serious problems, attracting to its ranks of workers and peasants of the Russian population, because they are more focused on employers rather than workers. For example, as the researchers note, an important role in the creation of the "Union of October 17th" played factory owners Brusnitsyns in St. Petersburg [3, p.122]. But by 1917 Octobrists altogether lost control of the labor movement. Thus, despite the constant positioning of the political parties of the Russian Empire as all-estates, in reality, they pursued the interests of

  11. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, M.; Zischg, A.; Fuchs, S.; Hama, M.; Stötter, J.

    2005-01-01

    When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria). Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  12. Penélopes do século XX: a cultura popular revisitada Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Eulalia Favaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No processo de ocupação das chamadas Velhas Colônias italianas do Rio Grande do Sul, os imigrantes construíram um corpo de valores positivos, destinado a servir de suporte emocional e veículo de comunicação externa. Por meio do bordado de imagens e inscrições sobre panos de parede ou panos de cozinha em tecidos rústicos, as mulheres contribuíram para alimentar o sonho de uma vida melhor. Desejo de todos, realização de alguns, as penélopes do século XX deixaram naqueles objetos testemunhos de um modo de fazer, pensar e agir: museus locais e exposições estimulam o resgate de antigas técnicas e temas de bordado; os produtos, comercializados nas feiras e festas regionais, convertem-se em renda para mulheres excluídas, pela idade, do mercado de trabalho formal.During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  13. The Debate about the Origin of Venereal Disease and VD Control in Modern China : Focusing on Shanghai and Beijing in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHN Kyuhwan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines venereal disease(VD control in Shanghai and Beijing in the first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the debate about the origin of VD in which western doctors stressed the importance of prostitution rather than VD itself. While missionary western doctors approached VD and prostitution from a moral perspective, Chinese western doctors adopted a public health approach. Because Chinese western doctors favored the medium of popular magazines and newspapers to publicize VD and enlighten the public, it is difficult to find their writings on VD in the medical journals such as The National Medical Journal of China(NMJ. Therefore, Chinese western doctors had not been indifferent to VD as previously thought. Common people preferred the black market to the open clinic, and abused salvarsan to cure VD in secret. This suggests the sensitive nature of VD as a disease that degrades personal honor. VD control varied depending on the perspective of the origin of VD and the prostitution, and measures taken. While moralists in the debate upheld a position to abolish licensed prostitution, public health enthusiasts propped up licensed prostitution. VD control in Shanghai and Beijing displays a striking contrast. In Shanghai, the power to control VD and prostitutes were separated. The Shanghai Municipal Council(SMC, French Municipal Council(FMC, and Shanghai Municipality(SM did not cooperate in the control of VD and prostitutes. When SMC devoted its energies to abolish licensed prostitution, FMC and SM enjoyed prostitute's taxes. The Beiping Municipality(1928-1937 practiced multiple forms of control patterns and targets of VD. They adopted a bifurcated policy regarding VD. The targets of diagnosis were divided into prostitute, pregnant women, and normal citizen. The range of the reach of the health administration in Beiping Municipality was gradually magnified.

  14. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keiler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria. Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  15. Modernization Theory Revisited: Latin America, Europe, and the U.S. in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of modernization, globalization, and dependency have assigned a clear role to Latin America: the region has been seen as dependent, exploited, and institutionally weak. In these theories, modernization and globalization are seen as forces generated elsewhere; the region, in these views, has merely tried to “adjust” and “respond” to these external influences. At best, it has imitated some of the political institutions of the core countries and, most of the times, unsuccessfully. While there is very good empirical evidence that supports these views, the essay argues that these theories need some correction. Latin America has been an innovator and a modernizer in its own right, especially in its cutting-edge design of the nation-state and in its modern conceptualization of the national community. Thus, the essay suggests that the region has not merely “adjusted” to modernization and globalization. Rather, the paper makes a case for a reinterpretation of the region’s role as a modernizer and an important contributor to the consolidation of the modern West.

  16. The reformist triad and institutional forgetting of culture: a field study into twentieth-century Swedish social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas

    2012-01-01

    Social medicine deals with the interplay between medicine and society. An awareness of how analytical categories have emerged historically can strengthen the role the discipline can play in the societal reinventions of health care now under way around the world. This study examines the categories that informed social medicine in Sweden during the 20th century. An anthropological field study was conducted over a 12-year period in a Swedish academic clinical setting. Historical documents were used to link local-level issues with macro-level (here, national and European) contexts. Social medicine, modernity, and social democracy were found to share a common history and a common vision of what society should be. As a result, concepts from politics, ideology, economy, and science tended to be conflated. As a clinician at the study site explained, "samhälle [community] is both society and state". The consequence for social medicine is that culture has become neglected as an analytical category. This institutional amnesia has strongly influenced how 21st century social medicine, in this region of the world, has defined itself and its interests. To return a cultural perspective to social medicine, a critical distance must be kept between the analyses the discipline undertakes and the prevailing societal ideologies.

  17. School architectural standards and the expansion of Elementary School in the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Dias da Cunha de Moraes Fernandes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the transformation that took place in the physical space of elementary schools in Brazil, within the initial period of expanding access to basic education, which occurred between the years 1930 to 1940. Through the historical - descriptive approach, it was sought to demonstrate that the school's architectural projects have materialized constituent aspects of current educational policies in the indicated periods. Based on a bibliographic research of historical framework, it was approached the emergence of new planning guidelines in state bodies and, the configuration of the Brazilian school architecture in accordance with the modernizing discourse of the period. Were sought the transformations of architectural models and the orientation change of planning bodies, which have used functionalist concepts from the architecture of modern movement for the construction of school buildings, following modular construction principles, prefabrication and despoliation of all ornamentation. Having as reference the modifications in planning guidelines and, how the school physical network has been configured, it was identified that the expansion of the physical network followed the parameter of public spending rationalization. This factor corroborated with the massive access, occasioning the adoption of standardized architectural solutions, impoverishment and precariousness of physical structure of Brazilian public schools.

  18. Birth in the United States: an overview of trends past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, William F; Simeone, Sara A

    2002-12-01

    The picture of birth in the United States today is complex and, as the data above indicates, difficult to describe in simplistic terms. Though many women today have come to believe that there are choices surrounding pregnancy and birth, the beliefs and practices of providers, insurers, and hospital administrators play a major role in either influencing those choices or dictating how they will be manifested. On one hand, technological advances have given women greater options with regard to the outcomes of pregnancy and birth. On the other hand, these very same technological advances place limits on the choices available to the individual. For example, increased efficiency in the placement and use of epidural anesthesia has made this a pain-control option for most of the childbearing women in the United States. The use of an epidural, however, puts limits on the choice of an institution at which to give birth and on the movements/activities of the woman during labor. Twentieth-century developments led to the almost complete demise of midwifery practice in the United States, thus taking birth away from the control of the individual woman and her close, matriarchal support system, and placing it in the hands of the patriarchal world of medicine and the institutions (i.e., hospitals) at which this approach to health care is practiced. Most births went from being normal, home-based events to becoming illness-oriented, hospital-based procedures. Just as some steps were being taken in the latter part of the twentieth century to return some of the control of birth back to pregnant women (e.g., childbirth education classes, the modern home-birth movement, increases in the number of midwifery-tended births), technological advances contributed to continued control by physicians and the hospitals of their practice (e.g., fetal monitoring, epidural anesthesia). Advances in technology have made birth possible for many individuals who otherwise would not have had the opportunity

  19. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  20. A Twentieth Century Morality Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallenik, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Criticizes Erving Goffman's theory that human gestures express cultural assumptions which, in turn, legitimize social structure. Contends that Goffman blurs the distinction between his own observations as a social scientist and the interpretations of behavior by people within social situations. (JMF)

  1. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  2. "Units of Comparison" across Languages, across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere's keynote article adverts to a succession of "units of comparison" that have been employed in the study of cross-linguistic differences, including mid-twentieth-century structural patterns, generative grammar's parameters, and (within contemporary Minimalism) features. This commentary expands on the idea of units of cross-linguistic…

  3. Unfulfilled Promises, Future Possibilities: The Refugee Resettlement System in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available World War II caused the displacement of millions of people throughout Europe. In response, the United States initiated a public-private partnership that assisted in the resettlement of hundreds of thousands of the region’s displaced persons. For nearly 40 years after the War, the US commitment to refugee resettlement played out in an ad hoc fashion as it responded to emerging crises in different ways. During this period the government’s involvement with resettlement became gradually intertwined with that of nongovernmental resettlement agencies, which came to play an increasingly vital role in the resettlement process. The budding relationship that began in the middle decades of the twentieth century set the foundation for an expansive and dynamic public-private partnership that continues to this day. The Refugee Act of 1980 solidified the relationship between resettlement agencies and the federal government, established political asylum in US law, and created the refugee resettlement program and a series of assistance programs to help refugees transition to life in the United States. This legislation marked a decisive turning point in the field of refugee resettlement.Since passage of the Act, the United States has resettled more than two million refugees, providing them with the opportunity to start a new life.  Nevertheless, almost as soon as it was established, federal backing for the domestic resettlement program began to erode, placing the program under increasing stress. Financial and programmatic support was quickly reduced because of budgetary pressures and a changing political climate in Washington, DC. Administrative control of the program was assigned to federal agencies that are responsible for different facets of the process. However, coordination and information sharing between these agencies and with resettlement agencies has been less than optimal.  The lack of adequate support for the resettlement program has placed

  4. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  5. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  6. Tunnel Vision and Blind Spots: What the Past Tells Us about the Present; Reflections on the Twentieth-Century History of American Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of United States librarianship. Suggests that the profession has failed to analyze the meaning of library service and its significance to users. Argues that this has limited the ability to understand the present role of the U.S. library and thus affects efforts to plan for the future. Contains 131 references. (Author/LRW)

  7. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  8. Growing parental economic power in parent-adult child households: coresidence and financial dependency in the United States, 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joan R; Goldscheider, Frances; García-Manglano, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Research on coresidence between parents and their adult children in the United States has challenged the myth that elders are the primary beneficiaries, instead showing that intergenerationally extended households generally benefit the younger generation more than their parents. Nevertheless, the economic fortunes of those at the older and younger ends of the adult life course have shifted in the second half of the twentieth century, with increasing financial well-being among older adults and greater financial strain among younger adults. This article uses U.S. census and American Community Survey (ACS) data to examine the extent to which changes in generational financial well-being over the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been reflected in the likelihood of coresidence and financial dependency in parent-adult child U.S. households between 1960 and 2010. We find that younger adults have become more financially dependent on their parents and that while older adults have become more financially independent of their adult children, they nevertheless coreside with their needy adult children. We also find that the effect of economic considerations in decisions about coresidence became increasingly salient for younger adults, but decreasingly so for older adults.

  9. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  10. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  11. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  12. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  13. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  14. Alguns aspetos da interferência das ideias da revolução científica do início do século XX na poesia de Mário de Sá-Carneiro // Some aspects of the interference of the ideas of the scientific revolution of the beginning of the twentieth century in the poetry of Mário de Sá-Carneiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mazniak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between poetic creativity and the achievements of scientific thought in the early twentieth century. It does this through an analysis of aesthetic concepts and examples from the poetry of Mário de Sá-Carneiro, alongside an exploration of the main provisions of Theoretical Physics from the early twentieth century as far as the conceptions of space are concerned.

  15. “Gate and Port of the South of Argentina”? Nuances and Debates in the Image of Bahia Blanca City in Its Regional Context in the Mid-twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana López Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a century the people of Bahia Blanca, Argentinian port city located at the south west of the province of Buenos Aires, they have imagined it and defined it not only as part of the Patagonian territories but also as their legitimate political, economic and cultural center. The aim of historicizing and questioning this idea, trying to account for the interests that were mobilized, the ideological postures that hinted, and the impact it had on the effective regional layout, is what motivates our research. To that end, this article does focus on economic and infrastructural dimension that some debates of mid-twentieth century used simultaneously as evidence and as ultimate goal of this alleged hegemony. For this purpose, we will analyze the writings of Domingo Pronsato and Ricardo M. Ortiz whom, from different geopolitical perspectives, devised specific roles for the city that suited their plans for the regional development of Patagonia.

  16. Dwudziestowieczna filozofia analityczna. O pewnej próbie całościowego ujęcia (TWENTIETH-CENTURY ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY. ON A RECENT ATTEMPT OF ITS GENERAL ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Szubka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although analytic philosophy is a major movement shaping contemporary philosophy, there are not too many historical accounts of that movement which would be comprehensive, unified and sufficiently detailed. An impressive attempt to fill in this lacuna is the two-volume book 'Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century', modestly described by its author Scott Soames (renowned mainly for his work in the philosophy of language as 'an introductory overview of the analytic tradition in philosophy covering roughly the period between 1900 and 1975'. The first volume discusses the philosophy of G.E. Moore, the most influential views of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus', logical positivism (including emotivism in ethics and reaction against it, as well as the early philosophy of W.V. Quine. The second volume continues the story of analytic philosophy by providing an account of the later philosophy of Wittgenstein, the ordinary language philosophy and its demise, the philosophical naturalism of W.V. Quine, the theory of meaning of Donald Davidson, and finally Saul Kripke's seminal philosophy of language and its wide-ranging implications. The book contains also a short epilogue outlining the direction taken by analytic philosophy in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The two volumes of Soames' account of contemporary analytic tradition are packed with lucid, sophisticated and detailed discussions of various views of major thinkers of that tradition. However, besides these merits the book by Soames has several weaker points. It defines analytic philosophy in a rather loose and unspecific manner, as well as gives an arbitrarily selective and unbalanced account of its recent developments.

  17. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  19. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  20. Attribution of Extreme Rainfall from Landfalling Tropical Cyclones to Climate Change for the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, L.; Smith, J. A.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall and flooding associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TC) is responsible for vast socioeconomic losses and fatalities. Landfalling tropical cyclones are an important element of extreme rainfall and flood peak distributions in the eastern United States. Record floods for USGS stream gauging stations over the eastern US are closely tied to landfalling hurricanes. A small number of storms account for the largest record floods, most notably Hurricanes Diane (1955) and Agnes (1972). The question we address is: if the synoptic conditions accompanying those hurricanes were to be repeated in the future, how would the thermodynamic and dynamic storm properties and associated extreme rainfall differ in response to climate change? We examine three hurricanes: Diane (1955), Agnes (1972) and Irene (2011), due to the contrasts in structure/evolution properties and their important roles in dictating the upper tail properties of extreme rainfall and flood frequency over eastern US. Extreme rainfall from Diane is more localized as the storm maintains tropical characteristics, while synoptic-scale vertical motion associated with extratropical transition is a central feature for extreme rainfall induced by Agnes. Our analyses are based on ensemble simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, considering combinations of different physics options (i.e., microphysics, boundary layer schemes). The initial and boundary conditions of WRF simulations for the present-day climate are using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20thCR). A sub-selection of GCMs is used, as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), to provide future climate projections. For future simulations, changes in model fields (i.e., temperature, humidity, geopotential height) between present-day and future climate are first derived and then added to the same 20thCR initial and boundary data used for the present-day simulations, and the ensemble is

  1. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  2. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  3. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  4. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  5. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  6. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  8. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  11. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  14. Aprendiendo a ser mujer en la España del siglo XX: una mirada desde el Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla. // Learning to be a woman in the twentieth century Spain: a look from the Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of Education at the University of Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rebollo Espinosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES La experiencia reseñada fue una iniciativa del Museo Pedagógico de la Facultad de CC. De la Educación de la Universidad de Sevilla, financiada por la Unidad de Igualdad de dicha Universidad e incluida en el programa de actividades didácticas que éste viene desarrollando desde sus inicios. Pensada para un variado público, su objetivo principal ha sido dar a conocer, de forma atractiva y reflexiva, la historia de la educación de las mujeres españolas del siglo XX, desde una perspectiva no victimista. El formato elegido fue el de una muestra expositiva combinada con un ciclo de conferencias, y rematada con una evaluación participativa y experiencial, lo que le proporcionó una mayor efectividad formativa. Su éxito ha asegurado la continuidad del proyecto para el curso próximo. // (EN The experience was an initiative outlined the Pedagogical Museum of the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the University of Seville, funded by the Equality Unit of the University and included in the program of educational activities it has developed since its inception. Designed for a diverse audience, its main aim has been to publicize, attractive and thoughtful way, the history of education of Spanish women of the twentieth century, from a non- victimization perspective. The format chosen was that of an exhibition shows combined with a series of lectures, and topped with a participatory and experiential evaluation, which provided increased training effectiveness. Its success has ensured the continuity of the project for next year.

  15. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  17. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  18. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  1. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  2. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  3. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  7. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  9. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  10. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  13. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  14. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  16. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  17. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  18. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  19. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  1. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  2. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  3. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  5. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  6. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? Mitchell B. Frank and Daniel Adler (eds, German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism, Ashgate, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Witte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available German Art History and Scientific Thought – Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a practical and methodological level, but at the same time illustrate how the quest for objectivity and scientific methods was accompanied by an irrational search for essential characteristics of art through race. Especially the exchange with psychology, physiognomy, and psychophysiology supported this kind reasoning in circles in which objectivity was related to holistic explanations. This led to a rhetoric of objective Kunstwissenschaft that spoke in terms of rational facts, but in which the concepts of character and evolution resulted in highly ideological interpretations, which became discredited after 1945. However, the post-war reaction to this in itself again affected another turn towards the ‘objective’ which goes to show how external, political, changes affected the relation between art history and the sciences.

  7. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  9. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  14. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  15. "SAFEGUARDING THE INTERESTS OF THE STATE" FROM DEFECTIVE DELINQUENT GIRLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohasky, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    The 1911 mental classification, "defective delinquent," was created as a temporary legal-medical category in order to identify a peculiar class of delinquent girls in a specific institutional setting. The defective delinquent's alleged slight mental defect, combined with her appearance of normalcy, rendered her a "dangerous" and "incurable" citizen. At the intersection of institutional history and the history of ideas, this article explores the largely overlooked role of borderline mental classifications of near-normalcy in the medicalization of intelligence and criminality during the first third of the twentieth-century United States. Borderline classifications served as mechanisms of control over women's bodies through the criminalization of their minds, and the advent of psychometric tests legitimated and facilitated the spread of this classification beyond its original and intended context. The borderline case of the defective delinquent girl demonstrates the significance of marginal mental classifications to the policing of bodies through the medicalization of intellect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  17. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    such women pursued higher education. The role of women as "chemical assistants" to leading chemists of the day is well illustrated in the lives of du Chatelet, Paulze-Lavoisier, Picardet, and Necker de Saussure. Sadly, all this ended with the French Revolution when the woman intellectual became unacceptable. Chapter 3 focuses on a few exceptional women of the 1800-1900s who succeeded independently in their scientific work in an era when, without access to universities and financial resources, it was almost impossible to function other than as a "chemical assistant". This chapter gives a fascinating account of the life and work of five women, including Elizabeth Fulhame, who is credited with the discovery of photoreduction and the concept of catalysis, and Agnes Pockels, who, without formal education or laboratory facilities, pioneered research in surface films. By the 1850s, access to advanced education for women began in earnest. Chapter 4 tells of this radical change and its ramifications. This most readable account of the cultural conflicts that existed in Europe and the United States over educating women, admitting them to professional societies, and gaining faculty appointments is exemplified in the biographies of four U.S. women (Ellen Swallow Richards, Rachel Lloyd, Laura Linton, Ida Freund) and two Russian women (Yulya Lermontova and Vera Bogdanovskaia). Much of the content of the book resides in the remaining chapters (5-10) and covers 20th century science through 1950. The titles, Women in: Crystallography (Chapter 5), Radioactivity (Chapter 6), Biochemistry (Chapter 7), Industrial Chemistry (Chapter 8), Analytical, Education and History (Chapter 9), suggest that women favored some areas of chemistry over others. Why did they tend to congregate in certain fields? The authors give cogent reasons why this was so. They observe that, in developing fields, there was initially a collegiality among colleagues and the support of senior mentors that established a

  18. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  19. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  20. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  1. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  2. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  3. Inscribing Siam: The State of Documentary and Spatial Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren; Suwannakij, Sing

    2017-01-01

    The administrative reforms in Siam around the turn of the twentieth century are probably one of the most studied topics in the history of Thailand. Known as the Chakri reforms, it is usually described as the period when the royal elite worked to create a Siamese nation-state under the guidance of...

  4. [The "culture of survival" and international public health in Latin America: the Cold War and the eradication of diseases in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the main campaigns run by international agencies and national health bodies to eradicate infectious diseases in rural Latin America in the 1940s and 1950s. The political dimensions of the period have been studied but there has been little attention as yet to the health dimensions. This article proposes the concept of a "culture of survival" to explain the official public health problems of states with limited social policies that did not allow the exercise of citizenship. Public health, as part of this culture of survival, sought a temporary solution without confronting the social problems that led to infections and left a public health legacy in the region.

  5. Liberalism as a Cultural Phenomenon of Russian Provincial Life of the Late Nineteenth – Early Twentieth Centuries (according to Voronezh province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. Dvoretskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the presented research considers liberalism as a cultural phenomenon, closely watches the liberalism as an impact factor to cultural life in rural areas (esp. in Voronezh province in the end of XIX up to XX cent.. Besides, the authors make a try of consideration of liberalism in the context of European innovations blending conception. According to this idea the traditional society was transformed by means of technical, political, social and cultural innovation expansion from their source, which is in the Western Europe. Different sources served as a basis for the research, their analysis gives the reason to shape out the place and the role of Russian liberalism in the end of XIX up to the beginning of XX cent. in the formation of innovative elements of urban culture, and to specify the process of the liberal ideas expansion in the provincial cultural life sphere, and to characterize the bearer and translators of liberal ideas (local liberal figures, participants of the local liberal parties, liberal intellectuals. As a result, the existence of the basic liberal values reflections (freedom and preciousness of a personal identity, individualism and so on was stated, that shows the Russian liberalism as the ideal, political and cultural phenomenon. This, finally, states the great degree of the reception of the liberal ideas by the Russian society in the beginning of the XXth, and gives the opportunity to observe the liberal reflections as a process of civil society’s formation evidence in Russia by the beginning of the XXth cent.

  6. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  7. Women’s Activism and Innovation in Education: the Role of the Unione Femminile Nazionale in Sicily for the Transformation of Italian Pedagogy at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letterio Todaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the twentieth century represented a special occasion in the development of women’s movements as a vehicle for a new culture of education. The growing role of women’s associations in modern society found fertile ground in the increasing demand for childcare. In Italy such a process reflected a meaningful phenomenon of social transformation, which was linked to the ascent of the lower classes and to the progression of democratic values. In a region like Sicily, the appearance of local branches of the Unione Femminile Nazionale in some principal cities of the isle, such as Catania, from 1909 onwards represented a crucial opportunity not only for the social and cultural elevation of working-class children, but also for the introduction of new models of schooling and the experimentation of new methods in education, within the wider framework of a general renewal in the science of education of the time. The most representative witness and «learner» of these innovative approaches to education was Giuseppe Lombardo Radice, who was to «transfer» many aspects of his experience into the reform of the entire primary school system in Italy (1923 in line with the design of «active schooling». A survey of the experience of the Sicilian sections of the Unione provides not only a significant example of civilization processes promoted by women’s activism, but also a key to better understanding the wealth of resources involved in the construction of a modern pedagogy in Italy before the coming of Fascism.

  8. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km 2 (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO 2 emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar, but also hydrogen and

  9. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km{sup 2} (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO{sub 2} emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar

  10. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  11. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  12. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  13. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  14. The state of the science of whole blood: lessons learned at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, James R; Zielinski, Martin D; Jenkins, Donald

    2016-04-01

    AABB Standards specify that ABO group-specific whole blood is the only acceptable choice for whole blood transfusions. Although universal donor group O stored whole blood (SWB) was used extensively by the military during the wars of the mid-twentieth century, its use has fallen out of favor and has never been used to great extent in the civilian trauma population. Interest in the use of whole blood has been renewed, particularly in light of its potential value in far-forward military and other austere environments. Evidence of preserved platelet function in SWB has heightened enthusiasm for a "one stop shop" resuscitation product providing volume, oxygen carrying capacity, and hemostatic effects. Experience with universal donor group O SWB is required to ascertain whether its use will be an advance in trauma care. Described here is the process of establishing a universal donor group O SWB at a civilian trauma center in the United States. © 2016 AABB.

  15. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  16. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  17. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Finally, the proceedings could not have been prepared without the able assistance of Ms. Nellie Dykes and Mrs. Christy Whale who prepared the pa ers...he was prepared to shove them aside once and for all. 20 4. He suffered from the normal ultra-Fascist addiction to the idea that war is the

  18. Misreading Science in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Considers textual aspects of scientific communication and problems for reception presented by the complex dynamics of communicating scientific work. Discusses scientific work based on fraud or misconduct and disputes about the nature of science, and applies reception theory and reader-response criticism to understand variations in readings of the…

  19. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual changes brought by modern physics are important, radical and fascinating, yet they are only vaguely understood by people working outside the field. Exploring the four pillars of modern physics – relativity, quantum mechanics, elementary particles and cosmology – this clear and lively account will interest anyone who has wondered what Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg were really talking about. The book discusses quarks and leptons, antiparticles and Feynman diagrams, curved space-time, the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. Suitable for undergraduate students in non-science as well as science subjects, it uses problems and worked examples to help readers develop an understanding of what recent advances in physics actually mean.

  20. Gauge Theories in the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the 1970s, it was clear that all the known forces of nature (including, in a sense, gravity) were examples of gauge theories , characterized by invariance under symmetry transformations chosen independently at each position and each time. These ideas culminated with the finding of the W and Z gauge bosons (and perhaps also the Higgs boson). This important book brings together the key papers in the history of gauge theories, including the discoveries of: the role of gauge transformations in the quantum theory of electrically charged particles in the 1920s; nonabelian gauge groups

  1. Presentation: Twentieth-century Dictatorships and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier agrupa trabajos que cubren una amplia zona geográfica, ofreciendo diferentes puntos de vista sobre aspectos concernientes a la relación entre políticas dictatoriales y religión. El resultado final es ocho artículos que abordan la cuestión en cuatro continentes: Asia, África, América y Europa. Por la diversidad de enfoques, los artículos tratan, desde perspectivas diferentes, las actitudes “pragmáticas” coloniales y postcoloniales hacia la religión en África (Grandhomme y Kroubo Dagnini, la identidad religiosa africana (Chande, el uso de la religión como una fuente de moral y ética en Argentina (Cousins y Francia (Stevens, el punto de tensión entre la religión y política tradicionales y el mito en China (Lee e Italia (Nelis, y las actitudes de la dictadura hacia la identidad religiosa en España (Beck.____________________ABSTRACT:This dossier contains essays that cover a broad geographic area, offering different points of view on various aspects concerning the relation between dictatorship policies and religion. The final result are eight articles, which deal with the situation on four continents: Asia, Africa, America and Europe. Presenting a great variety of approaches, the articles show different views on the “pragmatic” colonial and post-colonial attitudes towards religion in Africa (Grandhomme and Kroubo Dagnini, African religious identity (Chande, the use of religion as a source of morals and ethics in Argentina (Cousins and France (Stevens, the point of tension between traditional religion and politics and the myth in China (Lee and Italy (Nelis and the dictatorship’s attitude towards the religious identity in Spain (Beck.

  2. Learning from Twentieth Century Hermeneutic Phenomenology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annette Stones

    2008-05-01

    May 1, 2008 ... ... explicit in terms of intentionalities how, for instance, a memory ... and psychology to take heed of what the hermeneutic ..... the key passages from Husserl, a few short remarks ... because he took Husserl's attention to lived.

  3. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  4. Giving in the Netherlands: A strong welfare state with a vibrant nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Wiepking, P.; Handy, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has a rich philanthropic history. However, since the introduction of the welfare state during the first half of the twentieth century, the Dutch government took over responsibility for the provision of most public goods and services. In 2007, the Dutch government spent 20 per cent of

  5. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  6. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  7. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  8. Las revistas de empresa en España: algunos ejemplos de house organ desde principios del siglo XX / House Organ in Spain: some examples from the early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Reina Estevez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sobre los house organ o revista de empresa parece haberse escrito muy poco y siempre desde su dimensión técnica, obviando su evolución histórica. Pese a ser una técnica con fuerte tradición en otros países como EEUU, Inglaterra o Francia desde finales del siglo XIX, en España su estudio ha pasado casi desapercibido. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es encontrar algunas manifestaciones de este instrumento en las organizaciones patrias desde principios del pasado siglo XX, para confeccionar una lista de ejemplos reales sin carácter exhaustivo. Para alcanzar los resultados se parte de una revisión bibliográfica de las primeras obras sobre publicidad que se publicaron en nuestro país, que dará lugar al estudio de los manuales sobre relaciones públicas que se han editado posteriormente. Esta metodología se completa con la consulta a hemerotecas y las, comúnmente conocidas, como librerías de viejo o librerías de segunda mano, donde a día de hoy se atesoran algunos ejemplares de house organ que han sobrevivido al paso del tiempo. / It´s have written about house organ very little and always from technical dimension, ignoring the historical evolution. Despite being a technique with a strong tradition in other countries like USA, England or France since the late nineteenth century, in Spain study it has gone unnoticed until now. The main objective of this research focuses on finding some manifestations of this instrument in the patriotic organizations since the beginning of the twentieth century, to compile a list of real examples without limitation. To achieve results is part of a literature review of the first works on advertising that were published in our country that will lead to the study of public relations manuals that have been subsequently released. This methodology is supplemented by consulting newspaper archives and used bookstores, where today some specimens of house organs have survived the passage of time.

  9. Los circuitos del agua y la higiene urbana en la ciudad de Cartagena a comienzos del siglo XX Water pipelines conduits and urban sanitation in Cartagena in the beginning of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro León Casas Orrego

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartagena de Indias, puerto en el Caribe colombiano, convivió durante su historia con la desventaja de no poder ofrecer condiciones de salubridad a sus habitantes y visitantes. La falta de un acueducto y de un sistema de alcantarillado fueron obstáculos para el progreso de la ciudad. Estos problemas provocaron, casi por cuarenta años (1890-1930, un sinnúmero de discursos de medicalización formulados por científicos, técnicos y políticos. El aporte de Cartagena a la solución del problema de la higiene de las ciudades consistió en aprovechar el saber del ingeniero. La construcción del equipamiento urbano, a comienzos del siglo XX, requirió la presencia de un conocimiento más técnico que planteara una solución integral para el problema del agua, garantizando abastecimiento suficiente y eficiente evacuación. Así, en el último cambio de siglo, el médico deja de ser la única autoridad en los asuntos de regulación de la vida urbana. Las obras que demandan al ingeniero y lo involucran en la salubridad pública producen una distinción entre "higiene" y "ciencia sanitaria".Throughout its history, Cartagena de Indias, a seaport in the Colombian Caribbean, has been handicapped for not offering salubrious conditions to its people and visitors. The lack of an aqueduct and a sewerage system was an impairment to progress. For nearly forty years (1890-1930 these problems have caused a myriad of medical discourses formulated by scientists, technicians and politicians. Cartagena’s contribution to solve the sanitation problem in cities has consisted in making use of engineers’ knowledge. The construction of urban facilities in the beginning of the twentieth century required a more technical knowledge, one which would advance a comprehensive solution to the water problem, ensure sufficient supply and efficient drainage. Thus, in the last turn of the century, the medical doctor is no longer the only authoritative voice when it comes to the

  10. THE APOLOGETIC CONCERN IN THE WORK OF BIBLICAL THEOLOGIANS OF THE KIEV THEOLOGICAL ACADEMY FROM THE END OF THE NINETEENTH TO THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (THE PROBLEM OF FINDING COMMON GROUND FOR THEOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Golovashchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the relationship between scientific and theological components in a selection of the works of well-known Biblical scholars active at the Kiev Theological Academy around the turn of the nineteenth century and the begin ning of the twentieth. Among them figure the names of F. J. Pokrovsky, V. P. Rybinsky, D. I. Bogdashevsky, and Father A. A. Glagolev. The work of these experts has been little studied until today. The spiritual, intellectual, and ideological context of the time has been taken into account by the author. The author of this article pays special attention to the ideological background surrounding the polemic between Russian Orthodox biblical scholars and those proponents of the negative school of biblical exegesis. The focus is on several key elements of understanding the Bible, the research and exposition of biblical history, as well as points of dogmatic and moral import stemming from an interpretation of the scriptures. The author demonstrates that the position of the Kievan biblical scholars was apologetic, contrasting the theological and scientific schools against the background of a more than positivistic understanding of history and the Bible seen as the sacred scripture of the Church. In this way, they contributed to academic research, and the way of teaching the scriptures of the schools, as well as the exposition of the scriptures for the purpose of dogmatic and moral enlightenment. At the same time, they began the process of working towards a synthesis as an approach for further scientific and theological research. Important for the continuing development of Russian Orthodox biblical studies during the twentieth century was finding a balance between Orthodox biblical apologetics and scientific thought . This attempt at re-discovering and reconstructing the apologetic atmosphere of the Kievan biblical scholars was made possible through a combination of several factors — one of the most important being

  11. The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.

    2008-01-01

    The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

  12. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  13. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  14. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  15. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  16. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  17. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  19. The family and its problems in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century [Rodzina i jej problemy w czasopismach andragogicznych przełomu lat pięćdziesiątych i sześćdziesiątych XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna JANIK-KOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/publishThe text deals with the family problems and its support for their solutions based on articles published in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century. These issues are extremely interesting, since they relate to the family life culture, marriage preparation and family life education. Preparing for marriage is of great importance for the future of its operation. Its absence has an effect on family problems and marital conflicts later in life. Parenting universities provided support for families in solving their problems, primarily in dealing with behavioral problems, but also provided knowledge from other areas of life.er/metadata

  20. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  1. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  2. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  3. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  4. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  7. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  8. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  9. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  11. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  12. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  13. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  14. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  15. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  16. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  17. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  18. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  19. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  20. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  1. Cárie dentária e flúor: uma relação do século XX Dental caries and fluorine: a twentieth century relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No início do século XX a cárie dentária era um problema de saúde pública, na maior parte do planeta. As populações conviviam com infecção, dor, sofrimento e mutilação. A descoberta do efeito preventivo do flúor o transformou, ao longo do século, no principal agente utilizado no enfrentamento da doença em todo o mundo. Em vários países e também no Brasil produtos fluorados têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pelo declínio observado na prevalência da cárie. No Brasil, estudos pioneiros realizados nos anos 50 e 60 corroboraram a eficácia preventiva da fluoretação das águas. No período 1986-1996, com 42% da população recebendo água fluoretada, a queda na prevalência da cárie entre crianças de 12 anos de idade foi de 53%. Além da água fluoretada também os dentifrícios são, no presente, amplamente utilizados como veículos para uso do flúor em saúde pública. Neste artigo são abordados aspectos históricos do emprego de flúor, algumas características epidemiológicas da cárie dentária no Brasil, e as perspectivas da continuidade do uso de produtos fluorados nas próximas décadas.In the early of Twentieth Century, dental caries were a big public health problem around world. Infection, pain, suffering and mutilation reached all people. The discovering of preventive effect of fluorine became them, through the Century, the main agent in fighting to disease worldwide. In various countries, including Brazil, fluoridated products have been pointed as main causes for dental caries prevalence decline. Also in Brazil, at the 50s and 60s, the preventive effect of water fluoridation was ratified for some pioneer studies. For the period 1986-1996 epidemiological data shown a significant reduction of 53% in the DMF-T index value at 12-years-old schoolchildren. Water and dentifrices are largely used as vehicle for fluoride in public health actions. In Brazil 42% of population has access to fluoridated

  2. The premature newborn in mid-twentieth century according to Julius Hess Recém-nascido prematuro em meados do século xx, na ótica de Julius Hess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Oliveira Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrever, analiticamente, os cuidados propostos na admissão do recém-nascido na obra em referência. Método: Operação historiográfica na perspectiva da micro-história, com recorte temporal no século XX. Resultados: Para a admissão do recém-nascido, medidas como o uso de capa de lã com capuz ou a combinação de gaze com algodão estéril para envolver o RN deveriam ser empregada, assim como ou o uso de garrafas com água quente e incubadoras para a manutenção da temperatura. Quanto a permeabilidade das vias aéreas, era sabido que a remoção das secreções seja por meio da gravidade e posicionamento do RN, ou mesmo por dedo envolto em gaze eram as medidas em destaque. Conclusão: Ao longo dos anos analisados, é possível apontar que algumas modificações e adaptações foram feitas, mas com base em uma mesma justificativa para o cuidado em si. Abstract: Objective: To describe analytically the proposed care on admission of the newborn in the work in question. Method: historiographical operation from the perspective of micro- history, with time frame in the twentieth century. Results: For the admission of the newborn , measures such as the use of wool hooded cloak or a combination of gauze with sterile cotton to engage the RN should be used as well as or the use of bottles with hot water and incubators for maintaining the temperature . As the permeability of the airways, it was known that the removal of secretions or by means of gravity and positioning of the newborn , or even finger wrapped in gauze were the featured measures. Conclusion: Over the years analyzed , it is possible to point out that some modifications and adaptations were made, but based on the same rationale for the care itself. Descriptors: Infant, Newborn, History.   Resumen: Objetivo: Describir analíticamente la atención propuesta al ingreso del recién nacido en la obra en cuestión. Método: La operación historiográfica desde la perspectiva de la micro

  3. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  4. O Jequitinhonha dos viajantes, séculos XIX e XX: olhares diversos sobre as relações sociedade - natureza no nordeste mineiro The voyagers' Jequitinhonha, Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries: different views over the society - nature relations in northeast Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lobato Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as mudanças ambientais no Médio Jequitinhonha entre o início do século XIX e o início do XX, através da releitura de relatos de viajantes e textos de memorialistas. São indicadas as principais formas de degradação ambiental presentes na região e avaliados os seus impactos sobre as caatingas e as matas virgens. Conclui-se que: a houve aumento expressivo da velocidade de alteração das paisagens regionais na primeira metade do século XX e; b essa alteração fortaleceu a tendência de pecuarização na economia do Médio Jequitinhonha.This paper analyzes the environmental changes in the Middle Jequitinhonha between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries beginnings, through the reading of the memoirialists and voyagers reports. The major environmental degradating actions that take place in the region are indicated and its impacts over the caatingas and forests are evaluated. It concludes: a an expressive increase in the velocity of the regional landscapes change in the first half of twentieth century; b and this change annealed the tendency of cattle's predominance in Middle Jequitinhonha economy.

  5. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  6. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  7. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  8. Path Dependence and Foreign Policy: A Case Study of United States Policy toward Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    ancestry; and claimed a distinguished line of descent in both his maternal and paternal lineage. He was well educated in the faith, well traveled, and...established the development of three types of political regimes in the twentieth century – military- authoritarian (Guatemala, El Salvador), liberal...Finally, the 18 Eva Bellin, “The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in

  9. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  10. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  11. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  12. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  13. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  14. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  15. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  16. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  17. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  18. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  19. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  20. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  1. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  2. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  3. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  5. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  6. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  7. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  8. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  9. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  10. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  11. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  12. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  13. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  14. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  15. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  16. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen. Zum vergessenen Beitrag der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohn- und Siedlungsreform im frühen 20. Jahrhundert Making the Invisible Visible—On a Forgotten Contribution to the Early German Women’s Movement: Housing Reform at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wucherpfennig

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Wohnungs- und Städtebau der Moderne gilt weitgehend als eine „Männerdomäne”. In ihrer Schrift Die Wohnungsfrage ist Frauensache! zeigen Ulla Terlinden und Susanna von Oertzen demgegenüber die vielfältigen und einflussreichen Beiträge der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohnungsreform des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts und zum Neuen Bauen auf.The building of apartments and cities in modernity is seen often as a “male domain.” In the text The Apartment Question is Women’s Work! (Die Wohungsfrage ist Frauensache!, Ulla Terlinden and Susanna von Oertzen present the multiple and influential contributions of the early German women’s movement to housing reform at the beginning of the twentieth century as well as to Neues Bauen, an architectural style of the 1920s.

  18. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  19. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  20. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  1. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  2. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  3. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  4. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  5. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  7. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  8. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  9. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  10. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  11. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  12. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  13. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  14. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  16. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  17. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  18. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  19. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  20. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still