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Sample records for twentieth century richard

  1. Diagnosis and authority in the early-twentieth-century medical practice of Richard C. Cabot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenner, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic practices using the early twentieth-century medical literature and the patient correspondence and records from the clinic of Richard Cabot. What shaped medicine's rapidly growing persuasive authority in the twentieth century? Diagnostic expertise demonstrated the doctor's control over disease but offered a service of ambiguous value to patients. Cabot and his peers offered differing views on how new diagnostic techniques would influence their relationships to their patients. In his busy private clinic Cabot put into effect an exacting diagnostic process, modeled on his innovative Clinicopathological Conferences. The people who came to the clinic often sought his technical expertise but accepted his diagnostic practices and opinions sometimes only provisionally.

  2. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  3. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  4. Symptom removal: the twentieth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, André M

    2004-01-01

    The twentieth century hypnosis literature regarding the use of direct symptom removal with hypnosis is in strong contrast with that of the nineteenth. It shows much ambivalence about the use of symptom removal. Objections, largely based on conclusions drawn from psychoanalytic theory, led many twentieth century psychotherapists to reject direct symptom removal. However, a certain amount of empirical evidence, scattered through the literature, has accumulated during the twentieth century to support this rejection. The lack of satisfactory twentieth century statistics and of nineteenth century details concerning hypnotic interventions that were used, makes it impossible to satisfactorily account for the discrepancy in experiences of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although therapists did not altogether abandon working directly with symptoms, many opted instead for modifying and manipulating them by suggestion instead of completely removing them, usually allowing the patient to retain a psychodynamically suitable substitute. Here again a lack of adequate statistics prevents one from being able to properly appraise the effectiveness of this approach which has remained the preferred one for a number of therapists.

  5. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Debra Lynn

    1986-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  6. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  7. Rediscovery of Early Twentieth-Century Ecotheology

    OpenAIRE

    Pihkala Panu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine the early history of Christian environmentalism (“ecotheology”) in the twentieth century. I delineate four strands of early ecotheology: agrarian ecotheology; social Christianity; British contributions; and “post-liberal” foundations for later ecotheological movements. I show that ecotheology was a slowly-rising movement, which had notable proponents. I argue that these early ecotheologians are significant for several reasons. First, these writings support the view ...

  8. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market.

  9. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  10. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  11. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  12. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world.

  13. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  14. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5).......Review article on: David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden, eds. Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester Studies in Medical History. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2014. vi + 367 pp. Ill. $125.00 (978-1-58046-476-5)....

  15. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  16. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  17. Outdoor Physical Education in French Schools during the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Michaël; Saint-Martin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    During the twentieth century, outdoor physical education (OPE) gradually integrated with the French education system. Culturally speaking, OPE had to overcome several hurdles because it promoted values such as freedom, initiative and responsibility that were deemed incompatible with the existing educational model. Beyond being a pedagogical tool,…

  18. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  19. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  20. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  1. Neonatal mortality and stillbirths in early twentieth century Derbyshire, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A

    2001-11-01

    Neonatal mortality and stillbirths are recognised to be subject to similar influences, but survival after a successful live birth is usually considered in isolation of foetal wastage. Moreover, individual-level data on age-specific influences and causes of death in a historical context are rare. This paper uses an unusual data set to compare the influences on neonatal mortality and stillbirths in early twentieth century Derbyshire, England. Multivariate hazard and logistic analyses are performed to examine the relative roles of various social, environmental, and demographic factors. The influences on and causal structures of neonatal mortality and stillbirths emerge as broadly similar, with previous reproductive history linked to a considerable amount of variation. The clustering of endogenous deaths was much greater than the clustering of exogenous and post-neonatal deaths, probably reflecting the cause-of-death structure and the relatively healthy social and environmental position of early twentieth century Derbyshire.

  2. Javanese Women and Islam: Identity Formation since the Twentieth Century

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    Kurniawati Hastuti Dewi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast research over the last three decades devoted to the lives and social interaction of Javanese women, little has been written on the formation of these women’s identity by focusing on its development from the twentieth century up to the early twenty-first. This paper endeavors to show that the religio-cultural identity of Javanese women was forged through a number of sociocultural circumstances. While revealing different features of the relationship between Javanese women and Islam, I shed light on the role Islam played, particularly since the early twentieth century, in providing transformative power to the role and status of Javanese Muslim women, manifested by the adoption of such Islamic dress codes as veiling, as also an important means of identity politics. I argue that new Islamic discourses have always been born out of the desire to challenge the conservative understanding of the role and status of Javanese women in different historical periods.

  3. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 +/- 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 +/- 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records. The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  4. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  5. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

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    John Gulick

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends and accreted characteristics - one might call them "systemiccontradictions" - that promise to send the world capitalist geo-economy in a radically differentdevelopmental direction as US hegemony wanes. Arrighi 's assessment of these contradictionscompel him to make a provocative suggestion: in all likelihood, no singular concentration of stateand economic power possesses the territorial scale or the organizational capacities required tolead the global system through another round of restructuring and expansion. Properly framed,this illuminating insight could serve as the starting point for a theoretical exploration of thesocio-ecological constraints to global capitalist reproduction, but such is a journey (mostly nottaken by Arrighi in The Long Twentieth Century. In fact, to the degree that he subsequentlycontemplates the prospect of a China-centered reconstitution of the world geo-economy, Arrighimarginalizes the question of global systemic contradictions altogether.

  6. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  7. Global SST influence on twentieth century NAO variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H.; Hense, A. [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Latif, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sea surface temperature (SST) is an important source of variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we deal with four basic aspects contributing to this issue: (1) we investigate the characteristic time scales of this oceanic influence; (2) quantify the scale-dependent hindcast potential of the NAO during the twentieth century as derived from SST-driven atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ensembles; (3) the relevant oceanic regions are identified, corresponding SST indices are defined and their relationship to the NAO are evaluated by means of cross spectral analysis and (4) our results are compared with long-term coupled control experiments with different ocean models in order to ensure whether the spectral relationship between the SST regions and the NAO is an intrinsic mode of the coupled climate system, involving the deep ocean circulation, rather than an artefact of the unilateral SST forcing. The observed year-to-year NAO fluctuations are barely influenced by the SST. On the decadal time scales the major swings of the observed NAO are well reproduced by various ensembles from the middle of the twentieth century onward, including the negative state in the 1960s and part of the positive trend afterwards. A six-member ECHAM4-T42 ensemble reveals that the SST boundary condition affects 25% of total decadal-mean and interdecadal-trend NAO variability throughout the twentieth century. The most coherent NAO-related SST feature is the well-known North Atlantic tripole. Additional contributions may arise from the southern Pacific and the low-latitude Indian Ocean. The coupled climate model control runs suggest only the North Atlantic SST-NAO relationship as being a true characteristic of the coupled climate system. The coherence and phase spectra of observations and coupled simulations are in excellent agreement, confirming the robustness of this decadal-scale North Atlantic air-sea coupled mode. (orig.)

  8. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  9. Twentieth-Century Leaders in the Moldovan History Textbooks

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    Sergiu Musteata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research question of this paper is How the twentieth century leaders are treated in the History textbooks published within the last decade in the Republic of Moldova? The textbooks are a reflection of the History curriculum. Therefore, the analysis starts with the discussion of this document and its content concerning leaders and heroes. The main research sources are the History textbooks published in Moldova during the last decade that debate the events of the twentieth century. The paper analyses how the national, European and world leaders are treated in Moldovan textbooks, and how the discourse and the paradigm get changed depending on political regimes. Based on quantitative and qualitative methods, some conclusions have been made about various leaders, such as Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Antonescu or leaders from the Cold War era. At the end, the leaders of independent Moldova are briefly presented too. As a result of this analysis we could see how the leaders are presented in the Moldovan textbooks and could conclude that the policy makers, textbook authors and publishers have to pay more attention to this topic.

  10. Jung's very twentieth-century view of myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that Jung's view of myth, like his view of everything else, is best understood vis-à-vis Freud's. I argue that Jung in fact positions himself much more broadly, not merely against other psychologists of myth but more fundamentally against non-psychologists altogether. Undeniably, Jung pits his theory against Freud's, but only after pitting both his theory and Freud's against those theories that assume the subject matter of myth to be the external world rather than the human mind and that assume the function of myth to be either the explanation or the description of the external world rather than the expression of the human mind. The theorists whom Jung challenges are called 'nature mythologists', for whom myth is either a literal explanation or a symbolic description of the natural world. Which element of the natural world myth is about varies from nature mythologist to nature mythologist. The two leading nature mythologists, both of whom Jung cites, were Edward Tylor and James Frazer. Their theories epitomize the nineteenth-century approach to myth. For them, myth is the 'primitive' counterpart to science, which is entirely modern. For them, myth and science are incompatible, science is true and myth false, and myth must therefore go when science comes. Jung's rejection of the external world as the referent of myth and of explanation or description of that world as the function of myth epitomizes the twentieth-century response to nineteenth-century theories. For not merely Jung and Freud but also twentieth-century theorists generally, myth is anything but the 'primitive' counterpart to modern science. Consequently, myth and science are not rivals, so that myth need not go when science comes.

  11. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, Carolyn; Siewert, Senta

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The

  12. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Siewert, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The analysis

  13. Financial crises of the early twentieth century in Ukraine

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    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.

  14. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

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    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  15. Remembering and forgetting Freud in early twentieth-century dreams.

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    Forrester, John

    2006-03-01

    The paper explores the use of Freud's methods of dream interpretation by four English writers of the early twentieth century: T. H. Pear, W. H. R. Rivers, Ernest Jones, and Alix Strachey. Each employed their own dreams in rather different ways: as part of an assessment of Freud's work as a psychological theory, as illustrative of the cogency of Freud's method and theories as part of the psychoanalytic process. Each adopted different approaches to the question of privacy and decorum. The paper argues that assessment of the impact of Freud's work must take account of the application of the method to the researcher's own dreams and the personal impact this process of analysis had upon them, and must also gauge how the dreamers' deployment of Freud's methods influenced their explicit relationship to him and his theories.

  16. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  17. Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-first Century

    OpenAIRE

    Puleio, Dante

    2017-01-01

    Mid-Twentieth Century Modern Dance in the Twenty-First CenturyThe relevance of modern dance being performed today has been a growing topic in the dance field as legacy companies age and the field of contemporary dance continues to expand. This thesis begins with critical response to mid-century modern dance in the work of well-known dance critics John Martin, Edwin Denby and Louis Horst and how they substantiated modern dance’s place in dance history. My interviews with dance critics Alastair...

  18. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2017-05-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  19. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  20. Memoirs a twentieth-century journey in science and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Teller, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The story of Edward Teller is the story of the twentieth century. Born in Hungary in 1908, Teller witnessed the rise of Nazism and anti-Semitism, two world wars, the McCarthy era, and the changing face of big science. A brilliant and controversial figure whose work on nuclear weapons was key to the American war effort, Teller has long believed in freedom through strong defense, a philosophy reflected in his stance on arms control and nuclear policy. These extraordinary recollections at last reveal the man behind the headlines-passionate and humorous, devoted and loyal. In clear and compelling prose, Teller tells of the people, events, and ideas that shaped him as a scientist, beginning with his early love of music and math, and continuing with his study of quantum physics with Werner Heisenberg. Present at many of the pivotal moments in modern science, Teller also describes his friendships with some of the century's greatest minds-Einstein, Bohr, Fermi, Szilard, von Neumann, Oppenheimer-and offers an honest a...

  1. Tropospheric circulation during the early twentieth century Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Brönnimann, Stefan; Compo, Gilbert P.

    2016-06-01

    The early twentieth century Arctic warming (ETCAW) between 1920 and 1940 is an exceptional feature of climate variability in the last century. Its warming rate was only recently matched by recent warming in the region. Unlike recent warming largely attributable to anthropogenic radiative forcing, atmospheric warming during the ETCAW was strongest in the mid-troposphere and is believed to be triggered by an exceptional case of natural climate variability. Nevertheless, ultimate mechanisms and causes for the ETCAW are still under discussion. Here we use state of the art multi-member global circulation models, reanalysis and reconstruction datasets to investigate the internal atmospheric dynamics of the ETCAW. We investigate the role of boreal winter mid-tropospheric heat transport and circulation in providing the energy for the large scale warming. Analyzing sensible heat flux components and regional differences, climate models are not able to reproduce the heat flux evolution found in reanalysis and reconstruction datasets. These datasets show an increase of stationary eddy heat flux and a decrease of transient eddy heat flux during the ETCAW. Moreover, tropospheric circulation analysis reveals the important role of both the Atlantic and the Pacific sectors in the convergence of southerly air masses into the Arctic during the warming event. Subsequently, it is suggested that the internal dynamics of the atmosphere played a major role in the formation in the ETCAW.

  2. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  3. Aerological observations in the Tropics in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brönnimann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first decades of the 20th century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption (“Krakatoa easterlies(”. The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO. In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the (“Twentieth Century Reanalysis(”, which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation.

  4. Quantum generations: a history of physics in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechenberg, H

    2000-11-01

    Full text: The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental discoveries, technology, sociology and science politics connected with it. The contents of Part One cover roughly the first twenty years of the century. There are also chapters on the introduction of the quantum of action and atomic constitution, on discharge in gases, low-temperature research and the interaction of science with industrial and military affairs in World War I. Part Two, leading up to the Hiroshima bomb, includes, beyond such central chapters as the rise of nuclear physics, quantum field theory and the physical and philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics, further accounts of the Eddington-Milne cosmology, physics in the dictatorial regimes of National Socialism, Fascism and Stalinism, and the intellectual immigration during the 1930s into the USA. Part Three brings the story up to the end of the century, embracing great topics like nuclear energy, Big Science (i.e. physics in military and civil projects), fundamental particle theories up to speculations about 'grand unification', quantum electronics, or the increasingly hostile attitude toward science in the past 30 years. The short Part Four contains two chapters on a century in retrospect, which was really the century of physics. An enormous amount of material has been addressed in this book, and one wonders how one person can say anything reasonable about all these topics. The overall organization and the selection of chapters appears to be well planned and carried out quite successfully. In this reviewer's opinion, some chapters, e.g. on Dirac's theoretical work or cosmology (on which the author has

  5. Mining the Twentieth Century's History from the Time Magazine Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestemont, Mike; Karsdorp, F.B.; Düring, Marten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on an explorative study of the history of the twentieth cen- tury from a lexical point of view. As data, we use a diachronic collection of 270,000+ English-language articles har- vested from the electronic archive of the well-known Time Magazine (1923–2006). We attempt to aut

  6. Keats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Walter Jackson, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Walter Jackson Bate, T. S. Eliot, Douglas Bush, Richard H. Fogle, Jack Stillinger, Harold Bloom, David Perkins, Earl Wasserman, and D. G. James--all dealing with the biography and literary work of John Keats. Designed for…

  7. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  8. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  9. The Rise of Obesity in Europe, A Twentieth Century Food History

    OpenAIRE

    Tenna Jensen

    2010-01-01

    The publication of ‘The rise of obesity in Europe. A twentieth century Food History’ is a contribution to the vast and recent literature produced on issues of food and alimentary changes in Europe. The edited volume is based on a symposium titled “From Under-nutrition to Obesity: Changes in Food Consumption in Twentieth-Century-Europe” held in September 2007 at SIFO (National Institute for Consumer Research) in Oslo.The volume contains a wide range of research traditions. Many fruitful debate...

  10. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  11. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  12. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  13. Benjamin Moore, Science, and Medical Planning in Early Twentieth-Century Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gordon S.

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Moore (1867-1922), physiologist and biochemist, was an eminent member of the British scientific and medical community in the early twentieth century. As a founder and president of the State Medical Services Association (SMSA) from its establishment in 1912 until his untimely death in 1922, Moore was a prominent medical services activist…

  14. Sociology of Twentieth Century Congregate Care of the Developmentally Disabled-Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Elements of the twentieth century care facility of state origin are enumerated as the reader hopefully gets some idea of the social milieu or ethos of that period and the management profile thought to be proper and expeditious for unfortunate, homeless and poorly adjusted citizens. The life of staff and patients within these state sponsored…

  15. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  16. Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the music education in the United States and the Russian Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. In both countries, music educators struggled to secure a permanent role for vocal music in the school. By comparing Russian music instruction to that in the United States, educators can better understand not…

  17. Westward Bound? Dutch Education and Cultural Transfer in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the transition from philosophy to psychology as the main source of inspiration for education during the mid-twentieth century in the Netherlands, situated between Germany in the east and the English-speaking world in the west. Claims have been made that educational theory in the Netherlands was dominated by German philosophy…

  18. Widening horizons?: the geography of the marriage market in nineteenth and early-twentieth century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekamper, P.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Mandemakers, K.; P. Gutmann, Myron; D. Deane, Glenn; R. Merchant, Emily; M. Sylvester, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Historical studies suggest that nineteenth- and twentieth-century processes of national integration in the countries of Western Europe fundamentally changed interactions between individuals living in different parts of those countries. These studies, however, were rarely able to provide direct evide

  19. Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art. NBER Working Paper No. 15073

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenson, David

    2009-01-01

    Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their explanations and narratives of contemporary art in the face of what they consider the incoherent era of "pluralism" or "postmodernism" that began in the late twentieth century. This failure is in fact a result of their inability to understand the nature of the development of…

  20. Science, occultism, and the art of the avant-garde in the early twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauduin, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, scientific discoveries such as n-dimensionality, x-rays, and electromagnetism made their way into the discourse of Occultism, where they were subsequently reframed as the occult fourth dimension, clairvoyant x-ray vision, and thought vibration. As this article will sh

  1. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  2. Scholarly Publishing: Books, Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Richard E., Ed.; Newlin, Lyman W., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In this volume, publishers, booksellers, journal dealers, and librarians share their views on libraries and publishing. While the information/knowledge transfer process in the entire span of the twentieth century was to be addressed by the contributors, the principal focus of every author was to be the last five decades in which the most profound,…

  3. Harmonisation and South African Languages: Twentieth Century Debates of Homogeneity and Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a historiographic analysis of twentieth century debates amongst agents with linguistic, missionary and ideological interest in the standardisation or harmonisation of two widely used clusters of languages in South Africa, Nguni and Sotho. The discussion illustrates how faith-based and political ideologies interact with and…

  4. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  5. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  6. Teaching the French Revolution: Lessons and Imagery from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harison, Casey

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the "myths" and negative images of the French Revolution which were fashioned in the United States by examining interpretations found in nineteenth and twentieth-century American school texts. The texts are part of the Floyd Family Collection at Indiana State University, representing books used in Indiana schools,…

  7. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  8. No issue, no problem? Co-education in dutch secondary physical education during the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    This article places the current state of Dutch co-education in physical education into a longitudinal perspective. Occasionally, comparisons are made with Germany and England. The dominant, twentieth-century, co-educational tradition in the Netherlands including its pragmatic argumentation has influ

  9. Harbingers of Feminism? Gender, Cultural Capital and Education in Mid-Twentieth-Century Rural Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sally; Brown, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a small-scale narrative study of men and women who grew up in mid-twentieth-century rural Wales, and their reminiscences regarding women and education. Although the dominant image of Wales during that era is that of a male-dominated society, all of our participants remembered influential independent women and…

  10. Twentieth-Century Transformation in Catalonia and the Ukraine: Ethnic Implications in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherbridge-Hernandez, Patricia; Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    1993-01-01

    Traces the parallel histories of cultural and language preservation in the minority regions of Catalonia (Spain) and Ukraine (former Soviet Union) during the twentieth century. Discusses large societal changes, national government policies about language of instruction, bilingual education, the comparative status of Catalan and Ukrainian, and…

  11. Intellectual Portraits: Politics, Professions and Identity in Twentieth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together six talented women historians in twentieth-century England whose scholarly productions helped shape modern historical practice but who are little known in the canonical accounts of history-writing in the period. The author is looking to map and describe historical communities from a grounded and qualitative perspective…

  12. Regional Variation and Convergence of Height and Living Conditions in Sweden During the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Öberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates regional differences in height in Sweden during the twentieth century using data from universal conscript inspections (for men. We find substantive differences (2-3 cm in height between the counties. Men in the southern, southeastern and northernmost parts of Sweden were shorter. Men in the Stockholm and Göteborg regions were taller and we find no “urban penalty” in height. The differences in height between counties declined over the course of the twentieth century and the average height increased more in the counties with an initially shorter average height. We find the expected positive associations between height and the real wage in manufacturing and the regional GDP per capita respectively. The real wage in the manufacturing sector is more consistently associated with the county average height than that for the agricultural sector. Contrary to expectations, we find that the men were consistently taller in counties with higher food prices and where the relative price of animal foods was higher. The average height was negatively associated with the infant mortality rate during the men’s childhood in the mid-twentieth century. The association was less clear in the early twentieth century.

  13. No issue, no problem? Co-education in dutch secondary physical education during the twentieth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, H.W.

    This article places the current state of Dutch co-education in physical education into a longitudinal perspective. Occasionally, comparisons are made with Germany and England. The dominant, twentieth-century, co-educational tradition in the Netherlands including its pragmatic argumentation has

  14. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  15. Richard Goldschmidt: hopeful monsters and other 'heresies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    Richard Goldschmidt is remembered today as one of the most controversial biologists of the twentieth century. Although his work on sex determination and physiological genetics earned him accolades from his peers, his rejection of the classical gene and his unpopular theories about evolution significantly damaged his scientific reputation. This article reviews Goldschmidt's life and work, with an emphasis on his controversial views.

  16. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  17. Twentieth-Century Spanish Textbooks: A Generational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas-Barnes, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Examines the evolution of Spanish textbooks qualitatively using computerized pedagogical data. Results show distinct generational text style trends from 1860 to 1998 which chronicle a common engine of change and conflict in standardization movements and the production of generational text styles. Summarizes 20th-century textbook generations and…

  18. Chinese Avant-garde Art in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the present paper is the '85 Art Movement, which was the first significant nationwide Avant-garde art movement in China. This movement, which arose in the mid-80s, defined the aesthetic foundations and identity of contemporary Chinese art, and represented Chinese globalized society on the threshold of the 21st century. Whilst focusing on China’s specific cultural and political contexts, the present paper analyses the concepts of humanism (renwen 人文 and idea (guannian 觀念. The spirit of humanism, with a rationalist connotation, and the desire for a revolution of ideas were the two main factors underpinning the Chinese Avant-garde movement and its artistic expressions. The paper also shows that the '85 Art Movement did not stem solely from the socio-political challenges of the 1980s, but should be regarded in the wider context of the “modernization project of Chinese art”, in the early 20th century.

  19. Development of Geological Science in China in the Twentieth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the present stage of accelerated development of science and technology at the turn of the century it may be deemed that the geological science in China is destined to prosper, as viewed from the increasing society needs, the scientific problems and the basic technological background provided by the society, the three basic elements for the development of science. Owing to the sagacity and foresight of the founders of geology in China, Chinese geological research had already won a world fame in 1920s to 1930s. From the 1950s to 1970s the geological science in China had undergone a rapid development. From the end of 1970s onwards the geological science in China had undergone an overall development. With the acceptance of the new concept of Earth System Science by the majority of geologists, all branches of geological studies will merge into a comprehensive and coordinate research and the geological science in China will be facing an entirely new stage of development in the 21st century.

  20. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Mirtschin, Peter; Pearn, John

    2006-12-01

    It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. As elsewhere, this development was to revolutionise the medical management of those victims who in the past had died in Australia from our venomous and toxic fauna. Morgan, Graydon, Weiner, Lane and Baxter at the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories emphasised the importance of cooperation between those expert at catching and milking the venomous creatures and those developing the antivenoms. Commercial antivenom manufacture began in Australia in 1930 with the tiger snake antivenom. This was followed by other antivenoms for the other important species (1955: taipan; 1956: brown snake; 1958: death adder; 1959: Papuan black snake; 1961: sea snake; 1962: polyvalent) including the first marine antivenoms in the world (1956: stonefish antivenom; 1970: box jellyfish) culminating, in 1980, with the release of the funnel web spider antivenom. More recent activity has focused on veterinary antivenoms and production of new generation human antivenoms for export (CroFab and ViperaTAB). This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century.

  1. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy.

  2. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large.

  3. Oral history, subjectivity, and environmental reality: occupational health histories in twentieth-century Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ronnie; McIvor, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    This essay uses oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland to illustrate the ways in which such history can illuminate how the working environment and work cultures affect workers' bodies and how workers come to terms with the ill-health caused by their employment. It emphasizes the agency of the interpreter but argues further that oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland are simultaneously influenced by, and evidence for, material conditions. The essay explores the notion that the bodies, not just the voices of interviewees, are material testament to health-corroding work practices, cultures, and habitat. The focus is the problems caused by the inhalation of coal and asbestos dust.

  4. The dearth of the clinic: lead, air, and agency in twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Christopher

    2003-07-01

    By surveying myriad ways that twentieth-century American experts and nonexperts grappled with the health implications of aerial exposures to lead or substances that may have contained lead, this paper urges medical historians' attention toward environments-workplaces, homes and the outdoors-and their extrabodily ontology. Health histories framed around dust, toxins, fumes, and pollution rather than around particular diseases challenge long-accepted narratives, such as Hibbert Hill's old generalization about a "New Public Health" shift from "the environment to the individual." Greater environmental focus can also advance "bottom-up" health history. Pushing the gaze of twentieth-century medical and public health historians beyond hospitals, "public health" departments, clinically confirmable disease, and "patient" roles, it draws historians' attention to health-related realms in which laypeople often claimed greater knowledge and competence.

  5. Rabid epidemiologies: the emergence and resurgence of rabies in twentieth century South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the history of rabies in South Africa since the early twentieth century. It argues that rabies is a zoonotic disease that traverses rural and urban spaces, that transfers itself between wild and domestic animals and remains a potential threat to human life in the region. Scientists discovered an indigenous form of rabies, found primarily in the yellow mongoose, after the first biomedically confirmed human fatalities in 1928. Since the 1950s canine rabies, presumed to have moved southwards from across the Zambezi River, has become endemic also. South Africa is home to a comparatively large number of rabies strains and animal carriers, making it a particularly interesting case study. Environmental changes during the colonial and apartheid periods have helped to explain the increase in rabies cases since the mid-twentieth century. Moreover, developments in the biological and ecological sciences have provided insights into why the rabies virus has become endemic in certain wildlife species.

  6. The Science of Symbiosis and Linguistic Democracy in Early Twentieth-century Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Konishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early twentieth-century Japanese Esperantist and popular celebrity writer Miyazawa Kenji as an embodiment of a larger intellectual phenomenon of early twentieth century Japan, the essay delineates the scientific world view behind the Esperanto movement and corresponding internal logic that developed in the language movement's foundational years. It argues that Esperantism in Japan in its early years was not an isolated linguistic movement among a small number of leftist intellectuals, but part of a much larger intellectual, cultural, and social movement that reflected the particular scientific worldview of what I call 'anarchist science'. This worldview defied the conceptual bifurcations of 'modern vs. tradition' and 'nature vs. culture' in modern history. A history of its vision offers a fresh perspective on modern history, future visions of the past, and the historical meanings of Esperantism.

  7. The concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy a philosophical thematic atlas

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...

  8. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  9. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  10. Urban Forms and Civic Space in Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Bangkok and Rangoon

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Elizabeth Howard; Osiri, Navanath

    2013-01-01

    Buddhist spaces in Bangkok and Rangoon both had long common traditions prior to nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial incursions. Top–down central city planning with European designs transformed both cities. While Siamese kings personally initiated civic change that began to widen economic and social interaction of different classes, British models segregated European, Burmese, Indian, and Chinese populations to exacerbate social differences. In addition, the Siamese rulers maintain...

  11. An introduction to the poetics of sacred sound in twentieth-century music

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Antonio Irlandini

    2013-01-01

    Along the twentieth century has occurred the beginning of a fusion between two very different horizons: Western musical composition and Hindu sonic theology. The essential content of this theology and the changes in Western musical language and aesthetics, society and culture which have allowed this fusion to take place are briefly outlined. Instrumental and vocal works by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacinto Scelsi, Michael Vetter and David Hykes provide specific examples and, in particular, rais...

  12. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Treydte, K. S.; G. H. Schleser; Gerhard Helle; D. C. Frank; M. Winiger; Haug,G.H.; Esper, J.

    2006-01-01

    Twentieth-century warming could lead to increases in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere, altering the hydrological cycle and the characteristics of precipitation. Such changes in the global rate and distribution of precipitation may have a greater direct effect on human well-being and ecosystem dynamics than changes in temperature itself. Despite the co-variability of both of these climate variables, attention in long-term climate reconstruction has mainly concentrated on tempera...

  13. The Twentieth-Century Sea Level Budget: Recent Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Matthews, A.; Slangen, A.

    2017-01-01

    For coastal areas, given the large and growing concentration of population and economic activity, as well as the importance of coastal ecosystems, sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of the warming climate. Huge progress in quantifying the cause of sea level rise and closure of sea level budget for the period since the 1990s has been made mainly due to the development of the global observing system for sea level components and total sea levels. We suggest that a large spread (1.2 ± 0.2-1.9 ± 0.3 mm year-1) in estimates of sea level rise during the twentieth century from several reconstructions demonstrates the need for and importance of the rescue of historical observations from tide gauges, with a focus on the beginning of the twentieth century. Understanding the physical mechanisms contributing to sea level rise and controlling the variability of sea level over the past few 100 years are a challenging task. In this study, we provide an overview of the progress in understanding the cause of sea level rise during the twentieth century and highlight the main challenges facing the interdisciplinary sea level community in understanding the complex nature of sea level changes.

  14. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  15. Pain, sympathy and the medical encounter between the mid eighteenth and the mid twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Witnessing people in pain inevitably elicits anxiety in physicians and other caregivers. Physicians are often required to inflict certain types of discomforts in order to alleviate other, more destructive, pains. Accusations that physicians lacked sympathy can be heard throughout the centuries. This article explores the diverse medical responses to such claims between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It interrogates changing definitions of clinical sympathy. The concept of sympathy was continually being reworked for each generation of medical professional. Crucially, in this reworking, philosophers (such as Adam Smith) and physicians came into dialogue. Cultures of sympathy were understood in both physiological and metaphorical terms, and were tied to changing notions of professionalization.

  16. Quantum Poetics: Science and Spirit in Twentieth Century American Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, (Mary) Patricia

    Concepts from quantum physics illuminate ways in which five 20th century American poets struggle with the expression of nonlinear, nontemporal experiences in linear, temporal language. An "experience of spirit"- -an experience of cosmic unity which occurs in a timeless moment and involves a paradoxical sensuality--is expressed by poets Wallace Stevens, Albert Goldbarth, Nancy Willard, Linda Gregg and Marilyn Waniek. Contemporary science similarly seeks ways to express nonlinear realities in linear language. The English language is found to guide users to linear, time-bounded expression through the noun (leading to nominalization), the verb (demanding experience be limited to past, present or future), adverb and adjective (which separate senses from each other and divide attributes from essence). English presents structural difficulties to those who wish to express experiences of spirit--difficulties also articulated by quantum theorists struggling to express unvisualizable concepts. Wallace Stevens devoted the first half of his poetic career to questions of order, which find reflections within the works of quantum physicists who theorize an "implicate order" within the subatomic universe. During his later years, Stevens turned to the question of chaos, an interest paralleled by recent developments in dynamical systems theory. Albert Goldbarth and Nancy Willard alter narrative form in three ways to convey nonlinear possibilities. The "parabolic" narrative uses story to exemplify a moral or philosophical message. The "midrashic" illuminates the meaning of one story by the telling of another. Finally, the "coyotic" begins with one, apparently ordinary, story which is then altered to introduce fantastical realities. These narratives form a "relative time," similar to that which Einstein defined in his special theory of relativity. The works of Marilyn Waniek and Linda Gregg are examined in terms of the language of paradoxical sensuality, which calls into question the

  17. Ocean heat content variability in an ensemble of twentieth century ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisséson, Eric; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Mayer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a ten-member ensemble of twentieth century Ocean ReAnalyses called ORA-20C. ORA-20C assimilates temperature and salinity profiles and is forced by the ECMWF twentieth century atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-20C) over the 1900-2010 period. This study attempts to identify robust signals of ocean heat content change in ORA-20C and detect contamination by model errors, initial condition uncertainty, surface fluxes and observing system changes. It is shown that ORA-20C trends and variability in the first part of the century result from the surface fluxes and model drift towards a warmer mean state and weak meridional overturning circulation. The impact of the observing system in correcting the mean state causes the deceleration of the warming trend and alters the long-term climate signal. The ensemble spread reflects the long-lasting memory of the initial conditions and the convergence of the system to a solution compatible with surface fluxes, the ocean model and observational constraints. Observations constrain the ocean heat uptake trend in the last decades of the twentieth century, which is similar to trend estimations from the post-satellite era. An ocean heat budget analysis attributes ORA-20C heat content changes to surface fluxes in the first part of the century. The heat flux variability reflects spurious signals stemming from ERA-20C surface fields, which in return result from changes in the atmospheric observing system. The influence of the temperature assimilation increments on the heat budget is growing with time. Increments control the most recent ocean heat uptake signals, highlighting imbalances in forced reanalysis systems in the ocean as well as in the atmosphere.

  18. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  19. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  20. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin S.; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Helle, Gerhard; Frank, David C.; Winiger, Matthias; Haug, Gerald H.; Esper, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Twentieth-century warming could lead to increases in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere, altering the hydrological cycle and the characteristics of precipitation. Such changes in the global rate and distribution of precipitation may have a greater direct effect on human well-being and ecosystem dynamics than changes in temperature itself. Despite the co-variability of both of these climate variables, attention in long-term climate reconstruction has mainly concentrated on temperature changes. Here we present an annually resolved oxygen isotope record from tree-rings, providing a millennial-scale reconstruction of precipitation variability in the high mountains of northern Pakistan. The climatic signal originates mainly from winter precipitation, and is robust over ecologically different sites. Centennial-scale variations reveal dry conditions at the beginning of the past millennium and through the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with precipitation increasing during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries to yield the wettest conditions of the past 1,000 years. Comparison with other long-term precipitation reconstructions indicates a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle coincident with the onset of industrialization and global warming, and the unprecedented amplitude argues for a human role.

  1. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  2. Forced changes to twentieth century ENSO diversity in a last Millennium context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Samantha; Capotondi, Antonietta; Fasullo, John; Otto-Bliesner, Bette

    2017-03-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exhibits considerable differences between the evolution of individual El Niño and La Niña events (`ENSO diversity'), with significant implications for impacts studies. However, the degree to which external forcing may affect ENSO diversity is not well understood, due to both internal variability and potentially compensatory contributions from multiple forcings. The Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM LME) provides an ideal testbed for studying the sensitivity of twentieth century ENSO to forced climate changes, as it contains many realizations of the 850-2005 period with differing combinations of forcings. Metrics of ENSO amplitude and diversity are compared across LME simulations, and although forced changes to ENSO amplitude are generally small, forced changes to diversity are often detectable. Anthropogenic changes to greenhouse gas and ozone/aerosol emissions modify the persistence of Eastern and Central Pacific El Niño events, through shifts in the upwelling and zonal advective feedbacks; these influences generally cancel one another over the twentieth century. Other forcings can also be quite important: land use changes amplify Eastern Pacific El Niño events via modulating zonal advective heating, and orbital forcing tends to preferentially terminate twentieth century Central Pacific El Niño events due to enhanced eastern Pacific cooling during boreal winter and spring. Our results indicate that multiple anthropogenic and natural forcings can have substantial impacts on ENSO diversity, and suggest that correctly representing the net ENSO diversity response to climate change will depend on the precise balance between all these influences.

  3. The Diasporic Dimensions of British Caribbean Federation in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Duke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [Second and third pragraph] While much has been written on the significance of British Caribbean activists in various movements associated with black diaspora politics in the twentieth century, particularly their important roles in Pan-African struggles, little has been written on how the various British Caribbean colonies themselves were envisioned among diaspora activists and within the scope of black diaspora politics. Did such Caribbean activists, especially those interested in and connected to diasporic movements beyond the British Caribbean, and their African American and African counterparts forsake the British West Indies as a focus of political engagement for other lands and causes? If not, what was the place of “West Indian liberation” and nation building in the British Caribbean in relation to black diasporic struggles in the early twentieth century? This article address these questions through an examination of how the idea of a united “West Indian nation” (via a federation or closer union among British Caribbean colonies was envisioned within black diaspora politics from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, and the ways in which racial consciousness and motivations informed conceptualizations of such a nation among black political activists of the British Caribbean and other parts of the diaspora. This study argues that efforts to create a federation in the Anglophone Caribbean were much more than simply imperial or regional nation-building projects. Instead, federation was also a diasporic, black nation-building endeavor intricately connected to notions of racial unity, racial uplift, and black self-determination.

  4. Jane Dawson & Alice Entwistle. A History of Twentieth-Century British Women’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer EMIG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A gigantic task well executed, this is what Dowson and Entwistle’s book turns out to be. It takes the bull (or should it be the cow, the mad cow of Jo Shapcott’s amusing poems? by the horns and tries to come up with a possible history of the many diverse and often uncollected female voices in Britain in the twentieth century. Dowson and Entwistle’s definition of “British Women’s Poetry” is flexible: “The following poets are British born, published in Britain and/or judged to have made a sign...

  5. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  6. City-size distributions and the world urban system in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, N; Archer, J C

    1987-09-01

    "In this paper we trace and interpret changes in the geographical pattern and city-size distribution of the world's largest cities in the twentieth century. Since 1900 the geographical distribution of these cities has become increasingly dispersed; their city-size distribution by rank was nearly linear in 1900 and 1940, and convex in 1980. We interpret the convex distribution which emerged following World War 2 as reflecting an economically integrated but politically and demographically partitioned global urban system. Our interpretation of changes in size distribution of cities emphasizes demographic considerations, largely neglected in previous investigations, including migration and relative rates of population change."

  7. [The transparent body: medical imaging and popular culture in the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco

    2006-10-01

    In today's societies, successful new medical imaging technologies have focused unprecedented attention on the inside of the human body. These techniques have jumped the walls of the biomedical field per se, penetrating the fields of culture and law. The article traces a genealogy of twentieth-century medical techniques used to visualize the human body and brain, from X-rays to the more sophisticated CTs, MRIs, and PET scans. It explores the changes that these ever more numerous visualization techniques have occasioned in our corporality and examines how these technologies have been received in the courtroom and in popular culture, especially in literature, movies, and magazines.

  8. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.

  9. Body architects in Physical Education and Sports. Among files, skills and knowledge (Argentina early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ariel Scharagrodsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the creation of two 'skills' with knowledge, procedures, techniques and specific competence when it comes to educate moving bodies: Physical Education teachers and sports doctors in Argentina during the first half of the twentieth century. Starting from the social history of the body (Turner, 1989; Porter, 2003; Vigarello, 2005, this paper focuses its view on knowledge (anthropometry, biometrics and biotypology and procedures (physical bulletins and sports biotypological files used by both 'skills' to identify the ideal types of built corporeality such as the omissions, exclusions and silences that accompanied those body ideals when placing them in their gymnastic, recreational and / or sports 'right place'

  10. Genesis of home care in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Stefanie Griebeler; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2016-06-01

    Objective to discuss the conditions that enabled home care at the beginning of the twentieth century. Method study of the genealogic inspiration on home care. The empirical material consisted of legal documents on the subject that were published in the Official Journal. The documents were studied using analytical tools, such as Power, Discipline and Biopolitics, which were inspired in Foucault. Results two analytical categories were established, "home inspection: visiting nurses and tuberculosis" and "records: political and economic apparatus". Final considerations tuberculosis, the new profession of visiting nurses, inspection records and the detailed analysis of the cities grant home care a nature of surveillance, inspection and control to conduct the behaviour of individuals.

  11. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  12. The State of Native America at the End of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Robison

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available When stereotypes of modern Native Americans are brought forward, these usually manifest themselves in visions of poor Indians living on reservations, which are on lands no one else wanted. Modern Native Americans are often stereotyped as drunks or succumbing to the pressure of gamblers to open their reservations to casinos. One place to start in order to disprove these stereotypes is the statistical data. What follows is not an interpretive essay in the classic scholarly vein, but an informative one that provides a picture of the state of Native America at the end of the Twentieth Century based on current statistical data.

  13. A New Teacher for a New Nation? Teacher Education, "English", and Schooling in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bill; Reid, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The late nineteenth-century expansion of public schooling in Australia from an initial focus on the elementary phase to post-primary provision, and then to a more systematic secondary education over the early to mid-twentieth century, went hand in hand with the emergence of new populations of children and young people--a new constituency. In turn,…

  14. Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".

  15. [Water pipelines conduits and urban sanitation in Cartagena in the beginning of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, A L

    2000-01-01

    Throughout its history, Cartagena de Indias, a seaport in the Colombian Caribbean, has been handicapped for not offering salubrious conditions to its people and visitors. The lack of an aqueduct and a sewerage system was an impairment to progress. For nearly forty years (1890-1930) these problems have caused a myriad of medical discourses formulated by scientists, technicians and politicians. Cartagena's contribution to solve the sanitation problem in cities has consisted in making use of engineers' knowledge. The construction of urban facilities in the beginning of the twentieth century required a more technical knowledge, one which would advance a comprehensive solution to the water problem, ensure sufficient supply and efficient drainage. Thus, in the last turn of the century, the medical doctor is no longer the only authoritative voice when it comes to the management of urban life. The construction works which require an engineer, involving him in public health, have drawn a distinction between "hygiene" and "sanitary science".

  16. Continuum mechanics through the ages from the renaissance to the twentieth century : from hydraulics to plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2016-01-01

    Mixing scientific, historic and socio-economic vision, this unique book complements two previously published volumes on the history of continuum mechanics from this distinguished author. In this volume, Gérard A. Maugin looks at the period from the renaissance to the twentieth century and he includes an appraisal of the ever enduring competition between molecular and continuum modelling views. Chapters trace early works in hydraulics and fluid mechanics not covered in the other volumes and the author investigates experimental approaches, essentially before the introduction of a true concept of stress tensor. The treatment of such topics as the viscoelasticity of solids and plasticity, fracture theory, and the role of geometry as a cornerstone of the field, are all explored. Readers will find a kind of socio-historical appraisal of the seminal contributions by our direct masters in the second half of the twentieth century. The analysis of the teaching and research texts by Duhem, Poincaré and Hilbert on cont...

  17. A social theory of language announced at the threshold of the twentieth century by Antoine Meillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913 defined langue as a social fact, a reality which is exterior to the individual and his will, and belongs to the society. He has never quoted Émile Durkheim (1858-1917 while discussing such concept, however the French sociologist’s conception was widely known in the intellectual milieu of the early twentieth century. Moreover, Antoine Meillet (1866-1936, a disciple of Saussure, while contributing to Durkheim’s newspaper, L’année sociologique (1905-1906, at about the same time that Saussure began the CGL (1907-1911 in Geneva, characterized language as a social fact referring to the concept established by Durkheim. This article deals with the linguistic ideas of Meillet that directly or indirectly influenced a large number of linguists for several decades of the twentieth century. The linguist dedicated himself to both the historical and comparative studies of Indo-European languages, as to the social and historical nature of language. The social aspect of his announced theory is the central theme of this historiographical-linguistic study.

  18. The Development of SONAR as a Tool in Marine Biological Research in the Twentieth Century

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    John A. Fornshell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acoustic methods for measuring depths and ranges in the ocean environment began in the second decade of the twentieth century. The two world wars and the “Cold War” produced three eras of rapid technological development in the field of acoustic oceanography. By the mid-1920s, researchers had identified echoes from fish, Gadus morhua, in the traces from their echo sounders. The first tank experiments establishing the basics for detection of fish were performed in 1928. Through the 1930s, the use of SONAR as a means of locating schools of fish was developed. The end of World War II was quickly followed by the advent of using SONAR to track and hunt whales in the Southern Ocean and the marketing of commercial fish finding SONARs for use by commercial fisherman. The “deep scattering layer” composed of invertebrates and fish was discovered in the late 1940s on the echo sounder records. SONARs employing high frequencies, broadband, split beam, and multiple frequencies were developed as methods for the detection, quantification and identification of fish and invertebrates. The study of fish behavior has seen some use of passive acoustic techniques. Advancements in computer technology have been important throughout the last four decades of the twentieth century.

  19. Spas, mineral waters, and hydrological science in twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, G

    2001-09-01

    This essay examines the survival of waters therapy in twentieth-century France with a view to understanding the conditions that make a therapy convincing in one national context and not in another. Part of the explanation for this survival has to do with the size and power of the spa industry. Where this industry was strong and economically powerful--as it was in France--its survival became a national priority. Of equal importance, however, was the role of the medical elite. In twentieth-century France, a small but influential group of elite physicians served as the chief architects of the continued survival and development of water cures. The primary mechanism for this process was a massive and successful campaign to introduce hydrology into the curriculum of medical schools. Once this was achieved, a large corps of academic hydrologists were in a position to produce significant amounts of convincing hydrological science that seemed to demonstrate the varied physiological effects of mineral waters. By the 1940s mineral waters had enough scientific visibility to ensure their inclusion without controversy in the national health insurance system that was being set up.

  20. Labs in the field? Rocky mountain biological stations in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Biological field stations proliferated in the Rocky Mountains region of the western United States during the early decades of the twentieth century. This essay examines these Rocky Mountain field stations as hybrid lab-field sites from the perspective of the field side of the dichotomy: as field sites with raised walls rather than as laboratories whose walls with the natural world have been lowered. Not only were these field stations transformed to be more like laboratories, but they were also embedded within the particular regional environmental and institutional context of the Rocky Mountains. Using the University of Colorado's Mountain Laboratory at Tolland and other contemporaneous sites as examples, this essay analyzes key features of these sites, including their location within transportation networks, buildings, equipment, personnel, scheduling, recreational and social activities, and other material and social practices on the ground. Considering both the distinctive and shared characteristics of the Rocky Mountain field stations in comparison to other types of field stations provides a more complete picture of the diversity and range of lab-field hybrid sites in the biological sciences in the early twentieth-century United States.

  1. Pronounced differences between observed and CMIP5-simulated multidecadal climate variability in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    Identification and dynamical attribution of multidecadal climate undulations to either variations in external forcings or to internal sources is one of the most important topics of modern climate science, especially in conjunction with the issue of human-induced global warming. Here we utilize ensembles of twentieth century climate simulations to isolate the forced signal and residual internal variability in a network of observed and modeled climate indices. The observed internal variability so estimated exhibits a pronounced multidecadal mode with a distinctive spatiotemporal signature, which is altogether absent in model simulations. This single mode explains a major fraction of model-data differences over the entire climate index network considered; it may reflect either biases in the models' forced response or models' lack of requisite internal dynamics, or a combination of both.Plain Language SummaryGlobal and regional warming trends over the course of the twentieth century have been nonuniform, with decadal and longer periods of faster or slower warming, or even cooling. Here we show that state-of-the-art global models used to predict climate fail to adequately reproduce such multidecadal climate variations. In particular, the models underestimate the magnitude of the observed variability and misrepresent its spatial pattern. Therefore, our ability to interpret the observed climate change using these models is limited.

  2. Early twentieth century response of the global atmospheric electric circuit to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G.; Joshi, M.

    2012-04-01

    The global atmospheric electric circuit links charge separation in disturbed weather regions with current flow in the fair weather regions elsewhere. Variations in disturbed weather, such as the changes in lightning associated with Pacific ocean temperature anomalies, can be expected in turn to modify currents flowing in the global atmospheric electric circuit. Strengthening and weakening of the global circuit current has been observed* to follow El Niño and La Niña respectively, from northern hemisphere atmospheric electricity data obtained during the 1970s. Extending this relationship quantitatively into the first half of the twentieth century is pursued here, using surface data from multiple atmospheric electricity observatories including measurements from the southern hemisphere. The independent atmospheric electricity time series from the observatories show similar variations, which is a pre-requisite for inferring global circuit variations from surface measurement. Combining the measurements allows the global circuit sensitivity to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies to be derived during the earlier part of the twentieth century. * R.G. Harrison, M. Joshi, K. Pascoe, Inferring convective responses to El Niño with atmospheric electricity measurements at Shetland Environ Res Lett 6 (2011) 044028 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/6/4/044028/

  3. Height convergence and internal migration in mid-twentieth-century Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Donatella; Bussini, Odoardo

    2014-01-01

    Height convergence across Italian regions during the second half of the twentieth century is a widely recognized fact. However, it has been suggested that this process was partly affected by the massive migratory flow of people from southern to northern Italy in the 1950s and 1960s, which greatly slowed the height growth rate in the receiving regions, since immigrants were on average shorter than the receiving northern population. The main aims of this study were to estimate the speed of height convergence of Italian military conscripts in the second half of the twentieth century, and to estimate the contribution of internal migration from the south to the north of Italy to height convergence. We hypothesized that migrants from southern Italy reduced height levels among northerners relative to what they would have been without considering migration. We used cohort data on Italian conscripts born in 1951 and 1980. Results indicate that internal migration may explain from 24 to 32.7 percent of height convergence, meaning that ignoring migration flows yields an overestimation of the height changes for conscripts living in the south of Italy.

  4. Real Men Wear Uniforms: Photomontage, Postcards, and Military Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Otto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines early twentieth-century German representations of men and women in uniform to consider how mass culture allowed individuals to participate in aspects of gender construction. It also reveals how masculinity was increasingly linked to military ideals. The pictures under scrutiny here were made in two significant but as yet under-researched types of pictures: pre-avant-garde photomontaged soldier portraits and popular postcards. Both of these visual forms originated in the 1870s, the decade that Germany was itself founded, and they both were in wide circulation by the early twentieth century. Individualized soldier portraits and postcards offered a glorious vision of a man’s military service, and they performed what Theodor Lessing has called Vergemütlichung, the rendering harmless of history. These idealized images of soldierly life were available to a broad swath of the public, but their democratization only extended so far. Representations of women in uniform served to reinforce—through stereotyping and humor—the unquestionably male nature of military institutions and, by extension, of public space. At the same time, by making apparent their own constructed nature, these portraits and postcards offered viewers a glimpse behind the masquerade of masculinity. This essay thus also identifies these images’ links to the subsequent work of avant-garde artists and to the National Socialists’ return to the ideal of uniformed masculinity.

  5. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  6. Three twentieth-century multiauthored neurological handbooks--a historical analysis and bibliometric comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of neurology as a separate specialty from internal medicine and psychiatry took several decades, starting at the end of the nineteenth century. This can be adequately reconstructed by focusing on the establishment of specialized journals, societies, university chairs, the invention and application of specific instruments, medical practices, and certainly also the publication of pivotal textbooks in the field. Particularly around 1900, the German-speaking countries played an integral role in this process. In this article, one aspect is extensively explored, notably the publication (in the twentieth century) of three comprehensive and influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks entirely devoted to neurology. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910-1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935-1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster were analyzed. The handbooks were then compared with Pierre Vinken's and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968-2002). Over the span of nearly a century these publications became ever more comprehensive and developed into a global, encompassing project as is reflected in the increasing number of foreign authors. Whereas the first two handbooks were published mainly in German, "Vinken & Bruyn" was eventually published entirely in English, indicating the general changes in the scientific language of neurology after World War II. Distinctions include the uniformity of the series, manner of editorial involvement, thematic comprehensiveness, inclusion of volume editors in "Vinken & Bruyn," and the provision of index volumes. The increasing use of authorities in various neurological subspecialties is an important factor by which these handbooks contrast with many compact neurological textbooks that were available at the time. For historiographical purposes, the three neurological handbooks considered here were important sources for the general study of the history of medicine and

  7. Three Twentieth-Century Multiauthored Neurological Handbooks – A Historical Analysis and Bibliometric Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J.; Stahnisch, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of neurology as a separate specialty from internal medicine and psychiatry took several decades, starting at the end of the nineteenth century. This can be adequately reconstructed by focusing on the establishment of specialized journals, societies, university chairs, the invention and application of specific instruments, medical practices, and certainly also the publication of pivotal textbooks in the field. Particularly around 1900, the German-speaking countries played an integral role in this process. In this article, one aspect is extensively explored, notably the publication (in the twentieth century) of three comprehensive and influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks entirely devoted to neurology. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910–1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935–1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster were analyzed. The handbooks were then compared with Pierre Vinken's and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968–2002). Over the span of nearly a century these publications became ever more comprehensive and developed into a global, encompassing project as is reflected in the increasing number of foreign authors. Whereas the first two handbooks were published mainly in German, “Vinken & Bruyn” was eventually published entirely in English, indicating the general changes in the scientific language of neurology after World War II. Distinctions include the uniformity of the series, manner of editorial involvement, thematic comprehensiveness, inclusion of volume editors in “Vinken & Bruyn,” and the provision of index volumes. The increasing use of authorities in various neurological subspecialties is an important factor by which these handbooks contrast with many compact neurological textbooks that were available at the time. For historiographical purposes, the three neurological handbooks considered here were important sources for the general study of the history of

  8. Duplessis, rachel blau. Writing beyond the ending: narrative strategies of twentieth - century women writers. bloomington: indiana university press, 1985. Duplessis, rachel blau. Writing beyond the ending: narrative strategies of twentieth - century women writers. bloomington: indiana university press, 1985.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Describing her study as "a culturally necessary production of possible meanings," Rachel Blau DuPlessis undertakes a oitical interpretation of twentieth-century women writers in terms of their attempts to "delegitimize the cultural conventions established by a sex-gender system and its values." Describing her study as "a culturally necessary production of possible meanings," Rachel Blau DuPlessis undertakes a oitical interpretation of twentieth-century women writers in terms of their attempts to "delegitimize the cultural conventions established by a sex-gender system and its values."

  9. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  10. The universal condition: medical constructions of 'congenital phimosis' in twentieth century New Zealand and their implications for child rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lindsay R

    2014-01-01

    'Congenital phimosis' was one of a number of pseudo-pathologies that entered mainstream medicine in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century Truby King, Henry Jellett, and Eric Corkill advocated premature foreskin retraction as the first intervention to manage 'congenital phimosis'. If that failed they recommended circumcision, although eventually it became more expedient to use circumcision exclusively. The nineteenth-century justification for such interventions was to prevent masturbation, but by the middle of the twentieth century this was replaced by prevention of infections. Gairdner's landmark paper of 1949 turned New Zealand doctors away from 'congenital phimosis' and non-therapeutic circumcision, although some doctors and persisting family traditions maintained both interventions until the end of the century.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  12. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  13. Did the 1918 influenza cause the twentieth century cardiovascular mortality epidemic in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Tate

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century, cardiovascular mortality increased in the United States while other causes of death declined. By 1958, the age-standardized death rate (ASDR for cardiovascular causes for females was 1.84 times that for all other causes, combined (and, for males, 1.79×. Although contemporary observers believed that cardiovascular mortality would remain high, the late 1950s and early 1960s turned out to be the peak of a roughly 70-year epidemic. By 1988 for females (1986 for males, a spectacular decline had occurred, wherein the ASDR for cardiovascular causes was less than that for other causes combined. We discuss this phenomenon from a demographic point of view. We also test a hypothesis from the literature, that the 1918 influenza pandemic caused the cardiovascular mortality epidemic; we fail to find support.

  14. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  15. Market Research and Socio-Political Consciousness in the Twentieth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the case of the eminent British market researcher and social scientist Mark Alexander Abrams (1906 – 1994). Abrams’ career as a researcher spanned the six decades between the late 1920s and the late 1980s, and it bridged the gap between commercial market...... and consumer research on the one side and governmental social research on the other. By focusing on Abrams’ research strategies and career moves over these six decades, the paper establishes an alternative historical narrative to those that privilege the impact of capitalist market structures on the making...... of marketing as a professional field and academic discipline in the twentieth century. Design/methodology/approach – Based on archival research, the paper firstly establishes the biographical details of Abrams’ life and work. Secondly, the paper uses methodological and theoretical tools of historical sociology...

  16. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  17. Body and Psychiatric Discourse in the Early Twentieth Century in Uruguay: Insufficiency, Weakness and Adaptation

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    Agustina Craviotto Corbellini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the psychiatric medical discourse and experimental psychology during the twentieth century in Uruguay, as expert knowledge on children and as referents of the pedagogic discourse of that period. As an introduction some key elements of psychiatry in the country are presented; from them, it is stuyed how the dysfunction of the body became the focus of analysis that led to a series of school children´s classifications. The relationship of the dysfunctional body with school learning is at the core of the reflection, and indiscipline and mental weaknesses are taken as elements articulating the psychiatric and psychological discourses with the pedagogical one, through the notion of adjustment disorder.

  18. Natural histories of infectious disease: ecological vision in twentieth-century biomedical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, disease ecology emerged as a distinct disciplinary network within infectious diseases research. The key figures were Theobald Smith, F. Macfarlane Burnet, René Dubos, and Frank Fenner. They all drew on Darwinian evolutionism to fashion an integrative (but rarely holistic) understanding of disease processes, distinguishing themselves from reductionist "chemists" and mere "microbe hunters." They sought a more complex, biologically informed epidemiology. Their emphasis on competition and mutualism in the animated environment differed from the physical determinism that prevailed in much medical geography and environmental health research. Disease ecology derived in part from studies of the interaction of organisms - micro and macro - in tropical medicine, veterinary pathology, and immunology. It developed in postcolonial settler societies. Once a minority interest, disease ecology has attracted more attention since the 1980s for its explanations of disease emergence, antibiotic resistance, bioterrorism, and the health impacts of climate change.

  19. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  20. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  1. [Puppet shows, Mexican television and health education in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, María Rosa; Sosenski, Susana

    2016-10-10

    This article resurrects the puppet show Las calenturas de Don Ferruco (Don Ferruco's Fevers), which was televised in the late 1950s in order to help eradicate malaria in Mexico, as a useful instrument for health education. It analyzes how the spread of educational puppet shows on Mexican television showed the need to keep updating preventive healthcare pedagogy and it underlines the importance of television as an educational health-promotion production in the mid-twentieth century. The article discusses the early use of puppet shows as an especially important tool for what would later become mass-media transmission of discourses from the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Department of Health and Healthcare).

  2. The Lost Worlds of Messmore & Damon: Science, Spectacle & Prehistoric Monsters in early-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2016-09-01

    In 1924, the model-making company Messmore & Damon, Inc. of New York unleashed their masterpiece: the Amphibious Dinosaurus Brontosaurus, a moving, breathing, roaring animatronic dinosaur, based on displays in the American Museum of Natural History. Over the 1920s and 1930s, this became the focus of an ever-increasing publicity campaign, as Messmore & Damon exhibited prehistoric automata in department stores, the media, and the Chicago World Fair of 1933-34. These displays were hugely popular and widely discussed, drawing from the increasing public appeal of paleontology. Mixing commercial entertainment with invocations of scientific value, Messmore & Damon's prehistoric creations offer a window into the meaning and popularity of the deep time sciences in early-twentieth century America, and the links between science and spectacle in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Women and political struggles: achievements and limitations lived in the second half of twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Carvalhaes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century was a period marked by important achievements and setbacks in the struggle for women's rights field. This study mapped out and described part of speeches, images and movements undertaken in that historical period and its effects on people's lives. Adopting a perspective of historical and theoretical analysis, the description looked up, first, the struggles carried out in some countries of Europe and the United States, highlighting its main challenges and difficulties. Then, the struggles undertaken are mapped in Brazil, with the analysis axis facing women inequality. Finally, it is considered that the political struggles carried out in the analyzed period had as greatest merits the disruption and exploitation of gender boundaries.

  4. Linguistic Capital and Its Transformation in the History of Russian in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Živov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Standard language is conceptualized as linguistic capital, in terms of Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology. The Twentieth century in Russia was an epoch of revolutions; linguistic developments in revolutionary and post-revolutionary situations may be efficiently analyzed as transformations of linguistic capital: the old linguistic capital is discredited in the course of a cultural revolution and revolutionary linguistic usage becomes new linguistic capital. This process is characterized in Russia (from 1910 through to the 1920s and again in the 1980s and 1990s by the extensive use of borrowings, vulgar and jargon words, obscene expressions. The end of cultural revolutions is accompanied by the emergence of a new elite and by partial restoration of the old linguistic capital; it is appropriated by the new elite and adjusted to their demands. The article describes two cycles of these developments in the period from 1917 up to the present.

  5. An introduction to the poetics of sacred sound in twentieth-century music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Antonio Irlandini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the twentieth century has occurred the beginning of a fusion between two very different horizons: Western musical composition and Hindu sonic theology. The essential content of this theology and the changes in Western musical language and aesthetics, society and culture which have allowed this fusion to take place are briefly outlined. Instrumental and vocal works by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacinto Scelsi, Michael Vetter and David Hykes provide specific examples and, in particular, raise the predicament between mysticism and rationalism, manifested in the dichotomy ècriture/inspiration. The study proceeds investigating the connections between music and meditation. In this context, overtone singing appears as a musical and meditative practice. The incorporation of this non-European or ancient vocal technique is evaluated as a dawning horizon in Western music. Overtone singing has required a practical emphasis through improvisation, suggesting a new musical praxis that does not separate composition from performance.

  6. Hidden in plain sight marketing prescription drugs to consumers in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A; Herzberg, David

    2010-05-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices.

  7. Chinese Buddhist Nuns in the Twentieth Century: A Case Study in Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, through working at the intersection of the works on nationalism and women, and the literature on Buddhist nuns during the Republican period, I aim to take up questions of gender relations in the broader studies of Buddhism and Buddhist modernization. I explore the Buddhist nuns' movement by examining the establishment of various academies for female Buddhists. I also analyze the writings by female Buddhists in the twentieth century. In so doing, I argue that the Buddhist nuns' revival movement fitted into the broader women's liberation discourse and the national modernization project during this time. This paper promises to provide insights into the history of women and nationalism from a Buddhist perspective, and shed light on gender-related issues of modern Chinese Buddhism in the course of China's modernization.

  8. The Establishment of a Car-Based Leisure Regime in Twentieth Century Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassamagnaghi, Silvia; Moretto, Giovanni; Wagner, Michael

    – despite collective Soviet politics – a “private” dream: a private property good for private use. It allowed, for the very first time, mobility (even if relative…) and freedom of travelling. Owning a car permitted to organize the leisure independently from the prearranged forms of leisure set by the State......Comparative analysis of tourism and of its development in three different countries – Denmark, Italy and Soviet Union – has revealed the importance of the car as the keystone for changes in the habits of leisure time consumption all over in Europe. Even considering the specific features (social......, economic and political) of each country, and the different decades in which this phenomenon has occurred, “individual” travel and stay has become, in Twentieth Century, the characteristics of dominance over other forms of organized and “collective” tourism. “Gentlemen, we do not make this tour to drive. We...

  9. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth rate figures in the 1960s, the populists’ views of the 1930s resurfaced in public discourse in the 1960s and 1970s and up to the present day. The concern about the increasing trend of single-child families in rural settlements as well as in urban areas appeared in the various works of Hungarian writers and journalists throughout the previous century. The present paper intends to focus on the intellectual background to the public debates on the population issue, outlining the accounts of the interwar ‘village explorers’ briefly, and the way they are related to the pre-Second World War populist movement. Finally the reappearance of the debates between populists and non-populists of the 1970s is discussed, a debate that is still continuing.

  10. Internal atmospheric noise characteristics in twentieth century coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin K.

    2017-09-01

    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter internal atmospheric noise) for surface pressure (PS) in twentieth century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The atmospheric noise is determined from daily post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields. The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. However, we do not address the influence of the SST variability on the synoptic scale high frequency weather noise.The spatial patterns of the main seasonal modes of atmospheric noise variability are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function analyses performed globally and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the atmospheric noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the dominant global mode, a seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like pattern is also found in the regional analyses, with similar time dependence. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar.The temporal structures of the noise PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation

  11. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  12. Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Hajnalka; Ács, Ferenc; Skarbit, Nóra

    2017-02-01

    Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century is analyzed using Feddema's original scheme suitable for global scale applications (F-GS) and Feddema's fine-tuned scheme designed for Hungarian applications (F-HU). Input data of precipitation (P) and air temperature (T) are taken from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 1.2 database constructing P-T data referring to three 30-year periods (1901-1930, 1941-1970, 1971-2000) and two 50-year periods (1901-1950, 1951-2000). The method and data organizational effects are compared using these schemes and data sets. The results show that the evaluation of the climate change process depends much more on the methodological rather than on data organizational effects. Methodical fine-tuning effects considerably improved the spatial distribution, while the organization of data improved the insight into the dynamic of the processes. According to F-GS, there is no climate change on 76.7 % of Hungarian territory. According to F-HU, such areas amount to only 38.5 %. The main climate change process for F-GS is drying, while for F-HU drying and warming beside either drying or warming. For both models, the most climate change affected areas are characterized by higher altitudes, such as in the Mecsek and Villány Mountains (geographical region Transdanubia), in the Bükk Mountains (geographical region North Hungarian Mountains), and in the region of the so-called Danube Bend. The spatially most realistic climate description is obtained by using F-HU and the 30-year data sets. It is to be noted that Köppen's, Holdridge's, and Thornthwaite's methods are less suitable than F-HU for representing the process of climate change in Hungary in the twentieth century.

  13. Heritage and Observatories in Brazil at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Marcus

    The first systematic asronomical observations in the southern hemisphere were in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, in the short period of Dutch rule in the region (1637-1644). Later, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were three observatories on Brazilian soil: Imperial Observatório do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório da Escola Politecnica, both in Rio de Janeiro and Observatório Central, in the southern city of Porto Alegre. The first was created by Imperial decree by D. Pedro I, on 15 October 1827, while the second, linked to Universidade do Brasil, was established on 5 July 1881. The third was planned in 1889, but only inaugurated on 24 January 1908 as part of the Escola de Engenharia. All three institutions exist to this day, and their scientific instruments of historical value are included in cultural heritage preservation projects. The largest collection of this kind of objects is at Museu de Astronomia e Ciéncias Afins (MAST), most of whose 2000 artefacts come from the Imperial Observatory (today the National Observatory). Many of them were produced in Germany by manufacturers such as Gustav Heyde, Carl Zeiss, Askania-Werke, Carl Bamberg and Max Kohl. The buildings of the Observatório Central (1921) and Observatório Nacional (1921) are listed by federal and state heritage protection agencies, particularly because they were purpose built for astronomical research and have architectural features typical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that have not been altered over the years.

  14. Twentieth century warming of the tropical Atlantic captured by Sr-U paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Alice E.; Cohen, Anne L.; Oppo, Delia W.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Hernandez-Delgado, Edwin A.; Winter, Amos; Gonneea, Meagan

    2017-01-01

    Coral skeletons are valuable archives of past ocean conditions. However, interpretation of coral paleotemperature records is confounded by uncertainties associated with single-element ratio thermometers, including Sr/Ca. A new approach, Sr-U, uses U/Ca to constrain the influence of Rayleigh fractionation on Sr/Ca. Here we build on the initial Pacific Porites Sr-U calibration to include multiple Atlantic and Pacific coral genera from multiple coral reef locations spanning a temperature range of 23.15–30.12°C. Accounting for the wintertime growth cessation of one Bermuda coral, we show that Sr-U is strongly correlated with the average water temperature at each location (r2 = 0.91, P period 1900–1996 is within 0.12°C of the average instrumental temperature at this site and captures the twentieth century warming trend of 0.06°C per decade. Sr-U also captures the timing of multiyear variability but with higher amplitude than implied by the instrumental data. Mean Sr-U temperatures and patterns of multiyear variability were replicated in a second coral in the same grid box. Conversely, Sr/Ca records from the same two corals were inconsistent with each other and failed to capture absolute sea temperatures, timing of multiyear variability, or the twentieth century warming trend. Our results suggest that coral Sr-U paleothermometry is a promising new tool for reconstruction of past ocean temperatures.

  15. Comparative study of white porcelain from the common use of nineteenth and twentieth centuries with PXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wislley Dueli da; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is widely used for qualitative and quantitative researches on the chemical composition of various types of samples, such as archaeological, art and cultural heritage materials or samples. The great advantage of this technique is that it allows a nondestructive and simultaneous multielement analysis. It has a low cost and portable system device that can be used in situ. The study of archaeological artifacts and cultural heritage by means of analytical techniques with hand held devices becomes increasingly routine today. Several types of portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) have been used in many different situations involving in situ analysis covering a wide range of geometries, detectors, voltage and current applied in the X-ray tubes. This study aims to identify and compare the main elements that make up samples of ceramic pottery for common use by the late nineteenth and early and late twentieth century, as a way of using the methodology of analysis by EDXRF equipment PXRF - LFNA - 02. Being able to identify that the key element present in the glaze of ceramics from the early twentieth century was the Pb, it was possible to classify the samples as faience cream ware and not pearlware as it was guided by conventional archaeological analysis, where the rating was based only on color enamel porcelain. Elements such as K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr are also found in different concentrations depending on the clay used in the manufacture of earthenware, maker of the period and that it was produced. From analysis of the type EDXRF is possible to compare different manufacturing techniques, both in enamel and in ceramic slurry and often even the color of his pieces. (author)

  16. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer's Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-07-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology - his biological theory of mind and mental disorders - and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical-pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body - observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory - he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of 'social adaptation'. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer's conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry.

  17. Twentieth-century Victorian: Arthur Conan Doyle and the "Strand Magazine," 1891–1930, by Jonathan Cranfield [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Charlotte Mecklenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Jonathan Cranfield, Twentieth-century Victorian: Arthur Conan Doyle and the "Strand Magazine," 1891–1930. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, hardcover, £75 (272p ISBN 978-1474406758; e-book, £75, ISBN 978-1474406772.

  18. Twentieth-century Victorian: Arthur Conan Doyle and the "Strand Magazine," 1891–1930, by Jonathan Cranfield [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Charlotte Mecklenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Jonathan Cranfield, Twentieth-century Victorian: Arthur Conan Doyle and the "Strand Magazine," 1891–1930. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, hardcover, £75 (272p ISBN 978-1474406758; e-book, £75, ISBN 978-1474406772.

  19. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  20. Twentieth-century global-mean sea-level rise: is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregory, J.M.; White, N.J.; Church, J.A.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Box, J.E.; Broeke, M.R. van den; Cogley, J.G.; Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Konikow, L.F.; Leclercq, P.W.; Marzeion, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Tamisiea, E.; Wada, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Confidence in projections of global-mean sea level rise (GMSLR) depends on an ability to account for GMSLR during the twentieth century. There are contributions from ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, groundwater extraction, and reservoir impoundment. Progress has been

  1. Public Expenditure on Education and Economic Growth in the USA in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies of France, Germany and the UK suggest that a common framework exists to explain the relationship between public expenditure on education and economic growth in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article shows that while a similar relationship exists in the USA, US policies were particularly committed to the educational…

  2. The creation of play spaces in twentieth-century Amsterdam: from an intervention of civil actors to a public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    This case study uncovers a turning point in the production of play space in Amsterdam. Whereas over the first half of the twentieth century the creation of play spaces used to be the primary responsibility of the Amsterdam civil society, this situation started to change after the Second World War. B

  3. YINSHUN'S RECOVERY OF SHIZHU PIPOSHA LUN A MADHYAMAKA-BASED PURE LAND PRACTICE IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY TAIWAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Yinshun (1906-2005) is regarded as one of the eminent monks of twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. In the mission of reinventing Chinese Buddhism Yinshun engaged particularly in the revival and restatement of Madhyamaka. His interpretation of Ngrjuna's texts, the reassessment of the links between pr

  4. Those Who Served: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Policies Toward Veterans. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Michael K.

    Veterans' policies and programs are examined by a task force of the Twentieth Century Fund. Part 1, the report of the task force, includes sections on the rationale for veterans benefits, recommendations for further benefits and programs, and a dissenting opinion by one task force member. Recommendations are summarized into five basic areas: (1)…

  5. The Yankees of Europe? A New View on Technology and Productivity in German Manufacturing in the Early Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Veenstra, Joost; Woltjer, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Labor productivity in German manufacturing lagged behind the United States in the early twentieth century. Traditionally, this is attributed to dichotomous technology paths across the Atlantic. However, various industry case studies suggest rapid diffusion of U.S. technologies in Germany. We develop

  6. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  7. "El destierro de los Chinos": Popular Perspectives on Chinese-Mexican Intermarriage in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Robert Chao

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines Chinese-Mexican interracial marriage during the early twentieth century through the lens of Mexican popular culture. Comedy, poetry, cartoons, and musical recordings of the time portrayed these marriages as relationships of abuse, slavery, and neglect, and rejected the offspring of such unions as subhuman and unworthy of full…

  8. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  9. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  10. The Yankees of Europe? A New View on Technology and Productivity in German Manufacturing in the Early Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Veenstra, Joost; Woltjer, Pieter J.

    Labor productivity in German manufacturing lagged persistently behind the United States in the early twentieth century. Traditionally, this is attributed to dichotomous technology paths across the Atlantic. However, various industry case studies suggest rapid diffusion of U.S. technologies in

  11. Chemistry and Chemical Education through Text and Image: Analysis of Twentieth Century Textbooks Used in Brazilian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Karina Ap F. D.; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that textbooks give literary expression to cultural and ideological values of a nation or group, we propose the analysis of chemistry textbooks used in Brazilian universities throughout the twentieth century. We analyzed iconographic and textual aspects of 31 textbooks which had significant diffusion in the context of Brazilian…

  12. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  13. Working women in France, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Where, when, and which women were in work at marriage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, Richard L.; van Leeuwen, Marco H D; Rébaudo, Danièle; Pélissier, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We look at women's labour force participation for the whole of France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We study to what extent young women were working at the time of their marriage, in which occupations, and how differences in labour force participation might be explained. Using a sample

  14. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  15. Contributions to a genealogy of democracy in the twentieth century starting from the opposition Kelsen/Schmitt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fortunato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work I analyze the theories of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen of democracy in the light of the weberian topic of rationalization. My thesis is that this counterpoint does not escape the contemporary split that characterizes the nineteenth century modernity and continues in the twentieth century. At last, I’ll maintain that the political manifestation of this aporeticalbackground –over which one must understand the challenge of democracy– is what Schmitt calls the total State.

  16. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  17. [Pain and anesthesiology : aspects of the development of modern pain therapy in the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, W

    2011-06-01

    The connection between the development of anesthesiology and pain therapy in the twentieth century is close. The optimistic idea to overcome pain by using general anesthesia derives from the nineteenth century. Treatment of nonsurgical pain remained in the background for a long time and innovations in pain medicine did not improve the insufficient care for patients with postoperative pain. Therapy of chronic pain was mainly surgical and the extreme of this surgical approach was psychosurgery. In the years following World War II leucotomy and lobotomy were established as methods to separate the psychological processing of pain from the experience of pain. Meanwhile, the French "pain surgeon" René Leriche elaborated a theory of pain where chronic pain was no longer seen as a symptom but as a "douleur-maladie", a pain disease. His theory was considered on various occasions but did not gain acceptance before the 1950s. Research in anesthesiology, such as that conducted by the American scientist Henry Beecher separated psyche and physiology with respect to pathological pain. This was contrasted by the approach of clinical anesthesia to pain therapy, which was based on regional anesthesia. The first "pain clinics" were "nerve block clinics". John Bonica, a regional anesthesiologist, extended the framework of pain therapy by introducing multidisciplinary teamwork into the therapy of chronic pain. From today's viewpoint his 1953 monograph The Management of Chronic Pain is a milestone in the development of modern pain therapy. However, Bonica's work did not attain major importance until 1960 when he was appointed to a newly established chair. Gradually, chronic pain was recognized as an independent illness and differentiated as such from acute pain. In 1965 the gate control theory by Melzack and Wall offered a possible explanation for the mechanisms of chronic pain. By the end of the 1970s the spectrum was extended to the biopsychosocial approach which was foremost

  18. [Physical restraint of patients: historical notes relating to the nineteenth and twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña-López, Emilio; Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J

    2011-03-01

    Physical restraint has been historically considered a necessary procedure to control the behaviour of the mentally ill. In the late eighteenth century moral treatment would pave the way for new initiatives against restraint, such as those instituted by British psychiatrists. They stressed the importance of training and supervision, as well as a minimum staff ratio, as being determining factors in reducing the use of restraint. This philosophy of treatment, despite its benefits, was introduced later and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe, although, in other countries care was also made more humane through new therapeutic procedures. By contrast, in the United States most psychiatrists disagreed with those who advocated non-restraint, and continued using controversial methods to control the behaviour of patients. In Spain many difficulties hindered the improvement of conditions in institutions, many of which were in a sorry state. The initiatives of a few professionals and some cautious legal advances tried to alleviate the harshness of the treatment methods used. In the early twentieth century professional manuals were already available, which included the care to be given during the application of physical restraints. However it was not until the 1950, when the emergence of new psychotropic drugs and the distribution of important guidelines on the protection of the rights of patients that the widespread use of this procedure would be successfully reduced.

  19. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E; Clark, Robin T

    2014-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 140 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation, and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Variations in the form of the wind speed distribution are assessed in terms of its deciles; we find that the commonly-used Weibull distribution often pro...

  20. Theory versus Practice in the Twentieth-Century Search for the Ideal Anaesthetic Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, an anaesthetist could choose between nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether (diethyl ether) for the induction of painrelieving unconsciousness. By the end of century, the choice was between a small number of fluorinated aliphatic ethers such as Enflurane, Desflurane, and Sevoflurane, and (in some jurisdictions) the rare gas, xenon. Between these endpoints researchers had identified a surprisingly broad range of hydrocarbons, noble gases, organohalogens, and aliphatic ethers that possessed anaesthetic properties. None was entirely satisfactory, but clinicians at various times and in various places employed substances in each of these categories. Behind the search for new anaesthetic gases was a theory of action (Meyer- Overton theory) that was known to be inadequate, but as no alternative was strong enough to displace it the search continued on purely empirical grounds, while lip-service was paid to the theory. By the time a theory couched in more modern terms was proposed, a suite of modern anaesthetic gases was in place, and there have been no attempts to use that theory to drive a new search.

  1. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Clark, Robin T.

    2017-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 142 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Since reanalyses such as ERAI are often used to provide the background climatology for wind farm site assessments, but contain only a few decades of data, our results can be used as a way of incorporating decadal-scale wind climate variability into such studies, allowing investment risks for wind farms to be reduced.

  3. Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the twentieth-century cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the twentieth-century study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge.

  4. Ukrainian Issues in Geopolitical thought of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia-Zacharski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian lands in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have been in proximity of great geopolitical changes several times. During that time the Ukrainian nation – due to various factors – encountered a number of “windows of opportunity” for achieving the realization of dreams about independence and national sovereignty. The author identified in the period considered four “general moments,” of which two have been completed successfully. The first of these occurred in 1990–1991, when for the first time in modern history, Ukrainians managed to achieve a lasting and relatively stable independence. The second of the “moments” – still unresolved – are events that began in the late autumn of 2013. The process, called “Revolution of Dignity”, represents a new quality in the history of the Ukrainian nation, therefore, that the Ukrainians have to defend the status quo (independence, territorial integrity, sovereignty, etc. but not to seek to achieve an independent being. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the ability of Ukrainians to achieve and maintain independence is largely a function of the relative power of the Russian state as measured with respect to the shape and quality of international relations.

  5. "For ever and ever": Child-raising, domestic workers and emotional labour in twentieth century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Delap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of physical and emotional labour which exist between children, parents and domestic workers are historically fluid. Different styles of parenting, discourses of social class, and material contexts of care have given rise to very diverse degrees of delegation of childcare to servants. Servants themselves have often invested emotionally in their relationships with children, and the relationship has clearly not been simply commodified in being delegated. However, the relationships that result have sometimes been troubled and ambivalent. A simple narrative of exploitation does little to capture the experiences of servants who cared for children, and the recent historiography of emotions and emotional labour can help to trace a fuller picture. In this paper, I examine the roles of laughter as a form of emotional expression that can shed light on the affects of care – the shared jokes, failed jokes and forms of mockery that characterised the management of servants by mothers who employed them, or the experiences of servants and children in late nineteenth and twentieth century servant-keeping houses.

  6. Empowered objects, powerless subjects: citizenship, religion, and political representation in twentieth-century Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Maria Gomes da Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Measures of Equality: Social Science, Citizenship, and Race in Cuba, 1902-1940. Alejandra Marina Bronfman. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xi + 234 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Afro-Cuban Religiosity, Revolution, and National Identity. Christine Ayorinde. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. ix + 283 pp. (Cloth US$ 59.95 In the last ten years, research topics such as race and nation have been privileged areas for the historical and anthropological understanding of Caribbean and Latin American societies. Regarding Cuba in particular, social scientists have dedicated important scholarship to these issues by mapping conceptions of citizenship and political representation, while situating them within a broader debate on the making of the new postcolonial and republican society at the beginning of the twentieth century. By pursuing different aims and following distinct approaches, Alejandra Bronfman and Christine Ayorinde have made contributions to this academic literature. Through divergent theoretical and methodological perspectives, both of their books explore alternative ways of interpreting the making of the nation founded upon a multiple and fluid rhetoric of race.

  7. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science.

  8. Dark, bloody and savage: Twentieth-century European violence and its narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at major European twentieth-century narratives and interpretations that have seen it as an age of violence, terror and genocide. Using examples from historiographical debate and the analysis of specific historical processes (including the debates on genocide, concentrationary systems, civil wars and the Holocaust, it addresses both the characteristics of those narratives and some of their limitations and conceptual edges. Finally, the conceptual proposal put forward seeks to analyze, through historical contingency, continuities and discontinuities in the history of European collective violence.Este artículo propone una mirada a algunas de las grandes narrativas e interpretaciones sobre el siglo XX europeo que lo han visto como una centuria de violencia, terror y genocidio. A través de algunos ejemplos de debates historiográficos y de análisis de procesos históricos concretos (como los debates sobre el genocidio, los sistemas concentracionarios, las guerras civiles o el Holocausto, se abordan tanto las características de esas narrativas como algunos de sus límites y aristas. Al final, se adelanta una propuesta conceptual para analizar desde la contingencia histórica las continuidades y discontinuidades en la historia de la violencia colectiva europea.

  9. Are We Them? Textual and Literary Representations of the Chinese in Twentieth-Century Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thak Chaloemtiarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available King Vajiravudh famously published an essay titled Jews of the Orient in 1914 demonizing the Chinese in Siam as ingrates and parasites. The local Chinese became the “Other Within” in the Thai nation that the king was trying to establish. Whether his reaction to the local Chinese was fueled by ire over the recent strike by the Chinese which paralyzed Bangkok, or a reflection of his English education and exposure to European anti-Semitism, is not the focus of my concern. My interest for this exercise is to study how the Chinese in Siam/Thailand are portrayed in Thai language texts, that is, prose fiction and non-fiction produced in the twentieth century (I will not include related areas such as movies, television drama, music, and cartoons. This study does not involve an exhaustive review of all texts but will focus on a few well-known and popular ones. I would like to know whether King Vajiravudh’s portrayal of the Chinese is reflected in subsequent literary production or muted by other realities that existed in Thai society, and how the production of texts on the local Chinese changed over time. More importantly, I am very curious to know how this issue is played out in neighboring countries, especially the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, countries where the “assimilation” of the Chinese into the majority culture happens in varying degrees.

  10. Writing the history of virology in the twentieth century: Discovery, disciplines, and conceptual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Concerned with the study of viruses and the diseases they cause, virology is now a well-established scientific discipline. Whereas aspects of its history from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century have often been recounted through a number of detailed case studies, few general discussions of the historiography of virology have been offered. Looking at the ways in which the history of virology has been told, this article examines a number of debates among scientists and historians of biology and show how they are based on a different understanding of notions such as "discipline", of processes such as "scientific discovery" as well as on distinct views about what the history of science is and how it should be written (the opposition between "longue durée" and "micro-history" or between history of "concepts" versus "experimental methods"). The analysis provided here also suggests that a richer historiography of virology will require looking at the variations over time of the relations between conceptual, technological, and institutional factors that fostered its development at the intersection of several other scientific fields in the life sciences.

  11. The campus in the twentieth century: The urban campus in Chicago from 1890 to 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Civil War, when socio political reorganisation was urgently needed, American universities contributed to the process of re establishing the internal equilibrium of power within the nation. Thus an attempt was made to reinforce the political parties and develop regions as politically discrete territorial entities that were relatively manageable. In the twentieth century the effect of this policy of local centralisation at the regional level, in conjunction with the opportunity offered by the need to develop more effective city governance, was translated into the awareness that a major contribution of academia to politics is to help re establish the parameters of governability for the entire country. With the goal of documenting and exploring some key relations between campus plans and city planning in Chicago, this paper illustrates a number of campus plans and planning strategies in which “the city” can be thought of as a metonym for the entire society. Nexuses between campus and city planning can be revealed from the creation of the campus of the University of Chicago in 1890 to the first half of the 1960s.

  12. The German genius Europe's third renaissance, the second scientific revolution, and the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Peter Watson's virtuoso sweep through modern German thought and culture, from 1750 to the present day, will challenge and confound both the stereotypes the world has of Germany and those that Germany has of itself. From the end of the Baroque era and the death of Bach to the rise of Hitler in 1933, Germany was transformed from a poor relation among Western nations into a dominant intellectual and cultural force—more creative and influential than France, Britain, Italy, Holland, and the United States. In the early decades of the twentieth century, German artists, writers, scholars, philosophers, scientists, and engineers were leading their freshly unified country to new and unimagined heights. By 1933, Germans had won more Nobel Prizes than any other nationals, and more than the British and Americans combined. Yet this remarkable genius was cut down in its prime by Adolf Hitler and his disastrous Third Reich—a brutal legacy that has overshadowed the nation's achievements ever since. How did the Germans t...

  13. Decadal potential predictability of upper ocean heat content over the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujun; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Lixin

    2017-02-01

    The statistical method, Average Predictability Time (APT) decomposition, is used in the present paper to estimate the decadal predictability of upper ocean heat content over the global ocean, North Pacific and North Atlantic, respectively. The twentieth century simulations from CMIP5 outputs are the main data sources in this study. On global scale, the leading predictable component is characterized by a warming trend over the majority of oceans, which is related to the anthropogenic forced response. The second predictable component has significant loadings in the North Atlantic, especially in the subtropical region, which originates from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) predictability. To separate interactions among different ocean basins, we further maximize APT in individual North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. It is found that the second and the third predictable component in North Pacific are significantly correlated with the well-known North Pacific Gyre Oscillation mode and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation respectively. Upper limit prediction skill of these two components are on the order of 6 years. In contrast, the most predictable component derived from the North Atlantic features an AMO-like spatial structure with its prediction skill up to 18 years, while the basin mode due to global warming only exists as the third component. This indicates the interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic is strong enough to mask the anthropogenic climate signals. Furthermore, predictability in the real world is also investigated and compared with model results by using observation-based data.

  14. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  15. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  16. Urania in the Marketplace: Astronomical Imagery in Early Twentieth-Century Advertizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The pages of popular magazines such as Sky and Telescope and Astronomy are filled with advertisements for telescopes and other equipment. However, during the past century astronomical imagery has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical products and services. One of the earliest and most famous examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk's Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. A survey of popular magazines published in America during the first half of the twentieth century suggests that these advertisements fall into four categories: 1) Astronomy is universally regarded as an exact and precise science. Manufacturers of mechanical devices may employ images of telescopes or astronomers at work to suggest that their products meet these same standards of quality. This was primarily the case with makers of automobiles and automotive products, although the Longines Watch Company ran an extensive series of ads featuring observatories. 2) The heavens induce a sense of wonder in most people, and advertisers may locate their products in an a celestial setting to give them an otherworldly flavor. 3) Astronomical observatories themselves are viewed as exotic settings, and have provided backgrounds for automotive and travel ads. They may also appear in advertisements for products used in their construction. 4) Finally, newsworthy astronomical events will inspire advertisers to associate their products with that event, in order to capitalize upon the publicity. This was particularly true in the case of the 1910 passage of Halley's Comet and the 1948 opening of the 200-inch Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Examples of magazine advertisements from each category are presented for comparison. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  17. Materials for the investigation of The Seismicity Of Algeria And Adjacent Regions during the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Benouar

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Benouar presents a full and integrated study of the recent seismicity of Algeria and adjacent regions during the twentieth century. He has amassed an impressive amount of macroseismic information pertaining to individual earthquakes, which he combines with instrumental information to reassess the origin parameters of each event. In any compilation of earthquakes it is the additional information beyond the bare accumulation of figures and facts that adds interest and social understanding to the scientific appreciation of the earthquakes themselves. For this it is necessary to know the local conditions, and Dr. Benouar brings out for us very vivid1y the differences between reporting procedures at different times this century, and the ensuing difficulties. It would be most difficult for an outsider to gather the information he presents, and he makes good use of his knowledge of his native land, as well as his professional training as an engineer. We thus learn of the reluctance of the colonial powers to report on damage or casualties outside those inflicted on the expatriate community, and the general difficulties of finding information about earthquakes that occurred during the wars of independence, at a time when effects of even major earthquakes were sometimes minor compared to those of the war itself. He also does not spare us details of political difficulties that arose during periods of reconstruction following recent earthquakes. This work is not restricted, however, to description. He examines the underlying tectonics of the area and deduces estimates of hazard and risk in various parts of the country. He then proceeds to examine the engineering consequences and discuss future needs for building codes and civil protection. Dr. Benouar has produced a work which could well form a model for those wishing to undertake comprelzensive studies of seismicity of other areas, and the measures needed to reduce the effects of catastrophic

  18. Historical occurrence and extinction of Atlantic salmon in the River Elbe from the fourteenth to the twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreska J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.

  19. Conference Report: Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies KFG International Conference held on 25-27 October 2012 The long rays of the yellow autumn sun shining on the red leaves of the Free University Berlin's Dahlem Campus...... provided a local touch of nature for an international conference devoted to the protection of the environment on a global scale. Sixteen researchers from eleven different countries from Europe and overseas gathered from 25 to 27 October 2012 at the Free University's Silberlaube conference centre to discuss...... "Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies". The conference was hosted and sponsored by the Research College "The Transformative Power of Europe" (jointly directed by TANJA BÖRZEL and THOMAS RISSE) at Free University's Otto...

  20. Conference Report: Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies KFG International Conference held on 25-27 October 2012 The long rays of the yellow autumn sun shining on the red leaves of the Free University Berlin's Dahlem Campus...... provided a local touch of nature for an international conference devoted to the protection of the environment on a global scale. Sixteen researchers from eleven different countries from Europe and overseas gathered from 25 to 27 October 2012 at the Free University's Silberlaube conference centre to discuss...... "Environmental Protection in the Global Twentieth Century: International Organizations, Networks and Diffusion of Ideas and Policies". The conference was hosted and sponsored by the Research College "The Transformative Power of Europe" (jointly directed by TANJA BÖRZEL and THOMAS RISSE) at Free University's Otto...

  1. Thermal comfort in twentieth-century architectural heritage: Two houses of Le Corbusier and André Wogenscky

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Requena-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The study of the relationship of climate and indoor thermal environments in architecture is essential to understand the inhabitants' sensory perception. This is even more relevant when working in the existing housing stock in view of the evolution of the twentieth-century heritage preservation and the problem of adapting these buildings to our current comfort and environmental criteria. The current article aims to develop a fair and balanced understanding of the approa...

  2. Lisa K. Perdigao. From Modernist Entombment to Postmodernist Exhumation Dead Bodies in Twentieth-Century American Fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Robbins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lisa K. Perdigao’s monograph titled From Modernist Entombment to Postmodernist Exhumation, seeks to offer a comprehensive study of the corpse as represented in American fiction of the twentieth century. Perdigao explores how novelists from a range of time periods and traditions use dead bodies as a device that is revealing of the wider formal ambitions of narrative. In her introduction, Perdigao sets out the theoretical framework on which her study is based. She draws on poststructuralist the...

  3. Antarctic station-based seasonal pressure reconstructions since 1905: 2. Variability and trends during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Ryan L.; Jones, Julie M.; Goergens, Chad A.; Jones, Megan E.; Witte, Grant A.; Lee, Ming Yueng

    2016-03-01

    The Antarctic seasonal station-based pressure reconstructions evaluated in our companion paper are evaluated here to provide additional knowledge on Antarctic pressure variability during the twentieth century. In the period from 1905 to 1956, we find that the Hadley Centre gridded sea level pressure data set compared the best with our reconstructions, perhaps due to similar methods to estimate pressure without direct observations. The primary focus on the twentieth century Antarctic pressure variability was in summer and winter, as these were the seasons with the highest reconstruction skill. In summer, there is considerable interannual variability that was spatially uniform across all of Antarctica. Notable high pressure anomalies were found in the summers of 1911/1912 and 1925/1926; both summers correspond to negative phases of the Southern Annular Mode as well as El Niño events in the tropical Pacific. In addition, negative summer pressure trends during the last ~40 years across all of Antarctica are unique in the context of 30 year trends throughout the entire twentieth century, suggesting a strong component of anthropogenic forcing on the recent summer trends. In contrast, mean winter pressure is less variable from year to year during the early twentieth century, and there is less similarity between the pressure variations along the Antarctic Peninsula compared to the rest of the continent. No significant pressure trends were found consistently across all Antarctica (although some significant regional trends can be identified), and low-frequency, multidecadal-scale variability appears to dominate the historical pressure variations in this season.

  4. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  5. Emily Dickinson: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Richard B., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Richard B. Sewall, Conrad Aiken, Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, George F. Whicher, Henry W. Wells, Donald E. Thackrey, Thomas H. Johnson, R. P. Blackmur, John Crowe Ransom, Austin Warren, James Reeves, Richard Wilbur, Louise…

  6. Emily Dickinson: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Richard B., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Richard B. Sewall, Conrad Aiken, Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, George F. Whicher, Henry W. Wells, Donald E. Thackrey, Thomas H. Johnson, R. P. Blackmur, John Crowe Ransom, Austin Warren, James Reeves, Richard Wilbur, Louise…

  7. Family Life in Europe in the Twentieth Century/ Życie rodzinne w Europie w XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIE MAREČKOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family life in Europe has undergone many changes in the twentieth century. These include the lifestyle of women, their legal freedom, family relations, relations with partners, relations with the older generation, and relations with children. The position of women in society has also undergone many transformations. Problems remain, however, in the social and family policy of the state, as women engaged in the working process give preference to their own plans and their need for self-fulfi lment. The main goal of state family policy in the twenty-first century is, then, to ensure a harmonious balance between professional activity and family life.

  8. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  9. Slope processes and related risk appearance within the Icelandic Westfjords during the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Decaulne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In North-western Iceland, records of slope processes were increasing during the twentieth century. Few dramatic events during the last decades highlighted the danger due to slope dynamics, leaving local populations in a risk situation that was merely unknown before 1970. The recent snow-avalanche, debris-flow and rock-fall activity underlined that the most frequent processes are not these with the largest human impact. In fact, the most catastrophic events were the extreme ones, following directly from a low frequency and a high magnitude. The purpose of this paper is to draw a parallel history of natural hazard and residence spatial extension, for an accurate understanding of the present-day risk situation, as the population growth markedly increased during the same time. Different quantitative and qualitative methods are applied. Geomorphological investigations locate the main threaten areas, in the path of slope processes release evidences, i.e. suitable slope morphology and/or inherited/actual forms. By a collection of dating data, as historic records and lichenometrical analysis, the frequency of given magnitude events is known. Climatic analysis clarifies the triggering meteorological conditions of slope processes and offers an overview of climate fluctuation during the investigated period; wind speed and direction is critical to hazardous snow-avalanche departure and snowmelt is crucial for debris-flow release. The findings clearly indicate that a combination of spatial expansion of inhabited areas and a lack of slope processes knowledge at the expansion time led to a recent and progressive risk appearance due to snow avalanches (including slush flows, debris flows and rock fall in most towns and villages of North-western Iceland.

  10. Assessing the impact of vertical land motion on twentieth century global mean sea level estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlington, B. D.; Thompson, P.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Ray, R. D.

    2016-07-01

    Near-global and continuous measurements from satellite altimetry have provided accurate estimates of global mean sea level in the past two decades. Extending these estimates further into the past is a challenge using the historical tide gauge records. Not only is sampling nonuniform in both space and time, but tide gauges are also affected by vertical land motion (VLM) that creates a relative sea level change not representative of ocean variability. To allow for comparisons to the satellite altimetry estimated global mean sea level (GMSL), typically the tide gauges are corrected using glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. This approach, however, does not correct other sources of VLM that remain in the tide gauge record. Here we compare Global Positioning System (GPS) VLM estimates at the tide gauge locations to VLM estimates from GIA models, and assess the influence of non-GIA-related VLM on GMSL estimates. We find that the tide gauges, on average, are experiencing positive VLM (i.e., uplift) after removing the known effect of GIA, resulting in an increase of 0.24 ± 0.08 mm yr-1 in GMSL trend estimates from 1900 to present when using GPS-based corrections. While this result is likely dependent on the subset of tide gauges used and the actual corrections used, it does suggest that non-GIA VLM plays a significant role in twentieth century estimates of GMSL. Given the relatively short GPS records used to obtain these VLM estimates, we also estimate the uncertainty in the GMSL trend that results from limited knowledge of non-GIA-related VLM.

  11. Vagabond Figures in Slovenian Visual Art and Literature at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

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    Robert Simonišek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between visual and literary motifs in Slovenian painting (and illustration, graphics, and drawing and literature (both prose and poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century. It uses examples to show the popularity and rich variety of vagabond figures and their transformations and reciprocity at the level of the painting/text. However, a distinctive feature of this article is that it places the subject within the context of hermeneutics, a method that has not been used in Slovenian art history. In addition, it also reveals the symbolic complexity of the vagabond figure in the context of writers, other works, and social-historical circumstances. The emphasis is placed on artists that showed enthusiasm for this figure as a subject during the Belle Époque and also those that followed the very popular bohemian lifestyle in their everyday lives. The reception of Slovenian folk and traditional motifs from the past produced visual and semantic oscillation in which the phenomena of vagabond figures were systematized and interpreted. Many painters (e.g., Gvidon Birolla, and Maksim Gaspari and writers (e.g., Oton Župančič, Cvetko Golar, and Ivan Cankar clung to the Slovenian tradition with romantic overtones and, in line with their artistic atmosphere, integrated vagabond figures into typical Slovenian landscapes or environments. Some of them followed Symbolism and modernized the figures with autobiographical references (e.g., Fran Tratnik. The situation among the youngest generation of artists in particular showed that they managed to “escape” from copying traditional motifs and instead used them in a modern form in the “here and now” (e.g., Ivan Cankar. The discrepancy between the lack of the vagabond theme in oil painting and strong diversification in illustration, drawing, graphics, and literature could be explained by consumers’ perceived difference between “high” and “popular” art.

  12. Air pressure effects on sea level changes during the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Thompson, Philip R.; Donohue, Kathleen A.

    2016-10-01

    Interpretation of tide gauge data in terms sea level (η) and ocean dynamics requires estimates of air pressure (pa) to determine the ocean's isostatic response—the inverted barometer effect (ηib). Three gridded pa products (HadSLP2, NOAA-20CRv2, and ERA-20C) are used alongside meteorological station pa and tide gauge η records to evaluate the contribution of ηib to η changes over the twentieth century. Agreement between gridded products is better during more recent periods and over regions with good historical data coverage, whereas it is worse for earlier time periods or in ocean areas with poor observational data coverage. Comparison against station data reveals the presence of systematic errors in the gridded products, for example, such that uncertainties estimated through differencing the gridded products underestimate the true errors by roughly 40% on interannual and decadal time scales. Notwithstanding such correlated errors, gridded products are still useful for interpretation of tide gauge data. Removing gridded estimates of ηib from η records reduces spatial variance in centennial trends across tide gauges by 10-30%, formal errors in centennial trends from individual gauges by ˜5%, and the temporal variance in detrended records by 10-15% on average (depending on choice of gridded product). Results here advocate for making the ηib correction to tide gauge records in studies of ocean circulation and global η over long, multidecadal, and centennial time scales using an ensemble mean taken across several gridded ηib products.

  13. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Fauria, M. [University of Calgary, Biogeoscience Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); University of Barcelona, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Grinsted, A. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland); Helama, S.; Eronen, M. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Moore, J. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Oulu (Finland); Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing (China); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); Martma, T. [Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Geology, Tallinn (Estonia); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200-1997 using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and {delta}{sup 18}O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent based on the calibration period 1864-1997. The significance of the reconstruction statistics (reduction of error, coefficient of efficiency) is computed for the first time against a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200: low sea ice extent also occurred before (mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries, early fifteenth and late thirteenth centuries), but these periods were in no case as persistent as in the twentieth century. Largest sea ice extent values occurred from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with relatively smaller sea ice-covered area during the sixteenth century. Moderate sea ice extent occurred during thirteenth-fifteenth centuries. Reconstructed sea ice extent variability is dominated by decadal oscillations, frequently associated with decadal components of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), and multi-decadal lower frequency oscillations operating at {proportional_to}50-120 year. Sea ice extent and NAO showed a non-stationary relationship during the observational period. The present low sea ice extent is unique over the last 800 years, and results from a decline started in late-nineteenth century after the LIA. (orig.)

  14. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    considered to correct monthly precipitation and temperature time series. The first one applies two new analogy steps, using the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale two-meter temperature. The second method is a calendar selection that keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. A sensitivity study has been performed to assess the final number of analogues dates to retain for each method. A comparison to Safran over 1958-2010 shows that biases on the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are strongly reduced with both methods. Using two supplementary analogy levels moreover leads to a large improvement of correlation in seasonal temperature time series. These two methods have also been validated before 1958 thanks to both raw observations and homogenized time series. The two post-processing methods come with some advantages and drawbacks. The calendar selection allows to slightly better correct for seasonal biases in precipitation and is therefore adapted in a forecasting context. The selection with two supplementary analogy levels would allow for possible season shifts and SST trends and is therefore better suited for climate reconstruction and climate change studies. Compo, G. P. et al. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137:1-28. doi: 10.1002/qj.776 Radanovics, S., Vidal, J.-P., Sauquet, E., Ben Daoud, A., and Bontron, G. (2013). Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17:4189-4208. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4189-2013 Vidal, J.-P ., Martin, E., Franchistéguy, L., Baillon, M., and Soubeyroux, J.-M. (2010). A 50-year high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis over France with the Safran system. International Journal of Climatology, 30:1627-1644. doi:10.1002/joc.2003

  15. [Bibliometry of biological systematics in Latin America during the twentieth century in three global databases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michán, Layla; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    We present a review of the biological systematic research in Latin America during the twentieth century, applying a bibliometric analysis to the information contained in international databases with the largest number of biological records: Biosis (since 1969), CAB (since 1910) and Science Citation Index (since 1900), to recognize certain patterns and trends regarding the document production. We obtained 19079 documents and 1387 journals for Biosis, 14326 and 2537 for CAB, 3257 and 1636 for SCI. Of the documents, 54.6% related to new species, 15.3% dealt with morphology, 14.9% keys, 12.5% descriptions, 10.6% cases of synonymies, 6% new genera, 4.9% new geographical records, 23.6% geographical distribution, 4.2% redescriptions, and 3.6% with new nomenclatural combinations. The regions mentioned were South America with 11.9%, Central America with 4% and America (all) with 2.56%. Nineteen Latin American countries appear, whereas outside this region we found the United States of America with 12.6% of representation and Canada with 3%. Animals (65.6%) were the most studied taxa, which was 1.7 times higher than what was published for plants (37%), 11 times higher than fungi (6%) and nearly 30 times higher than microorganisms (2.3%). Out of the 155 journals that produced 66% of the papers, 76.5% were better represented in Biosis, 21.4% in CAB and 2% in SCI. Twenty-nine journals published 33% of the articles, the maximum number of records obtained was 69% for Biosis, CAB 24% and 6.9% for SCI, three (10.3%) are in biology, 11 (37.9%) in botany, 13 (44.8%) zoology, and two (6.9%) paleontology; eight of these journals (27.5%) were published in Latin America and twenty were indexed in the Science Citation Index. In the last two years more journals of the region that publish on taxonomy have been indexed, but their impact factor is still low. However, the impact factor of a number of Latin American journals that published biodiversity increased with time. Countries that are

  16. Forced and Unforced Variability of Twentieth Century North American Droughts and Pluvials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  17. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  18. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  19. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  20. The return of the phoenix: the 1963 International Congress of Zoology and American zoologists in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the International Congress of Zoology held in Washington D.C. in 1963 as a portrait of American zoologists' search for effective and rewarding relationships with both each other and the public. Organizers of the congress envisioned the congress as a last ditch effort to unify the disparate subdisciplines of zoology, overcome the barriers of specialization, and ward off the heady claims of more reductionist biologists. The problems zoologists faced as they worked to fulfill these ambitious goals illuminate some of the challenges faced by members of the naturalist tradition as they worked to establish disciplinary unity while seeking public support in the competitive world of twentieth century science.

  1. Salamanca’s theater and musical activity in the first quarter of twentieth century through the local press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Álvarez García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The theaters at the beginning of twentieth century are one of the main focuses in which condenses the musician-artistic activity of small and large Spanish cities. Salamanca could not be less and in the three capitals theaters “Liceo”, “Bretón” and “Moderno” we find a very rich musical activity like Zarzuelas, Concerts, Lyric Theatre, Tunas, etc., which will make to Salamanca the most important center of the music scene in the province until almost the Second Spanish Republic.

  2. Science and miscegenation in the early twentieth century: Edgard Roquette-Pinto's debates and controversies with US physical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders.

  3. [The medical, social and institutional challenges resulting from poliomyelitis: comprehensive rehabilitation in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis on an epidemic scale gave rise to several challenges, one of which was the rehabilitation from the after-effects on many of the people who suffered from the disease. Paralysis and the ways it transformed the concept of physical rehabilitation (where the objective was only to restore the mobility of the affected muscles) and comprehensive rehabilitation that included social, educational and professional aspects in Argentina in the mid-twentieth century are the themes addressed in this article. It uses the methodology of institutional history that interacts in an ongoing manner with the history of health and disease.

  4. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  5. Twentieth century temperature trends in CMIP3, CMIP5, and CESM-LE climate simulations: Spatial-temporal uncertainties, differences, and their potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kinter, James L.; Pan, Zaitao; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-08-01

    The twentieth century climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5) are compared to assess the models' ability to capture observed near-surface air temperature trends at global, continental, and regional scales. We computed trends by using a nonparametric method and considering long-term persistence in the time series. The role of internal variability is examined by using large ensemble climate simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research model Community Earth System Model (CESM). We computed temperature trends for three periods: the twentieth century, the second half of the twentieth century, and (3) the recent hiatus period to contrast the roles of external forcing and internal variability at various spatial and temporal scales. Both CMIP ensembles show statistically significant warming at global and continental scales during the twentieth century. We found a small but statistically significant difference between CMIP3 (0.57 ± 0.07 °C/century) and CMIP5 (0.47 ± 0.06 °C/century) twentieth century temperature trends, with the CMIP3 estimate being closer to the observations. The spatial structure of long-term temperature trends, and top-of-the atmosphere net radiation trends, suggests that differences in model parameterizations and feedback processes that lead to a smaller net radiative forcing are likely contributing to the differences between CMIP3 and CMIP5. The estimate of internal variability based on the CESM large ensemble spans 24% of the uncertainty in CMIP5 for the twentieth century temperature trends, and 76% for the recent hiatus period, both at global scales, and 43% and almost 100% during the corresponding time periods at regional scales.

  6. The Lover with a Long Neck: The Motif of Leda and the Swan in Twentieth-Century Slovenian Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Prša

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the thesis that the motif of Leda and the Swan, which had a remarkable impact on the arts in the modern era (especially in the period between the Renaissance and the end of the twentieth century, represents one of the most significant Ancient motifs in twentieth-century Slovenian painting. Comparing works of fine arts with European models, comparative research on Slovenian artists’ works, and motif analysis disclose reasons for its popularity in Slovenian ethnic territory and reveal both the stereotyped and original content and the messages incorporated into the motif. Not only have some of the most eminent figures in Slovenian painting (e.g., Jožef Tominc, Anton Ažbe, France Kralj, Stojan Batič, Metka Krašovec, Rudi Španzel, and Marko Jakše dedicated themselves to the motif, but the creations of numerous lesser-known artists (e.g., Samo Kralj, Jože Meglič, and Marina Bahovec have also been particularly influenced by the motif of Leda and the Swan.

  7. Relationship between sunshine duration and temperature trends across Europe since the second half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; Laat, A. T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Global radiation is a fundamental source of energy in the climate system. A significant impact of global radiation on temperature change is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the twentieth century. This work describes the analysis of 312 stations with sunshine duration (SD) series, a proxy for global radiation, and temperature series in the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) with data over the period 1961-2010. The relationship between SD and temperature series is analyzed for four temperature variables: maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin), mean temperature (Tmean), and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal basis. The results show strong positive correlations between SD and temperatures over Europe, with highest correlation for DTR and Tmax during the summer period. These results confirm the strong relationship between SD and temperature trends over Europe since the second half of the twentieth century. This study supports previous suggestions that dimming (brightening) has partially decreased (increased) temperatures thereby modulating the greenhouse gas induced warming rates over Europe.

  8. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  9. Anomalous mid-twentieth century atmospheric circulation change over the South Atlantic compared to the last 6000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Jones, Richard T.; Lister, David; Jones, Phil; Williams, Alan N.; Hogg, Alan; Thomas, Zoë A.; Compo, Gilbert P.; Yin, Xungang; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Palmer, Jonathan; Colwell, Steve; Allan, Rob; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Determining the timing and impact of anthropogenic climate change in data-sparse regions is a considerable challenge. Arguably, nowhere is this more difficult than the Antarctic Peninsula and the subantarctic South Atlantic where observational records are relatively short but where high rates of warming have been experienced since records began. Here we interrogate recently developed monthly-resolved observational datasets from the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and extend the records back using climate-sensitive peat growth over the past 6000 years. Investigating the subantarctic climate data with ERA-Interim and Twentieth Century Reanalysis, we find that a stepped increase in precipitation across the 1940s is related to a change in synoptic atmospheric circulation: a westward migration of quasi-permanent positive pressure anomalies in the South Atlantic has brought the subantarctic islands under the increased influence of meridional airflow associated with the Amundsen Sea Low. Analysis of three comprehensively multi-dated (using 14C and 137Cs) peat sequences across the two islands demonstrates unprecedented growth rates since the mid-twentieth century relative to the last 6000 years. Comparison to observational and reconstructed sea surface temperatures suggests this change is linked to a warming tropical Pacific Ocean. Our results imply ‘modern’ South Atlantic atmospheric circulation has not been under this configuration for millennia.

  10. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sound Objects and Sound Products: Standardizing a New Culture of Listening in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter I develop the psychological underpinnings of environmental music towards an understanding of how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psycholo-gists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. I begin with an examination of nineteenth-century concerns about both the physical and psychological effects of music and fraught debate among experi-mental psychologists of the role of musical expertise in the laboratory. These con-cerns were, I argue, rooted in the assumption of a direct, corporeal connection between the generation and reception of music, usually bound within a single, individual body. In the twentieth century, new technology liberated the listener from a temporally- and geographically-bound experience of music. The Tone Tests, Re-Creation Recitals, and Mood Change “parties” of Thomas Edison and the psychologist Walter Bingham show that recording technology allowed for a normalization and standardization of listening not previously possible in the music halls and laboratories of the nineteenth century. Rather paradoxically, since it also made music more accessible to the individual listener, recorded music, mobilized by industrial psychologists and record companies alike, created a new sound experience actively designed for the lowest common denominator of mass listen-ing. It also contributed to the cultivation of a new practice of mass listening. The new mass listening practice presents broader questions about the definition of music and its functional role – If the function of music is to be ignored, is it still music?

  12. The Post-Moden Subject. A Recovery of the Moral Subject after its Abandonmentin the Twentieth Century

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    Carlos Thiebaut Ibarra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available How have the conceptions of the subject in Contemporary Philosophy changed? There are four moments in this development: a The ethical conception of enlightened subjectivity; b the different suspicious altitudes of such project in the XIX and XX centuries; e the follow-up of those suspicious altitudes in what is called the philosophies of "malaise" in the XX century; d the new conceptual articulation at the end of the century. Why have these changes and processes occurred? A general interpretive hypothesis belonging to the realm of moral philosophy is suggested: n the realm of practical life we are oriented "forwards" and the subject has aperformative and projective attitude; this dimension becomes opaque when the interpretation of such practica! life is understood as the result or product (and is understood as moving backwards. In light of that hypothesis, the different ways in which the philosophies of suspicion and malaise are blind to the ethical subject are analized and it is claimed that they are. therefore.blind to the ways in which the Twentieth Century has built, against those philosophical interpretations. moral dimensions -as the rejection of damage and the imputation of responsibilities- to which only the last moment of the last century seems to do justice.

  13. A Comparative Study: Self-Realization in Twentieth-Century Western Thought, Ibn e Arabi's Idea, and Theatre of The Absurd

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    Bahee Hadaegh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following humans' struggles to achieve a better under¬standing of the self throughout major historical periods, the idea of the quest for a whole self is once more rekindled in the anxiety-laden atmosphere of the twentieth century. However, unlike the previous approaches, the twentieth century reflection of the notion of the quest for self-realization is paradoxically revealed in a new model of struggle which inclines more toward spiritual search. This inward struggle manifests itself through connecting the ego to the unconscious world, in line with the theories of Freud and Jung. The similarity which exists between Jung's psychic state and the Sufis' mystical world defined by Ibn e Arabi, makes it possible to reconsider the seemingly nihilist readings of the quest for self-realization of the twentieth century absurd thoughts in a positive way

  14. BEYOND GUNS AND BUTTER: Finnish Central Government Spending Patterns the in Twentieth Century

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    Jari Eloranta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the long-run demand for central government spending in Finland by analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes in the spending behavior, examining possible links between variables in a VAR-framework, and performing multivariate analysis of the demand factors. The results was shoved that a explained  by a lack of military versus social spending tradeoff effect. Even though certain other variables were found to be relevant in explaining this demand, this lack of a tradeoff increased the Finnish spending levels substantially during the twentieth centurt welfare state expansion.

  15. [The motives for hospitalization at Adauto Botelho Hospital (Cariacica, ES) in the second half of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Carla Torres Pereira; Margotto, Lilian Rose; Aragão, Elizabeth Maria Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the procedures for referring patients to Adauto Botelho Hospital, in Cariacica, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The research is based on the medical records since its inauguration in 1954 and statements by people who worked there in the second half of the twentieth century. One hundred and two records were analyzed and four people were interviewed. The records revealed the active involvement of the Chief of Police in hospitalizations. The interviews corroborate this, while also showing the long duration of the hospitalizations. The tone of the paper is set by the life stories of the people hospitalized there. The conclusion is that this hospital served not so much for treatment as for confinement.

  16. Where Now the Harp? Listening for the Sounds of Old English Verse, from Beowulf to the Twentieth Century

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    Chris Jones

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the representation or staging of oral performance and poetic composition within _Beowulf_, in order to argue that poem thematizes and mythologizes its own origins, and is as much interested in recovering the sounds of oral performances that pre-date its own manuscript inscription as modern Anglo-Saxon scholarship has been. The second half of the essay considers the recovery and reimagining of an Anglo-Saxon “soundscape” in the work of two twentieth-century poets, W. S. Graham and Edwin Morgan. The invocation of this “Saxonesque” patterning of sound invokes or triggers a historically constituted set of associations with the whole body of Old English poetry; that is, an allusion to a corpus, rather than to a specific text, is made through sound patterning.

  17. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  18. Development of Accounting Theories Specific to the National Accounting Literature of the First Half of Twentieth Century

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    Sorin Damian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Need to identify plausible explanations of the principles underlying the double entry accountingover time determined by various manifestations of thought that have resulted in many theories. All thesetheories have proposed to explain and substantiate dopic formalism, but many of them no longer a valuetoday than a purely historical perspective. The representative of such theories has been many pages writtenRomanian and foreign authors in the first half of the twentieth century. Some Romanian authors mention theIoan E. Evian, D. Voina, CG Demetrescu, S. Iacobescu, Al. Sorescu, C. Pantu, C. Petrescu, Grigore-TrancuIaşi and others. Bibliography time accounting theories shared accounts: embryos of theories and scientifictheories.

  19. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  20. Planning ideology and geographic thought in the early twentieth century: Charles Whitnall's progressive era park designs for socialist Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lorne A

    2010-01-01

    As Milwaukee’s chief park planner in the early to mid-twentieth century, Charles Whitnall responded to the various underlying ideologies of the period within which he worked. His preference for parks was a political and physical response to and remedy for the industrialized and heavily congested city he called home. By examining the Progressive Era discourse associated with planning, this article situates Whitnall’s work within the political, aesthetic, and environmental contexts of geographic thought that influenced his plans for Milwaukee. In promoting a physical awareness associated with the natural features of the region and responding to the sociopolitical framework of contemporaries such as Ebenezer Howard, Whitnall incorporated a sense of compassion within his planning. He responded to the preexisting beer gardens of Pabst and Schlitz, as well as Olmsted-designed park spaces, by advocating for decentralization as part of a broader socialist agenda that had swept through Milwaukee during the early 1900s.

  1. Norman Mailer - the most influental critic of contemporary reality in the second half of the twentieth century

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    Jasna Potočnik Topler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norman Mailer, one of the most influential authors of the second half of the twentieth century, faithfully followed his principle that a writer should alsobe a critic of contemporary reality. Therefore, most of his works portray the reality of the United States of America and the complexities of the contemporary American scene. Mailer described the spirit of his time - from the terror of war and numerous dynamic social and political processes to the 1969 moon landing. Conflicts were often in the centre of his writing, as was the relationship between an individual and the society; he speaks of politicalpower and the dangerous power of capital, while pointing to the threat of totalitarianism in America. Mailer spent his entire career writing about violence, power, perverted sexuality, the phenomenon of Hitler, terrorism, religion and corruption. He continually pointed out that individuals were in constant danger of losing freedom and dignity.

  2. Faszination einer Kindsmörderin. Medea im 20. Jahrhundert Fascinated by a Child Murderer. Medea in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Feichtinger

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Berliner Literaturwissenschaftlerin Inge Stephan interpretiert ein beeindruckendes Panorama von Medea-Bearbeitungen in Literatur, bildender Kunst, Film und Musik. Sie spürt in ihrem Buch zur Medea-Rezeption im 20. Jh. in höchst differenzierter und anregender Weise den vielfältigen künstlerischen Auseinandersetzungen der Moderne mit einer in vieler Hinsicht provozierenden Frauengestalt der Antike nach.The Berlin-based literary scholar Inge Stephan interprets an impressive panorama of the treatments of Medea in literature, the visual arts, film, and music. In her book on Medea reception in the twentieth century, Stephan traces the numerous modern artistic approaches to this quite provocative female figure of antiquity in a highly differentiated and thought-provoking manner.

  3. Disputes over Philosophical Views in the First Half of the Twentieth Century and Development of Contemporary Chinese Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhengyu

    2006-01-01

    To explore the development of contemporary Chinese philosophy,fundamentally,is to explore the development of Marxist philosophy in contemporary China.The disputes over philosophical views in Chinese academic circles during the first half of the twentieth century have been focused on understanding Marxist philosophy from such aspects as "what kind of philosophy Chinese society needs," "the relation of philosophy to science," and "philosophy as an idea to reflect on one's life." These explorations have provided us a significant ideological insight into the development of Marxist philosophy and contemporary Chinese philosophy;that is,in contemporary China,Marxist philosophy,as a doctrine of the liberation and all-round development of human beings,exists not only as a kind of"doctrine"or "academy" but also as a kind of widely accepted "xueyuan (academic cultivations)"among people.

  4. Chinese Guilds from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll-Murata, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese merchant and craft associations that are most similar to European guilds originated in the late sixteenth century. They started to proliferate from the mid-eighteenth century onward and, after the intercession of the Taiping rebellion and the Opium Wars, their numbers soared from the mid

  5. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry-Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Dorothy; Bauer, Susanne E.; Del Genio, Anthony; Faluvegi, Greg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ronald L.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Shindell, Drew

    2011-01-01

    The authors simulate transient twentieth-century climate in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with aerosol and ozone chemistry fully coupled to one another and to climate including a full dynamic ocean. Aerosols include sulfate, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, nitrate, sea salt, and dust. Direct and BC snow-albedo radiative effects are included. Model BC and sulfur trends agree fairly well with records from Greenland and European ice cores and with sulfur deposition in North America; however, the model underestimates the sulfur decline at the end of the century in Greenland. Global BC effects peak early in the century (1940s); afterward the BC effects decrease at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but continue to increase at lower latitudes. The largest increase in aerosol optical depth occurs in the middle of the century (1940s-80s) when sulfate forcing peaks and causes global dimming. After this, aerosols decrease in eastern North America and northern Eurasia leading to regional positive forcing changes and brightening. These surface forcing changes have the correct trend but are too weak. Over the century, the net aerosol direct effect is -0.41 Watts per square meter, the BC-albedo effect is -0.02 Watts per square meter, and the net ozone forcing is +0.24 Watts per square meter. The model polar stratospheric ozone depletion develops, beginning in the 1970s. Concurrently, the sea salt load and negative radiative flux increase over the oceans around Antarctica. Net warming over the century is modeled fairly well; however, the model fails to capture the dynamics of the observedmidcentury cooling followed by the late century warming.Over the century, 20% of Arctic warming and snow ice cover loss is attributed to the BC albedo effect. However, the decrease in this effect at the end of the century contributes to Arctic cooling. To test the climate responses to sulfate and BC pollution, two experiments were branched from 1970 that removed

  6. Other than healing: medical practitioners and the business of life assurance during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, M W

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore briefly the nature, development and implications of the relationship between medical practitioners and life assurance companies. The aim is to elucidate the development both of the medical profession and the life insurance business--two important aspects of economic and social change in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which are usually treated separately. The focus is primarily, though not exclusively, on Scottish companies as they carried out a disproportionately large amount of the UK life assurance business by the mid-nineteenth century. The insurance industry's increasing, and increasingly systematic, tapping of medical expertise enabled it to raise profits by reducing losses on standard policies and by venturing out into types of business previously thought too risky. While nineteenth-century medical therapeutics may have left much to be desired, medical involvement in insurance suggests that medical practitioners were by no means ineffective. At the same time, a substantial proportion of the medical profession gained valuable part-time appointments which helped to alter the diagnostic techniques of the profession more generally. Thus insurance turns out to be an especially important element in the 'non-healing' aspects of medicine, with spin-offs for the healing side as well.

  7. Charles Darwin's reputation: how it changed during the twentieth-century and how it may change again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Charles Darwin died in 1882. During the twentieth century his reputation varied through time, as the scientific foundation of evolutionary theory changed. Beginning the century as an intellectual hero, he soon became a virtual footnote as experimental approaches to evolution began to develop. As the Modern Synthesis developed his reputation began to rise again until eventually he was identified as a founding father of the Modern Synthesis itself. In the meantime, developmental approaches to evolution began to challenge certain aspects of the Modern Synthesis. Synthesis authors attempted to refute the relevance of development by methodological arguments, some of them indirectly credited to Darwin. By the end of the century, molecular genetics had given new life to development approaches to evolution, now called evo devo. This must be seen as a refutation of the aforesaid methodological arguments of the Modern Synthesis advocates. By the way, we can also see now how the historiography that credited Darwin with the Synthesis was in error. In conclusion, one more historical revision is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Significance Of Space In Iris Murdoch’s The Unicorn As A Twentieth-Century Irish Gothic Novel

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    Jarząb Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century almost all literary genres came back to prominence in different and alternative forms. The Gothic is no exception to this phenomenon as many a writer made an attempt at using this eighteenth-century genre once again, but adding to it some contemporary elements. Consequently, an abundance of new techniques have been introduced to Gothic fiction to evoke the feeling of horror and terror among the more and more demanding readers of modern times. Still, some writers prefer to return to the traditional concept of the Gothic – as does Iris Murdoch in her novel The Unicorn. The purpose of this article is to analyse the text from the perspective of the Irish Gothic. Those features of the genre which are traditional as well as local are going to be discussed in the context of space as the dominating aspect of the novel. The typical Irish landscape abounding in marshes, bogs and the sea will be contrasted with the inner space of the house, and its resemblance to the old Victorian mansions popular among the Anglo-Irish ascendancy of nineteenth-century Ireland. In what follows, the paper aims at showing how Murdoch’s skilful play with the spatial differentiation between the inside and the outside dislodges other more universal issues, such as the question of freedom, of social taboos and of the different anxieties still present in Irish society today.

  9. O comunismo na história do século XX Communism in the Twentieth-Century history

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    Bruno Groppo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O comunismo do século XX teve, desde seu início, uma dimensão dupla: o movimento revolucionário, por um lado; o sistema de poder estatal, por outro. Os dois aspectos são indissociáveis. A história do comunismo como movimento revolucionário em escala mundial está estreitamente ligada à história da Rússia e, em seguida, à da União Soviética. E o sistema soviético, na configuração definitiva que lhe foi impressa pelo stalinismo, foi ao longo de muitas décadas o modelo de referência para o conjunto do mundo comunista. Em outras palavras, o comunismo do século XX identifica-se primordialmente com a experiência histórica do poder soviético. Os demais comunismos, heréticos ou dissidentes em relação à ortodoxia stalinista, desempenharam um papel menos importante, freqüentemente marginal.Twentieth-century communism had, since the beginning, a double dimension: the revolutionary movement, on the one hand; the state power system, on the other. Both sides are inseparable. The history of communism as a revolutionary movement in world scale is intimately linked to the Russian and then Soviet history. And the Soviet system, in the final configuration stalinism gave to it, was a model to the whole communist world along many decades. So that twentieth-century communism is primordially identical with the historical experience of the Soviet power. Other brands of communism, heretical or dissident to Stalinist ortodoxy, performed a less important, often marginal, role.

  10. Hypothesis: the reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress in Sweden in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was caused by electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The expected decline of health indicators with economic recessions and improvement with economic growth in the nineteenth century Sweden was reversed in the twentieth century, giving the counterintuitive pattern of higher mortality and lower life expectancy in economic expansions and improvement of these indices in recessions. The change or "tipping point" occurred at the end of the nineteenth century or early in the twentieth century when electrification was introduced into Sweden. All 5 of the reversals of annual industrial electric energy use in the US between 1912 and 1970 were accompanied by recessions with lowered GDP, increased unemployment, decreased mortality and increased life expectancy. The health indices were not related to residential electricity use. The mortality improvement between 1931 and 1932 by state in the US strongly favored urban areas over rural areas. Rural unemployment by state in 1930 was significantly positively correlated with residential electrification percentage by state in 1930. The health effects of economic change are mediated by electrical exposure.

  11. Against the Science-Religion Conflict: The Genesis of a Calvinist Science Faculty in the Netherlands in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Abraham C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the establishment and expansion of a Faculty of Science at the Calvinist "Free University" in the Netherlands in the 1930s. It describes the efforts of a group of orthodox Christians to come to terms with the natural sciences in the early twentieth century. The statutes of the university, which had been…

  12. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  13. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  14. Yuben (Monthly Magazine on Oratory) in the Early Twentieth Century: A Case Study in the Promulgation of Western Rhetoric in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Roichi

    The scope, functions, significance, and implications of "Yuben," an early twentieth century Japanese magazine on oratory, are examined in this case study in intercultural rhetoric. The first section of the paper provides information about the magazine's genesis, including a discussion about its originator, Noma Seiji. The second section deals with…

  15. LANDMARKS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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    SORIN-GEORGE TOMA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social responsibility of organizations concept has become the subject of considerable researches, debates and commentaries especially in the second half of the last century. According to ethical principles organizations and individuals have the obligation to act in the benefit of society at large. Consequently, the social responsibility of a business is related to its duties and obligations directed towards the social welfare. The role of corporations in society and the issue of corporate social responsibility have been increasingly debated in the last century. Based on a literature review our paper seeks to describe and summarize some of the main contributions to the development of the social responsibility of organizations. The aims of our paper are to explore the evolution of the social responsibility of organization concept in the last century and to emphasize its various approaches, mostly in the business field. This historical trace identifies both similarities and differences related to social responsibility themes.

  16. Giambattista Vico Philosopher and Educator: Lessons for the Late Twentieth Century from an Eighteenth-Century Eccentric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleford, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    Modern disillusionment with rationalistic and mechanistic creeds increases the relevance of the thought of Giambattista Vico, an eighteenth century thinker. Vico's "New Science" dealt with the origins of human consciousness and society, and with the development of human nature, knowledge, and institutions in ways that anticipate modern…

  17. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  18. [Hygiene and urban health as seen by physicians, architects and planners during the first half of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    Physicians took part in the promotion of public policies that regulated urban and architectural work, before engineers, architects, planners, and even before the State had a chance to take part in the formulation of such policies. Starting in the late nineteenth century, and especially during the first decade of the twentieth century, the State began to lead on the issue of hygiene and public health. This paper focuses on the role of these professionals, who generated debates within their respective disciplines, or provided -as ministries, public servants or consultants- technical knowledge to the central government. These debates are still relevant for two reasons. First, they serve as reminders of the way in which the voice of these professionals was crucial not only within their respective disciplines, but also in order to place the issue of hygiene and public health on the agenda and to promote public policies related to the urban environment and its population. Secondly, these debates represent a challenge to current planners, as this historic context provides insight on the complex relationship between public health and planning, which hitherto has received little attention.

  19. On Hans, Zou and the others: wonder animals and the question of animal intelligence in early twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Sofie; Healey, Jenna

    2010-03-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century, the advent of widespread pet ownership was accompanied by claims of heightened animal abilities. Psychical researchers investigated many of these claims, including animal telepathy and ghostly apparitions. By the beginning of the twentieth century, news of horses and dogs with the ability to read and calculate fascinated the French public and scientists alike. Amidst questions about the justification of animal cruelty in laboratory experiments, wonder animals came to represent some extraordinary possibilities associated with their kind. Psychologists speculated on the feats of wonder animals. They considered the possibility that these animals shared consciousness and intelligence with humans, and that-if confirmed-their alleged amazing abilities could lead to a new understanding of cognition for all animals. This article focuses on the few years during which claims of wonder animals occupied a significant place in French psychology and psychical research. It argues that as explanations involving deception or unconscious cues gained increased acceptance, the interest in wonder animals soon led to a backlash in comparative psychology that had repercussions for all animals, particularly those used in experimentation, in that it contributed to the decline of research addressing cognitive abilities in non-human species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Jews in European pharmacy from the seventh to the early twentieth centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Tomáš; Dohnal, František

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with less familiar theme - the status of Jewish doctors and pharmacists in the history of pharmacy from the 7th century AD to the early 20th century. They played an important role in the history of the Iberian Peninsula - initially under Muslim and after the Reconquista in 1492 under Christian rule. Most of them chose assimilation into the surrounding milieu, some of them escaped before the Christian Inquisition. Despite persecution, it was the golden age of Jewish medicine and pharmacy. During the existence of the Frankish empire we find only rare mentions of them - Jews isolated in the area of urban Jewish ghettos. Jewish doctors and pharmacists found better employment first in some Protestant countries (England, Holland). In Germany and Central Europe they gained ground at the end of the 19th century. A number of prominent scientists, especially from Eastern Europe, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries found a solution in immigration to the US to escape were anti-Semitism.Key words: Jews pharmacy Arab empire pharmacology.

  1. The Secularization of American Legal Education in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Harold J.

    1976-01-01

    Traces the secularlization of legal education, since the mid-19th century, contending that the results are a loss of scholarship in the neglect of the sources of the law and a deleterious effect on the attitudes of law students and teachers concerning their role in society and the nature of their profession. (JT)

  2. Transformations of violence in twentieth-century Ethiopia : cultural roots, political conjunctures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the transformation of violence in Ethiopian society, chiefly in the context of processes of 'modernization' and political change since the turn of the century, but focusing on the most recent period (1970s-1980s). Forms and practices of violence varied in the different periods of

  3. The Great Escape: Technological Lock-in vs Appropriate Technology in Early Twentieth Century British Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    America’s lead over Europe in manufacturing productivity from the late nineteenth century onwards has often been contributed to differences in initial conditions, trapping Europe in a relatively declining, labor-intensive and low-productive technological path. In this paper, I reassess the

  4. Ernst C.G. Stueckelberg an unconventional figure of twentieth century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruegg, Henri; Wanders, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Born in 1905, Ernst C G Stueckelberg was professor of theoretical physics at the Universities of Geneva and Lausanne in the years 1930-1970. He was one of the most eminent Swiss physicists of the 20th century. This book presents a selection of his most important scientific papers

  5. JBHE Readers Select the Most Important African Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of readers' opinions about African Americans who made the greatest contributions to American society during the 20th century. Martin Luther King, Jr., received the most votes by a large margin, followed by Thurgood Marshall, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Malcolm X. Discusses survey results by various categories. (SM)

  6. The axial age and the problems of the twentieth century: Du Bois, Jaspers, and universal history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Boy

    2015-01-01

    The axial age debate has put big questions of social and cultural change back on the agenda of sociology. This paper takes this development as an occasion to reflect on how social thought works with (and against) nineteenth-century intellectual traditions in its efforts to understand history on a ma

  7. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 452.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary B., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia contains articles reviewing important aspects of Native American life in the United States during the 20th century. Articles are arranged alphabetically by subject and were written by Native Americans, historians, anthropologists, and other specialists. Overview articles cover subjects such as art, economic conditions,…

  8. Globalization and Glassy Ideality of the Web of Twentieth Century Science

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J C

    2010-01-01

    Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (correspondence with Hooke, 1676) acknowledged that "If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants." How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a glass model for scientific communications, based on a unique 2009 scientometric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations that encapsulates the epistemology of modern science. The glass model predicts and explains, using no adjustable parameters, a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which because of globalization changed qualitatively around 1960. Globaliza...

  9. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the UNESCO-IAU Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative's discussions by presenting the case study of a 20th-century observatory located in a South American country. In fact, the National Observatory of Brazil was created in the beginning of the 19th century, but its present facilities were inaugurated in 1921. Through this paper a brief description of the heritage associated with the Brazilian observatory is given, focused on its main historical instruments and the scientific and social roles it performed along its history. By way of conclusion, the paper suggests that the creation of the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences with its multidisciplinary team of academic specialists and technicians was decisive for the preservation of that expressive astronomical heritage.

  10. "Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of early 20th century biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-century, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the century.

  11. Causes of twentieth-century temperature change near the Earth's surface

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    Tett, Simon F. B.; Stott, Peter A.; Allen, Myles R.; Ingram, William J.; Mitchell, John F. B.

    1999-06-01

    Observations of the Earth's near-surface temperature show a global-mean temperature increase of approximately 0.6K since 1900 (ref. 1), occurring from 1910 to 1940 and from 1970 to the present. The temperature change over the past 30-50 years is unlikely to be entirely due to internal climate variability and has been attributed to changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols due to human activity. Attribution of the warming early in the century has proved more elusive. Here we present a quantification of the possible contributions throughout the century from the four components most likely to be responsible for the large-scale temperature changes, of which two vary naturally (solar irradiance and stratospheric volcanic aerosols) and two have changed decisively due to anthropogenic influence (greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols). The patterns of time/space changes in near-surface temperature due to the separate forcing components are simulated with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, and a linear combination of these is fitted to observations. Thus our analysis is insensitive to errors in the simulated amplitude of these responses. We find that solar forcing may have contributed to the temperature changes early in the century, but anthropogenic causes combined with natural variability would also present a possible explanation. For the warming from 1946 to 1996 regardless of any possible amplification of solar or volcanic influence, we exclude purely natural forcing, and attribute it largely to the anthropogenic components.

  12. Alternatives to Dam Building: Deindustrialization and the Redevelopment of Waterways in the Northeast During the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. S.; Pompeii, B. J.; Nicoletti, C.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Northeast United States contains more dams than any other region in the country but it lacks structures on the scale of the Hoover or Bonneville dams in the American West. This work addresses why the Northeast lacks such large dams and how the pattern of small dams within the region shaped its social development. During the twentieth century, changing social and economic conditions rendered the initial purposes of many dams in the region moot, but these structures continued to influence hydrologic conditions and the provision of ecosystem services to an expanding population. The continued existence of many of these dams resulted from a worldview unable to conceive of dam removal as it did to the economic or environmental services provided by the structure. Documenting the process by which society developed alternatives to dam building in this region can contextualize the origins and contingent character of ideas about dam removal. The overarching theme in this process is the deindustrialization of the Northeast, which pitted the interests of industrial cities undergoing economic reorganization, emerging suburban communities, and growing service industries in the region. This paper considers changing attitudes toward dams as part of a four step process: (1) although the mill dams of the industrial revolution remained after electrification rendered manufacturers independent of direct water power in the early twentieth century, deindustrialization reshaped the political and legal responses to flooding by stregnthening the political and economic position of service industries and suburban residential interests; (2) the most tangible response to this development was proposed federal investment in dam building in the region between the 1930s and the 1950s; (3) political conflicts between local interests and federal proposals for dam construction slowed down the dam building process and enabled people to consider alternative strategies for flood control and power

  13. Tampa Bay coastal wetlands: nineteenth to twentieth century tidal marsh-to-mangrove conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, mangroves dominate the tidal wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida, but an examination of historic navigation charts revealed dominance of tidal marshes with a mangrove fringe in the 1870s. This study's objective was to conduct a new assessment of wetland change in Tampa Bay by digitizing nineteenth century topographic and public land surveys and comparing these to modern coastal features at four locations. We differentiate between wetland loss, wetland gain through marine transgression, and a wetland conversion from marsh to mangrove. Wetland loss was greatest at study sites to the east and north. Expansion of the intertidal zone through marine transgression, across adjacent low-lying land, was documented primarily near the mouth of the bay. Generally, the bay-wide marsh-to-mangrove ratio reversed from 86:14 to 25:75 in 125 years. Conversion of marsh to mangrove wetlands averaged 72 % at the four sites, ranging from 52 % at Old Tampa Bay to 95 % at Feather Sound. In addition to latitudinal influences, intact wetlands and areas with greater freshwater influence exhibited a lower rate of marsh-to-mangrove conversion. Two sources for nineteenth century coastal landscape were in close agreement, providing an unprecedented view of historic conditions in Tampa Bay.

  14. Women and education. The case of the Vedrunas in the Basque Country, Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

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    Esther Berdote Alonso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The social representation of a woman as a wife and mother in the nineteenth century determined her lack of instruction and, therefore, high rates of illiteracy among women. Despite clear legislative support, scarcity of state economic sources to support the education of girls in the nineteenth century made their access to schools difficult. This reality, coupled with other circumstances, laid the foundation for new religious teaching congregations dedicated to women’s education. This paper analyses the model of education for women provided by the Carmelite Sisters of Charity from the time of their arrival to the Basque Country (1870 until the beginning of the Second Republic (1931. The analysis focuses on three elements: the process of the new foundations, pedagogical and curricular organization of the schools, and incorporation of the Basque language into the educational process. In order to analyse the model, the researcher has consulted as a primary source the Statutes of each school, which belonged to the provincial archive of the Congregation. The research carried out suggests that the Carmelite Sisters of Charity demonstrated a high degree of adaptability to the local village communities by offering the Basque lessons in certain schools while also maintaining their core mission of Christianising and educating girls.

  15. A history of the ideas of theoretical physics essays on the nineteenth and twentieth century physics

    CERN Document Server

    D’Agostino, Salvo

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con­ ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien­ tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine­ teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti­ cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without...

  16. Periodontal disease in a Portuguese identified skeletal sample from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Sofia N; Cunha, Eugénia; Hillson, Simon

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal status was investigated in 600 adult dentitions belonging to the identified osteological collections curated at the University of Coimbra, Portugal. These collections date to a point temporally intermediate between the large epidemiological studies of the 20th century and archaeological collections that antedate the 19th century. The aim of this study is to compare periodontal data derived from contemporary samples with statistics compiled from epidemiological studies to determine if factors such as age-at-death, sex, and tooth type are essential or not to account for in future archaeological studies of periodontitis. Periodontal disease status was assessed based on the textural and architectural variations of the interdental septum and the extent of bone loss. Overall, the frequency of periodontitis within the Coimbra collections is 73.8%. Men were more susceptible to periodontal disease than women. Gingivitis was widespread in the younger age groups. Destructive periodontitis was observed early in adulthood, rising steadily with age. The most susceptible sites to periodontal breakdown were located in the posterior region of the upper jaw. Some variation in reported frequencies of periodontitis was found in epidemiological reports, which might result from variation in methods for identifying the pathology, differences in the age composition of the samples examined, variation in oral hygiene and/or diet, or some other factors. Regarding the pattern of distribution of periodontal disease, Coimbra results were similar to comparable modern epidemiological surveys, making clear the importance of considering sex, age, and oral distribution of periodontitis in future archaeological studies.

  17. Twentieth century bipolar seesaw of the Arctic and Antarctic surface air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Petr; Folland, Chris K.; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the phase relationship between climate changes in the Arctic and Antarctic regions is essential for our understanding of the dynamics of the Earth's climate system. In this paper we show that the 20th century de-trended Arctic and Antarctic temperatures vary in anti-phase seesaw pattern - when the Arctic warms the Antarctica cools and visa versa. This is the first time that a bi-polar seesaw pattern has been identified in the 20th century Arctic and Antarctic temperature records. The Arctic (Antarctic) de-trended temperatures are highly correlated (anti-correlated) with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index suggesting the Atlantic Ocean as a possible link between the climate variability of the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Recent accelerated warming of the Arctic results from a positive reinforcement of the linear warming trend (due to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and other possible forcings) by the warming phase of the multidecadal climate variability (due to fluctuations of the Atlantic Ocean circulation).

  18. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  19. From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the twentieth century, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.

  20. A “Dynasty” of Hellenists in twentieth-century Bucharest: Demosthene Russo, Ariadna Camariano-Cioran and Nestor Camariano

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    Leonidas Rados

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian academic circles became more interested in the study of Greek-Romanian relations towards the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth. Demosthene Russo, a young Greek immigrant to Romania, educated at Constantinople, Athens, Berlin and Leipzig, profited from this favourable trend; he managed to establish at the University of Bucharest, after 1915, a powerful centre for Byzantine and Neohellenic research and to impose his own critical school, based upon a rigorous method, in direct competition with the line directed by the most highly acknowledged Romanian historian, Nicolae Iorga, a researcher with many achievements and famous initiatives in South-East European studies. In the interwar period Russo took on the responsibility for the education of his nephew and niece, Nestor and Ariadna Camariano, to whom he transmitted his appetite for detailed research and critical methods in his field and whom he left to continue his work. The three have deeply marked the study of the history of Hellenism; they distinguished themselves, sometimes under unfavourable circumstances, by their valuable scientific production, opening new directions in the cultural history of South-East Europe.

  1. WRF Dynamical Downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis for China 1.Climatic Means during 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianghui; Bi, Xunqiang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a dynamically downscaled climatology over East Asia by using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, forced by the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR-v2). The whole experiment is a 111 year (1900-2010) continuous run at 50 km horizontal resolution. Climatic means among observations, the driving fields and WRF results during the last three decades (1981-2010) are examined in continental China, and our focus is on surface air (2-m) temperature and precipitation in both summer and winter. WRF dynamically downscaling is able to reproduce the main features of surface air temperature in two seasons in China, and outperforms the driving fields in regional details due to topographic forcing. Surface air temperature biases are reduced as much as 1~2°.For precipitation, the simulated results can reproduce the decreasing pattern from southeast to northwest China in winter. For summer rainfall, the WRF simulated results reproduce the right magnitude of heavy rainfall center around the southeastern coastal area, better than the driving field. One of the significant improvements is that an unrealistic center of summer precipitation in Southeast China in 20CR-v2 is eliminated. However, the simulated results underestimate winter surface air temperature in northern China and winter rainfall in some regions in southeast China.

  2. Depravity and Pessimism in the Twentieth Century:Darkness of Human Nature in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋楠

    2015-01-01

    The WWⅡhad a great influence on the people all over the world.People in different ways were expressing their anger.William Golding‘s Lord of the Flies expressed the darkness of human nature after the war.Through the individual symbols, both depravity&pessimism in the twentieth century and darkness of human nature in Lord of the Flies could be well understood.%第二次世界大战给全世界的人们带来了极大的影响,人们也不同的方式来抒发不满。威廉戈尔丁的《蝇王》则抒发了战后人性的黑暗。通过个体象征的运用,20世纪的堕落与悲观主义和《蝇王》中的人性黑暗面得到了很好地理解。

  3. The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late Twentieth-Century Explanations for War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late twentieth century, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Slum clearance, privatization and residualization: the practices and politics of council housing in mid-twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to a growing literature on working-class suburbanization by arguing that both the residualization and privatization of council housing need to be properly historicized. This case study of housing policy in the borough of Brighton demonstrates that council house sales between the 1950s and 1970s were important in the residualization of inter-war estates well before the 'right to buy' legislation of the 1980s. Concerns about excessively affluent tenants can also be traced to the inter-war period, although it was not until the late 1950s that local Conservatives sought to push affluent council tenants into owner occupation via capping incomes and encouraging council house sales. The article shows that slum clearance had long been central to the local council's provision of municipal housing and that apart from two short periods following the First and Second World Wars, council housing was conceived of primarily as a residual tenure by those in control of policy implementation. It further demonstrates that slum clearance between the 1920s and 1960s altered the social constituency for council housing and, combined with selective privatization, specific allocation policies and disinvestment, led to the stigmatization of certain inter-war estates. The article suggests that further case studies are needed in order to test the wider applicability of these arguments during the middle years of the twentieth century.

  5. Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  6. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  7. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

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    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  8. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics; Einfuehrung in die Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Quantenmechanik, Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie

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    Griffiths, David J. [Reed College, Portland, OR (United States). Howard-Vollum-Professur fuer Naturwissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  9. Historicizing “Korean Criminality”: Colonial Criminality in Twentieth Century Japan

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    Joel Matthews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Japanese colonialism, this article examines the discourse of colonial criminality that came to epistemologically position the Korean colonial subject as criminal and therefore necessitating domination, surveillance and punishment. The discourse of colonial criminality stemmed from Japan's late nineteenth century epistemological commitment to imperialism and concomitant knowledge of law and the legality of colonial subjects. Through an analysis that historicizes the “criminal Korean” (futei senjin epithet in the prewar and the emergence of yami as a signifier of Korean economic criminality throughout the 1940s, this article illustrates how the racialization of Koreans in Japan was both framed in terms of crime and subversion, and how that criminality functioned as a justification for postcolonial legalized exclusion and discrimination.

  10. Malaria-Associated Mortality in the Australian Defence Force during the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza, pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944. Although no Australian soldier has died in nearly 50 years from malaria, there were three serious falciparum infections in soldiers in East Timor 1999-2000 who might have died if intensive care had not been provided. Recent military deployments into Africa including United Nations contingents still show falciparum malaria's lethality despite the availability of effective malaria chemoprophylaxis.

  11. The relationships between nationalists and liberals in France in the twentieth century

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    Mathias BERNARD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, the liberal and governmental right-wing maintained complex relations with the national right-wing, often considered as a radical or extremist political family. This contribution studies at first the main moments of confrontation between these two right-wings: the Dreyfus affair, the leagues-time in the 1930s, the emergence of the national Front in the contemporary period. Up to the second World War, this confrontation is more explained by a situation of competition that by an ideological antagonism. The border between these two political families is not tight. The common fight against the communism and the weaknesses of the parliamentary government outdoes strategic oppositions, and various structures (associations, clubs, newspapers play the role of footbridge. On the other hand, since the 1950s —and more even since the develop-ment of the national Front—, both right-wings refuse openly any link.

  12. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  13. Tons of Diplomacy in a borderless sea: discussions about the naval powers of Argentina, Brazil and Chile in the early twentieth century

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    Fernando Ribas De Martini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of naval powers of Argentina, Brazil and Chile in the early twentieth century was a topic that crossed boundaries not only of countries, but also in sectors from the society of these three nations, involved in discussions about the subject: intellectuals, diplomats, military. Today, this theme crosses boundaries between areas of knowledge such as History of Science, Technique and Technology, Diplomatic History, History of Politics and Social Sciences, as well as studies of Foreign Policy. This article discusses the coincidence concerning the roadmap of the Pan American Conferences of the early twentieth century, which were U.S. initiatives, and the launch and implementation of naval re-equipment plans of these three countries, when much of its intelligentsia discussed these conferences under an anti-american bias.  It also analyzes how this discussion was related more to symbols of naval power than the actual power of these countries.

  14. Diversities Between the Regulations of Turkish Accounting Standard Setters: A Brief History of Turkiye’s Twentieth Century Accounting Standardization Applications

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    Yayla, Hilmi Erdogan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of Turkish accounting standards to ascertain the extent of differences in Turkiye’s accounting practices among the different governmental Standard setter’s regulations during the twentieth century. The research results show that the accounting standards had set by the public corporates own self as parallel to economic policies of Turkish Ministry of Finance and money policies of Central Bank of the Republic of Turkiye before the establishment of Turkish Accou...

  15. Twentieth century european exiles Os exílios europeus no século XX

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    Bruno Groppo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of exile in Europe, especially in France, throughout the 20th century and its peculiarities when compared to those in previous centuries is provided. Theoretical and conceptual definitions, including the terms “exiles”, “refugees” and “emigrants” have paramount importance in our historical reconstruction. Political exile and the broader problem of political refugees are dealt with, coupled to an in-depth analysis of the historical construction of the still binding international statute for refugees according to the 1951 Geneva Convention. The exile problem, taken within the context of the migration phenomenon, is intimately linked to the development of immigration policies and to economical and political structures. Actually it boils down to an investigation on possible typologies and the development of exile historiography.O presente artigo aborda o fenômeno do exílio europeu, com ênfase na França, no decorrer do século XX e as suas especificidades nesse século em relação à épocas anteriores. Definições teóricas e de conceitos, como as noções de “exilado”, “refugiado” e “emigrado”, assumem um papel essencial nessa reconstrução histórica. O exílio político e o problema mais amplo dos refugiados também são abordados com ênfase, com o estudo, inclusive, da construção histórica de um estatuto internacional do refugiado, organizado pela Convenção de Genebra de 1951 e até hoje em vigor. Mostra-se, enfim, como o problema do exílio, enquanto componente do fenômeno migratório, está estreitamente ligado à evolução das políticas de imigração e das conjunturas econômicas e políticas e apresenta-se uma reflexão sobre as tipologias possíveis e sobre a evolução da historiografia a respeito.

  16. Empirical evidence for a double step climate change in twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    V., Belolipetsky P; G., Degermendzhi A; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; A., Varotsos C

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used the sea surface temperature (SST), El-Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) time-series for the time period 1900-2012 in order to investigate plausible manifestation of sharp increases in temperature. It was found that the widely observed warming in the past century did not occur smoothly but sharply. This fact is more pronounced at the latitude zone 30S - 60N during the years 1925/1926 and 1987/1988. We hypothesise that there were two major climate regime shifts in 1925/1926 and 1987/1988 years. During these shifts the mean value of temperature rises, over which natural variability associated with ENSO, PDO and other factors occurs. During each sharp increase mean SST in tropics/north middle latitudes increased by about 0.28/0.36 {\\deg}C. Most of other temperature anomalies are explained by ENSO and PDO. The existence of these shifts tends to be masked by natural variability. This hypothesis has allowed us to develop very simple linear regression models ...

  17. Ambiguous cells: the emergence of the stem cell concept in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-12-20

    This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term Stammzelle from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. At the same time, blood stem cells were conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim's theory that tumours arise from 'embryonic remnants' in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, and partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought together the strands of embryological and pathological work. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute from the early 1960s on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research.

  18. Memory Politics at Work in a Gyalrong Revolt in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jinba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 1917 uprising led by Zöpa, a low-ranking monk who proclaimed himself emperor, attracted over four thousand participants in the Gyalrong region on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Some of the uprising’s agendas and goals contradicted one another. It targeted the Han with the shout of “Crush the Great Han,” even though Zöpa’s two main henchmen were Han. It evoked the support of a wider Gyalrong community and claimed to avenge Qing oppression (since the Jinchuan campaigns of the eighteenth century while attempting to establish a Qing-branded kingdom. Also, this revolt targeted foreign intrusion, as evidenced by the burning of a Catholic church in Danba. This article offers a glimpse into how this uprising was embedded in sociopolitical changes during a critical transitional period from the Qing to the Republic in Sichuan’s Sino-Tibetan borderlands. It particularly examines how memories of the Qing’s atrocities and subsequent reforms, as well as of the “golden past” of Gyalrong, catalyzed ethnic and religious tensions. Above all, this study exemplifies the significance of integrating historical analyses with ethnographic investigations by examining the ways in which written documents and oral histories constitute competing yet complementary interpretive narratives about sociopolitical changes.

  19. Aerosol-driven increase in Arctic sea ice over the middle of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Marie-Ève; Fyfe, John C.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Flato, Gregory M.

    2017-07-01

    Updated observational data sets without climatological infilling show that there was an increase in sea ice concentration in the eastern Arctic between 1950 and 1975, contrary to earlier climatology infilled observational data sets that show weak interannual variations during that time period. We here present climate model simulations showing that this observed sea ice concentration increase was primarily a consequence of cooling induced by increasing anthropogenic aerosols and natural forcing. Indeed, sulphur dioxide emissions, which lead to the formation of sulphate aerosols, peaked around 1980 causing a sharp increase in the burden of sulphate between the 1950s and 1970s; but since 1980, the burden has dropped. Our climate model simulations show that the cooling contribution of aerosols offset the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases over the midtwentieth century resulting in the expansion of the Arctic sea ice cover. These results challenge the perception that Arctic sea ice extent was unperturbed by human influence until the 1970s, suggesting instead that it exhibited earlier forced multidecadal variations, with implications for our understanding of impacts and adaptation in human and natural Arctic systems.

  20. Comments on R.W. Stewart's "Physical oceanography to the end of the twentieth century"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, C.

    My comments on this note are mostly general. The major one is that in the context of a Hilbert-like discussion of the "key problems" the paper doesn't really do that at all. Rather, Stewart is mainly speculating on what the state of the subject is likely to be about the year 2000, along with some description of the trials people will have in doing it. As such, it is reminiscent of more elaborate efforts along the same line (I believe that SCOR produced an entire document, under K. Hasselmann's editorship, only four or five years ago, that talked about oceanography to the end of the century.) Furthermore, all our experience in oceanography is that a decade is a very short time for major changes. It is exceedingly optimistic to use 10 years as the time for an instrument to go from conception to widespread use; I believe that the true timescale is closer to twice that (there's a long list of examples, including current meters, CTD's, etc.)

  1. Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Renowned doctor of Cienfuegos medical history in the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Pino Blanco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre was an outstanding medical and social personality in Cienfuegos during the first third of the xx century. The most significant aspects about his life and studies of Medicine are highlighted, as well as the postgraduate courses that he received later in France. Analyzed through different scenarios where he acted as an eminent surgeon, we refer to his contribution to the spreading of abdominal, prostatic and gynecological surgery in Cienfuegos, besides other innovations of high importance for the Cuban Medicine at that time. It is described his brilliant performance as director of the Hospital Civil and the Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, enhancing all the transformations, improvements, amplifications and openings of new services carried out in both centers under his guidance and supervision. all the recognitions received for different institutions and people in general were mentioned too, for his fruitful work and, particularly, for their performance during the epidemic of Influenza of 1918, that deserved him the title of exemplary citizen.

  2. An Arctic Republic of Letters in Early Twentieth-Century Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sawchuck

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The writing of historical polar exploration in the English-speaking academy has undergone a substantial shift in the past twenty years, to the point where it may be safe to declare that the once-dominant triumphal and hagiographical style, inherited from the nineteenth century, has breathed its last. The explorer as depicted in this tradition has become a figure of fun in current discourse, easily recognizable in the contours of caricature. Sherrill Grace, for example, presents for our inspection "courageous men battling a dangerous, hostile, female terra incognita to prove their masculinity and the superior force of their technology" whose fate is to "die nobly in struggle, or to map, claim, name, and control unstructured space, even if only on paper." It is all too simple to dismiss these aims in an era with less palpable sympathy for them. Instead, many current writers have chosen the more difficult approach of grounding these explorers in appropriate political, social, and cultural contexts, and subsequently uncovering the rationale behind their beliefs and practices.

  3. Female sexual advertisement reflects resource availability in twentieth-century UK society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Donovan, Sophie; Koyama, Nicola F

    2005-09-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that men and women differ in the characteristics valued in potential mates. In humans, males show a preference for physical attractiveness, whereas females seek cues that relate to resources and future earning potential. If women pursue marriage as an economic strategy, female sexual advertisement should increase during periods of poor economic conditions when the number of high-quality male partners becomes a limited resource. To test this prediction, measures of skin display and clothing tightness were taken for clothes portrayed in UK Vogue magazine from 1916 to 1999. These estimates of sexual advertisement were analyzed in relation to an index of economic prosperity (GDP), while controlling for general increases in economic conditions and sexual display over the course of the past century. The results indicate that female sexual display increases as economic conditions decline, with the level of breast display and the tightness of clothing at the waist and hips the key factors underlying this increase. Breast size and symmetry and female body form are secondary sexual characteristics that play an important role in sexual attractiveness. Since advertisement of these features increases as levels of competition for high-quality partners increases, females appear to use marriage as an economic strategy. Patterns of female fashion appear to be underpinned by evolutionary considerations relating resource availability to female reproductive success.

  4. Serbian music criticism in the first half of the twentieth century: Its canon, its method and its educational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian music criticism became a subject of professional music critics at the beginning of the twentieth century, after being developed by music amateurs throughout the whole previous century. The Serbian Literary Magazine (1901- 1914, 1920-1941, the forum of the Serbian modernist writers in the early 1900s, had a crucial role in shaping the Serbian music criticism and essayistics of the modern era. The Serbian elite musicians wrote for the SLM and therefore it reflects the most important issues of the early twentieth century Serbian music. The SLM undertook the mission of educating its readers. The music culture of the Serbian public was only recently developed. The public needed an introduction into the most important features of the European music, as well as developing its own taste in music. This paper deals with two aspects of the music criticism in the SLM, in view of its educational role: the problem of virtuosity and the method used by music critics in this magazine. The aesthetic canon of the SLM was marked by decisively negative attitude towards the virtuosity. Mainly concerned by educating the Serbian music public in the spirit of the highest music achievements in Europe, the music writers of the SLM criticized both domestic and foreign performers who favoured virtuosity over the 'essence' of music. Therefore, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, and even Peter Tchaikowsky with his Violin concerto became the subject of the magazine's criticism. However their attitude towards the interpreters with both musicality and virtuoso technique was always positive. That was evident in the writings on Jan Kubelík. This educational mission also had its effect on the structure of critique writings in the SLM. In their wish to inform the Serbian public on the European music (which they did very professionally, the critics gave much more information on biographies, bibliographies and style of the European composers, than they valued the interpretation

  5. Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States – An interpretative review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Eugene Merchant

    2003-10-01

    Although the machining process came into use in industry at the very beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700’s, virtually no technological/mathematical representations (i. e. ‘models’), capable of describing the physics or mechanics of the machining process, came into being for over 200 years. Yet such models are essential to establishment of an engineering basis for determining proper machining parameters for obtaining predictable, high productivity in applying the machining process in practice. At last, during the 20th Century, such technology did begin to evolve, going through three main stages in that period, namely empirical modelling, science-based (predictive) modelling and computerbased modelling. Empirical modelling can be said to have had its beginning as an organized process in the late 1890s to early l900s. Science-based modelling began to emerge in the 1940s and computer-based modelling in the 1970s. Each of these three stages was ushered in by a key event in America. The first originated with F W Taylor’s pioneering engineering research and development of empirical methodology (and equations) for estimating reasonably economic machining conditions. The second stage was primarily initiated by Merchant’s mechanics-based modelling and analysis of the basic force system that acts between cutting tool, chip and workpiece in a machining process. The third (and major) stage was the "watershed" event of the advent of digital computer technology and its application to manufacturing in general. That enabled integration of computer-based modelling with all of the databases of the full system of manufacturing.

  6. Eigil Rothe, an early twentieth century wall paintings conservator in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Brajer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eigil Rothe (active 1897-1929 is a central figure in the development of wall paintings conservation and restoration in Denmark, marking a clear departure from the practices of artist-restorers influenced by historicism. His ideas about retouching and impregnation were propelled by his sense of aesthetics, which rejected nineteenth century interpretations, and called for a respect for the passage of time. His experiments with surface treatments demonstrate unprecedented thoughts about the necessity of future treatments. His work was driven by an aspiration for the truth, as seen by his diligent photographs, such as his noteworthy documentation of the stage prior to aesthetic treatment.Eigil Rothe (actif 1897-1929 est une figure centrale dans le développement de la conservation de peintures murales et la restauration au Danemark, marquant clairement le début de pratiques nouvelles pour les restaurateurs-artiste qu’influencent l’historicisme. Ses idées relatives à la retouche et à l'imprégnation ont été soutenues par son sens esthétique, qui rejette les interprétations du dix-neuvième siècle et insiste sur le respect des marques du temps. Ses expériences relatives aux traitements de surface démontrent une conscience originale et sans précédent quant à la nécessité de traitements futurs. Son travail a toujours été motivé par une passion pour la vérité, comme le démontrent ses remarquables photographies et la documentation remarquable de l’état avant traitement.

  7. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 - largest eruption of the twentieth century; centennial perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The explosive outburst at Novarupta (Alaska) in June 1912 was the 20th century's most voluminous volcanic eruption. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. It was one of the few historical eruptions to produce a collapsed caldera, voluminous high-silica rhyolite, wide compositional zonation (51-78 percent SiO2), banded pumice, welded tuff, and an aerosol/dust veil that depressed global temperature measurably. It emplaced a series of ash flows that filled what became the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, sustaining high-temperature metal-transporting fumaroles for a decade. Three explosive episodes spanned ~60 hours, depositing ~17 km3 of fallout and 11±2 km3 of ignimbrite, together representing ~13.5 km3 of zoned magma. No observers were nearby and no aircraft were in Alaska, and so the eruption narrative was assembled from scattered villages and ship reports. Because volcanology was in its infancy and the early investigations (1915-23) were conducted under arduous expeditionary conditions, many provocative misapprehensions attended reports based on those studies. Fieldwork at Katmai was not resumed until 1953, but, since then, global advances in physical volcanology and chemical petrology have gone hand in hand with studies of the 1912 deposits, clarifying the sequence of events and processes and turning the eruption into one of the best studied in the world. To provide perspective on this century-long evolution, we describe the geologic and geographic setting of the eruption - in a remote, sparsely inhabited wilderness; we review the cultural and scientific contexts at the time of the eruption and early expeditions; and we compile a chronology of the many Katmai investigations since 1912. Products of the eruption are described in detail, including eight layers of regionwide fallout

  8. Women as food producers and suppliers in the twentieth century. The case of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntemba, S

    1982-01-01

    It is argued in this discussion that women's ability to produce and supply food has been deteriorating over time. Although this may have begun in precolonial times, particularly with the advent of merchant capital, 20th century economic and political developments have accelerated the process. This situation applies to peasant production as a whole, but discussion is limited to food production and supply. The discussion attempts to understand and discuss the position of women as food producers and suppliers within the framework of the social relations of production, distribution, and surplus appropriation. Land and labor issues have affected women's food production capabilities adversely, and their ability to supply food has been deteriorating. In those countries where their husbands are wage laborers, women have both fed themselves and their children and have supplemented their husbands' wages through food gifts and by maintaining them during their stay at home before the cycle begins again. Despite the fact that they could not adequately do so, men were obligated to start partially maintaining their families "back home" through cash remittances, but cash came at irregular intervals, or it was insufficient, mainly because of small wages. Some women have tried to increase their food supply capacities by going into seasonal wage labor, but often the wages are too low and the prices of food too high for this strategy to work. The time spent in wage labor could be better spent in their own production, provided the factors of production are favorable to them. The intensification of cash crop production has drawn land and labor away from food crops resulting in local food shortages. This process was realized earlier in West Africa when the colonial government started to import rice from China. Gradually, this became an acceptable food crop, but attempts to grow it in sufficient quantities have benefited only men. With the growing urban population rice became a viable

  9. Twentieth century demographic changes in cirio and cardón in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Stephen H.; Martijena, Nora E.; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Our purpose was to discern long-term large-scale patterns of survivorship and recruitment of two dominant, charismatic and useful desert plants, cirio [Fouquieriaceae; Fouquieria columnaris (Kell.) Kell. ex Curran] and cardón [Cactaceae; Pachycereus pringlei(S.Watson) Britton & Rose], and to evaluate the effects of physical and human factors. Location  The study included 77 sites distributed over c. 13,200 km2 in the northern Vizcaíno Region of the Sonoran Desert, state of Baja California, México. Method  Censuses used identified individuals (n = 3780 cirio and 2246 cardón) and were based on repeat photography. Time intervals between censuses ranged from 29 to 96 years, ending in 1996–2002. Earlier repetition (1963) of old photographs at 14 sites allowed analysis of temporal variation. The effect of elapsed time was modelled with Weibull functions for survivorship and linear functions for recruitment. To explain the residual variations, we tested categorical and continuous variables related to substrate, geomorphology, climate and geography. Human impacts were weighed with historical and quantitative analysis. Results  Elapsed time accounted for 45% of the variation of survivorship in cirio but only 35% in cardón. The fitted Weibull curves were used to estimate longevity: all-size cohorts of 1000 individuals would die out in 388 (cirio) and 723 years (cardón). Recruitment in cirio was linearly related to time (r2 = 0.71) and averaged  0.005 year−1, was linearly related to time (r2 = 0.66) and was less than mortality at only 33% of the sites. Vital rates were not strongly correlated between mid- and late-century but were mostly similar to the long-term regional rates. Removing the factor of elapsed time, the residual variations showed that survivorship was greater on sites protected from winds for cirio and was less on very coarse soils for cardón. Recruitment increased with latitude in cirio and was greater on southern

  10. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D; Génova, M; Schmitz, M F; Urrutia, R; Pineda, F D

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R(2) = 0.49, P tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to be a tendency toward recurrent exceptionally dry summers, which could involve a significant change for the Eurosiberian refugee species.

  11. in the twentieth century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker. They were naturally concerned to represent their hero as favourably as ... front of the Rhodes Building is a statue of Rhodes; beneath his feet are statues ... On the same day a memorial service was held at St Paul's Cathedral in London ...

  12. 'They accused me of strangling her:' epilepsy and violence debate in Croatia at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2017-07-01

    Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts. We will argue that Cesare Lombroso's biological theory of crime, as well as the influence of eugenicists and pharmaceutical companies, shaped the long-standing relationship between epilepsy and violent behaviour.

  13. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tognetti

    Full Text Available Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration, iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  14. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  15. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  16. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The treatment of madness in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: discourses about curability in Spanish mental health care, 1890-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José Javier Plumed; Moreno, Luis Miguel Rojo

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the discourses about curability constructed by Spanish mental health practitioners in the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. While in the 1870s and 1880s the predominant discourse promoted by doctors attached to private institutions was extremely optimistic, it subsequently changed and became more pessimistic regarding treatment outcomes. However, given phrenopathists' professional needs, they continued to profess more or less unshakeable confidence in the therapeutic abilities of psychiatry. The reception of new nosologies, such as Kraepelin's, depended in part on contemporary mental health practitioners' stance on curability and was accompanied by ambivalence.

  18. Greeks in the Russian Empire and their Role in the Development of Trade and Shipping in the Black and Azov Seas (nineteenth – early twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksei Shliakhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to survey the role of Greek entrepreneurs in the development of trade and shipping in the Black and Azov Sea area. Based on hitherto under-analyzed Ukrainian archival records of Greek communities (in Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaiev, Kherson, Feodosiia, Berdiansk, Mariupol, Taganrog, Rostov-upon-Don and Kerch, the article explores the professional activities of Greek merchants, captains, engineers, pilots and sailors during the nineteenth century and the early twentieth.

  19. A grotesque carnival on the sea: twentieth-century revisitings of the “Ship of fools” (from Conrad to Fellini)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Lago

    2016-01-01

    This essay offers, through a comparative reading, an analysis of the survival of the grotesques and carnival elements, studied by Michail Bachtin, in the representation of new “ships of fools” in some novels and films in the twentieth-century. Some ships in Joseph Conrad’s and Louis-Ferdinand Céline’s novels (Typhoon, 1902, The Shadow-Line, 1917, Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932) are full of sick bodies depicted as grotesques carnival masks, the same bodies that we can find on the “death ship”...

  20. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  1. The sea as science: ocean research institutions and strategies in Portugal in the twentieth century (from the First Republic to democracy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Maria Fernanda; Queiroz, Maria Inês; Brandão, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Historical perspective has revealed the many aspects of Portugal's interest in the sea, evident in a series of initiatives and entities throughout the twentieth century. From the beginning of the century until the 1974 Revolution, the genesis of organizations devoted to the scientific study of the sea is analyzed, observing their specific missions in the context of the formulation of science policy, and more specifically "ocean policies." The Portuguese valued knowledge of the sea due to their maritime vocation, coastal life and geographic position. Traversing different historical and political contexts and development cycles, the assumptions and political implications that accentuate the strategic dimension of science policy, visible in the geopolitical affirmation of oceanography, are studied.

  2. A grotesque carnival on the sea: twentieth-century revisitings of the “Ship of fools” (from Conrad to Fellini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers, through a comparative reading, an analysis of the survival of the grotesques and carnival elements, studied by Michail Bachtin, in the representation of new “ships of fools” in some novels and films in the twentieth-century. Some ships in Joseph Conrad’s and Louis-Ferdinand Céline’s novels (Typhoon, 1902, The Shadow-Line, 1917, Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932 are full of sick bodies depicted as grotesques carnival masks, the same bodies that we can find on the “death ship”, destined to shipwreck, in the homonymous novel by B. Traven (The Death Ship, 1926. In the tale Un viaje terrible (1941 by Roberto Arlt and in the novel Ship of Fools (1962 by Katherine Anne Porter, the ship of fools is a metaphoric microcosm where is reflected the whole humanity. On the other hand, Federico Fellini reproposes the grotesques and carnival characteristics in the representation of body, especially regard to characters embarked on Lica’s ship in the Fellini-Satyricon (1969 or on the ship in E la nave va (1983. The survival of the ship of fools, in the twentieth-century, therefore, is characterized by a constant reference to ‘grotesque’ and carnival studied by Bachtin.

  3. Climate and climate change in the Austrian-Swiss region of the European Alps during the twentieth century according to Feddema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Ferenc; Takács, Dominika; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2017-07-01

    Feddema's generic climate classification method is applied to study climate and climate change in the Austrian-Swiss region of the European Alps during the course of the twentieth century. A fine-tuned version of it is also tested in addition to the original scheme. Monthly precipitation and air temperature data at a spatial resolution of 10' × 10' are taken from the Climatic Research Unit TS 1.2 database to construct 30- and 50-year period averages. It is shown that the alpine climate is sufficiently heterogeneous to make it unnecessary to perform fine-tuning of the original scheme for its characterization on the meso-β scale (20-200 km). It is also demonstrated that data organizational effects are much less intense than the effects caused by the fine-tuning. The area heterogeneity of climate and climate change types is the highest in the vicinity of lakes (Austria: Lake Constance; Switzerland: Lakes Geneva, Neuchâtel, Biel, Zurich, and Constance) and along river valleys (Austria: the Danube, Drava, and Mur; Switzerland: the Aare and Ticino). The dominant climate change process was drying in Austria and warming in Switzerland. Large areas characterized by cold and saturated climate in the Central Eastern Alps did not experience climate change during the twentieth century.

  4. 二十世纪音乐语言与视唱教学%Music Language and Sight-singing Teaching in the Twentieth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕

    2011-01-01

    二十世纪音乐进入了多元风格的时代,这一时期的音乐创作既有与传统保持明显的继承关系的有调中心音乐,也有探索性极强的各种无调中心音乐,包括创立序列音乐的新维也纳乐派、非控制音乐等。通过对二十世纪音乐语言的梳理,总结了一些可进行操作的教学方法,以便让学生更好地学习和研读其作品。%The twentieth century music entered the times of multicultural styles.The music creation in this period has not only central music with key which keeps obvious inheriting relationship with tradition,but also strong explorative central music without key,including the creation of new Vienna School of serial music,non-controlled music and so on.Through analyzing the music language in the twentieth century,this paper summarizes some teaching methods for conducting operation so that students can study and research their works better.

  5. Richard Rorty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    anglo-amerikanske filosoffer siden John Dewey og Bertrand Russell i første halvdel af århundredet. Richard begyndte sin akademiske løbebane inden for analytisk filosofi, men gjorde op med store dele af denne retning med Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature i 1979, der hører til blandt de mest...

  6. Charles Richard de Beauregard and the treatment of blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in Madrid in the 18th century: Advertising, secrecy and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómiz, J J; Galindo, I

    2015-12-01

    Describe the introduction of the treatment for blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in the city of Madrid in the 18th century by the French surgeon Charles de Beauregard, the formulations employed in the preparation of his personal «bougies», the advertising in the press, their marketing and distribution. Nonsystematic review of the Madrid newspaper Gaceta de Madrid y Diario curioso, erudito, económico y comercial (Madrid Gazette, curious, erudite, financial and commercial) between 1759 and 1790. Review of the medical literature of the 18th century preserved in the Fondo Antiguo of the Biblioteca Histórica of Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Historical Resource of the Historical Library of the Complutense University of Madrid). A Google search of «Charles Richard de Beauregard». Charles de Beauregard focused his professional work mainly on the treatment of the urethral sequela of blennorrhagia, phimosis and paraphimosis. He introduced to 18th century Spanish society (with purported originality and clear commercial interests) therapeutic methods based on lead acetate that had already been developed in France by Thomas Goulard. The urethral sequela of diseases such as blennorrhagic urethritis, stenotic phimosis and paraphimosis were highly prevalent in 18th century Madrid and required complex solutions for the practice of urology of that era. Charles de Beauregard introduced innovative but not original treatments that were invasive but not bloody and that provided him with fame and social prestige. He advertised his professional activity and marketed his therapeutic products through advertisements submitted to the daily press (Madrid Gazette, Gaceta de Madrid). Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The historical significance of the Trepça mine in the Region of Stan-Terg during the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafë Haziri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The historical significance of the Trepça’s mine in Stan-Terg is so big, that it is impossible to be presented in this scientific paper, because of its historic, economic and social character. This paper analyses chronologically the importance of Trepça mine, focusing with particular emphasis on the period of the twentieth century where in 1926 the first research that was implemented by the British government began. In 1930 began the modern exploitation of Trepça which was followed by some union movements which lasted until 1939. In 1941, Trepça fell into the hands of the nazi regime of Germany. Other aspects of this work include the period of the Second World War, when the nationalization of property was implemented during the communist regime in former Yugoslavia until the great strike of 1989.

  8. Love Practices in the Colombian School during the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Notes for a History of Feminine Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America women increasingly detach themselves from feminine representations produced by certain discourses of modernity. However, unequal relations, binary constructions of sex and gender, and exclusion whenever there is any sign of resistance are still signs of contemporaneity. In response to this situation, this research paper shows, through an archaeological and genealogical study, how love, as a feeling and emotion, was a subject of education for girls in the Colombian school during the first half of the twentieth century. In that sense, the author reflects upon emotions, feelings and discourses, and reveals how society shaped practices and legitimized truths that, even today, define both men’s and women’s nature.

  9. Fairy tales, children’s books and schools in Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Historical comparisons and pedagogical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Grandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some historical parallels in the field of children’s literature and education between Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sweden and Italy are at the opposite ends of Europe, but they exhibited some interesting similarities in children’s book and pedagogy during those decades. Suffice it to say that two of the most important European education experts of the time – the Swede Ellen Key and the Italian Maria Montessori – were in relationship, appreciated each other’s work and exchanged ideas and remarks on educational and social issues. Parallels cannot obscure the large differences between the two nations, but there were also convergences that must be examined: researches on folktales, mass education and education of the élite were important issues in both countries. Moreover the convergences will intensify further in the coming decades, because Sweden and Italy belong to the same European context.

  10. [São Paulo residents known as "Southern Yankees" and the "modern disease," namely neurasthenia, in the early decades of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In a brief period of time the coffee boom, European immigration and the "atlanticization" of various sectors of life saw São Paulo transform from a small village into a thriving Atlantic metropolis. In the early decades of the twentieth century, observers described the city as Yankee City, due to its progress and activity. To what extent does neurasthenia, namely "the most modern and American of disorders", tally with that image? After analysis of advertisements, scientific books and texts for the dissemination of science, as well as articles in journals, it can be stated that neurasthenia was prevalent and widespread. This work emphasizes the socio-cultural familiarity of São Paulo with the phenomenon of neurasthenia.

  11. The Innovative Work of S. S. Glagolev: Theism in Russian Theological Academies of the Beginning of the Twentieth Century and Its Focusing on the Problem of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Ershova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author details the results of her study of the works of Sergey Sergeyevich Glagolev, a prominent professor of the Moscow Theological Academy. Glagolev’s heritage produces a profound impression by means of its versatility, its original way of looking at diverse problems as well as his unique solutions to the same problems. For this reason, it possesses enduring relevance. Despite this fact, his correspondence is still not well known nor understood. The author focuses on Glagolev’s analysis of the human problem. This choice may be explained by the fact that Sergey Sergeevich considered the problem of man to be the key issue behind the collision of religion and science taking place during the early twentieth century. Glagolev attempted to solve this problem by focusing on certain aspects of the subject: the origin of mankind, the interaction of the spirit and the body, the immortality of the soul, the origin of religion, as well as the way in which religious faith came about. A vital aspect of Glagolev’s treatment of the problem of man is his criticism of Charles Darwin and Darwinism, and thereby of the entire theory of evolution. Glagolev disagreed with the basic premises of this theory as well as with some of its specific conclusions. While opposing the concept of anthropo-genesis, Glagolev formulated his own theory regarding the origins of mankind. Thus, Glagolev viewed the origins and later history of mankind through the prism of his theory of degradation, which allowed him to seamlessly link the biblical narrative of the origins of man with contemporary scientific data. The author concludes that Glagolev was a major influence in the development of Russian theology during the first years of the twentieth century.

  12. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2017-03-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  13. An ENSO stability analysis. Part II: results from the twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of the CMIP3 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Tae [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of California, Department of Earth System Science, Irvine, CA (United States); Jin, Fei-Fei [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, a Bjerknes stability (BJ) index, proposed by Jin et al. (2006), is adopted to assess the overall stability of El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in state-of-the-art coupled models. The twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of 12 coupled models among the coupled model intercomparison project phase 3 models used in the intergovernmental panel on climate change forth assessment report demonstrate a significant positive correlation between ENSO amplitude and ENSO stability as measured by the BJ index. The simulations also show a diversity of behavior regarding the ENSO stability among the coupled models, which can be attributed to different mean state and sensitivity of an oceanic and atmospheric response to wind and SST forcing from model to model. When respective components of the BJ index obtained from the coupled models are compared with those from observations, it is revealed that most coupled models underestimate the thermodynamic damping effect and the positive effect of the zonal advective and thermocline feedback. Under increased CO{sub 2} induced warm climate, changes, relative to the twentieth century simulations, in the damping and feedback terms responsible for the ENSO stability measured by the BJ index can be linked to mean state changes and associated atmospheric and oceanic response sensitivity changes. There is a clear multi-model trend in the damping terms and positive zonal advective feedback, thermocline feedback, and Ekman feedback terms under enhanced greenhouse gas conditions. However, the various behavior among the coupled models in competition between the positive feedback and negative damping terms in the BJ index formula prevent the formation of a definitive conclusion regarding future projections of ENSO stability using the current coupled models. (orig.)

  14. Urban music from Kosovo and Metohija in the researches of Serbian ethnomusicologists up to the second half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Folk music of Serbs from Kosovo and Metohija is considered to be archaic in popular discourse. From the scientific side, that is supported by the ethnomusicological printed and sound recordings, which are one of the first sources about Serbian music folklore. Ethnomusicology in Serbia is based on the results of music ethnography of the nineteenth and the twentieth century, and because of that, it is primary focused on rural tradition. Also in the last years’, popular music arrangements of some of these songs are often, whereby music from Kosovo and Metohija is usually perceived as the rural heritage. Nevertheless, music recorded during pioneer ethnomusicological fieldworks in Kosovo and Metohija is mostly noted in the cities, in organized “unauthentic” situations, and the performers were craftsmen, traders and teachers. Although in the latter ethnomuscological literature music classification according to the ritual background was common, the most of the songs recorded on Kosovo and Metohija have not (strict ritual function and subject matter. The analysis of the Kosovo and Metohija songbooks of the eminent ethnomusicologists from Serbia proved that urban folk music was very present in the field, but troublesome for regular ethnomusicological classification and interpretation, and also that there were several informants with urban settlement who performed for these ethnomusicologists plenty of folk songs. Since the first half of the twentieth century, these ethnomusicological results have had great result on the popularization of Kosovo and Metohija music heritage. The main goal of this paper is to point on unjustified marginalization of the urban folklore at the ethnomusicological discourse, to illuminate the approaches of the pioneers in ethnomusicology in Serbia to the music heritage which has special significance not only in expert framework and to discuss the role of ethnomusicologist in the creation of the notion of “folk song

  15. Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the twentieth century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-05-01

    This study describes characteristics and evolution of the residual of the Earth energy budget (EB) individual components and the implied meridional transports during the twentieth century. This analysis considers two ensembles of AMIP-like experiments (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) with prescribed evolution of sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration (SST-SIC), greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic and volcanic aerosols over the entire twentieth century: ERA-20CM and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either SST-SIC or aerosols to climatological values. The two models provide compatible estimates of the EBs and implied transport absolute values in recent decades. They are not in agreement in terms of global scale evolution: in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at top of atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. Climatological SST-SIC sensitivity experiments evidence that the aerosol forcing affects TOA and surface EBs by setting up an inter-hemispheric gradient after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total transport in the Northern Hemisphere, while decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. ERA-20CM shows no evidence of a similar aerosol forcing. Sensitivity experiments with fixed pre-industrial aerosols show that transient SST are responsible for irregular spatio-temporal anomalies of surface and atmospheric EBs and transports. Surface and atmospheric anomalies oppose each other, and transient SSTs do not influence the EB changes at TOA. Impact of transient SST and GHG forcing on EBs and implied transports are robust across the two models.

  16. What is Behind Yinshun’s Re-statement of the Nature of the Mūlamadhyamakakā : Debates on the Creation of a New Mahāyāna in Twentieth-century China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Yinshun (1906–2005) is regarded as one of the most eminent monks in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. Previous research has argued that Yinshun especially undertook the mission of writing new commentaries on Madhyamaka texts. His efforts provoked a revival of interest towards the Madhyamaka school

  17. Formalism in the first half of the twentieth century: ‘pure science’ or a case of effective rhetoric? [Review of: M.B. Frank, D. Adler German art history and scientific thought: beyond formalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, A.

    2012-01-01

    German Art History and Scientific Thought - Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a practic

  18. Political Mythologies of the Twentieth Century in the Perspective of Hermann Heller, Ernst Cassirer, and Karl Löwith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Andrew Barash

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available (Translated by the author Beginning in the late 19th century, politics became a particularly problematic topic of philosophical inquiry in Europe. The problematic character of politics continued to deepen with the radicalization of political tendencies in Germany and in Europe during 1920s and 1930s, and it has not ceased to haunt philosophical inquiry, even beyond the reorientation of Europe following World War II. The problematic status of politics after the late 19th century became partic...

  19. A contextual analysis of nervous force in medico-scientific and literary writings in English of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the context of use of the term "nervous force," as it appears in scientific and literary publications in English over the course of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. The context of use, loss, or waste of nervous force and the context of nervous force as an expression of an attribute are analyzed in 189 scientific and 105 literary writings. Both contexts appeared in literary writings, where nervous force expresses the attributes of strength, forcefulness, vigor, or energy and use, loss or waste of nervous force explains such nonmorbid conditions as why someone is tired or needs rest. Only the context of use-loss-waste appeared in the medico-scientific literature, but here it explained both nonmorbid conditions (for example, effects of old age) and morbid conditions (like epilepsy). Changes in the number of these references give insights into the medico-scientific and the literary disciplines. Discussions include why nervous force is associated with explanation of disease, the persistence of its use in this capacity, and its influence on a similar use in literary writings.

  20. The Vienna and German heritage of orthopaedics from the first half of the twentieth century: Adolf Lorenz, Lorenz Böhler, Friedrich Pauwels, Gerhard Küntscher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In the last part of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century surgeons at the University of Vienna helped transform the practice of surgery. They developed new more effective procedures, analyzed the results of their operations, promoted the emergence and growth of surgical specialties and sought understanding of tissue structure, physiology and pathophysiology. Their efforts made Vienna one of the world's most respected centres for operative treatment, basic and clinical research and surgical education. Two individuals, Adolf Lorenz (1854-1946) and Lorenz Böhler (1885-1973) focused their research and clinical practice on orthopaedics. During the same period in Germany Friedrich Pauwels (1885-1980) founded an orthopaedic institute and an engineering workshop in Aachen in 1913 and rapidly developed a lifelong interest in biomechanical influences: Using these theories, he achieved in 1927 healing of a non-union of the femoral neck by a re-orientation osteotomy, a condition considered to be incurable until this osteotomy and created his famous classification of fracture angles at the hip into Pauwels types I, II and III. The German orthopaedist Gerhard Küntscher (1900-1972) remained the most popular surgeon after the second war with his famous nail.

  1. The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.

  2. Vienna in the Early Twentieth Century: The Cultural Response to Modernization. Curriculum Units, NEH Institute, Summer 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    These curriculum units were developed by participants in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar at the University of Oregon in 1993. The lessons include: (1) "Schule, Freunde, Liebe: Wien um die Jahrhundertwende (School, Friends, Love: Vienna at the Turn of the Century)" (Linda Hansen; Glenn Tetterton-Opheim); (2) "Kultur…

  3. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  4. Languages, Script and National Identity: Struggles over Linguistic Heterogeneity in Switzerland in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Lukas; Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, Switzerland has been a multilingual country (which currently has no less than four official languages.) Furthermore, one of those languages, German, is characterised by bigraphism (i.e. the coexistence of two different type styles). This article discusses the role played by language and writing systems in the great educational…

  5. Freedom of Speech as Protected by the States: A Review of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century State Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    While some analysts have asserted that the First Amendment was intended to prohibit laws against seditious libel (speech overtly critical of the government), the judicial record reveals a willingness to tolerate some onerous infringements on free expression. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 25 states passed "sedition" or…

  6. [Malaria in pictures: images from Brazil's public health campaigns in the first half of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Gilberto; Mello, Maria Teresa Bandeira de; Santos, Paulo Roberto Elian dos

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses a set of pictures that illustrate public health activities, practices, and campaigns against malaria in Brazil from 1918 through 1956. Exemplary of certain key moments in this history, the illustrations belong to three archives from the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz collection: Arquivo Belisário Penna, Arquivto Fundação Rockefeller ("Serviço de Malária do Nordeste" series), and Arquivo Rostan Soares. The article links these photographic records to their specific historical-public health contexts and to the campaign models and strategies represented by each archive. It also draws relations with the 20th -century history of the photographic medium itself. It is argued that these images of malaria constitute prime sources in constructing a visual history of the disease in 20th -century Brazil and of the country's public health history.

  7. [Immigrations to Anatolia, related public health problems and healthcare services in the beginning of the Twentieth Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat

    Anatolia, one of the most important crossroads between two continents, has witnessed so many immigrations throughout the history. It is a place where different civilizations and cultures met and transformed each other by interaction. History of important immigrations to Anatolia during the reign of the Ottoman Empire goes back to 1683. Also, the period between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century was the time of wars, immigrations, and death and birth of nations. The Ottoman Empire had joined the several wars as well, and the new Republic of Turkey was established after it collapsed. In this study, we investigated the two large scale immigrations to Anatolia between Balkan Wars and the first years of Republic, and tried to compile our knowledge about the public health problems and the healthcare services provided.

  8. Family ties and intergenerational relationships in European families in the twentieth century/ Wi ę zy rodzinne i relacje mi ę dzypokoleniowe w rodzinach europejskich w XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIE MAREČKOVÁ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenerational family relationships still performed an important social function in rural society in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century. The situation within the Czech family illustrates the current problems in family ties and intergenerational relationships that have surfaced since the nineteen nineties. Negative developmental trends are being seen, particularly in comparison with family circumstances in other European countries, most significantly the continuing ageing of the population and the wide-ranging activities of senior s. Looser relationships with their families and a decline in their engagement in caring for their grandchildren mean that Czech grandparents tend to rank alongside more socially develope d countries in this respect. Under Czech conditions, however, this can lead to great strain on the active roles played by seniors. The growing number of adult offspring, particularly men, living with their parents is a far from progressive trend in social and economic development, and corresponds more closely with southern European traditions. A preference for alternative forms of cohabitation, particularly among partners with primary education, the postponing of the birth of the first child, the growth in the number of single-person households and, perhaps most importantly, the enormous rise in the number of households comprised of young or middle-aged individuals in the economically productive age group may, it is true, rank the Czech Republic among socially developed countries and at around the European average, though in view of the unfavourable demographic trend a fundamental change in state support for marriage and the family is, however, also essential in the Czech Republic. The fact is that more than a third of families with children are threatened with poverty. The conclusion arising from the analyses performed indicate that the current problems in state social and family policy are reflected in the increasing

  9. Effects of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature changes in China during the twentieth century based on CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Zhao, Tianbao; Ying, Kairan

    2016-08-01

    Using three models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we compare the direct and other effects of anthropogenic aerosols on observed and simulated annual, winter, and summer temperature changes. Three regions, namely, arid-semiarid area, humid-semiarid area, and the whole of China, are studied. The temperature changes caused by other effects of anthropogenic aerosol (OE) are calculated from the difference between the anthropogenic aerosol forcing run (AA) and the anthropogenic aerosol direct effect forcing run (DE). When the combined effects are considered, a significant area-averaged cooling rate varies in the range of -0.86 to -0.76 °C per century throughout China. Meanwhile, the isolated direct and other effects lower the temperature nationwide by -0.66 to -0.55 °C per century, and -0.31 to -0.11 °C per century, respectively. From a nonlinear perspective, the aerosol-induced temperature experiences a cooling trend, with AA having the largest cooling trend changes both annually and in the summer, while DE has the greatest reduction in the winter. Additionally, the influence of OE cannot be detected in observed annual changes over the arid-semiarid area and the whole of China, while the others are clearly detectable in all cases. AA (DE, OE) reduces the observational temperature mainly over the humid-semihumid region, where the contribution to the observed warming ranges from -515.2 % (-298.7 %, -198.9 %) to -173.6 % (-130.3 %, -66.4 %).

  10. G. I. Benenson and A. D. Golitsyn: business partnership in the institutional context of Russian reality early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryshnikov Mikhail, N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of the history of participation Benenson and Golitsyn in the formation of financial and industrial group Russian-British bank in the Russian Empire. It is necessary to emphasize, that in the beginning of the 20 century joint-stock companies have occupied a prevailing situation in the main industrial and financial spheres of the Russian economy already. The densities of production, made by them, was dominant in many industries, making 70-80%, and sometimes more. The formation and successful operation of the integrated companies and, above all, financial and industrial structures (groups is undoubtedly the most important factor in improving the efficiency and sustained growth in industrial production. The analysis of participation of G. Benenson and A. Golitsyn in the activity of the Russian-English bank and joint-stock company allows to reveal most important for leading branches of the Russian economy institutional parameters of industrial business in the beginning of the 20 century, including: a Larger or smaller independence owners in those or other kinds of enterprise activity; b Availability business and socio-cultural connections among other businessmen; c Efficiency to achieve a balance of individual and group interests; d A management of the firms having more open (joint-stock structures, or closed (share structures, kind of activity. The process of the company involving in the financialindustrial groups had, sometimes, inconsistent contents, was exposed to influence both positive, and negative economic, sociocultural and political factors (economic crisises, revolution, wars, ethnic and religious conflicts etc.. However general tendency in the development of a integrated component of the Russian business carried in the beginning of the 20 century in the whole favorable orientation, potentially promoting large changes in socio economic structure of the Russian society in this period.

  11. Politics and pellagra: the epidemic of pellagra in the U.S. in the early twentieth century.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The epidemic of pellagra in the first half of this century at its peak produced at least 250,000 cases and caused 7,000 deaths a year for several decades in 15 southern states. It also filled hospital wards in other states, which had a similar incidence but refused to report their cases. Political influences interfered, not only with surveillance of the disease, but also in its study, recognition of its cause, and the institution of preventive measures when they became known. Politicians and ...

  12. The Duet of Passion and Comprehensiveness:How Historical Materialism Was Understood and Used in Twentieth-century China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan kun; Wang Dan

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to prove that the coexistence of the passion to innovate or criticize,and comprehensiveness, is a characteristic of historical materialism. It is this feature that attracted Chinese intellectuals to the concept 100 years ago. In the past century,the under-standing and use of historical materialism in China has been influenced by the elements of pas-sion and comprehensiveness,and in this way,the road of Chinese social innovation has been significantly altered. In some sense,it seems that the evolution of China over the past 100 years has been a duet of passion and comprehensiveness.

  13. The reformist triad and institutional forgetting of culture: a field study into twentieth-century Swedish social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas

    2012-01-01

    Social medicine deals with the interplay between medicine and society. An awareness of how analytical categories have emerged historically can strengthen the role the discipline can play in the societal reinventions of health care now under way around the world. This study examines the categories that informed social medicine in Sweden during the 20th century. An anthropological field study was conducted over a 12-year period in a Swedish academic clinical setting. Historical documents were used to link local-level issues with macro-level (here, national and European) contexts. Social medicine, modernity, and social democracy were found to share a common history and a common vision of what society should be. As a result, concepts from politics, ideology, economy, and science tended to be conflated. As a clinician at the study site explained, "samhälle [community] is both society and state". The consequence for social medicine is that culture has become neglected as an analytical category. This institutional amnesia has strongly influenced how 21st century social medicine, in this region of the world, has defined itself and its interests. To return a cultural perspective to social medicine, a critical distance must be kept between the analyses the discipline undertakes and the prevailing societal ideologies.

  14. [Emancipation of the works of artists with psychiatric illness - Artistic reflections from the twentieth century and the Art Brut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesznivy, Edit

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the emancipation of the artworks of psychiatric patients through the review of four centuries, focusing on some of the most important medical cultural and art historical stages of the period between the 18th and the 21st century, which is a particularly relevant era in this regard. It touches on the collections linked to psychiatrists and hospitals that were formed primarily on the basis of the researches that were analyzing the connection between creativity and mental illness. After that, the study discusses the ever-changing attitudes and preferences of artists' and major artistic movements towards psychosis and the pictorial world of the psychotic. With great care, it analyses the aesthetic category of the art brut, which is connected to the French painter Jean Dubuffet and was born in the middle of the 1940s, and the relationship between contemporary art and art brut. In connection with some of the most significant art brut collections and exhibitions, the works of a few classical and contemporary art brut artists are also discussed (Adolf Wolfli, Louis Soutter, Aloise Corbaz, August Walla ).

  15. "Now if you have only sons you are dead": migration, gender, and family economy in twentieth century northwestern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Korah, Gariba B

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the interconnectedness between labor migration, gender, and the family economy in northwestern Ghana in the 20th century. It focuses specifically on the Dagaaba of the Nadowli and Jirapa administrative districts of what is now the Upper West Region (UWR). It examines how the relationships between men and women in terms of roles, status, access to productive resources and inheritance, changed in tandem with broader changes in society in the 20th century; changes that over time produced enhanced value and elevated status for women in the family. These changes in gender relations are reflected increasingly in the belief among elderly men that ‘now if you have only sons, you are dead’. By focusing on the lived experiences of ordinary women and men in the migration process, it argues that even though indigenous social structures privileged men over women in almost all spheres of life, Dagaaba women were nonetheless significantly active in shaping the history of their communities and that gender relations in Dagaaba communities were not static — they changed over time and generation. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the internal migration phenomenon in West Africa, which has so far attracted scant historical analysis.

  16. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  17. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  18. [Nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century: a descriptive bibliometric study of the journal Anales de Bromatologia (1949-1993)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu-Mestre, J; Ureña Alberola, M T; Esplugues Pellicer, J X; Trescastro-López, E M; Galiana-Sánchez, M E; Castelló Botía, I

    2012-11-01

    To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka's law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain.

  19. The understanding and operative treatment of cerebral palsy at the turn of the twentieth century: Harvey Cushing's early forays into pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmetrichuk, Jennifer M; Pendleton, Courtney; Ahn, Edward S; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-09-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, cerebral palsy and its treatment were not well understood, and a variety of treatment modalities were tested with only limited success. Following IRB approval and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, we reviewed the Johns Hopkins Hospital surgical files from 1896-1912. Eight patients who received a diagnosis consistent with cerebral palsy and were treated surgically by Dr. Cushing were selected for further analysis and are described here. A total of eight patients underwent operative intervention for treatment of symptoms consistent with cerebral palsy. Of these, seven were male; the mean age was 4.9 years (range, 1.5 to 12). Five patients underwent decompressive craniotomies, one underwent tenotomies, one underwent transection of the spinal nerve roots, and one underwent primary transection of the spinal nerve roots with secondary tenotomies. Four representative cases are reported here. Cushing's contributions to pediatric neuro-oncology have been previously described, but his endeavors in non-oncologic realms remain largely unknown. Although Cushing employed previously described operative approaches for the treatment of cerebral palsy, parents brought their children to him from across the nation, in an era when long distance travel was tedious, and a financial burden. These cases serve to emphasize Cushing's interest in improving patient quality of life, and his broad contributions to pediatric neurosurgery.

  20. Shirley Jackson’s Literary Discourse and the Allegation of Feminism as Socio-Cultural Subversion in Mid-Twentieth Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vargas Cohen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Jackson (1916-1965 managed to combine the dual role of being a woman and a writer in mid-twentieth century American society. This article seeks to unravel some of the intricacies behind this brittle balance. Despite and/or because of her condition as mother and professional her literary achievements as a chronicler of the “Age of Anxiety” were laudable and therefore worthy of further investigation. To better understand the historical experience of professional women in that context, a review of post-war US, especially regarding gender roles, ensues not only as historical background but as methodological hotbed for literary analysis. Ms. Jackson’s literary practice helped raise the charges of feminism against her under the allegation of cultural subversion and social sedition. Finally, the question of whether she was indeed a feminist is debated taking intoconsideration her literary discourse, particularly the representations of female characters as discerningly portrayed in her fictional works, correlated to her social and historical milieu.

  1. [Enrico Modigliani and the Institution of maternal assistance: a study of the social factors of illegitimate motherhood during early Twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Enrico Modigliani (1877-1931) was an Italian paediatrician of the early Twentieth century whose work anticipated modern concepts of maternal and child health. Convinced of the importance of creating a network of health and social care for children born out-of-wedlock, he began by providing care to single mothers and their babies at his home on Sundays. In 1918, in Rome, he established the Institution for Maternal Assistance, which aim was to provide single mothers with basic health information as well as tools to face their socioeconomic situation. The Opera encouraged breastfeeding and maternal acknowledgement of the child and promoted the establishment of lactation rooms and nurseries within factories. Moreover, women were supported to find a job which was compatible with their situation. In the first five years of activity, over 1,000 unmarried women were assisted; 95% of them acknowledged their children and 52% found a job. The infant mortality rate fell to 11%, which was much lower than the 35% observed at the time among the social classes which Modigliani called the most miserable. This article reviews Modigliani's paper, in which the paediatrician reported the first five years of activity of the Institution of Maternal Assistance and where he largely focused on the social factors surrounding illegitimate motherhood. The paper was structured like a modern scientific report, with photographic documentation and statistical data, and proposed a point of view regarding social inequality which is surprisingly up-to-date.

  2. Evaluation of Surface Air Temperature Change over China and the Globe during the Twentieth Century in IAP AGCM4.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiao; XUE Feng; ZHANG He; ZENG Qing-Cun

    2012-01-01

    Based on time series and linear trend analysis, the authors evaluated the performance of the fourth gen- eration atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP AGCM4.0), in simulating surface air temperature (SAT) during the twentieth century over China and the globe. The numerical experiment is con- ducted by driving the model with the observed sea surface temperature and sea ice. It is shown that IAP AGCM4.0 can simulate the warming trend of the global SAT, with the major wanning regions in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and the mid-latitudes of the South- ern Hemisphere. While the simulated trend over the whole globe is close to the observation, the model trader- estimates the observed trend over the continents. More- over, the model simulates the spatial distribution of SAT in China, with a bias of approximately -2℃ in eastern China, but with a more serious bias in western China. Compared with the global mean, however, the correlation coefficient between the simulation and observation in China is significantly lower, indicating that there is large uncertainty in simulating regional climate change.

  3. Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice

  4. Athens: New capital of traditional Greek music: Testimonies on musical life at the beginning of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During its long Byzantine and Post-Byzantine history Constantinople was the center for church art in general, but especially for music. This old city on the Bosporus maintained its prime position until the beginning of the 20th century when, because of new political and social conditions, the Greek people started to acquire their independence and freedom, and Athens became the new capital in the cultural as well as the political sense. During the first decades of the 20th century the Athenian music scene was marked by an intensive dispute between those musicians who leaned towards the European musical heritage and its methods in musical pedagogy, and those who called themselves traditionalists and were engaged in the preservation of traditional values of church and folk music. The best insight into the circumstances in which Greek musical life was getting a new direction are offered by the numerous musical journals published in Athens before the First World War. Among them, The Formigs is of the special interest, firstly because of the long period during which it was published (1901-1912, and secondly because of its main orientation. The editor Ioannes Tsoklis, a church chanter, and his main collaborator, the famous Constantinopolitan musician and theorist and later Principal of the Department for Byzantine music at Athens musical school Konstantinos Psahos, with other associates firmly represented the traditional position. That is why most of the published articles and the orientation of the journal generally were dedicated to the controversial problems and current musical events that were attracting public attention. The editorial board believed that there was a connection between the preservation of musical traditions and their development on one side, and foreign musical influences that were evident in the promotion of polyphonic church music, which had been totally foreign to the Greek Orthodox church until the end of the 19th century, on

  5. "This villa life": town planning, suburbs and the "new social order" in early twentieth-century Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, social reformers approached the new century and post-First World War reconstruction with the hope of establishing a "new social order" based on national efficiency and class harmony. This was to be delivered through the new science of town planning. The would-be reformers posited themselves as an intellectual vanguard which would provide leadership and assist in establishing an enlightened bureaucracy of professional public servants who would also lead the way to social betterment. Their project, however, had collapsed by the end of the war. Lacking collective political clout, the nascent planning professionals' influence declined as the political environment became more conservative in the 1920s. Reformist and radical features of town planning were stripped from suburban agendas. Suburbs, once held up as the cradle of the 'new social order', were to become places for quarantining class and reinvigorating liberalism.

  6. "God save us from psychologists as expert witnesses": the battle for forensic psychology in early twentieth-century Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2015-11-01

    This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. Using, as an example, the debate between the psychologist William Stern, the psychiatrist Albert Moll, and the jurist Albert Hellwig, which occurred at the International Congress for Sexual Research held in Berlin in 1926, it aims to demonstrate the manner in which psychiatrists' responses to psychologists' attempts to gain admittance to Germany's courtrooms were shaped not only by epistemological and methodological objections, but also by changes to expert witnessing that had already encroached on psychiatrists' professional territory. Building upon recent work examining the relationship between psychologists and jurists prior to the First World War, this article also seeks to examine the role of judges and lawyers in the contest over forensic psychology in the mid-1920s, arguing that they ultimately became referees in the increasingly public disputes between psychiatrists and psychologists.

  7. Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America / Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Benito Narváez Tijerina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. Ettinger, Catherine R. (coord. (2015. Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. México: Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 259 páginas. ISBN: 978-6074019681.

  8. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  9. A Jewish America and a Protestant Civil Religion: Will Herberg, Robert Bellah, and Mid-Twentieth Century American Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Y. Stahl

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads Will Herberg’s Protestant-Catholic-Jew alongside Robert Bellah’s “Civil Religion in America” to illuminate how mid-century thinkers constructed, rather than merely observed, a vision of, and for, American religion. Placing Herberg in direct conversation with Bellah illuminates why Herberg’s religious triptych depiction of America endured while his argument for an “American Way of Life”—the prototype for Bellah’s widely accepted idea of civil religion—flailed. Although Herberg’s “American Way of Life” and Bellah’s “Civil Religion” resemble one another as systems built on but distinct from faith traditions, they emerged from intellectual struggles with two distinct issues. Herberg’s work stemmed from the challenges wrought by ethnic and religious diversity in America, while Bellah wrote out of frustration with Cold War conformity. Both men used civil religion to critique American complacency, but Herberg agonized over trite formulations of faith while Bellah derided uncritical affirmations of patriotism. Bellah’s civil religion co-existed with and, more importantly, contained Herberg’s “Protestant-Catholic-Jew” triad and obscured the American Way of Life. In an increasingly diverse and divisive America, Bellah’s civil religion provided a more optimistic template for national self-critique, even as Herberg’s American Way of Life more accurately described the limits of national self-understanding.

  10. Contesting Law and Order: Legal and Judicial Reform in Southern Thailand in the Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Chonlaworn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines legal and judicial reform in Thailand (then Siam imposed in the southern Malay provinces, once a sultanate kingdom of Pattani, in the 1890s and 1910s. Legal and judicial reform was one of the three main reforms Siam imposed countrywide at the end of the nineteenth century as an attempt to modernize the country and defend it against Western colonial powers. However, Siam’s rule and reform in the Malay region, especially during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, is viewed by recent studies as colonial modernity in itself. These measures included the appointment of a Siamese commissioner in the Malay region, the enforcement of Thai law, and Siam’s endeavor to preserve local practices such as Islamic family law and courts, which resembled those of the British and Dutch East Indies. While the notion of Siam’s inner colonialism is not entirely wrong, this paper argues that there is also another side of the coin that should be considered especially when looking from legal and judicial perspective. Right after a new regulation was imposed in 1901, it was clear that local people were ready to make use of the new judicial system. This is partly because the new system, regardless of its shortcomings, gave local people, including Malay ruling elites, opportunities to file cases against their enemies or demand justice.

  11. United We Suffer: Sixteenth-Century Anabaptism and Twentieth-Century «Auslandsdeutschtum» in M. V. Rubatscher’s «Das Lutherische Joggele»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Jany

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sixteenth-century migrations of Anabaptist communities within Europe, particularly Tyrol, becomes an important literary theme for the Austrian novelist Maria Veronika Ru­batscher who draws parallels between the relocated fellowship and the German-speaking minority in Italy after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Discussing the portrait of Tyrolean Anabaptism in her novel Das Lutherische Joggele, this paper shows how the author utilizes the movement’s history as a means of expressing her nationalistic iden­tity.

  12. Judging Edward Teller: A Closer Look at One of the Most Influential Scientists of the Twentieth Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, S B

    2010-12-29

    Much has been written about Edward TEller, but little of it is objective. Given, on the one hand, his position as one of the most inventive theoretical physicists of the 20th century, and on the other, his central role in the development and advocacy of thermonuclear weapons, one might imagine it impossible at this point in history to write a scholarly, impartial account of Teller's life and his impact. Now, however, Istvan Hargittai, a prominent Hungarian physical chemist and historian of science, has written a balanced, thoughtful, and beautifully research biography that comes closest. Hargittai is uniquely qualified for this difficult task. Coming a generation and a half later from a similar Hungarian-Jewish background, Hargittai understands well the influences and terrible events that shaped Teller. The advent of virulent, political anti-Semitism, first in Hungary and then in Germany, made Teller twice a refugee. Both Teller and Hargittai lost close family in the Holocaust; Hargittai was himself liberated from a Nazi concentration camp as a child. While Teller was in the US by then, his and Hargittai's surviving family members in Hungary suffered mistreatment at the hands of the postwar Hungarian Communist dictatorship. Hargittai's informed Eastern European perspective also provides a fresh viewpoint to the cold war context of the second half of Teller's career. Furthermore, Hargittai's own scientific work in molecular structure clearly makes him appreciate of Teller's breakthroughs in that field in the 1930s.

  13. Twentieth century thinning of Mendenhall Glacier, Alaska, and its relationship to climate, lake calving, and glacier run-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Roman J.; O'Neel, Shad; Connor, Cathy L.; Echelmeyer, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    Mendenhall Glacier is a dynamic maritime glacier in southeast Alaska that is undergoing substantial recession and thinning. The terminus has retreated 3 km during the 20th century and the lower part of the glacier has thinned 200 m or more since 1909. Glacier-wide volume loss between 1948 and 2000 is estimated at 5.5 km 3. Wastage has been the strongest in the glacier's lower reaches, but the glacier has also thinned at higher elevations. The shrinkage of Mendenhall Glacier appears to be due primarily to surface melting and secondarily to lake calving. The change in the average rate of thinning on the lower glacier, 2 m a -1 since 1982, agrees qualitatively with observed warming trends in the region. Mean annual temperatures in Juneau decreased slightly from 1947 to 1976; they then began to increase, leading to an overall warming of ˜1.6 °C since 1943. Lake calving losses have periodically been a small but significant fraction of glacier ablation. The portion of the terminus that ends in the lake is becoming increasingly vulnerable to calving because of a deep pro-glacial lake basin. If current climatic trends persist, the glacier will continue to shrink and the terminus will recede onto land at a position about 500 m inland within one to two decades. The glacier and the meltwaters that flow from it are integral components of the Mendenhall Valley hydrologic system. Approximately 13% of the recent average annual discharge of the Mendenhall River is attributable to glacier shrinkage. Glacier melt contributes 50% of the total river discharge in summer.

  14. Exploring the impact of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemistry in global rivers during the twentieth century (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, L.; Beusen, A.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients are transported from land to sea through the continuum formed by soils, groundwater, riparian zones, floodplains, streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The hydrology, ecology and biogeochemical processing in each of these components are strongly coupled and result in retention of a significant fraction of the nutrients transported. This paper analyzes the global changes in nutrient biogeochemical processes and retention in rivers during the past century (1900-2000); this period encompasses dramatic increases in human population and economic human activities including agriculture that have resulted in major changes in land use, nutrient use in agriculture, wastewater flows and human interventions in the hydrology (1). We use the hydrological PCR-GLOBWB model (2) for the period 1900-2000, including climate variability and the history of dam construction and land use conversion. Global agricultural and natural N and P soil budgets for the period 1900-2000 are the starting point to simulate nutrient flows from the soil via surface runoff and leaching through the groundwater system and riparian zones. In-stream processes are described with the nutrient spiraling concept. In the period 1900-2000, the global soil N budget surplus (inputs minus withdrawal in harvested crops) for agricultural and natural ecosystems increased from 118 to 202 Tg yr-1, and the global P budget increased from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2013;368(20130112). 2. Van Beek LPH, Wada Y, Bierkens MFP. Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water availability. Water Resour Res. 2011;47(7):W07517.

  15. The Debate about the Origin of Venereal Disease and VD Control in Modern China : Focusing on Shanghai and Beijing in the First Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHN Kyuhwan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines venereal disease(VD control in Shanghai and Beijing in the first half of the twentieth century. It focuses on the debate about the origin of VD in which western doctors stressed the importance of prostitution rather than VD itself. While missionary western doctors approached VD and prostitution from a moral perspective, Chinese western doctors adopted a public health approach. Because Chinese western doctors favored the medium of popular magazines and newspapers to publicize VD and enlighten the public, it is difficult to find their writings on VD in the medical journals such as The National Medical Journal of China(NMJ. Therefore, Chinese western doctors had not been indifferent to VD as previously thought. Common people preferred the black market to the open clinic, and abused salvarsan to cure VD in secret. This suggests the sensitive nature of VD as a disease that degrades personal honor. VD control varied depending on the perspective of the origin of VD and the prostitution, and measures taken. While moralists in the debate upheld a position to abolish licensed prostitution, public health enthusiasts propped up licensed prostitution. VD control in Shanghai and Beijing displays a striking contrast. In Shanghai, the power to control VD and prostitutes were separated. The Shanghai Municipal Council(SMC, French Municipal Council(FMC, and Shanghai Municipality(SM did not cooperate in the control of VD and prostitutes. When SMC devoted its energies to abolish licensed prostitution, FMC and SM enjoyed prostitute's taxes. The Beiping Municipality(1928-1937 practiced multiple forms of control patterns and targets of VD. They adopted a bifurcated policy regarding VD. The targets of diagnosis were divided into prostitute, pregnant women, and normal citizen. The range of the reach of the health administration in Beiping Municipality was gradually magnified.

  16. Avalanche related damage potential - changes of persons and mobile values since the mid-twentieth century, case study Galtür

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keiler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When determining risk related to natural hazard processes, many studies neglect the investigations of the damage potential or are limited to the assessment of immobile values like buildings. However, persons as well as mobile values form an essential part of the damage potential. Knowledge of the maximum number of exposed persons in an endangered area is of great importance for elaborating evacuation plans and immediate measures in case of catastrophes. In addition, motor vehicles can also be highly damaged, as was shown by the analysis of avalanche events. With the removal of mobile values in time as a preventive measure this kind of damage can be minimised. This study presents a method for recording the maximum number of exposed persons and monetarily assessing motor vehicles in the municipality of Galtür (Tyrol, Austria. Moreover, general developments of the damage potential due to significant socio-economic changes since the mid-twentieth century are pointed out in the study area. The present situation of the maximum number of persons and mobile values in the official avalanche hazard zones of the municipality is described in detail. Information on the number of persons is derived of census data, tourism and employment statistics. During the winter months, a significant increase overlaid by strong short-term fluctuation in the number of persons can be noted. These changes result from a higher demand of tourism related manpower as well as from varying occupancy rates. The number of motor vehicles in endangered areas is closely associated to the number of exposed persons. The potential number of motor vehicles is investigated by means of mapping, statistics on the stock of motor vehicles and the density distribution. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the investigated damage potential are pointed out. The recording of the number of persons and mobile values in endangered areas is vital for any disaster management.

  17. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition...

  18. A Twentieth Century Morality Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallenik, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Criticizes Erving Goffman's theory that human gestures express cultural assumptions which, in turn, legitimize social structure. Contends that Goffman blurs the distinction between his own observations as a social scientist and the interpretations of behavior by people within social situations. (JMF)

  19. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  20. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    such women pursued higher education. The role of women as "chemical assistants" to leading chemists of the day is well illustrated in the lives of du Chatelet, Paulze-Lavoisier, Picardet, and Necker de Saussure. Sadly, all this ended with the French Revolution when the woman intellectual became unacceptable. Chapter 3 focuses on a few exceptional women of the 1800-1900s who succeeded independently in their scientific work in an era when, without access to universities and financial resources, it was almost impossible to function other than as a "chemical assistant". This chapter gives a fascinating account of the life and work of five women, including Elizabeth Fulhame, who is credited with the discovery of photoreduction and the concept of catalysis, and Agnes Pockels, who, without formal education or laboratory facilities, pioneered research in surface films. By the 1850s, access to advanced education for women began in earnest. Chapter 4 tells of this radical change and its ramifications. This most readable account of the cultural conflicts that existed in Europe and the United States over educating women, admitting them to professional societies, and gaining faculty appointments is exemplified in the biographies of four U.S. women (Ellen Swallow Richards, Rachel Lloyd, Laura Linton, Ida Freund) and two Russian women (Yulya Lermontova and Vera Bogdanovskaia). Much of the content of the book resides in the remaining chapters (5-10) and covers 20th century science through 1950. The titles, Women in: Crystallography (Chapter 5), Radioactivity (Chapter 6), Biochemistry (Chapter 7), Industrial Chemistry (Chapter 8), Analytical, Education and History (Chapter 9), suggest that women favored some areas of chemistry over others. Why did they tend to congregate in certain fields? The authors give cogent reasons why this was so. They observe that, in developing fields, there was initially a collegiality among colleagues and the support of senior mentors that established a

  1. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society.

  2. Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: analyses of CO2, climate and land use effects with four process-based ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Sitch, S.; Clein, J.S.; Dargaville, R.; Esser, G.; Foley, J.; Heimann, Martin; Joos, F.; Kaplan, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Meier, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Prentice, I.C.; Ramankutty, N.; Reichenau, T.; Schloss, A.; Tian, H.; Williams, L.J.; Wittenberg, U.

    2001-01-01

    The concurrent effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, and cropland establishment and abandonment on terrestrial carbon storage between 1920 and 1992 were assessed using a standard simulation protocol with four process-based terrestrial biosphere models. Over the long-term(1920–1992), the simulations yielded a time history of terrestrial uptake that is consistent (within the uncertainty) with a long-term analysis based on ice core and atmospheric CO2 data. Up to 1958, three of four analyses indicated a net release of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere caused by cropland establishment. After 1958, all analyses indicate a net uptake of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems, primarily because of the physiological effects of rapidly rising atmospheric CO2. During the 1980s the simulations indicate that terrestrial ecosystems stored between 0.3 and 1.5 Pg C yr−1, which is within the uncertainty of analysis based on CO2 and O2 budgets. Three of the four models indicated (in accordance with O2 evidence) that the tropics were approximately neutral while a net sink existed in ecosystems north of the tropics. Although all of the models agree that the long-term effect of climate on carbon storage has been small relative to the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and land use, the models disagree as to whether climate variability and change in the twentieth century has promoted carbon storage or release. Simulated interannual variability from 1958 generally reproduced the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-scale variability in the atmospheric CO2 increase, but there were substantial differences in the magnitude of interannual variability simulated by the models. The analysis of the ability of the models to simulate the changing amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 suggested that the observed trend may be a consequence of CO2 effects, climate variability, land use changes, or a combination of these effects

  3. Excelencia Para Todos--Excellence for All: The Progress of Hispanic Education and the Challenges of the New Century. Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by U.S. Secretary of Education, Richard W. Riley (Bell Multicultural High School, Washington, DC, March 15, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Richard W.

    The main theme of Richard W. Riley's speech is the importance of quality education to America's Latino community. The speech outlines a series of challenges for the 21st century: the promise of language and the need for Latinos to learn English with the aid of bilingual education; the need to meet increasing demand for quality teachers, especially…

  4. Professor Richard Feynman colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    Richard P. Feynman received the Nobel Prize for physics in 1965. Following the ceremony in Stockholm, Feynman gave the colloquium "Development of the space-time view of quantum electrodynamics" at CERN on 17th December.

  5. Interview of Richard Keynes

    OpenAIRE

    Keynes, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Interviewed on 26th September 2007 by Alan Macfarlane at his home. Lasts about one hour. Interview of Richard Keynes, retired Professor of physiology at Cambridge and great grandson of Charles Darwin, on his life and work

  6. Profesionales y Profesores del Urbanismo. Siglo XX en la F.A.U. de la Universidad de Chile. /Urban Professionals and Professors. Twentieth century in the F.A.U. University of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes, María Isabel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las celebraciones de los 150 años de la Enseñanza de la Arquitectura en la Universidad de Chile y, de los 50 años del Departamento de Urbanismo de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo se rinde homenaje a los profesionales y profesores del Urbanismo en nuestra casa de estudios en siglo XX./ As part of the celebrations of 150 years of the Teaching of Architecture at the University of Chile and, when the Department of Urban Planning School of Architecture and Urban Design is celebrating 50 years since its creation (experimental 1949 / 1952 official - 1999/2002, we recall the urban planning professionals and professors in our university in the twentieth century.

  7. A return to the ‘pretty house’. An interpretative bricolage of documentary sources on menarche rituals among the native peoples of the Argentine Patagonia (nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to put into consideration a new analysis of the text by the British author George Musters, of his description of a menarche ceremony (which he called “the pretty house” that was observed among the Tehuelches from the Patagonia in 1869, in order to contextualize it from the historic point of view and from a gender perspective.From qualitative methodology we have made a bricolage which expresses an itinerary articulated by a genealogy of documentary sources from the nineteenth century, by testimonies produced in anthropological and linguistic works in the second half of the twentieth century, and by ethnographic records of our works in oral history which focus on rituals to foster the yarns.The comparison of sources of the selected documents leads us to think about the hypothesis that in the ceremonies of the first menstruation, from the nineteenth century on, it was fostered the attachment to yarns and fabric, in societies which also ritualized the field of textile work.

  8. Dwudziestowieczna filozofia analityczna. O pewnej próbie całościowego ujęcia (TWENTIETH-CENTURY ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY. ON A RECENT ATTEMPT OF ITS GENERAL ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Szubka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although analytic philosophy is a major movement shaping contemporary philosophy, there are not too many historical accounts of that movement which would be comprehensive, unified and sufficiently detailed. An impressive attempt to fill in this lacuna is the two-volume book 'Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century', modestly described by its author Scott Soames (renowned mainly for his work in the philosophy of language as 'an introductory overview of the analytic tradition in philosophy covering roughly the period between 1900 and 1975'. The first volume discusses the philosophy of G.E. Moore, the most influential views of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein's 'Tractatus', logical positivism (including emotivism in ethics and reaction against it, as well as the early philosophy of W.V. Quine. The second volume continues the story of analytic philosophy by providing an account of the later philosophy of Wittgenstein, the ordinary language philosophy and its demise, the philosophical naturalism of W.V. Quine, the theory of meaning of Donald Davidson, and finally Saul Kripke's seminal philosophy of language and its wide-ranging implications. The book contains also a short epilogue outlining the direction taken by analytic philosophy in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The two volumes of Soames' account of contemporary analytic tradition are packed with lucid, sophisticated and detailed discussions of various views of major thinkers of that tradition. However, besides these merits the book by Soames has several weaker points. It defines analytic philosophy in a rather loose and unspecific manner, as well as gives an arbitrarily selective and unbalanced account of its recent developments.

  9. Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    It took a man who was willing to break all the rules to tame a theory that breaks all the rules. This talk will be based on my new book Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's life in science. I will try and present a scientific overview of the contributions of Richard Feynman, as seen through the arc of his fascinating life. From Quantum Mechanics to Antiparticles, from Rio de Janeiro to Los Alamos, a whirlwind tour will provide insights into the character, life and accomplishments of one of the 20th centuries most important scientists, and provide an object lesson in scientific integrity.

  10. The Not-so-Dark Ages: ecology for human growth in medieval and early twentieth century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Garcia, Susana

    2009-02-01

    This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth.

  11. Transition from traditional to modern forest management shaped the spatial extent of cattle pasturing in Białowieża Primeval Forest in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Fedotova, Anastasia; Kuijper, Dries P J

    2016-12-01

    Pasturing of livestock in forests has had profound consequences for Europe's landscapes. In Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), cattle pasturing was a part of traditional forest use that ceased only in the second half of the twentieth century. We collected information on the institutional changes governing forest cattle pasturing and the changes in spatial extent of cattle presence in BPF in last two centuries and information on cattle numbers and their impact on forest regeneration. The spatial extent of cattle pasturing was highly variable, with the distribution of grazing areas frequently changing. Forest near villages (constituting less than 10 % of the area) was most often used for cattle grazing during continued longer time periods. Historical data showed that cattle have had a clear impact on forest regeneration. However, the frequent changes that occurred in the extent of cattle grazing indicate that their impact occurred locally, was smaller in other less intensively used areas, and in the forest as a whole.

  12. The Expressions of Mao Zedong's Poems to the Chinese Cultural Transition in the Twentieth Century%毛泽东诗词对20世纪中国文化转型的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华玉振

    2016-01-01

    The twentieth century was the period when the Chinese culture was difficult to choose its fu-ture directions confronted with the disputes between China and the West,the ancient and the modern.Then it started to transit from the traditions to modernization.As the representative of Chinese cultural transi-tion in the 20th century,Mao Zedong's poems artfully spread the historical pictures from criticizing and in-heriting the Chinese traditional culture to constructing the modern culture.They also revealed some contra-dictions,errors and paranoia caused by the historical and personal factors.%20世纪是中国文化面临中西之争、古今之辩最为激烈,民族文化前景抉择最为艰难的时期,开始了中国文化从传统向现代的转型。毛泽东是20世纪中国文化转型的代表。在这个转型过程中,毛泽东诗词艺术地铺展了从批判传统文化、继承传统文化再到建构中国现代文化的历史性画卷,以及基于历史与个人因素而导致的矛盾、错误及偏执。

  13. The historical memory of the twentieth Century silent film era of the Hollywood of a movie%一部电影与对20世纪好莱坞默片时代的历史记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢欢

    2013-01-01

    历史记忆是心理学的研究问题,最近几年成为多们学科关注的话题。历史记忆离不开社会、集体,是在现有的社会文化背景下对过去的构建。进入21世纪,影视传媒一如既往地发挥着强大的社会功能,影视传媒是形塑历史的最主要途径之一,本文以《艺术家》对20世纪好莱坞默片时代的历史记忆为例,探讨电影构建的历史记忆与历史真实之间的差异。%Historical memory is to study the problem of psychology, in recent years become a multi discipline topic. Historical memory cannot do without the society and group, is available in the social and cultural background of past construction. In twenty-first Century, film and television media to play strong social function, television media is one of the most important ways to shape plastic history, based on the historical memories of the"artist"of twentieth Century silent film era of the Hollywood as an example, to discuss the difference between the historical memory and historical truth of the movie.

  14. Steric Sea Level Change in Twentieth Century Historical Climate Simulation and IPCC-RCP8.5 Scenario Projection: A Comparison of Two Versions of FGOALS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lu; ZHOU Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the steric sea level change in 20th century historical climate simulations and future climate change projections under the IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario,the results of two versions of LASG/IAP's Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model (FGOALS) are analyzed.Both models reasonably reproduce the mean dynamic sea level features,with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.97 with the observation.Characteristics of steric sea level changes in the 20th century historical climate simulations and RCP8.5 scenario projections are investigated.The results show that,in the 20th century,negative trends covered most parts of the global ocean.Under the RCP8.5 scenario,global-averaged steric sea level exhibits a pronounced rising trend throughout the 21st century and the general rising trend appears in most parts of the global ocean.The magnitude of the changes in the 21st century is much larger than that in the 20th century.By the year 2100,the global-averaged steric sea level anomaly is 18 cm and 10 cm relative to the year 1850 in the second spectral version of FGOALS (FGOALS-s2) and the second grid-point version of FGOALS (FGOALS-g2),respectively.The separate contribution of the thermosteric and halosteric components from various ocean layers is further evaluated.In the 20th century,the steric sea level changes in FGOALS-s2 (FGOALS-g2) are largely attributed to the thermosteric (halosteric) component relative to the pre-industrial control run.In contrast,in the 21st century,the thermosteric component,mainly from the upper 1000 m,dominates the steric sea level change in both models under the RCP8.5 scenario.In addition,the steric sea level change in the marginal sea of China is attributed to the thermosteric component.

  15. Professor Richard Skemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worboys, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Richard Skemp, author of The Psychology of Learning Mathematics, briefly outlines his theory of schematic learning and comments on motivation, contributions by psychologists to the learning of mathematics, British Curriculum Projects, "Modern Mathematics," and provisions for slow learners and for gifted children. (DT)

  16. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the adequate provision for waste disposal is an essential part of the infrastructure needed in the development of Richards Bay as a deepwater harbour and industrial/metropolitan area. Having considered various options for waste...

  17. Richard Halliburton's Bearded Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles E., III

    2009-01-01

    Fusing the concept of "the beard" with the genre of the tall tale to theorize bearded tales deepens our understanding of closet eloquence, or rhetorical repertories of sexual passing in U.S. history. An examination of adventurer-writer-lecturer Richard Halliburton's sexual provenance and bestselling travel tale, "The Royal Road to Romance" (1925),…

  18. Studies of Local Lore as a Form of Ethnic Consciousness: The Karelians of Olonets Province in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Pashkov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Author deals with 19th century intellectuals of Olonets Karelian origin who started to be interested in local language, culture and ways of life. They started to compile and publish corresponding texts and it meant the beginning of ethnic mobilization of Karelians. Author starts with a brief overview of local historical background and continues with activities of three intellectuals of Karelian origin (I. V. Kondratyev, M. N. Smirnov, N. F. Leskov.

  19. An Illustrative Case Study for Twentieth Century Defense Planners: The Technology and Politics of United States Coastal Defense, 1880-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-24

    932. 2 lGoodrich, Our New Naval Guns," pp. 667-68. 22"Modern Artillery," p. 296. 36 in the nineteenth century by the crucible or open- hearth methods...comments on coast defense ships. "Seaport Defenses: Proposes Artificial Islands to Protect the Approache to the Harbors." Scientific American 63 (23...August 1890): 112. 157 Particularly interesting: proposed artificial islands similar to fixed concrete battleships to be built in harbors; system

  20. 'Sunless lives': district nurses' and journalists' co-construction of the 'sick poor' as a vulnerable population in early twentieth-century New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Pamela J; Arcus, Kerri

    2012-10-01

    Portrayals of vulnerable groups in public media, government reports and professional accounts tend, by definition, to focus on their deficits in order to identify need and shape appropriate health care responses. This article within the cultural history of nursing considers a different construction of one vulnerable group in the past, the 'sick poor' in early 20th-century New Zealand. The research analysed primary historical sources that offered rich descriptions of the sick poor, drawn from one major daily newspaper and the country's professional nursing journal, 1900-1920. The article argues that in co-constructing the sick poor as a vulnerable group, district nurses and journalists primarily used the trope of 'sunless lives'. However, they also constructed them as resourceful, resilient and determined. This article offers the construction of the sick poor by district nurses and journalists in early 20th-century New Zealand as an example of a more nuanced construction that goes beyond a one-dimensional portrayal of vulnerability.

  1. Myth,Revolt and Modernity:Syria's Poetry Creation in the Twentieth Century%论20世纪叙利亚诗歌流变与代表诗人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱婧

    2016-01-01

    As one of the important achievements in the moderating transition of Arabic literature , Syria's poetry creation in the twentieth century was plentiful .Most of Syria's poets had western living experi-ence;moreover , they had blended the tradition of Islamic religion with the style of the modern poetry .The myth and revolt due to the politics and nationalism were also infused into the poem .Thereby ,.This novel poetry phenomenon was worth of studying in the world literature .%20世纪的叙利亚诗歌作品十分丰富,是阿拉伯文学现代性转换时期的重要成果之一。20世纪的叙利亚诗人们大多具有西方生活的经验背景,在其诗歌创作中糅合了伊斯兰的宗教传统以及现代新诗的样式,又因政治风云和民族主义的形成而激发了其作品中的迷思和反抗。由此,20世纪的叙利亚诗歌完成了从代言、隐喻到现代性的诗歌流变,是世界文学中较为独特的诗歌现象之一。

  2. Los diarios como espacios públicos: La Prensa en la vida social de Buenos Aires a comienzos del siglo XX Newspapers As Public Spaces: La Prensa In The Social Life Of Buenos Aires In The Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán E. Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En las primeras décadas del siglo XX, en Argentina, los grandes diarios fueron un fenómeno periodístico y social. Instalados en el centro de la ciudad muchos de ellos abrieron sus puertas al público convirtiéndose en lugares de reuniones, conferencias, manifestaciones, etc. Un caso ejemplar fue el del diario La Prensa cuyo análisis permite discutir críticamente la consideración de los diarios simplemente como productores del soporte impreso de la esfera pública (uno de los fundamentos del modelo elaborado por Jürgen Habermas y analizarlos no sólo como locus de un conjunto de relaciones humanas especializadas (las que hacen a la producción de los diarios sino también como espacios públicos.At the turn of the twentieth century in Argentina the grandes diarios were a journalistic and social phenomenon. Localized in the core of the city, many of them opened their doors to the public, thus becoming a place for meetings, parties, and conferences. An exemplary case was La Prensa; the study of which enables both a critical discussion of representations of newspapers as the print supporter of the public sphere (one of the bases of Jürgen Habermas' model and their analysis not only as the locus of a group of specialised human relations (those involved in newspaper production but also as public places.

  3. TIAGO VEIGA, A BIOGRAPHY BY MÁRIO CLÁUDIO: THE MARCH OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY OR THE MEMORY OF CONTEMPORANEOUS PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Oliveira Martins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mário Cláudio’s novel, Tiago Veiga, uma biografia (2011, is a long and uni­que biography that follows the path of former biographies. Three distinct forms of memory writing can be detached here among other singularities. Firstly, there is the idea of a challenging and well aware heteronimic pro­cess that is focused in the misterious life of Tiago Veiga. Secondly, there is the biographic portrait that is constructed within the observance of the gender codes and beholds a wide scope of intertextual rememberances. Finally, this becomes a unique crytical biography of Portugal during one century, because it recreates the cosmopolitan life of an unknown character born in 1910. 

  4. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupational and gender identity influenced by the disengagement from their birthplace. Within a context of Hungarian−Eastern-European women's social history, I investigate how migration had led them to reshape their original identities and create new ones and how these emigrant writers reacted to the loss of cultural and social norms in which they had previously lived.

  5. CHANGING OF THE ALTAI GLACIER SYSTEM SINCE THE MID-TWENTIETH CENTURY AND ITS RESPONSE TO THE CLIMATE WARMING IN FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Altai glacier system are analyzed on the data from Chinese and Former Soviet Union glacier inventories. Two glacier data sets, recent remote sensing data and the glacier inventories data were compared. It has been found that 208 glaciers disappeared and the glacial area decreased by 12%. Functional models of the glacier system variations have been developed using the equation of relationship between an annual glacier ablation and a mean summer temperature; the glacier system structure and behavior of the equilibrium line altitudes at the steady state were taken into account as well. The models were used to study response of the glacial runoff to a climatic change. The model results show that, under the climate warming scenario of 0.05°С/year, only 3% Altai glaciers inChinaand 9% inRussiawill remain by the end of this century.

  6. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events.

  7. O amor no século XX: romantismo democrático versus intimismo terapêutico Love in the twentieth century: democratic romanticism versus therapeutic intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é esclarecer de que modo a paulatina legitimação dos padrões de relacionamento romântico ocorrida no século passado - conforme pregados por várias defensoras da reforma dos costumes e promovidos por meios de comunicação em massa - enfrenta a resistência, entre os setores partidários do racionalismo terapêutico, de um discurso em favor do intimismo amoroso. A hipótese é de que o sentido dessa reação seja o de proteção contra os efeitos negativos potencialmente gerados pela crença em certo tipo de romantismo e suas promessas de felicidade, em meio à ordem social individualista e desprovida de salvaguardas tradicionais.The article seeks to explain how the gradual legitimation of romantic relationships over the course of the last century - advocated by socials reformers and propagated by the mass media - have met with resistance from a discourse in favour of amorous intimacy among followers of therapeutic rationalism. The text argues that this reaction comprises a defensive protection against the negative effects potentially generated by the belief in a certain type of romanticism and its promises of happiness within a individualistic social order lacking in the traditional safeguards.

  8. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  9. 论20世纪中国女性文学创作中的漂泊意识%On the Wandering Consciousness in Twentieth Century Chinese Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2016-01-01

    The literature works by the twentieth century Chinese women writers is an important part of Chinese new literature unique . Throughout the twentieth century Chinese women literature writing ,there has been a refuge for wandering nothing latent consciousness ,which has its different rendering features though each period .If we placed the women writers’ wandering consciousness in the context of the development of Chinese literature ,we can find its unique significance and value individuality .Women writers have obviously difference between mechanisms and manifestations in terms of awareness generated by wandering from male writers .Since the majority of women writers are more sensitive to their ow n sex characteristics , they have been looking for the existence or construction of their ow n culture from the resistance to the patriarchal culture in the process ,in order to explore female’s culture w hich has long been obscured the significance of individual life .It is female cultural construction process that women writers constantly toward self life to explore the depths of life ,spirit and emotion of the landing site ,in order to place their own long wandering soul and look for the cultural value of their ow n existence .%20世纪中国女性作家的文学创作是中国新文学中独具特色的重要组成部分。在20世纪中国女性文学创作中,一直有一种无所归依的漂泊意识,而且各个时期有着不同的呈现特点。如果把女作家的漂泊意识放置在整个20世纪中国文学发展的大背景中去考察,可以发现其独特的意义与个性价值。在漂泊意识产生的机制和表现形态方面,女作家与男作家显然不同。女作家更加敏感于自身的性别特点,在抗拒男权中心文化的过程中,她们一直在寻找或者建构着自己所存在的文化,发掘女性长期以来被男权文化遮蔽了的个体生命意义。女性文化建构的过程是女性作

  10. Study on nationality of Chinese symphonic music after twentieth Century eighty years%20世纪八十年代后的中国交响音乐的民族性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星

    2014-01-01

    Chinese symphonic creation enter prosperous period in twentieth Century eighty years, with national characteristics and spirit of the times of the symphonic music, has become the common desire of most musicians. In this paper, China symphonic music since the eighty as the focus, the paper studies on the national level, mainly from the musical form analysis:ethnic melody, five tone scale,"non three"overlap and"the color"connection harmonic language, rich rhythm, Chinese musical tradition structure, rich and enchanting music and color, and tries to extend to the music aesthetics and philosophy culture level.%中国交响音乐的创作在20世纪八十年代以后进入繁荣时期,创作具有中国民族特色和时代精神的交响音乐,已成为大多数音乐家的共同心愿。本文以八十年代以来的中国交响音乐为重点,就其民族性进行研究,主要从音乐形态的层面分析:民族性的旋律、五声性的音阶、“非三度”叠置与“色彩性”连接的和声语言、丰富的节奏节拍、中国音乐的传统结构、丰富迷人的音乐色彩等,并且力图延伸到音乐美学与哲学文化的层面。

  11. century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sojak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1494, the Treatise on Double-entry Bookkeeping by Luca Pacioli was a comprehensive manual describing the principles of bookkeeping by the Italian method. The educational value of this work and its substantive merit made it quickly became a popular source of knowledge for merchants and students who wanted to learn the secrets of accounting. It presented, in a structured way and with numerous examples, a set of accounting principles developed over the years by Italian merchants. Later on, authors often modeled their manuals on Pacioli’s work, thus contributing to the dissemination of knowledge of accounting in Europe. In this way, double entry bookkeeping spread beyond the borders of Italy and thanks to, among others, the Dutch authors John Ympyn and Simon Stevin and an Englishman Richard Dafforne it came to Holland, England, Germany, France and other countries in the world. The purpose of this article is to present the works of these authors, and to compare the accounting rules described there to the rules that Pacioli set out in his treatise. The analysis showed that double entry principles propagated by Pacioli were reproduced in subsequent writings in an almost unchanged form. Modifications of the concept concerned only the technical issues,or were the result of the search for improvements in the field of keeping accounting records. However, the theoretical basis of bookkeeping has remained unchanged and provides the basis of modern accounting.

  12. Las revistas de empresa en España: algunos ejemplos de house organ desde principios del siglo XX / House Organ in Spain: some examples from the early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Reina Estevez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sobre los house organ o revista de empresa parece haberse escrito muy poco y siempre desde su dimensión técnica, obviando su evolución histórica. Pese a ser una técnica con fuerte tradición en otros países como EEUU, Inglaterra o Francia desde finales del siglo XIX, en España su estudio ha pasado casi desapercibido. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es encontrar algunas manifestaciones de este instrumento en las organizaciones patrias desde principios del pasado siglo XX, para confeccionar una lista de ejemplos reales sin carácter exhaustivo. Para alcanzar los resultados se parte de una revisión bibliográfica de las primeras obras sobre publicidad que se publicaron en nuestro país, que dará lugar al estudio de los manuales sobre relaciones públicas que se han editado posteriormente. Esta metodología se completa con la consulta a hemerotecas y las, comúnmente conocidas, como librerías de viejo o librerías de segunda mano, donde a día de hoy se atesoran algunos ejemplares de house organ que han sobrevivido al paso del tiempo. / It´s have written about house organ very little and always from technical dimension, ignoring the historical evolution. Despite being a technique with a strong tradition in other countries like USA, England or France since the late nineteenth century, in Spain study it has gone unnoticed until now. The main objective of this research focuses on finding some manifestations of this instrument in the patriotic organizations since the beginning of the twentieth century, to compile a list of real examples without limitation. To achieve results is part of a literature review of the first works on advertising that were published in our country that will lead to the study of public relations manuals that have been subsequently released. This methodology is supplemented by consulting newspaper archives and used bookstores, where today some specimens of house organs have survived the passage of time.

  13. Richard Feynman a life in science

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1998-01-01

    This text is a portrayal of one of the greatest scientists of the late 20th-century, which also provides a picture of the significant physics of the period. It combines personal anecdotes, writings and recollections with narrative. Richard Feynman's career included: war-time work on the atomic bomb at Los Alamos; a theory of quantum mechanics for which he won the Nobel prize; and major contributions to the sciences of gravity, nuclear physics and particle theory. In 1986, he was able to show that the Challenger disaster was due to the effect of cold on the booster rocket rubber sealings.

  14. Richard Lavenham on Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Richard Lavenham on Future Contingents’, Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-âge Grec et Latin, 44 (1983), p.180-186.......‘Richard Lavenham on Future Contingents’, Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-âge Grec et Latin, 44 (1983), p.180-186....

  15. Landmark experiments in twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Trigg, George L

    2011-01-01

    Physics is very much an experimental science, but too often, students at the undergraduate level are not exposed to the reality of experimental physics ― i.e., what was done in a given experiment, why it was done, the background of physics against which the experiment was carried out and the changes in theory and knowledge that resulted. In this hook, the author helps to remedy the situation by presenting a variety of ""landmark"" experiments that have brought about significant alterations in our ideas about some aspect of nature. Among these scientific milestones are discoveries about the wa

  16. renal transplantation during the twentieth century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-06-01

    Jun 1, 2001 ... femoral vessels and a cutaneous ureterostomy was performed. The transplanted ... period radiation was extensively used for immunosuppression. .... critically injured patients from road traffic accidents resulting in reduced ...

  17. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    every turn by a horde of parliamenta- 45 ry carpers and journalist^."^’ There was more truth in the fact that rearmament in France (as in Great...Comparing the Operational Concept and the Defense,” ibid, Dec 1982, pp 13-19; James C. Barbara and Robert F. Brown, “Deep Thrust on the Extended

  18. Misreading Science in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Considers textual aspects of scientific communication and problems for reception presented by the complex dynamics of communicating scientific work. Discusses scientific work based on fraud or misconduct and disputes about the nature of science, and applies reception theory and reader-response criticism to understand variations in readings of the…

  19. Gauge Theories in the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the 1970s, it was clear that all the known forces of nature (including, in a sense, gravity) were examples of gauge theories , characterized by invariance under symmetry transformations chosen independently at each position and each time. These ideas culminated with the finding of the W and Z gauge bosons (and perhaps also the Higgs boson). This important book brings together the key papers in the history of gauge theories, including the discoveries of: the role of gauge transformations in the quantum theory of electrically charged particles in the 1920s; nonabelian gauge groups

  20. Presentation: Twentieth-century Dictatorships and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier agrupa trabajos que cubren una amplia zona geográfica, ofreciendo diferentes puntos de vista sobre aspectos concernientes a la relación entre políticas dictatoriales y religión. El resultado final es ocho artículos que abordan la cuestión en cuatro continentes: Asia, África, América y Europa. Por la diversidad de enfoques, los artículos tratan, desde perspectivas diferentes, las actitudes “pragmáticas” coloniales y postcoloniales hacia la religión en África (Grandhomme y Kroubo Dagnini, la identidad religiosa africana (Chande, el uso de la religión como una fuente de moral y ética en Argentina (Cousins y Francia (Stevens, el punto de tensión entre la religión y política tradicionales y el mito en China (Lee e Italia (Nelis, y las actitudes de la dictadura hacia la identidad religiosa en España (Beck.____________________ABSTRACT:This dossier contains essays that cover a broad geographic area, offering different points of view on various aspects concerning the relation between dictatorship policies and religion. The final result are eight articles, which deal with the situation on four continents: Asia, Africa, America and Europe. Presenting a great variety of approaches, the articles show different views on the “pragmatic” colonial and post-colonial attitudes towards religion in Africa (Grandhomme and Kroubo Dagnini, African religious identity (Chande, the use of religion as a source of morals and ethics in Argentina (Cousins and France (Stevens, the point of tension between traditional religion and politics and the myth in China (Lee and Italy (Nelis and the dictatorship’s attitude towards the religious identity in Spain (Beck.

  1. Twentieth Century Books Influencing American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses: "Educational Psychology," Thorndike; "Medical Education," Flexner; "Democracy and Education," Dewey; "The Measurement of Intelligence," Terman; "Public Education," Cubberley; "The Thirty-Ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Intelligence: Its Nature and Nurture;" and, "Why Johnny Can't Read," Flesch. (JM)

  2. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    and Fred Freed. The decision to drop the bomb. New York: Coward-McCann, 1965. (UA 23 .G51) 27 Greenfield, Kent R. American strategy in World War II...Air University, 1974. (UGB 907 .A42 5194) Brauers , W. X. Systems analysis, planning and decision models: with special reference to national defense

  3. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual changes brought by modern physics are important, radical and fascinating, yet they are only vaguely understood by people working outside the field. Exploring the four pillars of modern physics – relativity, quantum mechanics, elementary particles and cosmology – this clear and lively account will interest anyone who has wondered what Einstein, Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg were really talking about. The book discusses quarks and leptons, antiparticles and Feynman diagrams, curved space-time, the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. Suitable for undergraduate students in non-science as well as science subjects, it uses problems and worked examples to help readers develop an understanding of what recent advances in physics actually mean.

  4. Biology Curriculum in Twentieth-Century Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Oscar; Zanon, Beatriz; Perez-Pla, Jose Francisco

    1999-01-01

    Reviews 100 years of history and focuses on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decision-making procedures in the construction of the national curriculum. Contains 39 references. (DDR)

  5. The Twentieth Century Fund Annual Report 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY.

    Research continued and new studies were launched in four major areas: communications, urban problems, politics, and economic issues. The foci of these studies are described briefly. Projects in communications are examining flows of news, media monopoly, press freedoms under pressure, public affairs broadcasting, press councils, political access to…

  6. Companion to science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Pestre, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    With over forty chapters, written by leading scholars, this comprehensive volume represents the best work in America, Europe and Asia. Geographical diversity of the authors is reflected in the different perspectives devoted to the subject, and all major disciplinary developments are covered. There are also sections concerning the countries that have made the most significant contributions, the relationship between science and industry, the importance of instrumentation, and the cultural influence of scientific modes of thought. Students and professionals will come to appreciate how, and why, science has developed - as with any other human activity, it is subject to the dynamics of society and politics.

  7. Richard Feynman and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    1999-04-01

    The enormous contribution of Richard Feynman to modern physics is well known, both to teaching through his famous Feynman Lectures on Physics, and to research with his Feynman diagram approach to quantum field theory and his path integral formulation of quantum mechanics. Less well known perhaps is his long-standing interest in the physics of computation and this is the subject of this paper. Feynman lectured on computation at Caltech for most of the last decade of his life, first with John Hopfield and Carver Mead, and then with Gerry Sussman. The story of how these lectures came to be written up as the Feynman Lectures on Computation is briefly recounted. Feynman also discussed the fundamentals of computation with other legendary figures of the computer science and physics community such as Ed Fredkin, Rolf Landauer, Carver Mead, Marvin Minsky and John Wheeler. He was also instrumental in stimulating developments in both nanotechnology and quantum computing. During the 1980s Feynman re-visited long-standing interests both in parallel computing with Geoffrey Fox and Danny Hillis, and in reversible computation and quantum computing with Charles Bennett, Norman Margolus, Tom Toffoli and Wojciech Zurek. This paper records Feynman's links with the computational community and includes some reminiscences about his involvement with the fundamentals of computing.

  8. Richard Rorty in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lloyd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard Rorty was a strong contextualist in his approach to philosophical and political ideas, yet his own most characteristic arguments are typically evaluated without much reference to the historical circumstances that provoked them. A key participant in the post-1980 revival of pragmatism within North American and European intellectual circles, Rorty reaffirmed the strong connections between American pragmatism and German idealism. This move placed him at odds with scholars who forged the unity of pragmatism—united John Dewey and William James—under the banner of radical empiricism. Those engaged most enthusiastically in celebrating Rorty’s achievements, in short, defend a conception of pragmatism that Rorty sharply criticized and ideas about the history of philosophy that he did not share. His distinctive intellectual agenda is best appreciated after setting it in the context of the history of the American Left and, more specifically, the reckoning with the tumultuous 1960s that animates so many ongoing debates—inside and outside the academy—about cultural and political affairs.

  9. La editorial Ricordi y su aportación a la publicidad italiana de principios del siglo XX / The publisher Ricordi and his contribution to the Italian advertising early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Francia Ferrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de estudio de la presente investigación es el nacimiento de las campañas publicitarias gráficas orquestadas por la fructífera colaboración entre empresarios, editores e ilustradores entre los siglos XIX y XX en Italia. El estudio se centra en la Casa Editorial Ricordi porque fue la creadora e impulsora del moderno cartel artístico y publicitario italiano, con un vasta producción de ejemplares, hoy considerados obras maestras del género. La etapa de oro del cartel italiano coincide, no por casualidad, con el predominio técnico y artístico de esta empresa en Italia que nada tenía que envidiar a sus competidoras francesas (como la prestigiosa Imprimerie Chaix parisina, tan querida por Jules Chéret, alemanas o inglesas. El período analizado (1890-1914 es el de mayor actividad y esplendor artístico en las artes gráficas. Son los años de los primeros pasos en el campo de la publicidad. Como en todos los comienzos, abundan las ideas, la energía, la ingenuidad y las ganas de experimentar. Es un tiempo lleno de cambios: la transformación económica, social e industrial que vivió Europa en un lapso tan corto de  tiempo es probablemente la mayor de su historia.The purpose of this research is the birth of graphic advertising campaigns orchestrated by the fruitful collaboration between employers, publishers and illustrators between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Italy. The study focuses on the Ricordi publishing house because it was the creator and driving force of the modern Italian poster art and advertising with a vast production of copies, today considered masterpieces of the genre. The golden age of Italian poster coincides, not coincidentally, with the technical and artistic dominance of this company in Italy that had nothing to envy their French competitors (including the prestigious Paris Imprimerie Chaix, so beloved by Jules Cheret, German or England. The period analyzed (1890-1914 is the most active and

  10. An Exploration into Twentieth-Century Poetics: A Study of Poetry On & Off the Page by Marjorie Perloff%从玛乔瑞·帕洛夫的《文里文外之诗》观20世纪诗学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小红

    2011-01-01

    玛乔瑞·帕洛夫的《文里文外之诗》描述20世纪诗学的演变,并追溯其与历史、文化和社会的共同演化。本文主要从在四个方面探讨帕洛夫所论述的20世纪的诗学:语言游戏、自发式写作、相对自由的形式、后现代性。帕洛夫不仅利用诗歌文本,而且还利用音乐、绘画、以及摄影等领域的作品来探讨20世纪的诗学观念。帕洛夫认为,20世纪的诗学最大成就在于开启了一种新的思维方式,这是《文里文外之诗》的主要发展脉络。%Poetry On Off the Page by Marjorie Perloff maps the transformations of twentieth-century poetics, which has evolved in the dialogue with history, culture, and society. This article approaches the poetics in the following four aspects: game of words, spontaneous writing, relatively free form and postmodernity. Perloff extends her exploration into twentieth-century poetics from poetry to music, painting and photography. In her opinion, the greatest achievement of twentieth-century poetics lies in opening a new way of thinking, which is the major developing line of Poetry On Off the Page.

  11. Richard Compton, University of Oxford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Analyst profiles Richard Compton, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and the first and only recipient of both the RSC Medals in Electrochemistry and in Electroanalytical Chemistry.

  12. Cárie dentária e flúor: uma relação do século XX Dental caries and fluorine: a twentieth century relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Capel Narvai

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No início do século XX a cárie dentária era um problema de saúde pública, na maior parte do planeta. As populações conviviam com infecção, dor, sofrimento e mutilação. A descoberta do efeito preventivo do flúor o transformou, ao longo do século, no principal agente utilizado no enfrentamento da doença em todo o mundo. Em vários países e também no Brasil produtos fluorados têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pelo declínio observado na prevalência da cárie. No Brasil, estudos pioneiros realizados nos anos 50 e 60 corroboraram a eficácia preventiva da fluoretação das águas. No período 1986-1996, com 42% da população recebendo água fluoretada, a queda na prevalência da cárie entre crianças de 12 anos de idade foi de 53%. Além da água fluoretada também os dentifrícios são, no presente, amplamente utilizados como veículos para uso do flúor em saúde pública. Neste artigo são abordados aspectos históricos do emprego de flúor, algumas características epidemiológicas da cárie dentária no Brasil, e as perspectivas da continuidade do uso de produtos fluorados nas próximas décadas.In the early of Twentieth Century, dental caries were a big public health problem around world. Infection, pain, suffering and mutilation reached all people. The discovering of preventive effect of fluorine became them, through the Century, the main agent in fighting to disease worldwide. In various countries, including Brazil, fluoridated products have been pointed as main causes for dental caries prevalence decline. Also in Brazil, at the 50s and 60s, the preventive effect of water fluoridation was ratified for some pioneer studies. For the period 1986-1996 epidemiological data shown a significant reduction of 53% in the DMF-T index value at 12-years-old schoolchildren. Water and dentifrices are largely used as vehicle for fluoride in public health actions. In Brazil 42% of population has access to fluoridated

  13. O Jequitinhonha dos viajantes, séculos XIX e XX: olhares diversos sobre as relações sociedade - natureza no nordeste mineiro The voyagers' Jequitinhonha, Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries: different views over the society - nature relations in northeast Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lobato Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as mudanças ambientais no Médio Jequitinhonha entre o início do século XIX e o início do XX, através da releitura de relatos de viajantes e textos de memorialistas. São indicadas as principais formas de degradação ambiental presentes na região e avaliados os seus impactos sobre as caatingas e as matas virgens. Conclui-se que: a houve aumento expressivo da velocidade de alteração das paisagens regionais na primeira metade do século XX e; b essa alteração fortaleceu a tendência de pecuarização na economia do Médio Jequitinhonha.This paper analyzes the environmental changes in the Middle Jequitinhonha between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries beginnings, through the reading of the memoirialists and voyagers reports. The major environmental degradating actions that take place in the region are indicated and its impacts over the caatingas and forests are evaluated. It concludes: a an expressive increase in the velocity of the regional landscapes change in the first half of twentieth century; b and this change annealed the tendency of cattle's predominance in Middle Jequitinhonha economy.

  14. Olhares sociológicos sobre a ciência no século vinte: mudanças e continuidades Sociological looks on Science in the twentieth century: changes and continuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fetz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina, em dois momentos distintos, as principais abordagens sociológicas sobre a ciência no século vinte: a Sociologia do Conhecimento, a Sociologia da Ciência e a Sociologia do Conhecimento Científico. No primeiro tópico são recapitulados os argumentos sociológicos de Karl Mannheim e de Robert King Merton. Defende-se a interpretação de que a obra de Mannheim seja reconhecida enquanto pressuposto epistemológico para o desenvolvimento da Sociologia da Ciência de Merton. Adaptada por Merton, a metateoria sociológica de Mannheim surge através de uma abordagem estrutural funcionalista associada a uma teoria de médio alcance. No segundo momento, são retomados os argumentos de Thomas Kuhn para, logo após, ser analisada a Sociologia do Conhecimento Científico enquanto apreciação construtiva da tradição de pensamento mertoniana. O estudo dos princípios lógicos da Sociologia do Conhecimento Científico de David Bloor e a investigação acerca da tradição de pensamento iniciada na Universidade de Edimburgo, na Escócia, foram o foco elementar dessa etapa do artigo. Finalmente, as principais características de cada uma das tradições são ressaltadas, buscando-se por mudanças e continuidades que viabilizaram o desenvolvimento da abordagem sociológica sobre a atividade científica desde sua gênese clássica até os estudos contemporâneos.The article examines, in two different moments, the major sociological approaches to science in the twentieth century: the Sociology of Knowledge, the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In the first topic, Karl Mannheim's and Robert King Merton's sociological arguments are summarized. We support that the interpretation of Mannheim's work must be recognized as an epistemological prerequisite to the development of Merton's Sociology of Science. Adapted by Merton, Mannheim's sociological metatheory appears in Merton through a functional structuralism

  15. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics.

  16. El vocabulario sechurano de Richard Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Urban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes accesible a new transcription of Richard Spruce’s vocabulary of the Sechura language. Collected in the mid-19th century by the British botanist, it constitutes one of only two sources of data for this language of northernmost Peru. A comparison of the original with previously published versions shows serious errors in transcription, in particular in those of Otto von Buchwald and Jacinto Jijón y Camaaño. The article also discusses the probable circumstances of data collection and the publication history of the hitherto known version, and concludes with some first observations on the significance of Spruce’s wordlist for elucidating the linguistic history of the region, in particular with regard to the question of the linguistic situation at Olmos.

  17. Evaluation from Richard Rorty's Point of View

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    Morteza Nouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Communitarianism is one of the main critics of moral-political theory of liberalism. According to communitarians, liberalism presupposes an image of human identity which does not do justice to the collective ties between human being. It ignores altruist duties and common loyalties to traditional, historical values by inappropriately insisting on priority of justice from an individualist point of view, culminating in advent of ignoble, egoist characters unfamiliar with collective values. In this essay, firstly, I would elaborate these critiques and then try to answer them from Richard Rorty's point of view. Though Rorty agrees with the communitarians' claim that community makes a constitutive contribution to the identity of individuals, he believes that the pragmatist pole of contemporary liberalism is not subject to the communitarian objections. He tries to show that 20th century political liberalism, best formulated by John Dewy and John Rawls, is immune to communitarian critiques because of its consistency with historicism and ethnocentrism.

  18. Richard Peters and Valuing Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, M. A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important value.…

  19. Obituary: Dr. Richard Roland Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard Baker died at Easter 2007 after a very short illness. It is sad that he died so soon after his retirement from the British American Tobacco Company at the end of 2005, and just as he was beginning to enjoy his new life, even though tobacco science still had a part to play.

  20. Richard Antiku kunstikiindumus / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus:Raamatu valgusel. Richard Antik 100. Artikleid ja bibliograafia. Koostanud Merike Kiipus ja Piret Noorhani. Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum, 2001. Ka Richard Antiku tegevusest kollektsionääri, näitustekorraldaja, kunstikaupmehe ning kunstikriitikuna

  1. Richard Antiku kunstikiindumus / Jüri Hain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hain, Jüri, 1941-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus:Raamatu valgusel. Richard Antik 100. Artikleid ja bibliograafia. Koostanud Merike Kiipus ja Piret Noorhani. Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum, 2001. Ka Richard Antiku tegevusest kollektsionääri, näitustekorraldaja, kunstikaupmehe ning kunstikriitikuna

  2. Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra El Far

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.

  3. On Some Richard Rorty's Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    1993-01-01

    I would like to take into consideration in this text the possibility of Richard Rorty's evolution of views in terms of — suggested by him — distinction between the private and the public as well as in terms of his dichotomous pair of „solidarity" and „self-creation". My efforts would aim at showing that Rorty as a commentator on other philosophers is more and more inclined to value the significance of self-creational, developing one's „final vocabulary" way of philosophizing, w...

  4. J. Richard Hackman (1940-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Wageman, Ruth; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    When J. Richard Hackman died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on January 8, 2013, psychology lost a giant. Six and a half feet tall, with an outsize personality to match, Richard was the leading scholar in two distinct areas: work design and team effectiveness. In both domains, his work is foundational. Throughout his career, Richard applied rigorous methods to problems of great social importance, tirelessly championing multi-level analyses of problems that matter. His impact on our field has bee...

  5. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making.

  6. Innovation and productivity growth in Spain during the second half of the twentieth century; Innovacion y crecimiento de la productividad en Espana durante la segunda mitadl del siglo XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubel, A.; Esteve, V.; Sanchis, J. A.; Sanchis, M. T.

    2012-07-01

    In this study we analyse the effect of both foreign and domestic technological innovation on Total Factor Productivity (TFP) for Spain in the second half of the XXth century. For this purpose we estimate an extended version of Coe and Helpman (1995) model, in which the foreign and domestic stock of knowledge is measured using the expenditure on R and D. Our results suggest that the entrance of foreign technology had a positive and significant effect on the Spanish TFP. We also find that the domestic knowledge had a positive and significant effect, although this effect is always smaller than the effect associated to foreign knowledge. (Author)

  7. Richard Willstätter and the 1915 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    One hundred years after his Nobel Prize, Richard Willstätter's achievements and the fascinating role he played in 20th century chemistry are discussed in this Essay. Several of his discoveries, such as the anthocyanidins, cyclooctatetraene, the ortho-quinones, and the structure of cocaine, will forever be associated with his name.

  8. 20世纪粒子物理学文化图景述评——兼论实证主义、反实证主义与SSK的还原论科学图景%A Commentary about the Culture of Twentieth-century Microphysics—— On Scientific Picture of Reductionism of Positivism, Anti-positivism and SSK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石诚

    2012-01-01

    Peter Galison analysed the material culture of the laboratory and the visual culture of the instrumentation representation image about twentieth-century microphysics. And Galison criticized scientific picture of positivism, anti-positivism and sociology of scientific knowledge and given the intercalated picture of three subcultures (theories, experiments and instruments) of particle physics. Not at the expense of the impor- tance of theory and experiment, Galison gave instruments, theories and experiments autonomous status and lives.%盖里森深入分析了20世纪粒子物理学中实验室的物质文化和工具表征图像的视觉文化;通过批判实证主义、反实证主义以及科学知识社会学所描绘的科学图景,给出了理论、实验与工具三种亚文化互嵌的粒子物理学文化图景。盖里森没有以牺牲理论与实验的重要性为前提,真正赋予工具、理论与实验以自治的地位与生命。

  9. Literaturgeschichte anders gelesen. Ina Schaberts Englische Literaturgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts als Kosmos männlicher und weiblicher Stimmen Literary History Read Differently: Ina Schabert’s English Literary History of the Twentieth Century as a Cosmos of Male and Female Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Hotz-Davies

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ina Schaberts Abhandlung zur Britischen Literatur des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts ist eine Literaturgeschichte der etwas anderen Art: die Literatur wird gesehen als ein Kosmos, der von männlichen und weiblichen Autoren bevölkert ist, die sich in einer ständigen Unterhaltung miteinander befinden, die mal freundlich, mal feindselig ausfallen mag, die aber als Unterhaltung die Literatur einer Epoche bestimmt. Schabert zeichnet eine detaillierte und faszinierende Abfolge dieser Interaktionen, die vom klassischen Modernismus über verschiedene politische ‚Realismen‘ zur postmodernen Welt der Diversifizierung der Ethnien und Geschlechteroptionen führt.Ina Schabert’s book on British literature of the twentieth century is a literary history with a difference: the literary cosmos is seen as peopled by male and female authors who are engaged in a continuous conversation with each other—sometimes hostile, sometimes friendly. The book offers a detailed and fascinating account of these interactions from Early Modernism through the years of various political ‘realisms’ to the Postmodern world of ethnic and gender diversity.

  10. 20世纪温度变化中自然变率和人为因素的影响:基于耦合气候模式的归因模拟%Contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcings in twentieth-century temperature change:results from LASG/IAP climate system model FGOALS_gl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满文敏; 周天军; 张丽霞; 吴波; 张洁

    2012-01-01

    Contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcings in the twentieth-century air temperature change are evaluated with a climate system model named FGOALS_gl developed at LASG/IAP. The HadCRUT3v dataset is used to validate the model. Observed warming trends on the global scale and in many regions are simulated more realistically in the all-forcing run thanin the natural-only forcing experiment. The simulations support that the twentieth-century global warming could have resulted from a combination of natural and anthropogenic forcings,with human-induced radiative forcing being the dominant cause of the pronounced late twentieth-century warming. For global and hemispheric means, external forcings could explain most of the variance;however, the tropical eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic are examples of regions where internal variability may dominate. Attributions generally become more difficult on regional scales due to both a decreasing externally forced signal level and an increasing internally generated noise level. The reproducibility of the air temperature averaged over China is lower than that of the global and hemispheric averages. Anthropogenic forcings are simulated to act as the dominant role for the late twentieth century warming over China.%本文基于中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学国家重点实验室(LASG/IAP)发展的气候系统模式FGOALS_gl对近百年气温变化的模拟,讨论了自然变率和人为因素对20世纪全球变暖的相对贡献.数值试验结果表明,在自然和人为因子的共同强迫作用下,耦合模式能够合理再现20世纪全球平均气温随时间的演变;仅在自然因子作用下,模式不能再现1970年以后的全球变暖.自然因素对20世纪第一次变暖的作用是显著的,但温室气体是20世纪后期变暖的主要原因.在这一定性结论基础上,进一步对近百年变化中自然和人为因素的相对贡献做定量的归因分析,结

  11. ['The spirit has left the bottle': the medieval Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ: his medical work and his bizarre affiliation with twentieth-century spiritualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, N Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ, lived at the crossroads of the twelfth and the thirteenth century. His unbridled curiosity and his unquenchable thirst for knowledge of any kind brought him to far-away countries and regions and put him in contact with all sorts and conditions of people. The great Egyptian famine of the years 1200-1202 enabled him to study and examine thousands of human cadavers and skeletons at first hand. This led to a new understanding of the anatomical structure of the human body, and rejected the more or less antiquated ideas of the Greek doctor Galen of Pergamum. However, 'Abd al-Latĭf's vision was granted only a short life. After his death, his discovery sank into oblivion and as a consequence it was never again mentioned in Arabic medical manuals. From then on the Arabic physicians once more referred to the anatomical data which were developed and taught by Galen. Relatively few specimens of his remaining medical work were preserved for posterity. However, his Book of the two advices (or: K. al-Nasĭhatain) is of the utmost importance as a source for the medical thinking and the medical treatment in the late twelfth and the early thirteenth century A.D. During the years following World War I, 'Abd al-Latĭf's name reappeared within the spiritualistic movement in England. He became known as Abduhl Latif the great Persian physician and acted as a control of mediums. Until the late sixties, he practised the art of healing as the head of a medical mission somewhere in the Spheres.

  12. Crossing the Great Divide: Rewritings of the U.S.-Mexican Encounter in Walter Abish and Richard Rodríguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Delden

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1978 essay on the relationship between Mexico and the United States, Octavio Paz suggested that the two countries were separated by a "perhaps insuperable" divide. Yet two recent works—Richard Rodríguez's collection of essays Days of Obligation: An Argument with My Mexican Father (1992 and Walter Abish's novel Eclipse Fever (1993—offer evidence of a changing outlook on the U.S.-Mexican encounter. Abish and Rodríguez build upon the storehouse of images of the irreconcilable differences between the two nations. However, insofar as they play with and question these images, they draw attention to the unstable, fluctuating nature of the U.S.-Mexican encounter in the late twentieth century. Abish focuses on the prevailing inequality in the relationship between the U.S. and Mexico, and reflects on the distinctive traits of the national character of each of the two countries. Yet a variety of narrative strategies serve to block any reading of Eclipse Fever in terms of sharply differentiated group identities. Rodríguez repeatedly evokes commonplace contrasts between the two nations. Yet his reading both of a variety of cultural phenomena, and of his own trajectory as an individual, suggests a complex interweaving of the cultures of Mexico and the United States.

  13. Theodore William Richards and the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, James B.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Theodore Richards to the accurate determination of atomic weights of copper and other elements; his major contribution was to the building of the definitive periodic table of the elements. (BR)

  14. CAS physicist receives Richard Geller Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dr. SUN Liangting from the CAS Institute of Modern Physics has been awarded the Richard Geller Prize for his outstanding contributions to the development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources, especially an all-permanent magnetic one.

  15. Theodore William Richards and the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, James B.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Theodore Richards to the accurate determination of atomic weights of copper and other elements; his major contribution was to the building of the definitive periodic table of the elements. (BR)

  16. Eesti raamatu isa Richard Antik / Hannes Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Hannes

    2002-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Raamatu valgusel: Richard Antik 100: [raamatukogutegelane ja bibliograaf : 1901-1998] : artikleid ja bibliograafia / Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum; [koostanud Merike Kiipus ja Piret Noorhani; toimetanud Tiina Saluvere]. Tartu, 2001. 259 lk.

  17. Female peacemakers in republican cultures during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries | Republicanas en pie de paz: la sustitución de las armas por la justicia, el arbitraje y el derecho (1868-1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse and mobilization in favour of peace by republican women during the second half of the nineteenth century. Its protagonists established an associative movement and employed combative tactics rooted in civil society; they rebelled against the drafts, refused to condone the war, and called for disarmament and different means of arbitration, incidentally helping to reformulate the concept of social citizenship within the sphere of left-wing political culture. | En el artículo se abordan los discursos y movilizaciones por la paz de las mujeres republicanas durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Sus protagonistas construyeron un movimiento asociativo y unas tácticas de lucha enraizadas en la sociedad civil, se rebelaron contra las quintas, negaron autoridad moral a la guerra y reclamaron a los gobiernos el desarme y diferentes prácticas de arbitraje, contribuyendo de paso a reformular el concepto de ciudadanía social en el ámbito de las culturas políticas de izquierdas.

  18. The Different Western Perception of the Oriental Moor in the Renaissance and the Twentieth Century: Shakespeare's Othello and Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration to the North: A Post-Colonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Alhawamdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper comparatively explores the different experience of the Muslim Orient - namely, Othello in Shakespeare's Othello (1604 and Mustafa Saeed and the narrator in Salih's Season of Migration to the North (1966 - in the West. It aims at relocating the transformation of the discourse of Orientalism from Renaissance, as represented by Shakespeare's Othello, to the post-eighteenth century, as represented by Salih's Season of Migration to the North. By contrasting the West and the Crescent, from power relations' vantage, this study highlights the historical difference of the western perception of the Orient from a colonizer, liberator, and guide to the West, as in Shakespeare's Othello, to a colonized subject, as in the characters of Mustafa Saeed and the narrator in Season of Migration. This paper bridges the gap left by modern scholarship which either focuses only on applying post-colonial theory on Salih's novel or neglects its resonance to Shakespeare's Othello in terms of power relations' vantage. Salih's novel laments, rather than deconstructs, the Renaissance Shakespearean powerful Moor, as represented by Othello in Shakespeare's Othello.

  19. Richard Rogers+Architects巴黎展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Richard Rogers+Architects巴黎展是法国巴黎蓬皮杜中心建成三十周年的纪念活动之一,当年,Richard Rogers与意大利建筑师Renzo Piano一起设计了这座被当时认为是最前卫的建筑,并引起很大的争议.

  20. Richard Eberhart: A Quest for Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J. Karthikeyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A short history of the life of Richard Eberhart becomes essential for us to understand the magnetic personality of a poet who believed in his younger generation. The secret of his continued popularity rests on his unique strong individuality, romantic mould, spasmodic vigour, his social commitment, simplicity of expression and a deep concern for mankind. The present study is a modest attempt in this direction and proposes to examine the predominant features of Richard Eberhart’s poetry.

  1. O perfil do educador para o século XXI: de boi de coice a boi de cambão The educator's profile for the twentieth first century: From object to subject of educational politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudá Ricci

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os impactos das recentes mudanças na composição e a dinâmica do mercado de trabalho e seus impactos sobre a prática educativa de ensino fundamental e médio. Retrata, ainda, o quanto os projetos pedagógicos oficiais empregados em nosso país, em especial, no intervalo entre as décadas de 50 e 70, constituíram-se como barreiras para enfrentamento dos novos desafios pedagógicos. Analisa as reformas educacionais implementadas nos anos 80 e 90, com destaque para as experiências espanhola (Escola Aberta e alemã (Escola Dual, que possuem referenciais distintos na nova relação que se estabelece entre escola e sociedade. No caso, a primeira vincula a escola com a comunidade do entorno escolar e prioriza a formação moral, e a segunda, aproxima a escola das empresas e prioriza a formação profissional. Finalmente, sugere o quanto as mudanças apontadas anteriormente impõem fortes mudanças no perfil dos educadores.This article analyzes the impacts of new tecnologies and changes in work market dynamics over educational practices at fundamental and medium school. It dettaches some international experiences which search for implanting educational reforms which approximate schools to communities, and it ends suggesting some exigences, imposed by these changes, to the educator's profile at this century end.

  2. Possible signals of poleward surface ocean heat transport, of Arctic basal ice melt, and of the twentieth century solar maximum in the 1904-2012 Isle of Man daily timeseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Matthews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr−1 and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m−2 day−1. We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation transported warm water to the Arctic and led to three phases of Arctic basal ice melt and fluxes of brackish nutrient-rich waters to north Atlantic on centennial timescales. Here we examine daily top metre 1904–2012 timeseries at Isle of Man west coast ~54° N for evidence of tropical and polar surface waters. We compare these to Central England (CET daily land-air temperatures and to Arctic floating ice heat content and extent. We find three phases of ocean surface heating consistent with basal icemelt buffering greenhouse gas warming until a regime shift post-1986 led to the modern surface temperature rise of ~1 °C in 20 yr. Three phases were: warming +0.018 °C yr−1 from 1904–1939, slight cooling −0.002 °C yr−11940–86 and strong warming +0.037 °C yr−1 1986–2012. For the same periods CET land-air showed: warming +0.015 °C yr−1, slight cooling −0.004 °C yr−1, about half SST warming at +0.018 °C yr−1. The mid-century cooling and a 1959/1963 hot/cold event is consistent with sunspot/solar radiation maximum 1923–2008 leading to record volumes of Arctic ice meltwater and runoff that peaked in 1962/3 British Isles extreme cold winter. The warming Arctic resulted in wind regime and surface water regime shifts post 1986. This coincides with the onset of rapid Arctic annual ice melt. Continued heat imbalance is likely to lead to tidewater glacier basal icemelt and future sealevel rise after remaining relatively stable over 4000 yr. Our work needs confirmation by further fieldwork concentrating on the dynamics and thermodynamics of ocean top 3 m that controls

  3. Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Renowned doctor of Cienfuegos medical history in the twentieth century Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre. Gloria de la medicina cienfueguera en el siglo XX.

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    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Doctor Alfredo Méndez Aguirre was an outstanding medical and social personality in Cienfuegos during the first third of the xx century. The most significant aspects about his life and studies of Medicine are highlighted, as well as the postgraduate courses that he received later in France. Analyzed through different scenarios where he acted as an eminent surgeon, we refer to his contribution to the spreading of abdominal, prostatic and gynecological surgery in Cienfuegos, besides other innovations of high importance for the Cuban Medicine at that time. It is described his brilliant performance as director of the Hospital Civil and the Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, enhancing all the transformations, improvements, amplifications and openings of new services carried out in both centers under his guidance and supervision. all the recognitions received for different institutions and people in general were mentioned too, for his fruitful work and, particularly, for their performance during the epidemic of Influenza of 1918, that deserved him the title of exemplary citizen.El Dr. Alfredo Méndez Aguirre representó una destacada personalidad médica y social en Cienfuegos en el primer tercio del siglo XX. Se señalan los aspectos más significativos de sus estudios de Medicina en la Universidad de La Habana, así como los cursos de perfeccionamiento que recibió en Francia posteriormente a su graduación. Se analiza su vida profesional a través de los distintos escenarios en donde se desempeñó como cirujano eminente, siendo el que inició en Cienfuegos la Cirugía abdominal, prostática y ginecológica, entre otros aportes e innovaciones de suma importancia para la medicina cienfueguera de aquellos años. Se describe su brillante actuación como Director del Hospital Civil y del Sanatorio Purísima Concepción de la Colonia Española, resaltando todas las transformaciones, mejoras, ampliaciones y aperturas de nuevos

  4. LA ROYA DEL CAFETO EN COLOMBIA: REALIZACIONES DE IMPACTO NACIONAL E INTERNACIONAL EN EL SIGLO XX THE COFFEE RUST IN COLOMBIA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL IMPACT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

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    Pablo Buriticá Céspedes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La roya del cafeto (Hemileia vastatrix, desde los comienzos del siglo XX fue una constante preocupación de los colombianos, hasta cuando arrivó al Brasil en 1970. A partir de ese momento, Colombia tomó una serie de acciones orientadas afrontar la eminente llegada del patógeno. Las medidas estuvieron orientadas al fortalecimiento científico en CENICAFÉ y cuarentenario en el ICA; así como de la preparación de los productores respecto a que era la roya, como se reconocía y a un estimulo permanente de búsqueda en los cafetales. Respecto a la caficultura en particular, se hizo una reorientación geográfica de las áreas de siembra, se entregó la variedad de cafeto Colombia resistente a la roya y se puso en manos de los caficultores toda una tecnología para la aspersión de fungicidas en planes definidos por región. Producto de estas acciones cuando la roya se identificó en Colombia en 1983, no produjo el desastre que se preveía y no ha pasado de ser un problema cuyo impacto en la producción cafetera, ha sido mínimo. La ganancia en los resultados científicos ha sido invaluable y la credibilidad de los caficultores en sus instituciones de apoyo es estrecha. El modelo seguido es un verdadero ejemplo de integración de objetivos y soportan el concepto de Salud Pública Vegetal, como estrategia para mantener los problemas fitosanitarios bajo control.Coffee rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix was a threat since the early 20th century for coffee colombian growers. In 1970 this important disease was detected in Brazil. From this time colombian authorities took several measures to confront the challenge of the disease. Some measures were oriented to reinforce the scientific capacity in the colombian centre for coffee research (CENICAFÉ and plant quarantine at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA. Coffee growers were prepared for what the disease is, how it was recognized and a permanent crop monitoring for symptoms. Colombian coffee

  5. Les nouvelles frontières des Jeux Anthropologiques de Saint-Louis The new frontiers of the St. Louis Anthropological Games: sport and the racialization of the American nation at the onset of the twentieth century

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    Fabrice Delsahut

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1904, à Saint-Louis, les compétitions olympiques furent perdues dans le chaos d’une exposition universelle, la Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Les Jeux olympiques ne purent échapper à la montée des idéologies racistes du début du xxe siècle et ils contribuèrent à discuter du mérite athlétique des différentes races. Malgré l’esprit universel qu’on voulait y voir présider, Saint-Louis refléta longtemps les préjugés raciaux de leurs organisateurs. Ces derniers mirent aussi sur pied des compétitions spéciales, appelées pour l’occasion « journées anthropologiques », réservées à ceux que l’Amérique ségrégationniste du moment considérait comme des sous-hommes. À partir de ces faits, nous essaierons de montrer comment les sciences du sport et l’anthropologie naissante se mirent ensemble au service de causes aussi discutables que la hiérarchisation raciale et le droit à la colonisation et contribuèrent grandement à la naissance d’une nation américaine mettant le sport au cœur de sa constitution. L’impact des race studies sur les façons de penser le sport ne furent pas, contrairement à ce que s’efforcèrent de faire croire les différents présidents du C.I.O. au cours des décennies suivantes, qu’un simple avatar du mouvement olympique. Enfin, nous verrons l’influence de ce spectacle athlétique interracial en dehors des États-Unis qui a assurément permis d’élaborer une certaine perception de l’altérité et limiter l’insertion des peuples autochtones dans le tissu sportif mondial.In 1904, in St. Louis, the Olympic competitions were lost in the chaos of a World Fair called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Olympic Games could not escape the rise in the racist ideologies of the 20th century and they contributed to the discussing of the athletic merit of the different races. In spite of the universal spirit that was expected to prevail, the Games of St. Louis showed the racial

  6. Educar para a democracia como fundamento da educação no Brasil do século XX: a contribuição de Anísio Teixeira Educating for democracy as the foundantion of education in Brazil of the twentieth century: the contribution of Anísio Teixeira

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    João Francisco Lopes de Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo se inscreve no contexto de uma investigação mais ampla que analisa a questão dos fundamentos da educação brasileira com pretensão de educar para a democracia, formulada ao longo do século XX, verificando a base filosófica e a forma de práxis educativa sugerida para viabilizar o discurso pedagógico enunciado. Neste artigo procedo a análise do papel de Anísio Teixeira para a configuração do ideal de educação para a democracia através da escola. Anísio Teixeira é um dos ícones do movimento escolanovista no Brasil do século XX, com forte atuação no cenário educacional brasileiro enquanto intelectual e também como gestor de sistemas educacionais, implicado em organizar formas práticas de viabilizar as suas ideias. O estudo de caráter bibliográfico verificou a influência do pragmatismo americano e do liberalismo na formação das ideias de Anísio Teixeira, bem como procede a discussão sobre as formas pedagógicas que o autor propõe para viabilizar o ideal de educar para a democracia através da escola. O estudo analisa, ainda, as críticas que o pensamento de Anísio Teixeira recebeu e pondera sobre as chances e o vigor do seu pensamento pedagógico no cenário educacional.The present article inscribes itself within the context of a wider research, that examines the issue of the foundations of Brazilian education with the ambition to educate for democracy, which was formulated during the twentieth century, by examining the philosophical basis and the kind of educational praxis suggested to make viable the enunciated pedagogical discourse. This article accomplishes the analysis of the role of Anísio Teixeira to the configuration of the ideal of educating for democracy by the school. Anísio Teixeira is one of the icons of the new school movement in Brazil of the twentieth century, with a serious performance in the Brazilian educational scenario as a scholar and as well as an educational systems

  7. 论19世纪末20世纪初英国的通俗史学与科学史学之争--以麦考莱为中心的讨论%On the Debate Between Popular History and Scientific History in England During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Focus on Macaulay’s History of England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志来

    2016-01-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century,the supporter of the scientific history and popular history deba-ted upon the historical writing of the popular historian Macaulay. The scientific historian stressed the scientificity of history. They thought that the history book should be written for experts and peers,and offer historical knowledge and lessons to the public. The popular historian pursued artistry of history. In their options,the history book should be written for general readers,and it should furnish the social enlightenment and also the entertainment. Macaulay’s success told us that the historian should on one hand establish his study on the scientific basis,and pay attention to the historical narrative and literal express to enlarge the so-cial compact of Academic research on the other hand.%19世纪末20世纪初,围绕英国著名史家麦考莱的历史写作,科学史学与通俗史学的支持者进行了多方面的争论。科学史家强调历史学的科学性,认为历史著作是为同行专家所写,应该为公众提供历史知识和经验教训。通俗史家则追求历史学的艺术性,认为历史著作应为读者而作,史学应兼有教益与娱乐的功能。麦考莱的成功经验表明,在保证历史科学性的基础上应该注重历史叙述和文字表达,让学术成果具有更广泛的社会影响。

  8. La cerrajería artística en la arquitectura urbana del centro de Santiago de Chile a principios del siglo XX: los hermanos Mina /The locksmith art in the urban architecture of the center of Santiago de Chile in the early twentieth century: the brothers Mina

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    Bravo Munita, Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se valora el aporte de la cerrajería artística a la arquitectura urbana de comienzos del siglo XX en Chile (arquitectos Alberto Cruz Montt y Alberto Siegel, entre otros, observando el caso de la empresa fundada por Carlos Mina Ponti, perteneciente a una familia de cerrajeros españoles que se remonta a tiempos de Napoleón I. Mina Ponti trabajó primero en Chile con cerrajeros italianos, Santambrogio y Ravanello, y pronto se independizó. Su empresa alcanzó el apogeo en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, habiendo obtenido su obra el Gran Premio en la Exposición Ibero Americana de Sevilla en 1929. Con el advenimiento del Movimiento Moderno y su arquitectura sin ornamentación, la empresa concluyó sus actividades a finales de los años 1950s. /The author appreciates the contribution made by the locksmith art in the urban architecture of the early twentieth century in Chile (architects Alberto Cruz Alberto Montt and Siegel, among others, noting the case of the company founded by Ponti Carlos Mine, belonging to a locksmiths Spanish family that goes back to the time of Napoleon I. Carlos Mina Ponti worked first in Chile with Italian locksmiths ─Ravanello, and Santambrogio─, and soon became independent. Company reached its zenith in the decades of 1920 and 1930, having obtained his Grand Prix at the Ibero American Exposition of Seville in 1929. With the advent of the Modern Movement and its architecture without decoration, the company concluded its activities in the late 1950s.

  9. 二十世纪初苏俄妇女解放观在中国的传播与影响%The Dissemination and Influence of Soviet Russia' s Women liberation Concept in China at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何黎萍

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth Century, Chinese advanced intellectuals, as the representatives of early communists, actively introduced and disseminated Soviet Russia' s women liberation movement, distinguished it from European and American bourgeois feminist movement, and gradually accepted the Soviet Russia' s women liberation concept in the process. At the same time, this kind of thinking also affected the CPC' s women policy guided by the Comintern and made the policy varied with the change of the Comintern' s women movement instruction. The CPC' s early women policy' s "Soviet Russia model" played very little effect because of losing contact with China' s practical situation. This lesson helped the CPC formulate the women policy with Chinese characteristics and construct the localized women theory.%20世纪初,以早期共产主义者为代表的中国先进知识分子积极介绍和传播苏俄妇女解放观,并将它们与欧美资产阶级女权运动进行了区分。同时,这种思想观念也影响了受共产国际指导的中国共产党妇女政策,使之随着共产国际妇女运动指示的变化而改变。中共早期“苏俄模式”的妇女政策,由于脱离中国实际而收效甚微。然而,这一教训有助于后来中共制定中国特色的妇女政策,并构建中国本土化的妇女理论。

  10. O assassinato de um homossexual diante de um tribunal da Capital da República em meados do século XX The murder of a homosexual treated at a court in the Capital of de Republic of Brazil in the mid-twentieth century

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    Rivail Carvalho Rolim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar como o assassinato de um homossexual foi tratado em um tribunal da Capital da República em meados do século XX. Os autos criminais podem revelar aspectos significativos sobre a aplicação do direito nas instâncias judiciais. Ressaltamos como a cultura jurídico-penal no país continuou reproduzindo os mesmos padrões socioculturais das culturas jurídico-penais ocidentais; em última instância, condenando o prazer ou pelo menos determinadas formas de senti-lo. Da mesma forma, inferimos que, por intermédio da legalidade processual, se reprimiu determinado comportamento sexual, já que a legalidade formal não preceituava a homossexualidade como crime.The aim of this paper is to analyze how the murder of a homosexual was treated at a court in the capital of the Republic of Brazil in mid-twentieth century. Although intrinsically individualizing, criminal records reveal significant aspects on the application of the law in judicial court instances. The juridical and penal culture of the period reproduced continually the same social and cultural standards of Western juridical and penal culture in spite of the contemporary accumulation of knowledge. In other words, pleasure was condemned or, at least, certain forms of feeling pleasure, especially those which directly impaired procreation. Results show that through juridical legality certain types of sexual behavior were repressed, since the law itself did not consider homosexuality a crime.

  11. Especies locales, mercado y transporte en las investigaciones embriológicas: el estudio de la poliembrionía en armadillos a principios del siglo XX Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century

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    Susana V. García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se examina en un caso concreto la afirmación general de la importancia de las redes de comunicación y la movilidad de las cosas para la ciencia. De qué forma esto jugó un papel relevante en las investigaciones sobre la embriología de ciertas especies de armadillos a principios del siglo XX? Como intentamos mostrar, el acceso a las hembras preñadas de esas especies silvestres y los tiempos en el transporte hasta el laboratorio fueron cuestiones substanciales en los inicios de esas investigaciones. Las estrategias para obtener muestras en el campo y la temporalidad de ciertos fenómenos, los circuitos comerciales en los que participan los organismos estudiados y su trasformación en el laboratorio permiten vislumbrar aspectos de cómo trabajaron y qué problemas enfrentaron esos científicos.The article examines the general affirmation that communication networks and mobility are important to science by examining how these factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century. As we show, access to pregnant females of the species and transport time from the wild to the laboratory were significant issues in the early days of such research. The strategies used to obtain field samples, the temporality of certain phenomena, the commercial circuits of which the organisms under study were a part, and the transformations they underwent in the laboratory all afford a glimpse at some aspects of how these scientists approached their work and what problems they faced in producing new knowledge.

  12. In conversation with: Professor Richard James

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    John Clarke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, Richard James wrote in the Foreword to Nelson, Clarke, Kift, and Creagh’s (2012 monograph on Australasian literature on the First Year Experience that:The trend towards universal participation will usher in dramatic changes in the character of the first year in higher education. … (p. iiiIn an interview at the University of Melbourne, Australia in July 2013 between Richard James and John Clarke, Co-editor of the International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education, these and related issues were explored.  The interview picks up where the Foreword left off:  focussing on universal participation.

  13. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  14. The Ten Most Significant Environmental Events of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Listed are five laws, two books, one study, one conference, and one celebration which represent gains on environmental issues in the twentieth century. The methods used to compile the list are discussed. An additional listing of the 10 most significant environmental writings of the twentieth century is included. (CW)

  15. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    just personalities—in terrorism, at least five acts of terrorism are linked to the ugly racist novel, The Turner Diaries.10 What social and political...teaching the value of democracy and the mechanisms of rule of law, some social science faculty were poisoning students with contempt of country. A...Weimar Germany) need not invite the empowerment of thugs (such as Nazis). Quebec separatists won “half a loaf ,” and it seems difficult to deny that

  16. Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...

  17. The Fate of Epic in Twentieth-Century American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Radway, John North

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores the afterlife of the Western epic tradition in the poetry of the United States of America after World War Two and in the wake of high modernism. The ancient, Classical conception of epic, as formulated by Aristotle, involves a crucial, integral opposition between ethos, or character, and mythos, or the defining features, narratives, and histories of the world through which ethos moves. The classical epic and its direct line of succession, from Homer to Virgil to Dan...

  18. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  19. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  20. Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Erich, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Erich Segal, William Arrowsmith, G. M. A. Grube, Anne Pippin Burnett, Eilhard Schlesinger, Bernard M. W. Knox, Eric A. Havelock, Jean-Paul Sartre, Christian Wolff, and Thomas G. Rosenmeyer--all dealing with the plays of…

  1. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  2. The veterinary medicine industry in Britain in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, T A B; Godley, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Economic historians have focused research effort on accounting for the growth and significance of Britain's pharmaceutical industry, but little effort has so far been directed at the veterinary medicine industry, which formed an important part of the wider sector. This article addresses that gap. Factors responsible for that sector's relative insignificance until the 1950s included a general tendency to slaughter rather than to treat sick animals, the absence of advanced medicines until the innovation of sulpha drugs and antibiotics, and difficult relations with the wider pharmaceutical industry. Thereafter output of veterinary medicines increased dramatically, arising from an exponential growth in the demand for intensively farmed poultry meat. Since the 1980s a decline in the use of drugs in agriculture has caused the industry to concentrate on the health needs of domestic animals rather than those of livestock.

  3. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  4. Translation and English in Twentieth-century China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva HUNG

    2009-01-01

    @@ TRANSLATING INTO ENGLISH It is a common assumption in the Euro-American translation and interpreting professions that translators should only translate out of a second language into a mother tongue or a mother tongue equivalent.16 In reality, the validity of this assumption is largely limited to a Euro-American context.

  5. ARAB SCHOLARS IN RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES (the Nineteenth - Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kirillina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam artikel ini, penulis mendiskusikan perkembangan studi tentang dunia Arab secara khusus dan studi ketimuran secara umum di kalangan intelektual Rusia hingga awal abad ke-20. Lebih jauh, dibahas juga peran akademik orang-orang Arab-Rusia yang telah membuat dunia Timur semakin dikenal di kalangan orang-orang Rusia. Salah satu tokoh utama yang ikut merintis hubungan bagi universitas-universitas di Rusia dengan dunia Arab adalah Shaykh Muhammad Ayya>d al-T|ant\\awy, seorang ulama al-Azhar yang kemudian pindah dan menetap di Rusia pada tahun 1840. Karir T|ant\\awy sebagai profesor studi ketimuran dan kehidupan serta peranannya dalam memperkenalkan Arab-Islam kepada kalangan Rusia lewat berbagai kerja dan tulisannya banyak dibahas dalam artikel ini. Selain T|ant\\awy, tokoh yang tak kalah pentingnya adalah Georgi Murkos, seorang Arab-Kristen dari Damaskus, yang melanjutkan pendidikannya di Universitas Petersburg, kemudian menjadi professor di universitas yang sama dan menjadi salah satu tokoh Arab-Kristen Ortodoks di Rusia.

  6. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  7. Colombia in the seventies of the twentieth Century

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    César Augusto Ayala Diago

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the ideas of Antonio Gramsci about the organization of culture, the article explores Colombia's cultural level in the 1970s. It centers around the publication of cultural, political, and scholarly journals, and demonstrates how around these journals a whole plurality of sociabilities was woven that made daily life interesting and democratic, despite the obstacles imposed by the National Front. The article focuses not just on the circulation of ideas but also of the popular music in the period. It also shows the influence of dynamic worldwide historical processes on the ideas and activities of Colombian intellectuals in that decade. In sum, the article is an attempt to reconstruct the narrow relationship that existed at the time between culture, politics, and ideology.

  8. Baseball, Popular Music, and Twentieth-Century American History.

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    Cooper, B. Lee; Walker, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that using popular recordings that feature baseball imagery is an innovative way to introduce students to the pluralistic nature of U.S. life. Outlines a variety of themes that use baseball history to develop concepts about social change, cultural values, and individual achievement. Lists audio recordings that have baseball themes. (DB)

  9. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

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    Jorgen S. Frederiksen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation instability-model with reanalyzed observed July three-dimensional basic states for the periods 1949–1968, 1975–1994, and 1997–2006. We relate the reduction in the winter rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in south-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of leading storm track and blocking modes. We find that cyclogenesis and onset-of-blocking modes growing on the subtropical jet have significantly reduced growth rates in the latter periods. On the other hand there is a significant increase in the growth rate of northwest cloud-band modes and intraseasonal oscillation disturbances that cross Australia and are shown to be related to recent positive trends in winter rainfall over northwest Western Australia and central Australia, in general. The implications of our findings are discussed.

  10. Writing Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China

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    Guo, Hui

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation argues that Chinese scholars of the 1920s and ’30s (re)interpreted the traditions of Chinese art in order to build a modern field of Chinese art history. These scholars faced with challenges such as China’s internal needs to develop, her indirect and direct encounters with Wester

  11. Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Demetz, Peter, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sergey Tretiakov, Hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hannah Arendt, Eric Bentley, Oscar Budel, Ernst Schumacher, I. Fradkin, Hans Egon Holthusen, Gunter Rohrmoser, Walter H. Sokol, Franz Norbert…

  12. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  13. The Great War and the Shaping of the Twentieth Century.

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    Baggett, Blaine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Traces the convoluted alliances and diplomatic blundering that resulted in World War I. Places a large degree of the blame on Kaiser Wilhelm II who almost singlehandedly dismantled or ruptured the alliances and treaties of imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Includes photos, paintings, and diary entries. (MJP)

  14. Deaf Cultural Production in Twentieth-Century Madrid

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    Fraser, Benjamin R.

    2007-01-01

    This article chronicles the recent processes of identity formation among deaf people in Spain, both analyzing Spanish-language poetry published in the journal Faro del Silencio and outlining new directions for research of Deaf culture in Spain in terms of film, theater, visual poetry. It draws attention to the significant connections between the…

  15. "Vases communicants": Twentieth-Century Franco-American Dialogue

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    Morot-Sir, Edouard

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the cultural exchange between such personalities as William James and Henri Bergson, Henry James and Marcel Proust, and William Faulkner and Andre Malraux, and its impact on the world view shared by certain Americans and Frenchmen. (DB)

  16. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  17. Baudelaire: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Peyre, Henri, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Paul Valery, Henri Peyre, Fracois Mauriac, Charles du Bos, Etienne Gilson, P.M. Pasinetti, John Middleton Murry, Marcel Proust, Georges Poulet, Erich Auerbach, and Jean Prevost--all dealing with the biography and literary…

  18. Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Segal, Erich, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Erich Segal, William Arrowsmith, G. M. A. Grube, Anne Pippin Burnett, Eilhard Schlesinger, Bernard M. W. Knox, Eric A. Havelock, Jean-Paul Sartre, Christian Wolff, and Thomas G. Rosenmeyer--all dealing with the plays of…

  19. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

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    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  20. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

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    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…