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Sample records for twelve-month lactation period

  1. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  2. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975... to twelve months. Except with respect to registered investment companies, the filing of...

  3. Premarital Sex in the Last Twelve Months and Its Predictors among Students of Wollega University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Tesfaye; Chala, Dereje; Adeba, Emiru

    2016-07-01

    Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega University. A cross-sectional survey using pretested, structured questionnaire was conducted on a total of 704 regular undergraduate students of Wollega University from February to March, 2014. We used multistage sampling technique to recruit study participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions were performed using SPSS version 20 to assess predictors of premarital sex. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Wollega University youths who had premarital sex in the last twelve months were 28.4%; 55.5% of them did not use condom during last sex while 31.3% engaged in multiple sex. Being male [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)(95% Confidence Interval(CI))=2.7(1.58-4.75)], age 20-24 years [AOR(95%CI)=2.8(1.13-7.20)], training on how to use condom [AOR(95%CI)=1.7(1.17-2.46)], being tested for HIV [AOR(95%CI)=2.3(1.48-3.53)], using social media frequently [AOR(95%CI)=1.8(1.14-2.88)], having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use [AOR (95%CI)=2.2(1.31-3.56)] were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the last twelve months. Nearly one-third of regular undergraduate students of the university were engaged in premarital sex in the last twelve months. Being male, using social media frequently and alcohol use were associated with increased odds of premarital sex in the stated period. Thus, higher institutions have to deliver abstinence messages alongside information about self-protection.

  4. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  5. Relative peripheral refraction in children: twelve-month changes in eyes with different ametropias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsui-Tsui; Cho, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    To determine the peripheral refraction of children with different types of ametropias and to evaluate the relationship between central refractive changes, baseline relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and changes in RPR over a 12-month monitoring period. Cycloplegic central and peripheral refraction were performed biannually on the right eyes of children aged 6-9 for 12 months, using an open-view autorefractor. Peripheral refraction were measured along 10°, 20° and 30° from central fixation in both nasal and temporal fields. Refractive data were transposed into M, J0 and J45 vectors for analyses. RPR was determined by subtracting the central measurement from each peripheral measurement. Hyperopic eyes showed relative peripheral myopia while myopic eyes had relative hyperopia across the central 60° horizontal field at baseline. Emmetropic eyes had relative myopia within but showed relative hyperopia beyond the central 30° field. However, there was no significant correlation between central refractive changes and baseline RPR or between changes in central refraction and RPR over twelve months in any refractive groups. Correlations between changes in PR and central myopic shift were found mainly in the nasal field in different groups. In the subgroup analysis on the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups, the subgroups with faster myopic progression did not have significantly different RPR from the subgroups with slower progression. The RPR pattern of the initially emmetropic and the initially myopic groups became more asymmetric at the end of the study period with a larger increase in relative hyperopia in the temporal field. RPR patterns were different among hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic eyes. However, baseline RPR and changes in RPR cannot predict changes in central refraction over time. Our results did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis of RPR as a causative factor for myopic central refractive changes in children. Ophthalmic

  6. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among students of ... Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. ... having comprehensive knowledge of HIV [AOR(95% CI)=1.5(1.01-2.10)], alcohol use ...

  7. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  8. Use of cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period

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    Hamza Yıldız

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of topical or systemic herbs and herbal extracts (cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period has increased in the recent years. These cosmeceuticals are not only viewed as having clinical benefits but are also generally believed to be safe by users. A small part of thousands of plants and botanical ingredients has been investigated scientifically. The purpose of this review was to provide the safety information about the dermatologic cosmeceuticals which can be used during pregnancy and lactation period.

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dnakook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Tae Hee [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic findings and usefulness in the diagnosis of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 18 breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with linear-array 5 MHz transducer (ATL). Final diagnoses were obtained by the excisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration and clinical follow-up. Total 18 cases of breast diseases were consisted of 8 cases of galactocele, 4 cases of fibroadenoma, 3 cases of axillary accessory breast, 2 cases of lactating adenoma, and 1 case of phylloides tumor. The ultrasonographic findings of the above breast diseases were valuable in the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Ultrasonography is the initial and useful method of diagnosing breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period.

  10. Use of cosmeceuticals during pregnancy and lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Yıldız; Özlem Karabudak Abuaf

    2013-01-01

    Use of topical or systemic herbs and herbal extracts (cosmeceuticals) during pregnancy and lactation period has increased in the recent years. These cosmeceuticals are not only viewed as having clinical benefits but are also generally believed to be safe by users. A small part of thousands of plants and botanical ingredients has been investigated scientifically. The purpose of this review was to provide the safety information about the dermatologic cosmeceuticals which can be used during preg...

  11. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  12. [Pregnancy and lactation period: Which local anesthetics and analgesics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show relevant aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. Common medication used in dental offices should be highlighted in special regard to the pregnant patient during dental treatment. The reader should gain more security in the election of the proper drugs for local anesthesia and oral analgesics. Local anaesthetics such as articain with adrenalin in a dilution of 1 : 200 000 can be used for dental treatment at any time. Paracetamol should be used as first line oral analgesic. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  13. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  14. Geothermal elastomeric materials. Twelve-months progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Bilyeu, G.D.; Davis, D.L.; Stephens, C.A.; Veal, G.R.

    1977-12-01

    Progress is reported on efforts to develop elastomers for packer seal element applications which will survive downhole geothermal well chemistry at 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) for 24 hours. To achieve this development, a three level elastomer testing and evaluation program was established. The first level Screening Tests is a broad screening of potential candidates and with the end objective to filter out the more promising candidates for more expensive subsequent testing. The battery of tests include standard ASTM tests and a special test developed to test extrusion resistance using specimens all made from sheet stock. The second level or Simulation Tests provide a laboratory equivalent of downhole conditions using synthetic geothermal fluid. Full scale packer seals are tested under simulated operational conditions by a test fixture. The third level or In-Situ Tests which are currently in the planning, provide for testing the most favored materials in-situ in the geothermal well. A test module provides for testing of the specimen without interfacing with the well casing. A test module freely hanging on a wireline has much lower probability of causing a problem, such as becoming lodged in the well, as compared to an operational casing packer. This maximizes the number of wells (hence geothermal environments) where access can be gained and In-Situ Testing performed. During this period commercially available polymers were investigated. Most of the work centered around formulating peroxide cured Vitons and some on EPDMs, butyls, and resin cured Vitons. Of the formulations tested to date the EPDMs appear most promising and the peroxide cured Vitons next most promising. However, data is too sparse to make any firm conclusions at this time. Minor tasks were performed evaluating current commercially available elastomers used in oil tools and conceptualization of casing packer for the geothermal application.

  15. Twelve months of voluntary heavy alcohol consumption in male rhesus macaques suppresses intracortical bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddini, Gino W; Grant, Kathleen A; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-02-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n=21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22h/d, 7 d/wk for 12months. Control monkeys (n=13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7±0.2g alcohol/kg/d (mean±SE) during the 12months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77±9mg/dl from samples taken at 7h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8±0.5 % versus 0.6±0.1 %, p=0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41±0.2/mm(2)versus 0.04±0.01/mm(2), premodeling. In concordance, plasma CTx was lower (2.5±0.3ng/ml versus 1.7±0.1ng/ml, p=0.028) in the alcohol group. These results suggest that

  16. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  17. Influence of lactation stages and rain periods on subclinical mastitis in meat producing ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mastitis negatively influences the survival and weight gain of ovines for meat production. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in sheep for meat production, the occurrence of subclinical mastitis in ewes at the end of lactation and beginning of the consecutive lactation and to assess the composition and cellular characteristics of milk as a function of different rainfall indices. Mammary halves (821 of Santa Ines (479 and Morada Nova (342 ewes were examined. Milk samples were collected in two different moments of lactation: at weaning and postpartum of the consecutive lactation. Sample collection periods were called "dry" or "rainy" according to the rainfall index in the month immediately before the month of collection. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis at weaning in the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes were 16.4 and 12.6% in the dry period, and 17.7 and 23.5% in the rainy period, respectively. In the consecutive lactation period, the occurrences were 26.7 and 27.7% in the dry period and 41.8 and 39.1% in the rainy period, for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes, respectively. Postpartum stage was critical for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, as compared to that at the end of the previous lactation. Occurrence of the disease negatively influenced the SCC in the milk at the beginning of lactation and changed its composition, mainly in the rainiest periods, probably due to a difficulty in maintaining hygiene in the environment where the animals remained.

  18. Changes in lipids over twelve months after initiating protease inhibitor therapy among persons treated for HIV/AIDS

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    Hogg Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protease inhibitors are known to alter the lipid profiles in subjects treated for HIV/AIDS. However, the magnitude of this effect on plasma lipoproteins and lipids has not been adequately quantified. Objective To estimate the changes in plasma lipoproteins and triglycerides occurring within 12 months of initiating PI-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS afflicted subjects. Methods We included all antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected persons treated at St-Paul's Hospital, British Columbia, Canada, who initiated therapy with protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV drugs between August 1996 and January 2002 and who had at least one plasma lipid measurement. Longitudinal associations between medication use and plasma lipids were estimated using mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures on the same subjects and were adjusted for age, sex, time dependent CD4+ T-cell count, and time dependent cumulative use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and adherence. The cumulative number of prescriptions filled for PIs was considered time dependent. We estimated the changes in the 12 months following any initiation of a PI based regimen. Results A total of 679 eligible subjects were dispensed nucleoside analogues and PI at the initiation of therapy. Over a median 47 months of follow-up (interquartile range (IQR: 29–62, subjects had a median of 3 (IQR: 1–6 blood lipid measurements. Twelve months after treatment initiation of PI use, there was an estimated 20% (95% confidence interval: 17% – 24% increase in total cholesterol and 22% (12% – 33% increase in triglycerides. Conclusions Twelve months after treatment initiation with PIs, statistically significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed in HIV-infected patients under conditions of standard treatment. Our results contribute to the growing body of evidence implicating PIs in the development of blood lipid

  19. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz;

    2004-01-01

    : There was no significant difference in mean adjusted growth rates between the 2 groups: 84.0 mm/year in the FP group versus 86.4 mm/year in the SCG group (difference FP-SCG: -2.4 mm/year; 95% confidence interval: -6.6 to 1.8). Growth comparisons were independent of age, gender, previous use of steroid, or whether measured......, exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children...

  20. Weekly milk producation trends in early lactation period of Nagpuri buffalo

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    M.G.Sahare

    Full Text Available Nagpuri breed of buffalo is recognized breed, mostly found in Central India particularly in Vidharbha region of Maharashtra.The early milk production record were collected for each buffalo from 1st week of lactation to 15th week of lactation .The weekly milk production of Nagpuri buffalo was found to be 35.19 ± 0.3 kg with a range 16.22 ±0.77 to 41.5 ± 0.28 kg .The overall variability found in early milk production was 12.16% .The variation in production in early lactation period between the animal up to the 15th week of lactation where non-significant. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 278-279

  1. Identification Effects of Pedometer on Estrus of Holstein Cows during Peak Lactation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Xiaoxin; Deng; Shuangyi; Liu; Wei; Wei; Xingyuan; Ai; Li

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to discuss identification effects of pedometer on estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period. [Method]The estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period were identified by manual observation and pedometer monitoring. [Result]Compared with manual observation,the detection rate of estrus in Holstein cows using pedometer monitoring was increased by 24. 01%,which reduced the labor cost and enhanced accuracy rate. [Conclusion]The research could provide reliable basis for estrus identification of cows.

  2. Noninvasive skeletal muscle lactate detection between periods of intense exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, B; Granier, P; Mercier, J; Foucat, L; Bielicki, G; Pradere, J; Renou, J P; Prefaut, C

    1998-06-01

    We investigated whether localized 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) using stimulated echoes (STEAM) with a long mixing time (t(m)) allowed the suppression of the fat signal and detection of lactate in skeletal muscle. The 1H NMRS sequence was first validated in three isolated and perfused rabbit biceps brachii muscles. Spectra were obtained on a wide-bore spectrometer using a dual-tuned probe (1H and 31P). Death was simulated by ceasing the muscle perfusion, which allowed post-mortem changes to be followed. During and after the simulated death, changes in levels of pH and in content of energy-rich compounds were observed with 31P NMRS. Our results showed an inverse linear relationship between pH and lactate in each of the three rabbits (r = 0.93, P recovery between periods of intense exercise (force-velocity test, F-v test). Seven subjects mean age 25.1 (SEM 0.8) years participated in this study. Soleus muscle lactate was detected at rest and for 3 min 30 s of the 5-min recovery between periods using a 2.35-T 40-cm bore magnet spectrometer. Arm venous plasma lactate concentration was measured at rest, during the F-v test when the subject stopped pedalling (S1), and at the end of each 5-min recovery between periods (S2). Results showed that the venous plasma lactate concentration at S1 and S2 increased significantly from the beginning of the F-v test to peak anaerobic power (W(an,peak)) (P braking forces (P < 0.05). We concluded from these results that localized 1H NMRS using STEAM with a long t(m) allows suppression of the fat signal and repeated detection of lactate on isolated perfused skeletal muscle in animals and between periods of intense exercise in humans.

  3. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...

  4. Twelve-month outcomes in patients with retinal vein occlusion treated with low-frequency intravitreal ranibizumab

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    Sakanishi Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihito Sakanishi, Ami Lee, Ayumi Usui-Ouchi, Rei Ito, Nobuyuki Ebihara Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu City, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of low-frequency intravitreal ranibizumab to treat macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective examination of cases that received intravitreal ranibizumab for untreated RVO over a period of 12 months. Instead of the conventional three monthly injections, injections were given once during the introductory period. If the recurrence of macular edema was diagnosed during the monthly visit, additional injections were given as needed. There were 21 eyes of 21 patients with branch RVO (BRVO and ten eyes of ten patients with central RVO (CRVO. The parameters examined included the number of injections over the 12-month period, improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and the central macular thickness (CMT. For BRVO, preinjection parameters that had an effect on the prognosis of BCVA after the 12-month period were also examined.Results: The total mean number of injections over the 12-month period was 3.4 for CRVO and 2.1 for BRVO. For CRVO, the BCVA in log minimum angular resolution changed from a preinjection value of 0.80 to 0.55 at 12 months. For BRVO, the change was from 0.51 to 0.30. For all diseases, BCVA improved after 12 months compared with the preinjection values (P<0.05. There was improvement in the CMT, and the CRVO changed from 765.0 µm at preinjection to 253.5 µm 12 months later. BRVO changed from 524.1 to 250.1 µm, and preinjection BCVA was associated with a prognosis of visual acuity after 12 months of the initial injection (P=0.0485.Conclusion: Even with a low number of injections during the introductory period, there were still improvements in both visual acuity and CMT in RVO patients after 12 months, indicating that it was

  5. Twelve-month experience with the GORE® TIGRIS® Vascular Stent in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, M; Freitas, B; Steiner, S; Botsios, S; Bausback, Y; Scheinert, D; Schmidt, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the continued mid-term follow-up of the first patients world-wide treated with the GORE(®) TIGRIS(®) Vascular Stent, a dual component stent consisting of a nitinol wire frame combined with a fluoropolymer-interconnecting structure. From December 2011 until November 2012, 32 consecutive patients (20 men, mean age 72.8 years) with 40 atherosclerotic femoropopliteal lesions (5% occlusions) underwent angioplasty and implantation of a GORE(®) TIGRIS(®) Vascular Stent. The patients were scheduled for follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months after stent implantation for duplex ultrasound and assessment of Rutherford-Becker class (RBC) and Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI). Here we report the completed 6-month follow-up and, for the first time, a 12-month follow-up. The median follow-up was 418 days. During the 12-month follow-up 4 patients died. Restenosis or reocclusion of the stent in this time period was observed in 5 lesions (12.5%), resulting in a cumulative primary patency rate of 85.5±6.0%. The ABI increased pre-interventionally from 0.65±0.18 to 0.91±0.18 (PGORE(®) TIGRIS(®) Vascular Stent showed promising results with high 12-month primary patency rates after femoropopliteal endovascular interventions. These first clinical data are very promising compared to other stent concepts in the superficial femoral and popliteal artery.

  6. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  7. reducing the partum.to-mating period in autumn lactating ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both progesterone and PMSG. Of the progestagens and ... In the lactating ewe progesterone therapy soon ... oestrogen to trigger the release of LH and induce oestrus is precluded in ... birth (singles or twins) into five groups (Fig. l) each of.

  8. The effects of exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles during lactation period on learning and memory of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Abbas; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Pourganji, Masoume; Bideskan, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is massively produced and widely used in living environment, seems to have a potential risk on human health. The central nervous system (CNS) is the potential susceptible target of nanoparticles, but the studies on this aspect are limited so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles during lactation period on learning and memory of offspring. Lactating Wistar rats were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (100 mg/kg; gavage) for 21 days. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests showed that the exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles could significantly impair the memory and learning in the offspring. Therefore, the application of TiO2 nanoparticles and the effects of their exposure, especially during developmental period on human brain should be cautious.

  9. Potential health consequences of applying mercury-containing skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have highlighted the widespread use of skin-lightening creams containing mercury by women during and after pregnancy to remove dark spots. Women, especially pregnant and lactating mothers using these products are at risk of mercury poisoning because sometimes it has no clinical symptoms, particularly during early exposure. Studies have shown that prenatal and postnatal mercury exposure can cause permanent neurological damage in children. Furthermore, mercury can cause women infertility and birth defects. Even though several studies have examined the reproductive and/or developmental consequences of gestational and lactational mercury exposure from fish consumption and/or dental amalgam, no studies have assessed the possible effects of the long-term use of mercury-containing skin-lightening products by women of childbearing age on their pregnancy outcome and children's health. This commentary aims to collate information on the popular use of mercury-containing skin-lightening creams and sheds the light to the readers about the limitations of the available data on its impact during a prenatal and/or postnatal period. There is an urgent need to assess the adverse health effects of applying these products during pregnancy or lactation on child growth and development through birth cohort studies. Until data from these studies are available, women should be advised not to use topical skin-lightening creams during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST, alanin aminotransferase (ALT and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT, in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartum. The highest values of total leukocytes count, neutrophiles, monocytes and basophiles count were recorded on the day of parturition, and then decreased, so that the minimum value established on d 45 of lactation. The lymphocytes count was the lowest on the day of parturation, while the eosinophils and basophiles counts were significantly different in observed time intervals. The concentration of glucose ranged from 3.07 mmol/L on d 15 prepartum to 2.71 mmol/L on d 15 postpartum. A high concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the postpartum period is a consequence of changes in energy balance and more intensive process of lypolisis in fat tissue, due to energy disbalance at the beginning of lactation. Established activity of enzymes AST, ALT and GGT was approximately the same in studied time intervals and was within physiological limits. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis in this paper do not indicate the development of postpartum ailments, because the investigated parameters were within physiological limits.

  11. Backfat thickness during gestation and lactation period in respect to reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of backfat thickness measured during gestation and after lactation of primiparous and multiparous sows on the value of reproductive traits. Backfat thickness was determined at mating, at 105 day of gestation and after weaning and were correlated with selected reproductive indicators including placenta weight. The study was carried out 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows of Polish Landrace breed. The nutrition and housing conditions were the same for all pigs. Backfat and loin depth (P2, P4 , P4 M were measured using PIGLOG 105 device. The evaluation of reproductive performance included the weight of placenta at parturition, the number of born piglets, litter weight, piglet body weight at birth, at 21 and at weaning (28 days. Multiparous sows were characterized by greater fatness than primiparous sows in all periods of use. In all examined sows the backfat depth during gestation increased and decreased after lactation. Those changes were more pronounced in multiparous sows than in primiparous sows (P ≤ 0.01. Multiparous sows born and reared more piglets to 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. There have not been dead piglets in primiparous litters. Litters weight from multiparous sows were higher than from primiparous sows only at birth (P ≤ 0.01 and similar in rest periods of rearing. Individual body weight of piglets from primiparous was higher than that from multiparous sows at 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. Fatness changes during lactation, particularly in multiparous sows, were positively correlated with litter weight at birth and negatively correlated with piglet’s weight at 21 and 28 days of life and their daily gains (P ≤ 0.05. Correlations between placenta weight and backfat thickness during lactation were positive in both groups of sows (P ≤ 0.01.

  12. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  13. Spreading depression is facilitated in adult rats previously submitted to short episodes of malnutrition during the lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-de-Melo A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating rat dams were submitted to short episodes (1, 2 or 3 weeks of nutritional restriction by receiving the "regional basic diet" (RBD, with 8% protein of low-income human populations of Northeast Brazil. Their pups were then studied regarding the developmental effects on body and brain weights. When the rats reached adulthood, cortical susceptibility to the phenomenon of spreading depression (SD was evaluated by performing electrophysiological recordings on the surface of the cerebral cortex. SD was elicited at 20-min intervals by applying 2% KCl for 1 min to a site on the frontal cortex and its occurrence was monitored at 2 sites in the parietal region by recording the electrocorticogram and the slow potential change of SD. When compared to control rats fed a commercial diet with 23% protein, early malnourished rats showed deficits in body and brain weights (10% to 60% and 3% to 15%, respectively, as well as increases in velocity of SD propagation (10% to 20%. These effects were directly related to the duration of maternal dietary restriction, with pups malnourished for 2 or 3 weeks presenting more intense weight and SD changes than those malnourished for 1 week. The effects of 1-week restrictions on SD were less evident in the pups malnourished during the second week of lactation and were more evident in pups receiving the RBD during the third week. The results indicate that short episodes of early malnutrition during the suckling period can affect body and brain development, as well as the cortical susceptibility to SD during adulthood. The data also suggest that the third week of lactation is the period during which the brain is most sensitive to malnutrition, concerning the effects on SD

  14. Influence of thermal environment on sows around farrowing and during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Sund Kammersgaard, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of floor heating duration (HEAT: 35°C for 12 or 48 h) after birth of first piglet (BFP) under different room temperatures (ROOM: 15, 20, 25°C) on sows during farrowing and lactation. The study included 8 to 11 repetitions for each combination of ROOM...... 12 h after BFP (15 floor heating duration (HEAT = 48 h) increased the respiration rate with 50% d 1 and 2 after BFP (P floor increased with room temperature (P ... for the HEAT =48 h treatment 13 to 48 h after BFP (P floor, regardless of room temperature (P = 0.46). Sows spent approximately twice as much time standing/walking at 15°C during 13 to 48 h after BFP, at HEAT = 12 h only (ROOM and HEAT...

  15. The Role of Avocados in Maternal Diets during the Periconceptional Period, Pregnancy, and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-05-21

    Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fertility, fetal development, birth outcomes, and breast milk composition. During the critical window of time from conception through the initiation of complementary feeding, the nutrition of the mother is the nutrition of the offspring-and a mother's dietary choices can affect both the early health status and lifelong disease risk of the offspring. Most health expert recommendations and government-sponsored dietary guidelines agree that a healthy diet for children and adults (including those who are pregnant and/or lactating) should include an abundance of nutrient-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables. These foods should contain a variety of essential nutrients as well as other compounds that are associated with lower disease risk such as fiber and bioactives. However, the number and amounts of nutrients varies considerably among fruits and vegetables, and not all fruit and vegetable options are considered "nutrient-rich". Avocados are unique among fruits and vegetables in that, by weight, they contain much higher amounts of the key nutrients folate and potassium, which are normally under-consumed in maternal diets. Avocados also contain higher amounts of several non-essential compounds, such as fiber, monounsaturated fats, and lipid-soluble antioxidants, which have all been linked to improvements in maternal health, birth outcomes and/or breast milk quality. The objective of this report is to review the evidence that avocados may be a unique nutrition source for pregnant and lactating women and, thus, should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for expecting and new mothers.

  16. The Role of Avocados in Maternal Diets during the Periconceptional Period, Pregnancy, and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in influencing fertility, fetal development, birth outcomes, and breast milk composition. During the critical window of time from conception through the initiation of complementary feeding, the nutrition of the mother is the nutrition of the offspring—and a mother’s dietary choices can affect both the early health status and lifelong disease risk of the offspring. Most health expert recommendations and government-sponsored dietary guidelines agree that a healthy diet for children and adults (including those who are pregnant and/or lactating should include an abundance of nutrient-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables. These foods should contain a variety of essential nutrients as well as other compounds that are associated with lower disease risk such as fiber and bioactives. However, the number and amounts of nutrients varies considerably among fruits and vegetables, and not all fruit and vegetable options are considered “nutrient-rich”. Avocados are unique among fruits and vegetables in that, by weight, they contain much higher amounts of the key nutrients folate and potassium, which are normally under-consumed in maternal diets. Avocados also contain higher amounts of several non-essential compounds, such as fiber, monounsaturated fats, and lipid-soluble antioxidants, which have all been linked to improvements in maternal health, birth outcomes and/or breast milk quality. The objective of this report is to review the evidence that avocados may be a unique nutrition source for pregnant and lactating women and, thus, should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for expecting and new mothers.

  17. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepati

  18. Effect of supplemental concentrate during the dry period or early lactation on rumen epithelium gene and protein expression in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieho, K; van Baal, J; Kruijt, L; Bannink, A; Schonewille, J T; Carreño, D; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-09-01

    We previously reported 2 experiments with rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows showing that during the transition period, rumen papillae surface area, and fractional absorption rate of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase after calving. However, supplemental concentrate during the dry period and rate of increase of concentrate allowance during lactation affected papillae surface area, but not VFA absorption. Here we report the changes in gene and protein expression in rumen papillae related to tissue growth and VFA utilization. The lactation experiment treatment consisted of a rapid [RAP; 1.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d; n = 6] or gradual (GRAD; 0.25 kg of DM/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of DM/d), starting at 4 d postpartum (pp). The dry period experiment treatment consisted of 3.0 kg of DM/d of concentrate (n = 4) or no concentrate (n = 5) during the last 28 d of the dry period. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of rumen papillae showed that the expression of apoptosis-related genes was neither affected by day nor its interaction with treatment for both experiments. Expression of epithelial transporter genes was not affected by day or treatment in the lactation experiment, except for NBC1. In the dry period experiment, expression of MCT1, NBC1, DRA, NHE2, NHE3, and UT-B generally decreased after calving. A day and treatment interaction was observed for ATP1A1 in the dry period experiment, with greater expression at 18 and 8 d antepartum for concentrate than no concentrate. Generally, expression of VFA metabolism-related genes was not affected by day or its interaction with treatment. In the lactation experiment, immunoblotting of 5 selected genes showed that protein expression of DRA and PCCA was greater at 16 d pp compared with 3 and 44 d pp. Expression of NHE2 was greater, and that of ATP1A1 lower, at 16 and 44 d pp compared with 3 d pp, suggesting alterations in intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis. Both MCT1

  19. Relationships between transition period diet, metabolic parameters and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpakumara, P G A; Gardner, N H; Reynolds, C K; Beever, D E; Wathes, D C

    2003-10-01

    Cows in severe negative energy balance after calving have reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals influencing the reproductive system. We hypothesised that transition diet could alter metabolic status after calving, and thus influence fertility. Multiparous dairy cows were assigned to four transition groups 6 weeks pre-calving and fed: (a) basal control diet (n = 10); (b) basal diet plus barley (STARCH, n = 10); (c) basal diet plus Soypass (high protein, HiPROT, n = 11); or (d) no transition management (NoTRANS, n = 9). All cows received the same lactational diet. Blood samples, body weights and condition scores (BCS) were collected weekly. Fertility parameters were monitored using milk progesterone profiles and were not affected by transition diet. Data from all cows were then combined and analysed according to the pattern of post-partum ovarian activity. Cows with low progesterone profiles had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin concentrations accompanied by reduced dry matter intakes (DMIs), BCS and body weight. Cows with prolonged luteal activity (PLA) were older and tended to have lower IGF-I. Analysis based on the calving to conception interval revealed that cows which failed to conceive (9/40) also had reduced IGF-I, BCS and body weight. Fertility was, therefore, decreased in cows which were in poor metabolic status following calving. This was reflected in reduced circulating IGF-I concentrations and compromised both ovarian activity and conception. There was little effect of the transition diets on these parameters.

  20. Somatic (CSS and differential cell count (DCC during a lactation period in ass’milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic properties of ass’s milk protein fractions have been recently con- firmed, allowing ass’s milk to be considered as a valid substitute of the available hypoallergenic infant formulas. The objective of this study was to give a further contribution to the knowledge of ass’s milk safety and quality characteristics. A new procedure has been developed with a cytospin centrifuge in differential counts of milk somatic cells. Somatic cells count (SCC, differential somatic cells count (DCC and cultural examinations have been carried out in 62 milk samples collected from 11 asses at three different stages of lactation. Four major cells populations had been identified in ass’s milk too: lymphocytes (Ly, monocytes/macrophages (MA, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL, and epithelial cells (CE. The patterns of these cells have been discussed in comparison with cells found in dairy cows and ewes milk. In conclusion, a reproducible standard procedure has been developed to determine cell count of ass’s milk.

  1. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katharine M; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Zuleta, Clara; Allen, Lindsay H

    2007-05-01

    Approximately one-third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala are reported to have deficient (deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, the present study examined predictors of deficient plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at the age of 12 mo. Analyses were performed on baseline data from a randomized clinical trial in 304 Guatemalan infants, 80% of whom were partially breast-fed, and their mothers. Exclusion criteria for infants included twins, severe stunting or moderate wasting, reported major health problems, severe developmental delay, hemoglobin 3 mo. Data collected included socio-economic status, infant anthropometry, vitamin B-12 intake from complementary foods, and breast-feeding frequency reported by mothers. A complete blood count and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and C-reactive protein were measured. Deficient or marginal plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were found in 49% of infants and 68% of mothers. The mean intake of maternal vitamin B-12 was 3.1 microg/d, and infants consumed 2.2 microg/d from complementary foods. In linear regression analysis, infant plasma B-12 concentration was strongly and positively associated with maternal plasma vitamin B-12 and B-12 intake from complementary foods (predominantly powdered cow's milk), and inversely associated with frequency of breast-feeding and larger household size (P < 0.0001). Vitamin B-12 supplementation of lactating women, food fortification, and education to improve infant's vitamin B-12 status are potential interventions that can improve the vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants in this population.

  2. Changes in rumen microbiota composition and in situ degradation kinetics during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieho, K; van den Bogert, B; Henderson, G; Bannink, A; Ramiro-Garcia, J; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-04-01

    Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0.25 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) increase of concentrate allowance (up to 10.9 kg of dry matter/d), starting at 4 d pp. In whole rumen contents, bacterial community composition was assessed using samples from 50, 30, and 10 d antepartum (ap), and 3, 9, 16, 30, 44, 60, and 80 d pp, and protozoal and archaeal community composition using samples from 10 d ap, and 16 and 44 d pp. Intake of fermentable organic matter, starch, and sugar was temporarily greater in RAP than GRAD at 16 d pp. Bacterial community richness was higher during the dry period than during the lactation. A rapid increase in concentrate allowance decreased bacterial community richness at 9 and 16 d pp compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas from 30 d pp onward richness of RAP and GRAD was similar. In general, the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and Aeromonadales were greater, and those of Clostridiales, Fibrobacterales, and Spirochaetales were smaller, during the lactation compared with the dry period. An interaction between treatment and sampling day was observed for some bacterial community members, and most of the protozoal and archaeal community members. Transition to lactation increased the relative abundance of Epidinium and Entodinium, but reduced the relative abundance of Ostracodinium. Archaea from genus Methanobrevibacter dominated during both the dry period and lactation. However, during lactation the abundance of the

  3. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : effect of stage of lactation, parity and milk volume on withdrawal periods, and the effect of treatment on milk compositional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karzis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The length of the antibiotic withdrawal period after intramammary treatment was influenced by the milk yield of dairy goats during this trial. Shorter withdrawal periods were seen in relatively high yielding dairy goats (production above 1.5 ℓ per day compared to low producers (less than 1.3 ℓ per day. High yielding goats treated with Curaclox LC (Norbrook [Pharmacia AH] had a withdrawal period of 42 h, while low yielding goats, treated with the same product, had a withdrawal period of 74 h. The recommended withdrawal period for Curaclox LC for use in cattle is 72 h. Relatively high yielding goats treated with Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac] had a significantly shorter withdrawal period (37 h than that recommended for use in cattle (96 h. Low yielding goats treated with Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health had a significantly longer (95 h withdrawal period than that recommended for use in cattle (60 h. Withdrawal periods were also influenced by stage of lactation and parity. There was a moderate positive correlation between lactation number and withdrawal period, as measured by TRIS (R2 = 0.621, and a moderate negative correlation between stage of lactation and withdrawal period (R2 = -0.669. In Trials 1, 2 and 3 combined there was a moderate negative correlation between withdrawal period and volume (R2 = -0.511 and a strong positive correlation between withdrawal period and lactation number (R2 = 0.720. The differences in percentage milk fat, protein and lactose before, during and after treatment were not statistically significant except in Trial 3 (Curaclox LC and Rilexine 200 LC where protein and lactose differed significantly. In Trial 2 (Spectrazol Milking Cow milk fat percentages differed significantly between treatment and control groups as did protein percentages in Trial 3. These differences are however, not biologically meaningful.

  4. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and reduce milk production when fed to lactating cows. However, we have shown this affect is temporal in that pre-partum consumption of inflected seed throughout the dry period does not inhibit subsequent milk productio...

  5. Dry period and parturient predictors of early lactation hyperketonemia in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to determine important dry and calving period predictors of (1) a cow developing hyperketonemia at any time between 3 and 16 d in milk (DIM) and (2) a cow having hyperketonemia at her first β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) test after calving (between 3 and 5 DIM). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds [2 in New York (NY) and 2 in Wisconsin] were enrolled at 266 d carried calf. Precalving data included body condition score, locomotion score, and blood nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration; calving-associated data included previous days carried calf, calving ease, calf sex, twins, stillbirth, and parity. Cows were each tested 6 times for hyperketonemia from 3 to 16 DIM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Hyperketonemia was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2 mmol/L. Multivariable fixed-effects Poisson regression models were developed to predict the probability of a cow developing hyperketonemia between either 3 and 16 DIM or at her first BHBA test. As only the NY herds had precalving NEFA data, each prediction model was developed twice: once with data from all 4 herds (n=1,672) and once with data from only the NY herds (n=544). For the models with data from all 4 herds, increased body condition score group and an interaction between advanced parity and herd were important predictors of hyperketonemia development at any time from 3 to 16 DIM; calf sex (male), herd, and an advanced parity by increased body condition score group interaction were important predictors of hyperketonemia development between 3 and 5 DIM. The 4-herd models had a 64 and 78% predictive concordance for hyperketonemia between 3 and 16 DIM and at first BHBA test, respectively. For the models with data from the NY herds only, increased NEFA, calf sex (male), advanced parity, and herd were found to be important predictors of hyperketonemia development at any time from 3 to 16 DIM; increased NEFA, calf

  6. Twelve Months of Air Quality Monitoring at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Southwestern Rural Nevada, U.S.A (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P; Shafer, David S; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; McCurdy, Greg; Kohl, Steven D; Nikolich, George; Sheetz, Larry

    2011-08-01

    The one year of air quality monitoring data collected at the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) was the final part of the air quality "Scoping Studies" for the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) in southern and central Nevada. The objective of monitoring at Ash Meadows was to examine aerosol and meteorological data, seasonal trends in aerosol and meteorological parameters as well as to examine evidence for long distance transport of some constituents. The 9,307 hectare refuge supports more than 50 springs and 24 endemic species, including the only population of the federally listed endangered Devil’s Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990). Ash Meadows NWR is located in a Class II air quality area, and the aerosol measurements collected with this study are compared to those of Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites. Measurements taken at Ash Meadows NWR over a period of 12 months provide new baseline air quality and meteorological information for rural southwestern Nevada, specifically Nye County and the Amargosa Valley.

  7. Effects of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation during the transition period on vitamin status in blood and milk of organic dairy cows during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Persson Waller, K;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of daily supplementation with RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate, during the transition period around calving, on concentrations of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk from prepartum to mid-late lactation of dairy cows. Retinol and β-carotene contents also were measured. The study...... included 2 experiments, where all cows were fed 100% organic diets, with high proportions of grass-legume forage. The experimental design was a randomised complete block. In experiment 1, the basal diet contained 70 and 60IU of RRR-α-tocopherol/kg DM (dry period and lactation, respectively...... calving. Retinol concentrations in plasma in experiment 1 were generally low (transition period), indicating that vitamin A supplementation also is necessary, especially during the transition period...

  8. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Smoking in the Perinatal Period and During Lactation on the Intervertebral Disks of Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Idiris; Yuksel, Kasım Z

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the histopathologic effects of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy on the intervertebral disk structure of newborns in an experimental rat model. Seven adult female Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated into 7 groups. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally introduced to these rats in 6 groups before, during, and after pregnancy, whereas the rat in the control group received isotonic saline intraperitoneally. Fourteen newborns delivered by each rat were euthanized at the end of 9 weeks after being breastfed for 3 weeks after birth. The vertebral columns of the euthanized rats were removed en bloc, and histopathologic evaluation was performed on the intervertebral disk specimens. Histopathologic alterations were noted and compared between groups. Ratio of proteoglycan amount exhibited a significant difference between groups (P smoking before and during pregnancy and smoking before/during pregnancy and lactation resulted in deposition of a severe amount of proteoglycans in intervertebral disk tissue. Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference between groups with respect to the amount of fibrosis (P smoking before pregnancy and during lactation. A moderate degree of fibrosis was detected in groups with smoking during pregnancy, before and during pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation, and before/during pregnancy and lactation. Results of this study imply that maternal smoking before and during pregnancy and in the lactation period may have deleterious effects on the intervertebral disk of the newborn. The duration of smoking and fertility period can influence the type and severity of these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the Hematological Profile of Holstein Primiparous in Periparturient Period and in Early to Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Găvan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 25 primiparous Holstein cows divided in three groups (precalving, fresh cows and cows in early to mid lactation. The samples were analyzed for hematological parameters including red cell count (RBC, white cell count (WBC, hemoglobin concentration (HGC, hematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations MCHC. The results revealed that the values of RBC, HGC and HCT decreased after parturition and them increased again in early to mid lactation. The slight changes in concentrations of HGB, RBC counts, decreased HCT, MCV and MCH sugest iron deficiency. The high WBC count in early to mid lactation of primiparous cows may be related to chronic infections.

  10. Influence of close-up dry period protein supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows in their subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Moorby, J M; Arana, M; Hinders, R; Graham, T; Castelanelli, L; Barney, N

    2001-10-01

    Holstein cows on a commercial dairy were assigned to close-up dry groups and offered an 11.7% crude protein (CP) ration based on corn silage, alfalfa cubes, oat hay, corn, and barley grain without (Control; C) or with (Supplemented; S) 0.8 kg/d per cow of a high CP supplement of SoyPass, distillers dried grains, ring dried blood meal, feather meal, and corn gluten meal. Heifers (C: 37, S: 44) and mature cows (C: 96, S: 81) were allocated to one of four groups based upon their time in the close-up groups (i.e., 1 to 4, 5 to 8, 9 to 12, and 13 to 19 d) within parity (i.e., heifers or mature) for statistical analysis. Full lactation means of all response parameters for cows confirmed to be pregnant that completed a lactation (i.e., lactating at 305 d in milk or dried off before 305 d in milk but not culled; C: 28, S: 23 for heifers and C: 48, S: 43 for mature cows) were analyzed by ANOVA. Lactation curves were evaluated by parallel curve analysis to assess differences in lactation curve shape, and curve separation, due to treatments. Protein supplementation had no impact on full-lactation milk or milk component yields of heifers, determined by ANOVA, although parallel curve analysis showed higher milk and milk protein yield with protein supplementation. As the number of days cows spent consuming their assigned close-up dry rations increased, heifers produced more milk, milk fat and milk protein, although the maximum yield for milk and milk protein occurred for those fed close-up rations for 9 to 12 d. For mature cows, neither time close up or close-up period protein supplementation influenced any mean response parameter, by ANOVA, although parallel curve analysis showed higher milk and protein yield for supplemented cows as time close up increased. Overall, results suggest the optimum close-up period length was 9 to 12 d, with a protein content intermediate between 11.7 and 14.4% of DM, for heifers. In contrast, results do not support any substantive benefit of a

  11. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    OpenAIRE

    Lívio R. Molina; Costa,Hudson. N.; Leão,Juliana M.; Malacco,Victor M.R.; Facury Filho,Elias J.; Carvalho,Antônio U.; Lage,Camila F.A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA) associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA), in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation), with four functional udder quarters withou...

  12. Reduced feed intake of lactating primiparous sows is associated with increased insulin resistance during the peripartum period and is not modified through supplementation with dietary tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, E; Le Floc'h, N; Etienne, M; Ramaekers, P; Sève, B; Père, M-C

    2010-02-01

    glucose tolerance test and positively related to the glucose infusion rate during the clamp (P feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. This result indicates that the interest in a Trp supplementation during the peripartum period can be questioned. Irrespective of the dietary treatment, the reasons why sows with similar rearing conditions develop different rates of insulin resistance during pregnancy remain to be elucidated.

  13. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and lower plasma BHBA and NEFA concentrations and upregulated the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes of dairy cows during the transition period. Feeding cows with a GY mixture in the peripartum period combined the effects of yeast on lactation performance and the effects of glycerol on energy status in dairy cows.

  14. Long-term Administration of Alcohol in Rats: Effects on Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Sera During Pre-Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Lactation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Birsen; TÜRKMEN, Gülhan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of long-term administration of ethyl alcohol on insulin and glucagon hormone levels during pregnancy and lactation periods of rats were investigated. Female wistar albinos, 200±20 g, were used in this study. The control group consisted of 15 rats, and the experimental group consist of 25 ethyl-alcohol-addicted rats. While 0.9% saline (with sucrose) was to the control group, a 5 g kg perday dose of 20% ethyl alcohol was given to the experimental group. Blood samples were taken fiv...

  15. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SPORT INJURY RISK AND TYPES OF INJU-RIES: A RETROSPECTIVE TWELVE-MONTH STUDY ON CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS, SWIMMERS, LONG-DISTANCE RUNNERS AND SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ristolainen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05, and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05. When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05 while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05. After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05. Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05, but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training

  16. Assessments of body composition and bone parameters of lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed meal (Linum usitatissinum) during post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante Ribeiro, Danielle; Alves da Silva, Paula Cristina; D'Avila Pereira, Aline; Ferolla da Camara Boueri, Bianca; Ribeiro Pessanha, Carolina; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, Maíra; Saldanha Melo, Henrique; Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-08-01

    There are few studies on body composition and the effects of diet on weight postpartum women. The aim was to evaluate the body composition and bone parameters in lactating rats treated with diet containing flaxseed flour during postweaning period. After weaning, the lactating rat were divided in control (n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) group, treated with 25% flaxseed flour diet. After 30 days, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum analysis, organs and intra-abdominal fat mass, femur and lumbar vertebra parameters were determined. The groups showed similar food intake, body mass and bone parameters. While F group showed the following: lower body (-5%), gonadal (-17%), mesenteric (-23%) and intra-abdominal (-6%) fat mass. Increase of HDL-cholesterol (+10%) and lower glucose (-15%), triglycerides (P < 0.05, -37%) and cholesterol (P < 0.05, -21%). The findings highlight the effects of flaxseed for control of adiposity and to maintain a healthy biochemical profile during the postnatal period. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissinum) consumption improves bone quality and decreases the adipocyte area of lactating rats in the post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in the intake on adiposity and femur structure of the lactating rats during the post-weaning period. After weaning, the lactating rats were divided into control (C, n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) groups treated with a diet containing flaxseed flour. Serum hormone and fatty acids composition, morphology of intra-abdominal adipocytes, computed tomography and biomechanical analyses of femur were determined. Food intake, body mass and hormone analysis have shown similar results. The F group showed the following (p < 0.05): lower arachidonic acid (-60%), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-30%) and retroperitoneal adipocytes (-36%) area. Higher radiodensity of femoral head region (+29%) and higher maximum force (+18%), breaking strength (+18%) and rigidity (+31%). Fatty acid composition of flaxseed flour decreased the area of adipocytes and improved the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid levels, during the post-weaning period.

  18. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  19. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  20. Effect of supplemental concentrate during the dry period or early lactation on rumen epithelium gene and protein expression in dairy cattle during the transition period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Baal, van J.; Kruijt, L.; Bannink, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Carreño, D.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported 2 experiments with rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows showing that during the transition period, rumen papillae surface area, and fractional absorption rate of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase after calving. However, supplemental concentrate during the dry period

  1. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  2. Effect of unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on digestion, metabolism and nutrient balance in dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of unsaturated fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on intake, digestion and nutrient balance. Thirty-six multiparous and pregnant Holstein cows were randomly distributed to receive one of the experimental diets in the period from 35 days before the expected date of parturition to 84 days post-partum. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration and were as follows: control (C; soybean oil (SO, based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CS, based on inclusion of 30 g/kg (DM basis. Pre-partum dry matter intakes (DMI of cows fed C, SO and CS were 11.9, 9.5 and 9.6 kg/d, respectively. Post-partum DMI was affected by experimental diets (18.5, 15.0 and 17.4 kg/d for C, SO and CS, respectively. The energy balance in the transition period of animals fed CS was 4.41 Mcal/d higher than cows fed SO and 1.3 Mcal/d higher than cows fed C. Supplementing cows with unsaturated fatty acid sources is a strategy for dairy cows in the transition period.

  3. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  4. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  5. Lactation in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  6. A Comparative Study on the Contraception Efficacy and Safety of the Progesterone Releasing Contraceptive Vaginal Ring and the Copper T 380A IUD Inserted during the Lactation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明昆; 郑怀美; 郑苏华; 陈帼君

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the contraception efficacy and safety of the vaginal ring releasing 10 mg/day of progesterone in 160 cases and an intrauterine device, the copper T 380A in 100 cases during lactation. It was found that the contraceptive method is acceptable from 42 to 60 days postpartum. No pregnancy occurred in the copper T 380A IUD users during lactation. Those methods are worth to be recommended because of their contraceptive efficacy and no adverse effects on breast feeding children. Prenatal care and Family Planning Programe are administered together to raise lactation performance rate, and to decrease induced abortion rate, the health of mothers and children were protected.

  7. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  8. The plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a chlorhexidine and aluminium lactate containing dentifrice (Lacalut aktiv) over a period of 6 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathe, F.; Auschill, T.M.; Sculean, A.; Gaudszuhn, C.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a dentifrice containing chlorhexidine and aluminium lactate compared with a control toothpaste during the course of 6 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study looked prospectively at

  9. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A twelve-month comparative clinical investigation of two low-dose oral contraceptives containing 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol/75 micrograms gestodene and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol/75 micrograms gestodene, with respect to efficacy, cycle control, and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, J; Müller, U; Düsterberg, B

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare contraceptive reliability, cycle control, and tolerance of an oral contraceptive containing 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 75 micrograms gestodene (GSD), with a reference preparation containing a similar dose of gestodene but in combination with 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol. A higher incidence of intermenstrual bleeding was apparent under the 20 micrograms EE2 oral contraceptive. For the 20 micrograms EE2 preparation, 47.4% of all women reported spotting at least once over a period of 12 treatment cycles, whereas this figure was 35.5% for the 30 micrograms EE2 pill (p < 0.05). However, the incidence was within a range that corresponds to that of other OCs. The cumulative breakthrough bleeding rates (at least once during the one year of treatment) of 14.5% (20 micrograms EE2) and 11.8% (30 micrograms EE2) of women were not significantly different. In relation to all cycles, the intermenstrual bleeding rates were remarkably lower, indicating that the majority of the volunteers experienced such events only in few cycles under treatment: the spotting rate was 11.5% (20 micrograms EE2) and 7.2% (30 micrograms EE2) of all cycles, and the breakthrough bleeding rate was 2.6% and 1.6% of all cycles, respectively. Three pregnancies were recorded during the study (one in the 20 micrograms EE2 + 75 micrograms GSD group, two in the 30 micrograms EE2 + 75 micrograms GSD group). All three could be explained either by intake irregularities or by circumstances impairing the contraceptive effect. The influence of both treatments on the blood pressure and body weight proved to be extremely slight. Adverse events in both groups were rare and differences in the frequency of adverse events were not apparent. The discontinuation rate due to adverse events, including intermenstrual bleeding, was low (9.8% for 20 micrograms EE2 + 75 micrograms GSD, and 7.2% for 30 micrograms EE2 + 75 micrograms GSD) and was in the lower range known for other

  11. Expression of genes involved in hepatic carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Gloria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodents and pigs, it has shown that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA, a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Dairy cows are typically in a negative energy balance during early lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes of carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows are enhanced during early lactation. Results mRNA abundances of PPARA and some of its classical target genes and genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis [trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLHE, 4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9A1, γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBOX1] and uptake of carnitine [novel organic cation transporter 2 (SLC22A5] as well as carnitine concentrations in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 wk prepartum and early lactation (1 wk, 5 wk, 14 wk postpartum were determined. From 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum, mRNA abundances of PPARΑ and several PPARΑ target genes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver were strongly increased. Simultaneously, mRNA abundances of enzymes of carnitine synthesis (TMLHE: 10-fold; ALDH9A1: 6-fold; BBOX1: 1.8-fold and carnitine uptake (SLC22A5: 13-fold and the concentration of carnitine in the liver were increased from 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum (P P P Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that the expression of hepatic genes of carnitine synthesis and cellular uptake of carnitine is enhanced in dairy cows during early lactation. These changes might provide an explanation for increased hepatic carnitine concentrations observed in 1 wk postpartum and might be regarded as a physiologic means to provide liver cells with sufficient carnitine required for transport of excessive amounts of NEFA during a negative energy balance.

  12. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  13. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten; Thomas christensen, Thomas Vennick;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the second year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last twelve...

  14. EFFORTS Technical annex for the twelve month progress report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Eriksen, Morten;

    1998-01-01

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU during the previous first year of project activity. The report describes the work completed by DTU in general as well as on the active sub-tasks within materials properties, friction modelling and physical modelling, over the last...

  15. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  16. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  17. Effects of different polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations during the postpartum periods of early lactating dairy cows on milk yield, metabolic responses, and reproductive performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Ganjkhanlou, M; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Fouladi-Nashta, A

    2013-02-01

    In spite of the difficulties in delivering PUFA to ruminants, studies have generally indicated that the PUFA of the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [α-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic (EPA), C20:5 omega-3; docosahexaenoic (DHA), C22:6 omega-3] families are the most beneficial to improving reproduction in cows. The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in α-linolenic acid (omega-3) or linoleic acid (omega-6) would influence milk production and composition, metabolic status, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. High-yielding multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 120) with no overt clinical illnesses were blocked according to calving date and parity. Cows were assigned randomly to be fed 1) soybean whole roast (Soy, omega-6, n = 40) or 2) linseed (Lin, omega-3, n = 40) or 3) palm oil as a source of SFA (PO, n = 40) from calving until first heat after 40 d postpartum (dpp), and then half of the cows in each treatment group were switched to receive either Lin or SFA (PO) from first heat after d 40 to 120 dpp. Blood was collected from a subsample of cows. Blood was collected at 14 d intervals for 12 wk, starting on the day of calving. Results showed milk yield and DMI were not affected. Milk compositions were similar (P > 0.08) among diets, except concentration and yield of milk fat percentage, which was less in cows fed Lin (P cows fed Soy occurred earlier (P cows (P heat detection, percent pregnancy per first insemination, and percent conception per AI at estrus. Also, there is a trend of pregnancy by 120 d, which is 66.7% for the Lin group vs. 50.91% for the PO group (P dairy cows.

  18. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  19. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  20. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  2. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  3. Contraception during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M

    1982-01-01

    Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.

  4. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  5. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  6. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  7. Onset of the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the proliferation in F1 mouse lungs from the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea exposed mothers: Prevention during the lactation period by inositol hexaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sahay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal exposure to a carcinogen is associated with increased risk of different cancers in the offspring. The foetus is highly sensitive to carcinogens and this contributes to the foetal basis of the onset of disease. The better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in the offspring is needed for the newer preventive strategies. We evaluated the effects of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU given on the 17th day of gestation and antitumour agent inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 to the mothers at the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in F1 mice. There was no treatment related effects on the litter size or body weight of the F1 mice at the PND12 or 24. Analysis of PCNA, NF-κB (p50, IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, caspase-3, caspase-9, PARP, Akt signalling and downstream cyclin D1 along with miR-155, suggested the modulation of proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis at PND12 and 24. IP6 administration to the predisposed mothers prevented the proliferation, inflammation and enhanced apoptosis in F1 lung as showed by a reduction in PCNA, NF-κB (p50, IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, miR-155 and increase in caspases, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. IP6 administration also inhibited the activation of Akt and cyclin D1. Our study shows that tumourigenic changes take place in the lungs of the F1 generation from the carcinogen predisposed mothers even before the onset of tumours and the simultaneous intake of chemopreventive agent during the gestation or lactation period could prevent the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the tumourigenesis.

  8. Fatores que afetam a produção de leite e o período de lactação em um rebanho das raças Flamenga e Holandesa no Planalto Catarinense Factors affecting milk yield and lactation period in a Flemish and Holstein herd in upland of Santa Catarina State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Thaler Neto

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se dados referentes à produção de leite em até 305 dias de lactação e ao período de lactação em 217 lactações de 104 vacas das raças Flamenga e Holandesa, oriundas do rebanho da Estação Experimental de Lages, pertencente à Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI. As médias e erros-padrão da produção de leite em até 305 dias de lactação e seus respectivos coeficientes de variação foram 4.179,48 ± 89,65kg e 22,33% e, 205,17 ±4,91 dias e 15,16%, respectivamente. O desempenho da raça Flamenga foi inferior à raça Holandesa em 24,5% para produção de leite (4763 vs. 395 9kg e em 8% para duração da lactação (317,9 vs. 292,4 dias. A estação de parto afetou somente o período de lactação, sendo as lactações iniciadas no verão mais longas que as iniciadas na primavera. A idade da vaca ao parto influenciou quadraticamente a produção de leite, sendo a idade de 69 e 96 meses a de máxima produção para as raças Holandesa e Flamenga, respectivamente. O ano de parto não afetou as características estudadas.Data on milk yield in 305 days of lactation and lactation period of 217 lactations of 104 Flemish and Holstein cows from the Experimental Station of Lages, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI were analysed. Means, standard errors and coefficients of variation from milk yield in 305 days of lactation and lactation period were 4.179.48 ± 89.65kg and 22.33% and. 305.17 ± 4.91 days and 15.16%, respectively. Performances of the Flemish cows were poorer than the Holstein cows in 24.5% for milk yield ( 4763 vs. 3959kg and in 8% for lactation period (317.9 vs. 292.4 days. Calving season affected only the lactation period. Lactations started in summer were longer than those started in spring. Calving age showed a quadratic effect on milk yield. The age of the top production were 69 and 96 months for Holstein and Flemish cows. Year

  9. Ammonium Lactate Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...

  10. Effects on plasma glucose and lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Injection of amylin or amylin agonists, including human and rat amylin, pramlintide, salmon calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), increases the plasma levels of lactate and glucose in non-diabetic fasting rats and mice. This response can be useful in identifying and defining amylin agonists (amylinomimetic agents) (Cooper et al.) and has been investigated in several studies. Increases in plasma glucose and lactate are not present in all species. In humans, for example, increases in lactate are observed at high pramlintide doses but not at doses that would be used to therapeutically regulate plasma glucose. In species where it occurs, the increase in plasma lactate with amylin is comparable to that observed with exercise or adrenergic agents, and it is distinguishable from the very high levels observed during lactic acidosis (as may occur with biguanides). In contrast to lactic acidosis, the plasma lactate with amylin is derived from skeletal muscle rather than liver. Increases in plasma lactate and glucose in some species may initially appear inconsistent with a glucose-lowering effect of amylin agonists. But glycemic effects are due to actions in skeletal muscle and are present only in some species, whereas glucose-lowering actions are attributable to effects in gastrointestinal systems and are present in all species studied to date. And while glycemic effects are most pronounced in the fasted state, glucose-lowering effects are most pronounced in the postprandial state. Since they were discovered first, effects of higher doses of amylin on plasma glucose, especially in the fasted state, are described first and are related to concomitant changes in plasma lactate. These effects are prominent in rodents but are barely discernible in humans. Effects of lower doses of pramlintide to suppress plasma glucose profiles in the postprandial period are also observable in normal and diabetic rats, however, and are covered here as well. The relationship

  11. Determination an d Comparison of Milk Secretion Traits of Hu Sheep and Han Sheep in Lactation Key Period%湖羊、小尾寒羊泌乳关键期泌乳性状的测定与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓林; 牛志刚; 袁燕; 王姗; 李列刚; 周成全; 史洪才

    2016-01-01

    测定和比较了新疆舍饲湖羊、小尾寒羊在泌乳关键期的泌乳性状。结果表明:湖羊和小尾寒羊个体在产后56 d内的总泌乳量分别为(31.25±0.06)kg和(30.03±0.02)kg,日均泌乳量分别为(0.558±0.05)kg和(0.541±0.07)kg;在泌乳中期,湖羊和小尾寒羊间乳蛋白率差异极显著( P<0.01);在整个泌乳期,两个羊种间乳蛋白率差异显著( P<0.01);湖羊泌乳的乳脂率在中期达到最大值,而小尾寒羊在后期达到最大值;湖羊泌乳的乳糖率在整个泌乳期呈上升趋势,而小尾寒羊在中期达到最大值;两种羊乳的总固体含量在整个泌乳期都呈上升趋势。%The milk traits of lactation key period were determinated and compared in Xinjiang Hu sheep and Han sheep.The results showed that the total milk yield was (31.25 ±0.06) kg and (30.03 ±0.02) kg, average daily milk yield was (0.558 ± 0.05) kg and ( 0.541 ±0.07) kg after postpartum 56 days in Hu sheep and Han sheep.The milk protein rate of Hu sheep and Han sheep existed extremely significant difference (P<0.01) in mid-lactation period, the milk protein differences between the two breeds was significantly ( P<0.01 ) throughout lactation period.The butterfat rate of Hu sheep was peaked in the medium term, while the butterfat rate of Han sheep was peaked in the later term; The milk lactose rate of Hu sheep was on the rising throughout the lactation period, while the milk lactose rate of Han sheep was peaked in the medium term;The total solid content of Hu sheep and Han sheep was on the rising throughout the lactation period.

  12. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  13. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-09-06

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  14. Lactate-a suicide mode or survival kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    oxidized to CO2 only a small part being possibly released as lactate. During hypoxia, the co ncentration of lactate is higher, due to the liver inhibition and then in many tissues (muscle) the competition between lactate and glucose as carbohydrate s ource for oxidation might be in favor of lactate. This permits to spare some gl ucose for the privileged tissues such as heart. This has been shown in humans w here chronic hypoxia led to an increase glucose in heart.  In acute situation, our recent investigation in cardiac surgery patients usin g an exogenous lactate challenge, whereby one could investigate the dynamic asp ect of lactate metabolism (lactateproduction, lactate clearance) together with other previous similar work (including liver surgery and brain metabolism) showe d that the increased lactate concentration permits an increase of substrate read ily oxidizable even after a transient period of hypoxia or ischemia. Furthermore , by permitting shuttle energy, redox power or carbons from one organ to another , lactate metabolism allows an intra- or interorgan cooperation which in turn l imits the energy failure of one organ by metabolism of another such as the liver for example. Although high lactate is related to poor outcome, this compound I s a “survival kit” rather than a “suicide mode”.

  15. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  16. Induction of lactational estrus in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The longer lactation period required in organic piglet producing herds reduces the potential number of produced litters per sow per year compared with that of conventional production. Induction and use of lactational estrus may be a way to increase the productivity in organic production. However...... in an organic outdoor system based on ad libitum feeding, individual housing until Day 35 in lactation, followed by grouping and introduction of a boar and weaning of piglets after 8 wk. Five groups with four sows ((Danish Yorkshire × Danish Landrace) × Danish Duroc) in each were observed, and rank...... study indicate that it is possible to combine lactational estrus and batch farrowing procedures to increase the number of weaned piglets per year per sow in organic piglet production based on 8 wk of lactation or more....

  17. Lactate metabolism in acute uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverve, Xavier; Mustafa, Iqbal; Novak, Ivan; Krouzecky, Ales; Rokyta, Richard; Matejovic, Martin; Ichai, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Lactate is a key metabolite that is produced by every cell and oxidized by most of them, provided that they do contain mitochondria. Its metabolism is connected to energetic homeostasis and the cellular redox state. It is well recognized as an indicator of severe outcome in severely ill patients, however, it is not a detrimental factor per se. Conversely, some recent data tend even to indicate a beneficial effect in several metabolic disorders. Although the liver has long been recognized as a key organ in lactate homeostasis, the kidney also plays a major role as a gluconeogenic organ significantly involved in the glucose-lactate cycle. In acute renal failure, sodium lactate is widely used as a buffer in replacement fluids because the anion (lactate - ) is metabolized and the cation (Na + ) remains, leading to decreased water dissociation and proton concentration. The metabolic disorders related to acute renal failure or associated with it, such as liver failure, may affect lactate metabolism, and therefore they are often regarded as limiting factors for the use of lactate-containing fluids in such patients. By investigating endogenous lactate production in severe septic patients with acute renal failure, we found that an acute exogenous load of lactate did not affect the basal endogenous lactate production and metabolism. This indicates that exogenous lactate is well metabolized even in patients suffering from acute renal failure and severe sepsis with a compromised hemodynamic status.

  18. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broka Līga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  19. Controlling lactation oestrus: The final frontier for breeding herd management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wettere, William H E J; Weaver, Alice C; Greenwood, Emma C; Terry, Robyn; Hughes, Paul E; Kind, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Lactation anoestrus limits the flexibility of modern pig production systems such that any increase in lactation length reduces farrowing frequency, and thus profit. This review focuses on post-partum development of the sow's reproductive system, the physiology of lactation anoestrus and how it can be overcome, as well as the fertility of sows mated while lactating. The propensity for sows to ovulate spontaneously while lactating is high (24-31%), and a high proportion of sows will ovulate rapidly and synchronously in response to combinations of altered suckling (split weaning, interrupted suckling), daily boar contact, exogenous gonadotrophins, and group housing. The apparent ease with which lactation anoestrus can be overcome represents an opportunity to uncouple sow mating from weaning, thus reducing the impact of lactation length on productivity. This is especially true when considering the benefits of the described stimulation methods on the reproductive performance (i.e., shorter weaning to oestrus intervals and higher litter sizes) of the low proportion of sows that maintain lactation anoestrus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium in mice during gestation and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Whelton, B.D.; Peterson, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on cadmium retention of continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of cadmium during pregnancy and lactation was studied in mice. Female mice were provided drinking water ad libitum containing /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (0.03 ..mu..Ci /sup 109/Cd/ml, 0.11 ppb total cadmium) throughout either gestation, lactation, or a combined period of pregnancy and lactation. Nonpregnant control mice were exposed to the same cadmium solution for similar time periods. Dams in all three experimental groups retained two to three times cadmium (expressed as percentage of ingested dose) than did nonpregnant controls. The /sup 109/Cd contents of liver, kidney, mammary tissue, and duodenum increased strikingly in all three groups. Increases in kidney and mammary tissue were particularly apparent during lactation, with increases of fivefold for kidney and at least ninefold for mammary tissue, compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. Increases in /sup 109/Cd retention by the duodenum were fivefold during gestation and three- to fourfold during lactation. The kidneys of dams exposed during lactation retained 53% of the whole body /sup 109/Cd, while kidneys of nonpregnant controls retained only 27%. Results indicate that pregnant and lactating mice absorb and subsequently retain substantially more cadmium from their diets than do nonpregnant mice.

  1. Cadmium and zinc in pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucis, O.J.; Lucis, R.; Shaikh, Z.A.

    1972-07-01

    Radioactive cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) and zinc (/sup 65/Zn) were injected subcutaneously into pregnant rats. More cadmium than zinc was found in the placentae. After birth, newborns showed detectable /sup 109/Cd only in liver, gastrointestinal tract, and in the brain tissue. Zinc 65 was present in all newborns' tissues. During lactation, highest output of /sup 65/Zn was in colostrum and, on subsequent days, /sup 65/Zn in milk declined rapidly. Cadmium 109 in milk was present in low concentration throughout the lactation period. Rats injected with /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn after parturition excreted these isotopes in milk in a similiar pattern. Newborns nursed on radioactive milk showed rapid absorption of /sup 65/Zn, whereas /sup 109/Cd accumulated primarily in the intestinal tract; a lesser quantity of /sup 109/Cd was deposited in the liver. In other organs, only /sup 65/Zn was found. The lactating mammary gland contained more /sup 109/Cd than /sup 65/Zn; after lactation, /sup 65/Zn was depleted, whereas /sup 109/Cd remained in mammary tissue.

  2. [Non-lactational mastitis: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioffrè Florio, Maria Antonietta; Famà, Fausto; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Di Cara, Giovanni; Pollicino, Andrea; Scarfò, Paola; Gullo, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The most frequent breast inflammatory diseases are lactational and non-lactational mastitis. The diagnosis of these lesions is always difficult, as they often mimic breast cancer. The Authors report on their experience about 830 clinical cases of non-lactational mastitis, 804 were superficial abscesses and 24 were phlegmons. In 379 cases an infectious cause was found: in 249 by Streptococcus/Pseudomonas and in 30 by Staphylococcus Aureus. All patients underwent surgical treatment. Diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination, routine investigations (ultrasound, mammography and cytology) and post-operatively by histological evaluation. The non-lactational mastitis are more frequent in the postmenopausal and the menopausal period, but MDAIDS (Mammary Ducts Associated Inflammatory Diseases Sequence) are particularly interesting. MDAIDS was observed in 178 cases, these are very peculiar lesions characterized by ducts ectasia, squamous metaplasia, lymphoid infiltration and strictly correlated with heavy smoking. Sometimes, only surgical treatment clarifies the nature of these lesions. Patients with inflammatory diseases of the breast present with mastalgia and secretions, symptoms which alert patients to consult quickly a specialist. Instrumental investigations often don't clarify the diagnosis and surgical treatment by incision and drainage or excision is definitive.

  3. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  4. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R.; L. Rodello; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  6. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  7. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status.

  8. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  9. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei

    2010-01-01

    dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry...... period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription...

  10. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  11. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or derm

  12. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  13. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated ...

  14. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  15. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions lactate dehydrogenase deficiency lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  17. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  18. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the bovine mammary gland during lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mammary glands undergo functional and metabolic changes during virgin,lactation and dry periods.A total of 122 genes were identified as differentially expressed,including 79 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated genes during lactation compared with virgin and dry periods.Gene ontology analysis showed the functional classification of the up-regulated genes in lactation,including transport,biosynthetic process,signal transduction,catalytic activity,immune system process,cell death,and positive regulation of the developmental process.Microarray data clarified molecular events in bovine mammary gland lactation.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  20. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojtasik-Bakalarz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO of the superficial femoral artery (SFA. Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim : To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods: We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results: The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5% patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5% patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2% patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8% patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy, 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions : The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications.

  1. Intravitreal bevacizumab as primary treatment for retinal angiomatous proliferation: twelve-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiya, Magda; Allievi, Francesca; Recupero, Vincenzo; Martini, Delia; Mazzeo, Luigi; Gabrieli, Corrado Balacco

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Seventeen eyes from 16 patients with newly diagnosed retinal angiomatous proliferation underwent intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, 1.25 mg. The patients were scheduled for three monthly bevacizumab injections. Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness on optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiographic findings were examined before and after treatment. Patients were followed-up for 12 months. The mean best-corrected visual acuity (+/- standard deviation [SD]) at baseline was 39.53 (+/-10.40) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/42). At 12 months after treatment the mean best-corrected visual acuity (+/-SD) improved significantly (P = 0.0000001) to 47.88 (+/-11.78) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/28). Best-corrected visual acuity improved 3 ETDRS lines or more in 3 (17.65%) of 17 treated eyes, 14 (82.35%) eyes were stable, and 15 (88.23%) eyes gained 1 or more ETDRS lines. The mean central macular thickness (+/-SD) at baseline was 297 (+/-60.72) microm. At 12 months after treatment, the mean central macular thickness (+/-SD) reduced significantly (P = 0.00001) to 237 (+/-28.80) microm. At the 12-month follow-up, absence of fluorescein leakage was demonstrated in 14 (82%) of 17 treated eyes. No ocular or systemic adverse effects from treatment were encountered. The 12-month results of intravitreal bevacizumab for retinal angiomatous proliferation are very promising with no apparent short-term safety concerns. Treated eyes had a significant functional and anatomical improvement. Further studies will be needed to better determine long-term efficacy and safety.

  2. Emetic and Electric Shock Alcohol Aversion Therapy: Six- and Twelve-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S.; Baker, Timothy B.

    1981-01-01

    Follow-up data are presented for 6- and 12-months on male alcoholics (N=20) who received either a multifaceted inpatient alcoholism treatment program alone (controls) or emetic or shock aversion therapy in addition to that program. Both emetic and control subjects compiled more days of abstinence than shock subjects. (Author)

  3. Selective Visual Attention at Twelve Months: Signs of Autism in Early Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutman, Ted; Chela, Mandeep K.; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Sigman, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We examined social attention and attention shifting during (a) a play interaction between 12-month olds and an examiner and (b) after the examiner pretended to hurt herself. We coded the target and duration of infants' visual fixations and frequency of attention shifts. Siblings of children with autism and controls with no family history of autism…

  4. The Relationship between Twelve-Month Home Stimulation and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorninck, William J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Scores on the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME), designed to reflect parental support of early cognitive and social development, were correlated with elementary school achievement five to nine years later. Results supported the predictive value of the instrument for school achievement among low-income families. (Author/DB)

  5. EXERCISE LIMITATIONS IN A COMPETITIVE CYCLIST TWELVE MONTHS POST HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Walton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT

  6. Twelve-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Susanne; Brähler, Elmar; Faller, Hermann; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Psychological problems are common in cancer patients. For the purpose of planning psycho-oncological interventions and services tailored to the specific needs of different cancer patient populations, it is necessary to know to what extent psychological problems meet the criteria of mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in cancer patients. A representative sample of patients with different tumour entities and tumour stages (n = 2,141) in outpatient, inpatient and rehabilitation settings underwent the standardized computer-assisted Composite International Diagnostic Interview for mental disorders adapted for cancer patients (CIDI-O). The overall 12-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 39.4% (95% CI: 37.3-41.5), that for anxiety disorders was 15.8% (95% CI: 14.4-17.4), 12.5% (95% CI: 11.3-14.0) for mood disorders, 9.5% (95% CI: 8.3-10.9) for somatoform disorders, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.2-8.5) for nicotine dependence, 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0-4.6) for disorders due to general medical condition, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7-1.6) for alcohol abuse or dependence. Lifetime prevalence for any mental disorder was 56.3% (95% CI 54.1-58.6), that for anxiety disorders was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.3-25.9), 20.5% (95% CI: 18.9-22.3) for mood disorders, 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3-21.7) for somatoform disorders, 18.2% (95% CI: 16.6-20.0) for nicotine dependence, 6.4% (95% CI: 5.4-7.6) for alcohol abuse or dependence, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.8-5.6) for disorders due to general medical condition, and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) for eating disorders. Mental disorders are highly prevalent in cancer patients, indicating the need for provision of continuous psycho-oncological support from inpatient to outpatient care, leading to an appropriate allocation of direct personnel and other resources. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Exercise limitations in a competitive cyclist twelve months post heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeremy A; Walton, Nicolas G

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient) post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT) for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT) four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT. Key pointsPhysical work capacity following heart transplantation is not limited by cardiac denervation.Heart transplant rehabilitation should focus efforts on endothelial and muscular limitations.

  8. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  9. Twelve-Month-Olds Learn Novel Word-Object Pairings Differing Only in Stress Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Infants at 1;2 demonstrate difficulty in accessing subtle phonetic information about newly learned word-object pairings (Stager & Werker, 1997). In this study, we examined whether or not infants can access subtle prosodic information such as lexical stress in a word learning task. We tested infants younger than 1;2 to see if they could learn two…

  10. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Odeyemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2% and June (19.2%. However, the occurrence of coliforms was more affected in the months of May (53% to July (87.2%. At 5m and 10m downstream the coliform population reduced by 27.9% and 30.1% respectively. Of the twelve (12 bacterial isolates obtained at the exit of the wastewater into the receiving stream, only four (4 were found to possess lipolytic activity. These include the species of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference in the amount of nutrients found in the domestic wastewater and receiving stream during the months. This paper also discusses the implication of disposing large amounts of wastewater effluents into the receiving water and the need to remedy and minimize the overall impact of such pollution on the environment.

  11. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM

    OpenAIRE

    Adebowale Odeyemi; Babatunde Aderiye

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2%) and June (19.2%). However, the occurren...

  12. Retention and Effectiveness of Dental Sealant After Twelve Months in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafatjou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pit-and-fissure sealants are safe and effective ways to prevent dental caries and are considered as a part of an overall caries-preventive strategy. Dental caries are a public health problem and the most common intraoral disease affecting mankind. It is an infectious transmissible disease, with the child patient being at the highest risk. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention rates and effectiveness of occlusal sealants in children in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods A total of 118 sealed first permanent molar teeth in 52 students (mean age, 8 years;male, 48% were evaluated for fissure sealant retention and occlusal caries status. All teeth were examined 12 months after application of sealants. Data were collected and evaluated by survival analyses methods for age at placement, patient sex, decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT index, fluoride history, toothbrush, tooth position in arch, and refer to dentistry. Results The overall success rate with pit-and-fissure sealant was 68.6%; in addition, 38.9% of the seals were completely retained, 38.9% partially lost, and 10.2% completely lost. There were no signs of carious lesions in 69.6% of the teeth. The factors associated with an increased risk of failure included female sex (P = 0.001 and no history of fluoride use (P < 0.01. There were no significant association between the results and patient age, tooth position in the arch, DMFT index, toothbrush, and refer to dentistry. Conclusions Although pit-and-fissure sealants are effective methods for preventing tooth caries, the low success rate of fissure sealants in current study indicated that dental sealant need to be implemented more carefully and follow-up programs are advisable.

  13. Twelve-month follow-up of left atrial appendage occlusion with Amplatzer Amulet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinecke, Caroline; Park, Jai-Wun; Gödde, Martin; Zintl, Konstantin; Schnupp, Steffen; Brachmann, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The Amplatzer Amulet (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a second gen-eration Amplatzer device for left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion (LAAO) for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. This research sought to assess the clinical performance of the Amplatzer Amulet device and in follow up for 12 months. In this single-center registry patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindication to oral anticoagulation underwent LAAO with the Amplatzer Amulet device. Follow-up was performed before discharge, by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) after 6 weeks and telephone interview after 3, 6 and 12 months. Between October 2014 and August 2015 50 patients (76.1 ± 8.3 years; 30 male) were en-rolled. Procedural success was achieved in 49 (98%) patients. Major periprocedural adverse events were observed in 4 (8%) of patients: 1 device embolization, 2 pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocente-sis and 1 prolonged hospital stay due to retropharyngeal hematoma from the TEE probe. Follow-up TEE was available in 38 of 50 patients showing complete LAA sealing in all. 2 device-related thrombi were also documented. At 12-month follow-up 7 patients had died unrelated to the device. Ischemic stroke occurred in 3 patients. According to neurological examination two were classified as microangiopathic and not cardio-embolic. The other one could not be classified. Bleeding complications (5 minor, 3 major) were documented in 8 patients. Although minimizing procedure-related complications remains challenging, LAAO with the Amplatzer Amulet device showed high procedural success and excellent LAA sealing. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 2: 131-138).

  14. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Postmature and Respiratory Distress Syndrome Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    A 12-month followup study of 151 infants (46 preterm respiratory disease syndrome--RDS--Ss, 46 postterm postmaturity syndrome Ss, and 59 normal term Ss) was conducted to ascertain any early intervention needs and early predictors on 1-year performance, and to formulate a cumulative risk index which would identify those infants who were continuing…

  15. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...

  16. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  17. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  20. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Atmospheric Particulates during Pregnancy and Lactation Period on Central Nervous System of Filial Generation among Rats%妊娠期和哺乳期暴露于大气颗粒物对仔鼠中枢神经系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久存; 魏永杰; 陈田; 钱琴; 郭建; 宋艳双; 胡洁琼; 贾光

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects on learning and memory ability and the content changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in hippocampus of filial generation when maternal rats exposed to atmospheric particulates during pregnancy and lactation period. Methods During Dec. 28th, 2009 to Feb. 7th, 2010, the experimental group was exposed to actual atmosphere in some area of Beijing in pregnancy and lactation period, while the control group exposed to atmosphere filtered without particulates. For the three weeks old young rats, the learning and memory ability were examined by using Morris water maze, while the content changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in hippocampus of neonatal mice were determined. Results In the place navigation period, the potential time finding flat incubation for offsprings in exposed group was significantly longer than that in the control group; in the spatial probe test period, the time of crossing the quadrant with flat and the traversing time decreased in exposed group. The contents of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in hippocampos of exposed rats were significantly increased, while dopamine (DA) was decreased but only with statistical significance in male rats.Conclusion Exposure to ambient atmospheric particulates in pregnancy and lactation periods can affect the central nervous system function of filial generation rats.%目的 研究母鼠在孕期及子代哺乳期暴露于大气颗粒物对仔鼠学习记忆能力以及海马单胺类神经递质含量的影响.方法 选择健康成年妊娠0d(见栓当天)SD大鼠,于2009年12月28日-2010年2月7日,采用平行的两个暴露箱,将妊娠期和哺乳期的暴露组孕鼠暴露于室外大气,对照组孕鼠暴露于经过滤装置滤除颗粒物后的大气;对其3周龄仔鼠用Morris水迷宫检测学习记忆能力,并检测仔鼠海马组织单胺类神经递质含量.结果 暴露组仔鼠寻找平台潜伏期时间长于对照组(P<0.001).暴露组仔鼠海马

  1. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Pregnancy and lactation in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Yohko

    2016-06-01

    Previously, female RA patients wishing to become pregnant were treated with only glucocorticoid, NSAIDs and sulfasalazine. However, these limited therapy sometimes fail to sustain RA remission, though pregnancy in most cases is associated with improving RA activity. High RA activity and relative high dose of glucocorticoid also involved poor fertility. Recently, a variety of medications are available to treat patients with RA. This article reviewed the safety or not safety of these medications during prior to conception, pregnancy and post-partum period. Accumulating experience with TNF blockade provide the useful insights for the treatment of RA patients during pre-conception, pregnancy or lactation.

  3. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  4. Impact of feed restriction on the performance of highly prolific lactating sows and its effect on the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bettio, S; Maiorka, A; Barrilli, L N E; Bergsma, R; Silva, B A N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 50 mixed parity sows of a high-prolificacy genetic line were used to evaluate the impact of feed restriction during lactation on their production and reproductive performance and their performance in the subsequent lactation. From day 7 of lactation, sows were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into two treatments. In treatment 1, sows were fed 8.0 kg feed/day (control) and in treatment 2, sows were fed 4.0 kg/day. The same suckling pressure was maintained until weaning on day 28 of lactation. Average minimum and maximum temperatures measured during the experimental period were 32.1°C and 16.5°C, respectively. Control sows presented significantly higher feed intake (P0.10) in weaning-to-estrus interval and averaged 4.3 days. No effect of the treatment (P>0.10) was observed on any of the studied performance traits in the subsequent lactation, except for litter size at birth that tended (15.2 v. 14.1; Psows. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that feed restriction during lactation leads to intense catabolism of the body tissues of sows, negatively affecting their milk production, and the litter weight gain and possibly number of piglets born in the next litter. On the other hand, restricted-fed sows are more efficient, producing more milk per amount of feed intake.

  5. In vivo (1) H MR spectroscopic imaging of aggressive prostate cancer: can we detect lactate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Thiele; Wright, Alan J; Van Asten, Jack J A; Heerschap, Arend; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2014-01-01

    A semi-LASER sequence was optimized for in vivo lactate detection in the prostate. The ethical committee waived the need for informed consent to measure 17 patients with high grade prostate cancer on a 3T system. A semi-LASER sequence was used with an echo time of 144 ms and optimized interpulse timing for a spectral citrate shape with high signal intensity. An LCModel basis set was developed for fitting choline, creatine, spermine, citrate, and lactate and was used to fit all spectra in tumor-containing voxels. For patients without detectable lactate, the minimal detectable lactate concentration was determined by adding in all spectra of tumor tissue a simulated lactate signal. The amplitude of the simulated lactate signal was iteratively decreased until its fit reached a Cramér Rao lower bound >20%, which was then set as the patient-specific detection limit. In none of the patients a convincing lactate signal was found. We estimated that on average the lactate levels in high grade prostate cancer are below 1.5 mM (range 0.9-3.5 mM), Interestingly, in one patient with extensive necrosis in the tumor biopsy samples (Gleason score 5+5), large lipid resonances were observed, which originated from the tumor. The minimal detectable lactate concentration of 1.5 mM in high grade prostate cancer indicates that if lactate is increased it remains at low concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacen...

  7. 373例哺乳期放置TCu380A 1年临床效果观察%Observation on clinical effect of application of Tcu380A intrauterine device during lactation period for one year in 373 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 刘玉花; 柴健; 张军喜; 马颖辉; 蒋丽芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察哺乳期放置TCu380A宫内节育器(IUD)的临床效果.方法:选择2006年6月2日~2007年6月3日期间到安阳市汤阴县宜沟镇计划生育服务站要求放置IUD观察对象373例.采用生存分析法,分析观察对象使用IUD的1年期带器妊娠率、脱落率、因症取出率等.结果:随访12个月末1例观察对象失访,无带器妊娠者,脱落相关终止率为0.27/每百妇女/年,因症取出率为1.07/每百妇女/年,与IUD使用相关终止率为1.34/每百妇女/年.结论:哺乳期放置Tcu380A宫内节育器安全、有效,优于其他放置时期.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of application of Tcu38OA intrauterine device during lactation period. Methods: A total of 373 cases who applied intrauterine device in family - planning service outlet of Yigou Town from June 2nd in 2006 to June 3rd in 2007 were selected as observation objects; survival analysis method was used to analyze the pregnancy rate with intrauterine device in situ, the exfoliative rate of intrauterine device, and the medical removal rate of intrauterine device at one year. Results: One case was lost to follow up at one year after application of intrauterine device, no pregnancy with intrauterine device in situ occurred, the exfoliative rate of intrauterine device was 0. 27% per year, the medical removal rate of intrauterine device was 1. 07% per year. The cumulative events ratio due to IUD related reasons was 1. 34% per year. Conclusion; Applying Tcu380a intrauterine device during lactation period is safe and effective, which is superior to other periods.

  8. Best practices in the lactating and weaned sow to optimize reproductive physiology and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    For optimal reproductive performance of the weaned sow, management needs to be optimised in the lactation period, in the interval from weaning to oestrus and during oestrus and insemination. Essentially, management should be focussed on optimizing follicle development during lactation and after wean

  9. Best practices in the lactating and weaned sow to optimize reproductive physiology and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    For optimal reproductive performance of the weaned sow, management needs to be optimised in the lactation period, in the interval from weaning to oestrus and during oestrus and insemination. Essentially, management should be focussed on optimizing follicle development during lactation and after

  10. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T;

    2012-01-01

    in the periods 0 to 24 h, 7 to 10 d, 14 to 17 d, and 17 to 28 d relative to parturition as indirect measures of colostrum yield (0 to 24 h), milk yield in early lactation (d 7 to 10), and at peak lactation (d 14 to 17 and d 17 to 28). Effects of gestation and lactation diets on studied sow traits were tested...... on selected days during the transition period and the next lactation, and tested statistically on separate days. The LWG in the colostral period was positively correlated with mean piglet birth weight (P

  11. Depot-medroxy progesterone acetate as an effective contraception method in lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Monish Babre

    2016-10-01

    Methods: This is retrospective study performed at Family Planning Association of India's Kutumb Sudhar Kendra. Mumbai Central. Result: Patients who had received first dose at 6 weeks of postpartum period and those who received between 6 weeks to one year showed lactation in 84.16% and non-lactation in 15.84%. 28.71% lactating patients had taken injection at 6 weeks of post-partum period and 71.29% had taken between 6 weeks to 1 year. Lactating patients who had taken injection at 6 weeks and continued DMPA for more than 4 injections were 48.27%. 36.84% non-lactating patients had continued for more than 4 injections. This signifies that acceptance and continuation rate of DMPA is more in lactating patients than in non-lactating patients. Conclusions: DMPA is an effective method of contraception in lactating mothers; proper counseling will increase awareness and acceptance of DMPA in lactating mothers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3422-3424

  12. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  13. Nursing practices and lactation amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M F; Teas, J; Johnston, J; Bora, C

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that nursing behavior is an independent underlying factor of importance in duration of amenorrhea. Multivariate analysis is applied to information on frequency and duration of nursing practices, maternal age, and nutritional status assessed by weight for height in a sample of 32 middle-class American women with a wide range of nursing behavior. The mothers were followed for 2 years postpartum, data being collected during 8 home visits by interview and by nursing records kept by the mothers. Amenorrhea lasted 1.3 to 27.1 months in the sample as a whole. Those women who nursed frequently (8/day) during exclusive breastfeeding remained amenorrheic longer than infrequent nursers, introduced supplements later, and did not resume menses as promptly thereafter. They continued an hour or more of night nursing during supplemented nursing. Duration of exclusive nursing and night nursing after supplementation were the major influences on duration of amenorrhea. This strong association favors the hypothesis that the underlying factor is nursing behavior. Mother's age, weight-for-height, and nursing frequency before supplementation showed no significant effect. Those women who introduced supplements late and maintained at least an hour of night nursing had a prolonged period of amenorrhea. The median for this group was 6-10 months longer than that for those who started supplements early and/or reduced subsequent night nursing to less than an hour. The recommendation that women must suckle their babies at least 5 times a day with a total suckling duration of more than 65 minutes per day is not sufficient. The findings reported here suggest that if women nurse exclusively for the 1st half year, maintaining night nursing after introducing supplements is important. If they supplement earlier, then they will lose the contraceptive protection of lactation, irrespective of how they nurse.

  14. Correlation Analysis of the Season, Parity, Lactation Period and Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cow%季节、胎次、泌乳时期与奶牛产奶量及乳成分的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琳琳; 杨继业; 秦雪; 杨忠; 杨琳; 杜光华; 弓瑞娟; 杨德成

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨奶牛产奶量及乳成分随季节、胎次、泌乳时期的变化规律,本研究收集了山西雁北地区某奶牛场2013年11月~2014年10月(12个月)共计5733头次荷斯坦牛的DHI测定数据,利用SPSS软件分析了季节、胎次和泌乳时期对产奶量及乳成分的影响,并对其产奶量及各乳成分间的相关性进行了研究。结果表明:季节和泌乳时期对产奶量、乳脂率、乳蛋白率、乳尿素氮及体细胞数均具有显著的影响。胎次除对乳尿素氮含量的影响不显著外,均显著地影响产奶量及其他乳成分含量。产奶量与乳脂率、乳蛋白率及乳体细胞数呈极显著负相关,与乳尿素氮呈极显著正相关;乳脂率与乳蛋白率、乳体细胞数及尿素氮均呈极显著负相关;乳蛋白率与乳体细胞数呈极显著正相关,与乳尿素氮呈显著负相关;乳体细胞数与乳尿素氮呈显著负相关。%This study studied 5733 Holstein cows’ DHI measurement data during November 2013 to October 2014 (12 months) from a dairy farm located in YanBei, Shanxi to investigate the variation of milk yield and milk composition with the season, parity, lactation period. The SPSS software was used to analyze the inlfuence of the season, parity and lactation period on milk yield and milk composition, as well as the correlation between milk yield and other milk components. The results showed that season and lactation period had a signiifcant impact on milk yield, fat, protein, urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. The parity significantly affect the milk yield and other dairy ingredients, except urea nitrogen. The study also showed that there was a signiifcant negative correlation between milk yield and fat, protein and somatic cell count, and a signiifcant positive correlation between milk yield and urea nitrogen. There was a signiifcantly negative correlation between milk fat percentage and protein percentage, somatic cell count

  15. Exposure to mother's pregnancy and lactation in infancy is associated with sexual attraction to pregnancy and lactation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Aronsson, Hanna; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2011-01-01

    Several theories, including psychodynamic theories, sexual imprinting and early conditioning have been formulated to explain sexual development. Empirical data, however, remain insufficient for a thorough evaluation of these theories. In this study, we test the hypothesis that a critical period exists for the acquisition of sexual preferences, as suggested by empirical findings in birds and mammals (sexual imprinting). An Internet questionnaire was used. We gather data from individuals with a sexual preference for pregnant and/or lactating women, under the hypothesis that pregnancy or lactation may become sexually attractive in adulthood following an exposure to pregnant or lactating women in infancy. We find that these preferences are more common in older siblings, i.e., in individuals who have been exposed to more maternal pregnancy and lactation. This result is independent of respondent and sibling sex. In addition, only maternal pregnancies and lactations experienced between 1.5 and 5 years of age are associated with the preferences. We discuss our findings in relation to theories of sexual development and to earlier reports of birth order effects on sexual behavior. We suggest that this age range may constitute a sensitive period for the acquisition of sexual preferences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R W; Athanasiou, V N

    1978-06-01

    Plasma concentration stability of glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, growth hormone, insulin were determined in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of these metabolites and hormones were measured during a 36- to 48-hour period in 3 normal, mature dairy cows in the 2nd month of lactation. Samples were taken at 30-minute intervals; also, intensive sampling (every 10 minutes) was done at varying times in relation to feeding and milking. Of the 5 components measured, glucose concentration was the most stable, easiest to assay, and most reliable for use as a diagnostic aid in assessing metabolic carbohydrate disturbances in dairy cattle.

  17. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  18. BREAST DISEASES, AN ISSUE DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION. OUR EXPERIENCE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY To study the various breast conditions during pregnancy and lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at various nursing homes in Jammu region during the period of one year (2011—2012. All pregnant/Lactating women with breast related problems were enrolled for the study. A detailed clinical examination was carried out on the first visit and all relevant investigations were carried out. RESULTS Majority of cases were of infective etiology like mastitis (94.11% out of which 60 were lactating and 20 were pregnant, they all got treated with antibiotics and analgesics. Antibioma and abscesses was noted in 1% each, they were drained surgically. Galactocele was noted in one lactating female (1. 16%. Only one patient (1.17%. was noted to have a mass lesion on clinical examination which proved to be malignant on FNAC. CONCLUSION Invariably, most breast disorders during pregnancy or lactation will ultimately prove to be benign. Nevertheless, the possibility of cancer should be kept in mind so as to intervene earliest possible without any risk to mother or fetus.

  19. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  20. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L

    2013-09-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

  1. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise......., such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  2. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M

    1986-01-01

    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  3. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U

    2000-09-01

    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  4. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  5. Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods.

  6. Ultrasound findings of the physiological changes and most common breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Antônio Arildo Reginaldo; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira; de Medeiros, Robinson Dias; de Oliveira, António Manuel Gouveia; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods. PMID:28057965

  7. Lactation-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is reversed by repeated stress exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hillerer, K.M.; Neumann, I. D.; Couillard-Despres, S.; Aigner, L.; Slattery, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The peripartum period is a time of high susceptibility for mood and anxiety disorders, some of which have recently been associated with alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. Several factors including stress, aging, and, perhaps unexpectedly, lactation have been shown to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis. Intriguingly, lactation is also a time of reduced stress responsivity suggesting that the effect of stress on neurogenic processes may differ during this period. Therefore, the aim of the ...

  8. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...

  9. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  10. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken;

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also ...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. Porcine milk oligosaccharides and sialic acid concentrations vary throughout lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk oligosaccharides (OS are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. Objectives: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in characterizing and quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation. Methods: Up to 250 ml of milk was collected from 7 sows at each of three time points: d 0 (colostrum, d 7-9 (mature, and d 17-19 (weaning. Colostrum was collected within 6 h of farrowing and three-day intervals were used for mature and weaning milk to ensure representative sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for OS profiles by Nano LC Chip QTOF MS, OS concentrations via HPAEC-PAD, and SA (total and free was assessed by enzymatic reaction fluorescence detection.Results: Sixty unique OS were identified in porcine milk. Neutral OS were the most abundant at each lactation stage (69-81%, followed by acidic-sialylated OS (16-29% and neutral-fucosylated OS (2-4%. As lactation progressed, acidic OS decreased (P < 0.05, whereas neutral-fucosylated and neutral OS increased (P < 0.05 throughout lactation. Six OS were present in all samples analyzed across lactation (LDFH-I, 2´-FL, LNFP-I, LNnH, 3-Hex, 3´-SL, while LDFT was present only in colostrum samples. Analysis of individual OS concentrations indicated differences (P < 0.05 between days 0 and 7. Conversely, between days 7 and 18, OS concentrations remained stable with only LNnH and LNDFH-I decreasing (P < 0.05 over this period. Analysis of free SA indicated a decrease (P < 0.05 as lactation progressed, while bound and total SA increased (P < 0.05 across lactation. Conclusions: The present data suggest that while porcine milk OS profiles and

  13. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  14. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  15. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-04-15

    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates).

  16. Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Directly Utilize Lactate for Promoting Cell Cycling and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yoshinori; Doi, Toru; Ryu, Youngjae; Nagao, Motoshi; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Ogata, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) undergo marked morphological changes to become mature oligodendrocytes, but the metabolic resources for this process have not been fully elucidated. Although lactate, a metabolic derivative of glycogen, has been reported to be consumed in oligodendrocytes as a metabolite, and to ameliorate hypomyelination induced by low glucose conditions, it is not clear about the direct contribution of lactate to cell cycling and differentiation of OPCs, and the source of lactate for remyelination. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB), an inhibitor of the glycogen catabolic enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, in a mouse cuprizone model. Cuprizone induced demyelination in the corpus callosum and remyelination occurred after cuprizone treatment ceased. This remyelination was inhibited by the administration of DAB. To further examine whether lactate affects proliferation or differentiation of OPCs, we cultured mouse primary OPC-rich cells and analyzed the effect of lactate. Lactate rescued the slowed cell cycling induced by 0.4 mM glucose, as assessed by the BrdU-positive cell ratio. Lactate also promoted OPC differentiation detected by monitoring the mature oligodendrocyte marker myelin basic protein, in the presence of both 36.6 mM and 0.4 mM glucose. Furthermore, these lactate-mediated effects were suppressed by the reported monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate. These results suggest that lactate directly promotes the cell cycling rate and differentiation of OPCs, and that glycogen, one of the sources of lactate, contributes to remyelination in vivo. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 986-995, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Concentração de lactato de cálcio e tempo de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e penetração de espermatozoides suínos na membrana perivitelina do ovo da galinha Calcium lactate concentration and incubation period on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm in the perivitelline membrane of chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dahl Corcini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo testou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de lactato de cálcio e tempos de incubação sobre a capacidade de adesão e a penetração dos espermatozoides suínos nas membranas perivitelinas (MP de ovos de galinhas, na expectativa de desenvolver um teste para estimar o potencial de fertilidade de machos doadores de sêmen. No primeiro experimento, amostras de sêmen (n=12 foram incubadas em meio TCM com lactato de cálcio a 1,1 e 2,2µg mL-1. Posteriormente, após definida a concentração de 1,1µg mL-1 de lactato de cálcio, um segundo experimento comparou três períodos de incubação a 39°C: 10, 15 e 20min. As respostas testadas foram: a taxa de adesão (TA e o número de espermatozoides aderidos (NA na MP externa, e a taxa de penetração (TP e o número de orifícios (NO na MP interna. A TA na MP externa foi de 100%, independentemente da concentração e dos períodos testados. Com a concentração de lactato de cálcio de 1,1µg mL-1, o NA na membrana perivitelina externa e TP e NO na membrana perivitelina interna foram superiores (PThis study tested the effect of different calcium lactate concentrations and incubation periods on the binding and penetration capacity of swine sperm to the perivitelline layers (PL of chicken eggs, with the expectation of developing a test to estimate the potential fertility of boars used as sperm donors. In the first experiment, semen samples (n=12 were incubated with TCM medium ant two calcium lactate levels: 1.1 and 2.2µg mL-1. After the set up of fixed calcium lactate level (1.1µg mL-1, the second experiment compared three incubation periods: 10, 15 and 20min. The observed variables were binding rate (BR and number of bound sperm (NB in the outer PL, and penetration rate (PR and number of holes (NH in the inner PL. The BR to the outer MP was 100%, regardless of the tested concentrations and incubation periods. The NB to the outer perivitelline layer and the PR and the NH in the inner

  18. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque K. Shaikh; Madhuri D. Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Drug use during pregnancy and lactation is an almost inevitable event. Some of the drugs may have adverse effects on the baby on exposure. It is therefore necessary for the physician to be aware of the changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during pregnancy. Knowledge about the known teratogens and drugs safe to be used during pregnancy is essential on the part of the prescribing physician. There are many factors affecting drug passage into the milk and thus affecting the child in s...

  19. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  20. Changes in PACAP immunoreactivity in human milk and presence of PAC1 receptor in mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanaky, Katalin; Banki, Eszter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Reglodi, Dora; Tarcai, Ibolya; Czegledi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Szanto, Zalan; Zapf, Istvan; Sipos, Erika; Shioda, Seiji; Tamas, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence in the nervous system and peripheral organs, including the mammary gland. Previously, we have shown that PACAP38 is present in the human milk at higher levels than in respective blood samples. However, it is not known how PACAP levels and the expression of PAC1 receptor change during lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in human colostrums and transitional and mature milk during lactation and to compare the expression of PAC1 receptors in lactating and non-lactating mammary glands. We found that PACAP38-LI was significantly higher in human colostrum samples than in the transitional and mature milk. PACAP38-LI did not show any significant changes within the first 10-month period of lactation, but a significant increase was observed thereafter, up to the examined 17th month. Weak expression of PAC1 receptors was detected in non-lactating sheep and human mammary glands, but a significant increase was observed in the lactating sheep samples. In summary, the present study is the first to show changes of PACAP levels in human milk during lactation. The presence of PACAP in the milk suggests a potential role in the development of newborn, while the increased expressions of PAC1 receptors on lactating breast may indicate a PACAP38/PAC1 interaction in the mammary gland during lactation.

  1. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... time for onset of lactation was positively correlated with transition MY (P ... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  2. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  3. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H;

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) wer...

  4. Changes in myocardial lactate, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate ratio during cardiopulmonary bypass for elective adult cardiac surgery: Early indicator of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial lactate assays have been established as a standard method to compare various myocardial protection strategies. This study was designed to test whether coronary sinus (CS lactates, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate (LP ratio correlates with myocardial dysfunction and predict postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CS blood sampling was done for estimation of myocardial lactate (ML, pyruvate (MP and lactate-pyruvate ratio (MLPR namely: pre-CPB (T 1 , after removal of aortic cross clamp (T 2 and 30 minutes post-CPB (T 3 . Results: Baseline myocardial LPR strongly correlated with Troponin-I at T1 (s: 0.6. Patients were sub grouped according to the median value of myocardial lactate (2.9 at baseline T1 into low myocardial lactate (LML group, mean (2.39±0.4 mmol/l, n=19 and a high myocardial lactate (HML group, mean (3.65±0.9 mmol/l, n=21. A significant increase in PL, ML, MLPR and TropI occurred in both groups as compared to baseline. Patients in HML group had significant longer period of ICU stay. Patients with higher inotrope score had significantly higher ML (T2, T3. ML with a baseline value of 2.9 mmol/l had 70.83% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (ROC area: 0.7109 Std error: 0.09 while myocardial pyruvate with a baseline value of 0.07 mmol/l has 79.17% sensitivity and 68.75% specificity (ROC area: 0.7852, Std error: 0.0765 for predicting inotrope requirement after CPB. Conclusion: CS lactate, pyruvate and LP ratio correlate with myocardial function and can predict postoperative outcome.

  5. Oxidation of Exogenous Lactate by Lactate Dehydrogenase C in the Midpiece of Rat Epididymal Sperm is Essential for Motility and Oxidative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Yamashiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To identify the metabolic reaction-glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation that is mainly involved in the production of energy required for rat sperm mobilization. Approach: Epididymal sperm were collected from Wistar rats and extended in lactate-containing or lactate-free raffinose-modified Krebs-Ringer Bicarbonate solution (mKRB-egg yolk medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 3 mM 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2 DG and 1, 2, or 3 mM sodium Oxamate (OX. Sperm motility, straight-line velocity (VSL and oxygen consumption were evaluated. Further, immunofluorescent localization of Lactate Dehydrogenase C (LDH-C in sperm was also performed. Results: Low concentrations of 2DG (1 and 2 mM did not significantly affect motility, VSL and oxygen consumption of sperm extended in the lactate-containing medium. While sperm motility and oxygen consumption were significantly inhibited by even 1mM 2DG in sperm extended in lactate-free medium. Sperm motility significantly inhibited in the case of sperm extended in lactate-containing and free-medium with 1 mM OX. We also found that sperm motility was not maintained in the absence of lactate throughout the 3 h incubation period. Immunofluorescence study revealed that mainly LDH-C was may be localized in the intramitochondrial region of the sperm. Conclusion: These results suggest that exogenous lactate enhances lactate oxidation by LDH-C, thereby promoting mitochondrial oxidative reactions in the midpiece and maintaining the mobilization of rat epididymal sperm.

  6. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  7. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  8. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  10. Food intake and nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and weaning in the dam and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    In mammalian species, the connection between reproduction and nutrition is undeniable and illustrated by numerous publications: its role concerning regulation of hormonal secretions, fertility, pregnancy outcome, lactation and neonatal development indeed retains the attention of the scientific community. The interest on the influence of nutrition in dog and cat reproductive physiology is growing. Awareness on the key aspects of feeding during critical periods like pregnancy, lactation and weaning is essential to optimize the reproductive performances in these species.

  11. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Lactation in Half-lactating Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-cai; ZHONG Guang-hui; WANG Yong; PENG Xian-wen; MAO Yong-jiang; ZOU Si-xiang; CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Jie

    2002-01-01

    Yaks of two lactating types, the half-lactating yak and the total lactating yak, were investigated in their milk compositions, milk coagulation properties, and contents of three kinds of hormones, glucose,and protein in plasma. The half-lactating Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak contained significantly higher contents of protein, fat, and activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in milk than that of the corresponding total-lactating yak breeds, with reduced milk yield and similar lactose level and relative percentages of main milk protein components. The half-lactatin yak resembled yaks in a late stage of lactation in their biochemical composition of milk; however, significant differences were also observed, which indicated that the former was in a special stage of lactation quite different from dairy cows. Milk of the total-lactating or halflactating yaks could be coagulated normally by adding chymosin, with a similar coagulation time. No significant difference was observed between prolactin and progesterone concentrations in plasma of the half-lactating yaks and total-lactating yaks; however, half-lactating yaks had significantly lower level of oestradiol-17 β in plasma than total-lactating yaks.

  12. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  13. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  14. Efeito da raça, dieta, época e ordem de parição na concentração de imunoglobulina G no colostro de suínos Effect of breed, diet, period and lactation numbers on immunoglobulin G concentration in swine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Machado Neto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da raça, dieta, época do ano e ordem de parição na concentração de imunoglobulina G (IgG no colostro de porcas. A concentração de IgG foi determinada no colostro de 60 porcas, 33 da raça Large White e 27 da raça Landrace, submetidas a dietas contendo 0%, 7%, 14% e 21% de levedura seca (LS. A levedura seca de destilaria de álcool de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharomyces cerevisiae substituiu parte do milho e do farelo de soja da ração mantendo o nível de 14% de proteína bruta. Não foi verificado efeito significativo (P>0,05 de raça e da dieta sobre a concentração de IgG do colostro. Os valores mais elevados de IgG foram observados no colostro de porcas que pariram entre maio e outubro (PThe objective of the present study was to determine the effects of breed, diet, period of the year and lactation numbers on the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG in sows colostrum. IgG concentration was determined in colostrum of 60 sows (33 Large White and 27 Landrace submitted to four different diets with 0%, 7%, 14% and 21% of dried yeast. Dried yeast from alcohol of sugar cane industry (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as substitute for corn and soybean mill keeping the level of crude protein at 14%. IgG concentration in the colostrum was not affected by breed and diet. Higher concentration of IgG was found in colostrum of sows farrowing occurred between May and October (P<0.05. Quadratic (P<0.10 and cubic (P<0.01 effects of parturition order on IgG concentration were detected. Females from first parturition had lower concentration (P<0.05 of IgG (49.98±7.9 mg/mL compared to females from second (92.70±5.9 mg/mL, third (70.72±5.6 mg/mL and fourth (85.56±9.0 mg/mL parturition, demonstrating that animals with more immunological experience have higher concentrations of IgG in the colostrum.

  15. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  16. Diet, energy expenditure, and body composition of lactating Ribeirinha women in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Dufour, Darna L

    2007-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically demanding part of human reproduction; yet, compared with pregnancy, we know little about the strategies women in different settings employ to cope with these increased energy demands. This paper takes a biocultural approach and reports longitudinal data on the anthropometry, dietary intakes and energy expenditure of a sample of 23 rural, lactating Ribeirinha women living in subsistence-based communities in the eastern Amazon. The dietary intakes of these lactating women were insufficient to meet their lactating energy needs and were least sufficient during resguardo, a 40-day period in the immediate postpartum when the women observed a series of food taboos and work restrictions. Instead, the women in this study met the increased energy demands of lactation by drawing on their energy reserves and reducing their energy expenditure in physical activity. The women showed a significant reduction in weight (Penergy expenditure (TDEE) was lowest during resguardo and increased as lactation progressed (P=0.01). While the practice of resguardo reduced maternal energy expenditure and allowed women more time to spend with their newborn infants, it came at a cost (low dietary intake), which appears to be related to the loss of the adult woman from subsistence activities. By taking a biocultural approach this study illustrates the role the social environment plays in shaping the experience of lactating women.

  17. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Torpor use during gestation and lactation in a primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I.; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-02-01

    Torpor is an energy-saving mechanism that allows endotherms to overcome energetic challenges. Torpor should be avoided during reproduction because of potential incompatibility with offspring growth. To test if torpor can be used during gestation and lactation to compensate for food shortage, we exposed reproductive female grey mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus), a heterothermic primate, to different levels of food availability. Torpor use was characterised by daily skin temperature profiles, and its energetic outcome was assessed from changes in body mass. Food shortage triggered torpor during the end of the gestation period ( n = 1), ranging from shallow in response to 40% food restriction to deep daily torpor in response to 80% restriction. During the early period of lactation, females fed ad libitum ( n = 2) or exposed to a 40% restriction ( n = 4) remained normothermic; but 80% food restricted females ( n = 5) gave priority to energy saving, increasing the frequency and depth of torpor bouts. The use of torpor was insufficient to compensate for 80% energetic shortage during lactation resulting in loss of mass from the mother and delayed growth in the pups. This study provides the first evidence that a heterothermic primate can use torpor to compensate for food shortages even during reproduction. This physiological flexibility likely evolved as a response to climate-driven fluctuations in food availability in Madagascar.

  19. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.

    The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth

  20. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  1. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  2. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    ]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  3. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria

    2005-01-01

    +-depressed rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na+-K+ pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force...

  4. Clinical and Histological Studies on Lactation in Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. BARADARAN

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 100 nursing mothers chosen at random, the average age of weaning was 15 months. There is some relationsh ip between maternal age and parity. One quarter of thc patients started to menstruate during th e first 3 months of the postpartum per iod. and the number increased at a rate of 10 ';.;; every three months. Thus by the end of the first year more than half of the lactating mothers had menstrua ted, The incidence of postpa rtum amenorrhea was 37 ~j~. The duration or amenorrhea ranged between 6 months and 30 months. Pregnancy was the commonest cau se of weaning. Histologica l fi ndings show a " physiological endometritis" in the early post partum period and evidence of estcrogenic under stimulation in the proli fe rativc phase in ca ses of long lactation. No evidence of luteal phase defect in the secreta ry pattern was observed in nursing mothers.

  5. 哺乳期过度喂养对断乳后大鼠胃组织脑肠肽生长激素释放肽及血清瘦素水平的影响%Effect of Over - Feeding during Lactation Period on Expressions of Ghrelin in Gastric Tissue and Leptin in Serum in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华; 侯淼; 祝丽珺; 郭梅; 张丽; 李晓南

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察哺乳期过度喂养大鼠断乳后胃组织脑肠肽生长激素释放肽(Ghrelin)表达和循环中瘦素(Leptin)水平的变化,探讨早期过度喂养导致成年期代谢综合征的病理生理机制.方法 应用SD大鼠模型,雄仔出生后分为正常喂养组(NF组,每窝10只)和哺乳期过度喂养组(OF组,每窝3只).出生3周断乳,均给予正常饮食.ELISA法及放射免疫分析法分别测定其血清Leptin、Ghrelin及胰岛素水平,实时定量PCR及免疫组织化学测定其胃组织Ghrehn mRNA和蛋白表达水平.结果 OF组大鼠从出生第2周起体质量持续显著高于NF组(P<0.05),并在16周时出现糖耐量受损,胰岛素水平显著增加(P<0.05).NF组和OF组血清Leptin水平自青春期迅速增加,第4周起,OF组epti水平显著高于NF组(F=7.94,P<0.05),血清Ghrelin在各时间点上均无组间差异(Pa>0.05).NF组和OF组胃组织Ghrelin mRNA的表达均随年龄逐渐增加,在8周时达高峰(P<0.05),但2组间在各个时间点上差异均无统计学意义(Pa>0.05).免疫组织化学显示Ghrelin阳性细胞面积的变化趋势同mRNA表达基本一致.结论 大鼠哺乳期过度喂养可导致其成年期肥胖和胰岛素抵抗.哺乳期过度喂养对大鼠胃组织Ghrelin表达和分泌无明显影响,但血清kptin水平持续升高,长期食欲调控的抵抗和代谢失衡可能参与成年期肥胖和代谢紊乱的发生.%Objective To observe the effects of over - feeding during lactation period on the ghrelin expression and leptin levels in gastric tissue and serum,and explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome induced by over - feeding. Methods Male Sprague - Dawley rats pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of 10 rats( normal feeding group, NF group) or 3 rats( over - feeding group, OF group) in postnatal day 3,and then standard chow was given after weaning(postnatal day 21 ). Serum hormones insulin was assayed by specific radioimmunoas-say, leptin and

  6. Potentially increased sensitivity of pregnant and lactating female rats to immunotoxic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, A.; Wolterbeek, A.; Snel, C.; Bruijntjes, J.; Groot, D.D.; Oostrum, L.V.; Waalkens, I.; Kuper, C.F.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristic susceptibility to environmental and pharmaceutical exposure may occur during periods in life of marked histophysiological changes of the immune system. Perinatal development is such a period; pregnancy followed by lactation is potentially another one. Here, we explored the influence o

  7. The rate of lactate removal after maximal exercise: the effect of intensity during active recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganas, C S; Papadopoulou, Z; Psichas, N; Skoufas, D; Gissis, I; Sampanis, M; Paschalis, V; Vrabas, I S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the greater rate of lactate removal after a maximal rowing test using different intensities during active recovery. Thirty elite male rowers performed a simulated incremental exercise protocol on rowing ergometer to determine their maximal oxygen uptake and they divided into three equal sized group according to the type of the recovery that followed the assessment. The first group (N.=10) subjected to 20 min of passive recovery, while the second (N.=10) and the third (N.=10) groups performed 20 min of active recovery using the 25% and the 50% of each individual’s maximal power output, respectively. During the recovery period, every two min were performed measurements for the assessment of blood lactate, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). It was found that after 10 min of active recovery at 50% and 25% of maximal power output lactate concentration reduced by 43% and 15%, respectively, while during passive recovery lactate concentration found to be slightly elevated by 1%. It was also found that during recovery period, HR, oxygen consumption and pulmonary ventilation was significant elevated at higher exercise intensity compared to lower exercise intensity and passive recovery. It is concluded that in elite male rowers the active recovery provided higher rate of lactate removal compared to passive recovery. Moreover, active recovery at 50% of maximal power output had better results in lactate clearance compared to the active recovery of lower intensity (25% of maximal power output).

  8. A longitudinal study of serum cobalamins and its binding proteins in lactating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, A L; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Møller, U K;

    2006-01-01

    were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in serum cobalamins or its binding proteins related to supplementation with vitamin B12 or the duration of lactation. Serum cobalamins remained unchanged from 3 weeks to 9 months post-partum. Total TC (holoTC) (median+/-s.e. pmol...... in HC during a 9-month period post-partum. No differences were observed between the vitamin B12-supplemented and the unsupplemented groups. Thus, supplementation with vitamin B12 has no impact on the circulating level of serum cobalamins or its binding proteins in a Danish population of lactating......OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal changes in serum cobalamins, transcobalamin (TC) and haptocorrin (HC) during lactation and to investigate the influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on these parameters. DESIGN: A 9-month follow-up study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lactating mothers (N=89) including...

  9. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;

    2010-01-01

    of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...

  10. Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Fang, L H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13) lactating sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with an initial BW of 218.8 ± 19.5kg was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1). Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04). Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06) and litter weight gain (P = 0.04) during lactation period (0-3 week). Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04). In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07). Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05). Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

  11. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  12. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  13. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  14. Medical image of the week: lactate threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalabih MR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lactate or anaerobic threshold in exercise physiology is the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulate as the anaerobic component of metabolism increases and has been used to assess cardiopulmonary fitness. The V-slope method is a non-invasive way of estimating the lactate or anaerobic threshold (1. As lactate accumulates the H+ is mainly buffered by HCO3- and produces CO2. A point can be seen in Figure 1 where CO2 production (VCO2 abruptly increases relative to O2 consumption (VO2 . This represents the point at which anaerobic threshold occurs.

  15. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  16. Metabolic side-effects of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 150 mg three-monthly, in undernourished lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study on the metabolic side-effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in undernourished lactating women, compared with non-lactating women, in three centres in India and Thailand are reported. Analysis of the data on anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the time of recruitment indicated that the lactating women were lighter and had lower plasma glucose and triglyceride levels and a higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Serum cholesterol levels tended to be higher during the first six months of lactation. Use of DMPA over a period of one year was not associated with any alteration in glucose tolerance and in the serum triglyceride, total protein and albumin levels. The observed fall in the cholesterol level and alkaline phosphatase activity in DMPA users might be attributed to waning lactation. PMID:3490928

  17. Twelve-month-old infants anticipatorily plan their actions according to expected object weight in a novel motor context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Boone Upshaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 g versus 470 g; red versus yellow. Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60, or blocks of the reversed color-weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60, were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants’ force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block’s weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context.

  18. Twelve-Month-Old Infants Anticipatorily Plan Their Actions According to Expected Object Weight in a Novel Motor Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela Boone; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 versus 470 g; red versus yellow). Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60), or blocks of the reversed color–weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60), were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants’ force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block’s weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context. PMID:25756040

  19. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2017-07-03

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Macular epiretinal brachytherapy in treated age-related macular degeneration: MERITAGE study: twelve-month safety and efficacy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel, Pravin U; Petrarca, Robert; Bennett, Michael; Barak, Adiel; Weinberger, Dov; Nau, Jeffrey; Jackson, Timothy L

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy (EMB) for the treatment of chronic, active, neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective, multicenter, interventional, noncontrolled clinical trial. Fifty-three eyes of 53 participants with neovascular AMD requiring frequent anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) retreatment. Participants underwent pars plana vitrectomy with a single 24-Gy dose of EMB delivered using an intraocular, handheld cannula containing a strontium 90/yttrium 90 source positioned over the active lesion. Participants were retreated with ranibizumab administered monthly as needed, using predefined retreatment criteria. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was undertaken monthly, with images assessed by an independent reading center. Coprimary outcomes at 12 months were proportion of participants with stable vision (losing brachytherapy produces stable visual acuity in most participants with previously treated, active disease. Epimacular brachytherapy may reduce the need for frequent anti-VEGF retreatment. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  2. Twelve-month-old infants anticipatorily plan their actions according to expected object weight in a novel motor context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Michaela Boone; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Planning actions in anticipation of object weight is fundamental to skilled action production. The present study investigated whether infants can apply weight information gained from direct actions on objects in order to plan their actions according to object weight in a novel and indirect motor context. In the present study, two groups of 12-month-old infants were provided with experience acting directly on two blocks of different weights and colors (70 versus 470 g; red versus yellow). Subsequently, infants were administered a novel task in which the same blocks (standard condition; n = 60), or blocks of the reversed color-weight pairings (switch condition; n = 60), were placed out-of-reach, on top of a cloth, and infants were encouraged to retrieve the block by acting on the cloth. Infants in the switch condition produced more failed cloth pulls when retrieving the 470 g block, due to inadequate generation of anticipatory force, relative to infants in the standard condition. This demonstrates that infants' force on the cloth was prospectively generated based on their mental representation of the supported block's weight, which was formed through their previous direct actions on the object. Thus, infants use information about the weight of an object in order to anticipate how to obtain that object in a novel and indirect problem-solving context.

  3. Improving Physical Health in Patients With Chronic Mental Disorders: Twelve-Month Results From a Randomized Controlled Collaborative Care Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Barbaresso, Michelle M; Lai, Zongshan; Nord, Kristina M; Bramlet, Margretta; Goodrich, David E; Post, Edward P; Almirall, Daniel; Bauer, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Persons with chronic mental disorders are disproportionately burdened with physical health conditions. We determined whether Life Goals Collaborative Care compared to usual care improves physical health in patients with mental disorders within 12 months. This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study of a collaborative care model was conducted at a midwestern Veterans Affairs urban outpatient mental health clinic. Patients (N = 293 out of 474 eligible approached) with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and at least 1 cardiovascular disease risk factor provided informed consent and were randomized (February 24, 2010, to April 29, 2015) to Life Goals (n = 146) or usual care (n = 147). A total of 287 completed baseline assessments, and 245 completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Life Goals included 5 weekly sessions that provided semistructured guidance on managing physical and mental health symptoms through healthy behavior changes, augmented by ongoing care coordination. The primary outcome was change in physical health-related quality of life score (Veterans RAND 12-item Short Form Health Survey [VR-12] physical health component score). Secondary outcomes included control of cardiovascular risk factors from baseline to 12 months (blood pressure, lipids, weight), mental health-related quality of life, and mental health symptoms. Among patients completing baseline and 12-month outcomes assessments (N = 245), the mean age was 55.3 years (SD = 10.8; range, 25-78 years), and 15.4% were female. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that compared to those in usual care, patients randomized to Life Goals had slightly increased VR-12 physical health scores (coefficient = 3.21; P = .01). Patients with chronic mental disorders and cardiovascular disease risk who received Life Goals had improved physical health-related quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01487668 and NCT01244854.

  4. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Dexamethasone Implants for Macular Edema from Various Diseases in Vitrectomized and Nonvitrectomized Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Paulo Augusto de Arruda Mello; Dias, João Rafael de Oliveira; de Andrade, Gabriel C.; Louzada, Ricardo N.; Ávila, Marcos; Berrocal, Maria; Farah, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and the number of dexamethasone implants needed to treat cystoid macular edema (CME) from various etiologies over 12 months in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Methods. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 112 patients with CME secondary to retinal diseases treated pro re nata (PRN) with a 0.7 mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant for 12 months. The BCVA, CRT, adverse events, safety data, and number of implants were recorded. Results. Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes received means of three implants and one implant, respectively, over 12 months (P < 0.001). The mean BCVA of all patients improved from 0.13 at baseline to 0.33 (P < 0.001) 12 months after one (P = 0.001), two (P = 0.041), and three (P < 0.001) implants but not four implants (P = 0.068). The mean baseline CRT decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 463 to 254 microns after 12 months with one (P < 0.001), two (P = 0.002), and three (P = 0.001) implants but not with four implants (P = 0.114). The anatomic and functional outcomes were not significantly different between vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Increased IOP was the most common adverse event (23.2%). Conclusions. Dexamethasone implant administered PRN improved VA and decreased CRT in CME, with possible long-term clinically relevant benefits for treating CME from various etiologies. Vitrectomized eyes needed more implants compared with nonvitrectomized eyes. PMID:27721989

  5. Twelve-Month Follow-Up of Dexamethasone Implants for Macular Edema from Various Diseases in Vitrectomized and Nonvitrectomized Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Novais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central retinal thickness (CRT, and the number of dexamethasone implants needed to treat cystoid macular edema (CME from various etiologies over 12 months in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Methods. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 112 patients with CME secondary to retinal diseases treated pro re nata (PRN with a 0.7 mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant for 12 months. The BCVA, CRT, adverse events, safety data, and number of implants were recorded. Results. Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes received means of three implants and one implant, respectively, over 12 months (P<0.001. The mean BCVA of all patients improved from 0.13 at baseline to 0.33 (P<0.001 12 months after one (P=0.001, two (P=0.041, and three (P<0.001 implants but not four implants (P=0.068. The mean baseline CRT decreased significantly (P<0.001 from 463 to 254 microns after 12 months with one (P<0.001, two (P=0.002, and three (P=0.001 implants but not with four implants (P=0.114. The anatomic and functional outcomes were not significantly different between vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Increased IOP was the most common adverse event (23.2%. Conclusions. Dexamethasone implant administered PRN improved VA and decreased CRT in CME, with possible long-term clinically relevant benefits for treating CME from various etiologies. Vitrectomized eyes needed more implants compared with nonvitrectomized eyes.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of interventions for young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: twelve-month outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Phillips, Lisa J; Yuen, Hok Pan; Francey, Shona M; Thampi, Annette; Berger, Gregor E; Amminger, G Paul; Simmons, Magenta B; Kelly, Daniel; Dip, Grad; Thompson, Andrew D; Yung, Alison R

    2013-04-01

    The ultra-high risk clinical phenotype is associated with substantial distress and functional impairment and confers a greatly enhanced risk for transition to full-threshold psychosis. A range of interventions aimed at relieving current symptoms and functional impairment and reducing the risk of transition to psychosis has shown promising results, but the optimal type and sequence of intervention remain to be established. The aim of this study was to determine which intervention was most effective at preventing transition to psychosis: cognitive therapy plus low-dose risperidone, cognitive therapy plus placebo, or supportive therapy plus placebo. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-month trial of low-dose risperidone, cognitive therapy, or supportive therapy was conducted in a cohort of 115 clients of the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic, a specialized service for young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis located in Melbourne, Australia. Recruitment commenced in August 2000 and ended in May 2006. The primary outcome measure was transition to full-threshold psychosis, defined a priori as frank psychotic symptoms occurring at least daily for 1 week or more and assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Secondary outcome measures were psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. The estimated 12-month transition rates were as follows: cognitive therapy + risperidone, 10.7%; cognitive therapy + placebo, 9.6%; and supportive therapy + placebo, 21.8%. While there were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups in transition rates (log-rank test P = .60), all 3 groups improved substantially during the trial, particularly in terms of negative symptoms and overall functioning. The lower than expected, essentially equivalent transition rates in all 3 groups fail to provide support for the first-line use of antipsychotic medications in patients at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and an initial approach with supportive therapy is likely to be effective and carries fewer risks. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Twelve Month Weekly Monitoring of Stable Isotopes of Water Associated to the Flooding of the Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of extraction, the mine of Meirama stopped the production of brown lignite. Since April 2008, a controlled flooding process is taking place by which a large mining lake with nearly 150 cubic hectometers and a maximum depth of 180 meters will join the geography of Galicia in a few years. A weekly-based monitoring survey has been taking place in the lake since the beginning of the flooding process. Nearly 50 components and physico-chemical parameters of a series of sampling points located in the surface of the lake as well as in related tributaries, ground and rain waters are being recorded. Among the parameters analyzed, the stable isotopes of water (18-O and 2-H) are worth noting. The data collected so far help us to better understand the hydrological processes occurring in the first year of flooding and combined with different types of chemical constituents (conservative and non-conservative) put important constrains on the hydrochemical processes observed in the lake up to date.

  8. A national evaluation of community-based youth cessation programs: end of program and twelve-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Susan J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Emery, Sherry L; Sporer, Amy K; Berbaum, Michael L; Campbell, Richard T; Flay, Brian; Warnecke, Richard B

    2013-03-01

    Most youth cessation treatment research consists of efficacy studies in which treatments are evaluated under optimal conditions of delivery. Less is known about the effectiveness of youth cessation treatments delivered in real-world, community based settings. A national sample of 41 community-based youth cessation programs participated in a longitudinal evaluation to identify site, program, and participant characteristics associated with successful cessation. Validated quit rates were comparable to those in randomized controlled trials; 7-day abstinence at the end of program averaged 14% and 30-day abstinence at 12 months averaged 12%. Multivariate GEE models explored predictors of smoking cessation at the end of the programs and at 12 months. Results showed correlates of both short- and long-term cessation. Findings point to the importance of both individual and community-level variables, including motivation, opportunities for and encouragement to engage in activities outside of academics, having youth participate in treatment before they become highly dependent smokers, and community norms and ordinances that discourage youth purchase, use and possession of tobacco. Providing evidence-based treatment to youth in community-based settings results in successful cessation.

  9. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Doce Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Twelve-Month-Old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; Ramey, Craig T.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the twelfth month of life. Following a brief description of developmental characteristics at this age, the pamphlet offers advice on a variety of topics,…

  10. Analysis of the equine ovarian structure during the first twelve months of life by three-dimensional internal structure microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mamiko; Akuzawa, Hiroki; Nambo, Yasuo; Hirano, Yuuko; Kimura, Junpei; Takemoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Sakiko; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro; Higuchi, Tohru; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) can clarify the anatomical arrangement of internal structures of equine ovaries. In this study, morphological changes of the equine ovary over the first 12 months of life were investigated by 3D-ISM in 59 fillies and by histological analysis in 2 fillies. The weight and volume of the paired ovaries initially decreased from 0 to 1 months to 2 to 3 months of age and then significantly increased at 8 to 12 months of age. The ovulation fossa was first observed around the 3rd month and became evident after the 6th month. The number of follicles with a diameter of ≥10 mm and the diameter of the largest follicle increased gradually after 6 months of age. On a volume basis, the medulla accounted for nearly 90% of the whole ovary at 0 to 1 months of age, but significantly decreased from 2 to 3 months of age. The volume of the cortex increased progressively after birth and reached approximately 60% of the total volume at 8 to 12 months of age. This significant development of the cortex coincided with the increased number and size of large follicles observed from 6 months of age. These results suggest that the development of the cortex plays a role in the maturation of the follicles and the equine ovary undergoes substantial morphological changes postnatally until puberty.

  11. Twelve-month contraceptive continuation and repeat pregnancy among young mothers choosing postdelivery contraceptive implants or postplacental intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rebecca; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Arango, Natalia; Teal, Stephanie B; Tocce, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    To compare discontinuation rates and incidence of repeat pregnancy within 1 year among young mothers choosing postplacental intrauterine devices (IUDs) versus postpartum contraceptive implants. We enrolled a prospective cohort of postpartum adolescents and young women who chose either postplacental IUDs or postpartum contraceptive implants prior to hospital discharge. We used chart review and phone interviews to assess device discontinuation (by request or expulsion) and pregnancy within 12 months. Of the 244 13-22 year-old participants, 82 chose IUDs (74 levonorgestrel IUDs and 8 copper IUDs), and 162 chose implants. Both groups had participant-requested discontinuation rates of 14% (9/67 IUD; 19/135 implant) within 1 year. Participants choosing IUDs had a 25% (17/67) expulsion rate. Median time to expulsion was 4.1 weeks (range: 0.4-29.3 weeks, 16/17 within 12 weeks), and participants recognized 15/17 expulsions. IUD initiators had significantly higher pregnancy rates by 12 months (7.6% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Most pregnancies occurred when women discontinued their initial device and did not start alternative contraception. Participant-requested discontinuation was similar in both groups. Differences in overall device discontinuation rates were due to IUD expulsions. Pregnancy rates by 12 months postpartum were lower than previously reported in this age group in both implant initiators and IUD initiators. Young mothers who choose postplacental IUDs or postpartum contraceptive implants are unlikely to request removal within the first year. Clinicians should counsel postplacental IUD users that early expulsion is common (25%) and may be unrecognized (11% of expulsions). Patients should have a plan for contraceptive management should expulsion occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Tessum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM. We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM, and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE with a volatility basis set (VBS secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3 mean fractional bias (MFB of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%, underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110% and organic carbon (MFB = −29%, and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3% and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%, so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  13. Twelve-Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Haro Abad, Josep M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Beautrais, Annette; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tomov, Toma; Uda, Hidenori; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, clinicians and researchers lack a data-driven method to assess the risk of suicide attempts. This study reports the results of an analysis of a large cross-national epidemiologic survey database that estimates the 12-month prevalence

  14. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  15. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  16. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  17. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  18. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  19. Produção e composição do leite de vacas de quatro grupos genéticos submetidas a dois manejos alimentares no período de lactação Production and composition of milk of cows of four genetic groups submitted to two feeding managements during the lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cerdótes

    2004-06-01

    bulls, and NC crossbreds, daughters of N bulls, maintained on native pasture and submitted to different managements during pre-weaning: supplemented with rice bran (.7% of the body weight and weaned at 42 or 63 days postpartum, or non supplemented and weaned at 63 days. The cow age varied from 3 to 12 years, being classified as: first calf, young, adult and old cows. The data were submitted to variance analysis, the statistic model included management, cow genetic group, cow age and period effects and the interactions among these factors. Lactose and fat contents were not influenced by the factors studied. There was a significant interaction between cow age and period for milk production and between management and cow age for protein content. Supplemented cows showed higher milk production (3.85 vs 3.25 L/day, total dry extract content - EST (12.18 vs 11.83% and nonfat dry extract content - ESD (8.75 vs 8.57%. The milk production declined as the lactation period advanced, and the reduction was more accentuated in the non supplemented cows. CN crossbred cows produced more milk (4.17 L/day than the straigthbreds, not differing from the NC crossbred (3.76 L/day. N cows showed milk production similar to the C cows, respectively, 3.16 and 3.11 L/day. However, N cows milk was of better quality, including protein (3.16 vs 2.86%, EST (12.52 vs 11.46% and ESD (8.87 vs 8.49%. Adult cows showed higher ESD content, followed by the young cows, first calf and old cows, being 8.86; 8.62; 8.62 and 8.54%, respectively.

  20. The impact of introducing universal umbilical cord blood gas analysis and lactate measurement at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher R H; Doherty, Dorota A; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2014-02-01

    There is growing support for umbilical cord blood gas analysis (UCBGA) to be conducted at delivery. A recent study in a tertiary level obstetric unit found that universal UCBGA was associated with improved perinatal outcomes, but there is less evidence of benefit in lower-risk environments. In such settings, lactate analysis may be a suitable alternative. This study evaluated the introduction of universal UCBGA into a secondary obstetric unit and universal umbilical cord lactate analysis program into primary and secondary units. After education, universal UCBGA or lactate analysis was introduced into one primary and two secondary level obstetric units. Univariate and adjusted analysis assessed changes in UCBGA values and Apgar scores over the study period. There were no significant changes in mean blood gas and lactate values at any centre following introduction of universal UCBGA or lactate analysis. However, there was at the primary level obstetric unit a significant reduction in the proportion of neonates with moderate to severe elevations in umbilical artery lactate values. There was a non-significant reduction in arterial pH values less than 7.10 at the secondary metropolitan centre. The data presented in this study suggest that the benefits of introducing UCBGA into a tertiary obstetric centre may be reproduced in a primary obstetric centre within 12 months of implementation. Larger studies are required in secondary units to assess infrequent adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Diagnostic performance of initial serum lactate for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Young; Jo, Sion; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Jeong, Taeoh; Yoon, Jaechol; Park, Boyoung

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of lactate for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). We conducted a retrospective study of female patients with APN who visited the study hospital emergency department. The demographics, comorbidities, physiologies, and laboratory variables including white blood cell count and segmented neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and initial serum lactate levels were collected and analyzed to identify associations with the presence of bacteremia. During the study period, a total of 314 patients were enrolled. One hundred twenty-three patients (39.2%) had bacteremia. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the lactate level was independently associated with the presence of bacteremia (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.78]). The C-statistic of the lactate level was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.60-0.73). At a cutoff value of 1.4mmol/L, the lactate level predicted bacteremia with a sensitivity (53.7%), specificity (72.3%), positive predictive value (55.5%), negative predictive value (70.8%), positive likelihood ratio (1.93), and negative likelihood ratio (0.64). The initial serum lactate level showed poor discriminative performance for predicting bacteremia in female patients with APN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Posthemorrhage glycogen and lactate metabolism in the liver: an experimental study with postprandial rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boija, P.O.; Nylander, G.; Suhaili, A.; Ware, J.

    1988-06-01

    Glycogen and lactate metabolism was studied in livers from three groups of postprandial rats sustaining 70 mm Hg hemorrhagic hypotension for variable periods, 60 min (60H group), 120 min (120H group), and nonbled controls. The donor livers were investigated after completed hemorrhage using an in vitro perfusion system with L-lactate as substrate, together with U-/sup 14/C-lactate. The residual glycogen stores were determined after perfusions. The incorporation of labelled lactate to glucose was increased in the 120H group by 66.7% and 116.8% compared to the 60H group and controls (p less than 0.01), but glycogenolysis was still the main source of glucose released in the 120H group. Glycogen formation from labelled lactate was 46.6% higher in the 120H group compared to controls (p less than 0.05) and lactate oxidation was decreased by 67.5% (p less than 0.05). The data suggest that hepatocytes are capable of rapid change from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis during hemorrhagic hypovolemia. However, energy-sparing glycogen breakdown is given priority over gluconeogenesis as long as glycogen remains available.

  3. Hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melinda A; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2008-09-01

    Northern elephant seals exhibit the rare strategy of fasting and lactating concomitantly. We investigated hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in northern elephant seals using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) performed early in lactation and again just prior to weaning. For comparison, identical measurements were made on separate females late in the molt fast. Serial blood samples were used to assess glucose clearance and hormone responses for 3 h post glucose injection. Plasma glucose remained elevated at the end of the sampling period in all groups. Glucose clearance rates were not significantly different among test groups. A significant insulin response was observed in early lactation, no significant response was observed late in lactation and an intermediate response was observed late in the molt fast. The insulin response to a glucose load decreased with adipose tissue proportions. Plasma glucagon decreased significantly following GTT in early and late lactation, although the magnitude of the depression was small in comparison to other species. Hypoinsulemia may be critical to facilitate net lipolysis late in lactation. Consistently low glucose clearance among test groups suggests insulin insensitivity within peripheral tissues. Glucagon suppression independent of insulin release suggests modification of the typical insulin-glucagon counter-regulation. These findings suggest that metabolic features of diabetic-like conditions may be adaptive in the context of long-term fasting.

  4. PREDICTION OF LACTATION YIELD FROM LAST-RECORD DAY AND AVERAGE DAILY YIELD IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, A. U. Hyder, I. R. Bajwa, M. S. Rehman and F. Hassan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Different adjustment procedures were compared to determine if prediction of lactation milk yield using last record day information could be improved by using information on the average daily milk yield of the recorded lactation. Weekly milk yield records of 993 Nili-Ravi buffaloes for 2704 lactations were used for the study. Comparison of different procedures of lactation milk yield adjustment from partial/incomplete or complete lactations indicated that milk yield predicted from a linear regression equation, or from last test day information, was higher as compared to actual milk yield due to extrapolation to a higher base. Simple linear regression procedure overestimated the yield, especially in the later part of the lactation curve. Most precise adjustments were obtained when last test day and average daily milk yield information were included as predictors. The standard deviation of bias decreased and correlation between actual and predicted lactation milk yield improved with inclusion of average daily milk yield as a predictor along with the last test day milk yield. Last recorded milk yield information along with average daily yield of the recorded lactation period are suggested to be used for standardization of milk yield data in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

  5. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  6. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  7. Lactate determination in ante- and intrapartum surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Lactate concentration is reported to be high in amniotic fluid (AF). Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) occur in about 20% of all pregnancies. The condition is associated with fetal and maternal complications, and might be a marker of imminent delivery. Therefore among women with suspected prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM), it is of great importance to accurately confirm the diagnosis. In our studies we wanted to assess whether lactate determination in vaginal/...

  8. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  9. POST-EXERCISE LACTATE PRODUCTION AND METABOLISM IN THREE SPECIES OF AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans are dependent on both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for energy production during exercise. Anaerobic energy production is marked by an accumulation of lactate in both muscle tissue and haemolymph, but the metabolic fate of lactate is not clear. Lactate recycling via gluconeogenesis and the potential role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in supplying bicarbonate for the carboxylation of pyruvate were investigated in three species of decapod crustaceans: Callinectes sapidus (aquatic), Cardisoma guanhumi (semi-terrestrial) and Gecarcinus lateralis (terrestrial). CA activity was found in mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of all three species. Significant activities of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose bisphosphatase), however, could not be detected. Exercise to exhaustion produced a species-specific pattern of accumulation and clearance of lactate in tissue and haemolymph, indicating a differential degree of reliance on anaerobic energy production. Treatment with acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, did not significantly alter the pattern of lactate dynamics in animals given repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise interspersed with periods of recovery. Injection of [U-14C]lactate resulted in the appearance of label in both muscle glycogen and excreted carbon dioxide, suggesting multiple metabolic fates for lactate. Lactate turnover rates for G. lateralis were similar to those reported for fish. In these animals, gluconeogenesis possibly proceeds via the reversal of pyruvate kinase, or via the typical Cori cycle but so slowly that the uncatalysed supply of bicarbonate is sufficient to keep pace with the low activities of pyruvate carboxylase and the subsequent low rates of pyruvate carboxylation.

  10. Impact of Metformin Use on Lactate Kinetics in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joongmin; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Jo, Ik Joon; Jeon, Kyeongman; Suh, Gee Young; Lee, Tae Rim; Yoon, Hee; Cha, Won Chul; Sim, Min Seob; Carriere, Keumhee Chough; Yeon, Seungmin; Shin, Tae Gun

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of metformin use on lactate kinetics in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. We analyzed data from a registry that included patients who presented to the emergency department and met criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock. Patients were divided into two groups based on metformin use. We compared lactate concentrations, lactate clearance (LC), and normalization at 6 h (H6) and 24 h (H24) after the initial (H0) measurement. Propensity score matching, multiple logistic, and linear regression analysis via a generalized estimating equations method were used. Of 1,318 patients, 71 patients were in the metformin use group and all 71 were selected in a one to two propensity matching. Metformin users showed significantly higher lactate levels at H0 (5.3 vs. 4.4 mmol/L) and H6 (3.8 vs. 2.9 mmol/L) in all patients, although in the matched subset, the effect was marginal (H0, 5.3 vs. 4.9 mmol/L; H6, 3.8 vs. 3.2 mmol/L; H24, 2.7 vs. 2.4 mmol/L). Mean LC (H6, 29% vs. 34%; H24, 43% vs. 49%) and normalization rate (H6, 27% vs. 28%; H24, 49% vs. 52%) were also not significantly different. Although metformin use appeared to be associated with higher lactate levels before using the propensity score method, no significant association was found between metformin use and lactate kinetics variables in the balanced matched subset data. Lactate levels in metformin users were initially elevated in the early phase of resuscitation from severe sepsis and septic shock. However, there was no significant difference in lactate levels, LC, and normalization over the initial 24 h period based on metformin use.

  11. The influence of sex, stroke and distance on the lactate characteristics in high performance swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Holfelder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to achieve world-class performances, regular performance diagnostics is required as an essential prerequisite for guiding high performance sport. In high performance swimming, the lactate performance diagnostic is an important instrument in testing the sport specific endurance capacity. Although the role of lactate as a signaling molecule, fuel and a gluconeogenic substrate is accepted, lactate parameters are discussed concerning stability, explanatory power and interpretability. METHODS: We calculated the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT of Bunc using the swimming-specific lactate threshold test by Pansold. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis (ANOVA of n = 398 high performance swimmers showed significant effects for sex, stroke and distance on the IAT, the percentage of personal best time on the IAT (% of PB on IAT and maximal lactate values (max. bLA. For the freestyle events the IAT decreased, % of PB on IAT and max. bLA increased from 100 to 400 m significantly in men and women. Women showed significantly higher % of PB on IAT with descriptive lower IAT in 7 of 8 analyzed events. Men showed significantly higher max. bLA in 5 of 8 events. In the second step, the analysis of 1902 data sets of these 398 athletes with a multi-level analysis (MLA showed also significant effects for sex, swimming distance and stroke. For initial status and development over time, the effect sizes for the variables distance and sex were medium to large, whereas for stroke there were no or small effect sizes. DISCUSSION: These significant results suggest that lactate tests in swimming specifically have to consider the lactate affecting factors sex and distance under consideration of the time period between measurements. Anthropometrical factors and the physiology of women are possible explanations for the relative better performance for lower lactate concentrations compared to men.

  12. The use of periodical literature in a Norwegian dental library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, P J; Gjerdet, N R

    1981-10-01

    Periodical loans, photocopy requests, and reading room use of back volumes of periodicals at the University of Bergen Dental School library were registered during a twelve-month period. Loans were sorted by title and year, and titles were grouped by specialty and language. Total borrowing was 2.242, and the annual aging factor was 0.89 (half-life 5.8 years). Twelve periodicals accounted for 50% of total borrowing. While most specialized dental journals had a lower aging factor than dental journals as a whole, orthodontic journals had an aging factor of 0.92 (half-life 8.7 years). Non-English-language journals accounted for 22% of borrowing. Scandinavian-language titles (16% of borrowing) had a lower aging factor (0.87, half-life 5.1 years) and seemed to be used more as news journals. The languages of other journals used were German (4.7% of borrowing), French, and Russian.

  13. Composition of sow milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E; Butler, J E

    1987-05-01

    The composition of sow colostrum and milk was quantitated in 25 sows at 14 time points throughout lactation. All animals belonged to the same experimental herd of German Landrace, farrowed within 4 d, and were of various lactation numbers and various litter sizes. In the first 6 h of lactation colostrum total solids (TS) and protein contents were higher, while fat and lactose contents were lower than in mature milk. Decreased total protein and whey protein contents and concomitantly increased fat and lactose content, with nearly unchanged TS levels, indicate transition from colostrum to mature milk. The high protein content of colostrum was largely due to immunoglobulin (Ig). During the first 6 h, IgG accounts for nearly all the protein in colostrum but plays a decreasing role in sow milk as lactation proceeds. After 2 wk, IgA levels begin to increase and at the end of lactation, IgA constitutes 40% of the total whey protein. No influences of lactation number and litter size on milk composition could be ascertained in this study.

  14. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    of lactate in skeletal muscle. With the introduction of lactate isotopes muscle lactate kinetics and oxidation could be studied and a simultaneous lactate uptake and release was observed, not only in muscle but also in other tissues. Therefore, this review will discuss in vivo human: (1) skeletal muscle...... lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues....

  15. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  16. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  17. [Pregnancy and lactation: antibiotics. mouthwashes and pastes or ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori Popovic, Sandra; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; von Mandach, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show aspects of dental treatment in pregnancy. The reader should gain security in the election of the proper drugs for antibiotic therapy and rinsing solutions. Antibiotics as penicillins are the first choice in case of dental infections in pregnancy. In allergic patients, macrolides may be an alternative. Wound and mouth rinsing solutions containing chlorhexidine should be preferred in pregnancy. Ledermix(®) in endodontic treatment should be avoided in the pregnant woman. Solcoseryl(®) can be used for wound healing. Elective dental procedures should be postponed after delivery and after lactation period.

  18. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    % primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...... and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet...

  19. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...... was given a CMT score before udder half milk samples were collected. The milk samples were then analyzed for SCC, LDH, NAGase and AP, and investigated for bacterial growth. Variation in udder health indicators between udder half within goat, samples between sampling days and samples between stages...... there was a significant association with udder half with a higher general (over period and day) probability of higher CMT scores in the right udder half compared to the left. This study shows that SCC, LDH, NAGase and AP were all affected by period of lactation but also to some extent by sampling day and udder half...

  20. Involvement of skeletal muscle protein, glycogen, and fat metabolism in the adaptation on early lactation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Nürnberg, Gerd; Albrecht, Dirk; Görs, Solvig; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-09-02

    During early lactation, high-yielding dairy cows cannot consume enough feed to meet nutrient requirements. As a consequence, animals drop into negative energy balance and mobilize body reserves including muscle protein and glycogen for milk production, direct oxidation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. To examine which muscle metabolic processes contribute to the adaptation during early lactation, six German Holstein cows were blood sampled and muscle biopsied throughout the periparturient period. From pregnancy to lactation, the free plasma amino acid pattern imbalanced and plasma glucose decreased. Several muscle amino acids, as well as total muscle protein, fat, and glycogen, and the expression of glucose transporter-4 were reduced within the first 4 weeks of lactation. The 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis identified 43 differentially expressed muscle protein spots throughout the periparturient period. In early lactation, expression of cytoskeletal proteins and enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and in the TCA cycle was decreased, whereas proteins related to glycolysis, fatty acid degradation, lactate, and ATP production were increased. On the basis of these results, we propose a model in which the muscle breakdown in early lactation provides substrates for milk production by a decoupled Cori cycle favoring hepatic gluconeogenesis and by interfering with feed intake signaling.

  1. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Zaar, Morten; Homann, Pernille; Evans, Kevin A; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H

    2012-07-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10%, arterial oxygen saturation 72 ± 10%, mean ± sd). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension decreased by 13 mmHg (P<0.001). At the same time, cerebral lactate release increased from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.6 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), corresponding to ∼10% of cerebral energy consumption. Concurrently, cerebral lactate uptake was 1.0 ± 0.9 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), of which 57 ± 9% was oxidized, demonstrating that lactate oxidation may account for up to ∼33% of the energy substrate used by the brain. These results support the existence of a cell-cell lactate shuttle that may involve neurons and astrocytes.

  2. Radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate as ESR dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, G M; Takaki, S

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate: (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COO) sub 2 Mg), magnesium lactate doped with lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and nominal pure lithium lactate (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate) were irradiated by gamma-rays to study radicals for materials of radiation dosimeter with electron spin resonance (ESR). Quartet spectra were ascribed to lactate radicals in Mg-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate with the spectroscopic splitting factors (g-factor) of 2.0032+-0.004 and 2.0029+-0.004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 due to the hyperfine coupling constants of (A/g beta) of 1.92+-0.06 and 1.82+-0.06 mT, respectively. The response to gamma-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied to establish this material as an ESR dosimeter. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was obtained to be 1.15+-0.32, 1.35+-0.35, 0.46+-0.14 and 0.78+-0.24 for Mg-lactate, Mg(Li)-lactate, Li-lactate and Lie(Mg)-lactate, respectively. Thermoluminescenc...

  3. 饲粮中性洗涤纤维水平对泌乳高峰期奶牛生产性能、营养物质表观消化率及血清指标的影响%Effects of Neutral Detergent Fiber Levels in Diet on Milk Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Serum Indices of Dairy Cows during Peak Lactation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史仁煌; 董双钊; 付瑶; 王雅晶; 曹志军; 李胜利; 赵国琦

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of neutral detergent fiber ( NDF) levels in diet on milk performance, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum indices of dairy cows during peak lactation period. Eight Holstein dairy cows [(50±15) days in milk] were selected in a 4×4 Latin square design. The NDF level in diets was 25.05%, 28.05%, 31.22% and 34.19%, respectively. The experiment had 4 periods with 21 days per period, and each period had 14 days for pre-test and 7 days for formal test. The results showed as follows:1) with the increase of NDF level in diet, the dry matter intake, milk yield, lactose yield, milk protein yield and nitrogen efficiency decreased linearly ( P0.05) . 2) With the increase of NDF level in diet, the apparent digestibility of NDF and acid detergent fiber increased linearly ( P0.05) . In conclusion, both the 25.05% NDF and 34.19% NDF in diet have negative influence on energy-nitrogen utilization and milk performance, while the 28.05% NDF level can be more reasonable for nitrogen utilization and better milk performance than 31.22% NDF. It is suggested that the supplemental level of NDF be 28.05% for dairy cows in the peak lactation period.%本试验旨在研究饲粮中性洗涤纤维( NDF)水平对泌乳高峰期奶牛生产性能、营养物质表观消化率及血清指标的影响。选用8头泌乳天数为(50±15) d的泌乳高峰期荷斯坦奶牛,按照4×4拉丁方设计,4个处理分别饲喂NDF水平为25.05%、28.05%、31.22%和34.19%的4种饲粮;共进行4期试验,每期21 d,其中预试期14 d,正试期7 d。结果表明:1)随饲粮NDF水平的升高,奶牛干物质采食量、产奶量、乳糖产量、乳蛋白产量和氮利用效率线性降低( P0.05)。2)随饲粮NDF水平的升高,NDF和酸性洗涤纤维( ADF)的表观消化率线性增加( P0.05)。综合得出,饲粮中25.05%和34.19%NDF对泌乳高峰期奶牛生产性能和能氮利用都有不利影响,28.05%NDF比31.22%NDF的饲粮能

  4. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Kane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.

  5. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  6. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: encarnacion.lorenzo@uam.es

    2006-01-12

    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  7. Kinetics of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1990-04-01

    Lactate clearance by liver plays an important role in lactate homeostasis and in the development of lactic acidosis. The role of lactate delivery to liver as a limiting factor in hepatic uptake of lactate is unclear. Lactate delivery of mechanisms could be important if rates of lactate transport approximate rates of lactate metabolism by liver. The rates of lactate transport into liver have been determined in vitro with isolated liver cells and the results have been conflicting. Therefore, the present studies measure the rate of transport of (14C)-L-lactate, and its poorly metabolizeable stereoisomer, (14C)-D-lactate, into rat liver in vivo using a portal vein injection technique. The transport of (3H)-water and of (14C)-sucrose, an extracellular reference compound, were also studied. Portal blood flow was determined from the kinetics of (3H)-water efflux in liver and was 1.93 +/- 0.22 mL/min/g. The volumes of distribution of (14C)-L-lactate, and (14C)-sucrose were 1.31 +/- 0.22, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.22 +/- 0.07 mL/g, respectively. The extraction of unidirectional influx of (14C)-L-lactate and (14C)-D-lactate by rat liver was 93% +/- 10% and 91% +/- 9%, respectively. The rate of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo, 1.8 mumols.min-1.g-1, is approximately twofold greater than the rate of lactate metabolism by rat liver reported in the literature. Therefore, lactate uptake by liver may not be limited by transport under normal conditions. However, conditions such as decreased portal blood flow, which slow lactate delivery to liver by 50% or more, could cause lactate uptake by liver to be limited by transport of circulating lactate.

  8. Effect of gestational and lactational exposure to heat stress on performance in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marco-Jiménez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature. Heat stress (HS during pregnancy and lactation can influence not only foetal growth but also postnatal development of kits. The aim of this study was to test the effect of HS during gestation and lactation on postnatal growth till Spanish commercial liveweight. To investigate this, 32 primiparous non lactating rabbit does were exposed to 1 of 2 environmental treatments: high temperature (between 25 and 36°C, HS group; n=16 or thermoneutral conditions (between 14 and 20°C, TN group; n=16. Does were allowed to acclimate 30 d before the artificial insemination. At birth, kits were allocated into 4 groups: HS was only applied during gestation (G group; n=54; HS was applied during gestation and lactation period (GL group; n=85; HS was only applied during lactation period (L group; n=60; and TN was applied during gestation and lactation period (C group; n=77. All litters were kept under each experimental environment until weaning at day 30. Then, litters were moved to TN temperatures until slaughter at day 63. Compared with TN does, the HS does presented lower litter size (9.7 and 11.4; P<0.05, litter weight (503.0 vs. 630.5 g; P<0.05 and kit weight at birth (56.6 vs. 61.4 g; P<0.05, as well as a higher stillborn rate (25.4 vs. 9.9%; P<0.05. The kits from does subjected to HS during gestation (G group had similar postnatal growth compared to offspring from does gestated in TN conditions (C group, whereas kits from does that experienced HS during gestation and lactation (GL group and during their lactation (L group presented decreased postnatal growth. Together, these results demonstrate that kits from does that underwent HS during gestation did not alter postnatal growth until Spanish commercial liveweight, whereas HS during lactation resulted in decreased postnatal growth.

  9. Influence of oxygen therapy on glucose-lactate metabolism after diffuse brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Michael; Schaller, Benoit; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Seiler, Rolf; Bullock, Ross

    2004-08-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes a huge metabolic load on brain tissue, which can be summarized initially as a state of hypermetabolism and hyperglycolysis. In experiments O2 consumption has been shown to increase early after trauma, especially in the presence of high lactate levels and forced O2 availability. In recent clinical studies the effect of increasing O2 availability on brain metabolism has been analyzed. By their nature, however, clinical trauma models suffer from a heterogeneous injury distribution. The aim of this study was to analyze, in a standardized diffuse brain injury model, the effect of increasing the fraction of inspired O2 on brain glucose and lactate levels, and to compare this effect with the metabolism of the noninjured sham-operated brain. A diffuse severe TBI model developed by Foda and Maramarou, et al., in which a 420-g weight is dropped from a height of 2 m was used in this study. Forty-one male Wistar rats each weighing approximately 300 g were included. Anesthesized rats were monitored by placing a femoral arterial line for blood pressure and blood was drawn for a blood gas analysis. Two time periods were defined: Period A was defined as preinjury and Period B as postinjury. During Period B two levels of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) were studied: air (FiO2 0.21) and oxygen (FiO2 1). Four groups were studied including sham-operated animals: air-air-sham (AAS); air-O2-sham (AOS); air-air-trauma (AAT); and air-O2-trauma (AOT). In six rats the effect of increasing the FiO2 on serum glucose and lactate was analyzed. During Period B lactate values in the brain determined using microdialysis were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the AOT group than in the AAT group and glucose values in the brain determined using microdialysis were significantly higher (p < 0.04). No differences were demonstrated in the other groups. Increasing the FiO2 had no significant effect on the serum levels of glucose and lactate. Increasing the Fi

  10. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  11. Lactation in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S H

    1990-01-01

    The ability of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women to breast-feed has been documented, however, there is little information concerning milk composition or factors that influence successful breastfeeding. Placental lactogen and prolactin levels can be normalized during pregnancy with good metabolic control. These hormones affect the readiness of the mammary gland for lactation. Prolactin maintains mammary gland insulin receptors to ensure anabolism. Lactation in IDDM women may be influenced by hyper- or hypoglycemia as women balance their insulin needs. Milk from diabetic animals has decreased lactose, fat, protein and volume and these effects can be reversed with insulin administration. Mature breast milk of IDDM women has increased glucose and sodium and mammary gland lipid metabolism may be impaired. Milk lactose and citrate, markers of lactogenesis II, suggest delayed lactation occurs in diabetic women. Many factors may influence lactation success and breast milk composition of IDDM women. Some of these include: method of delivery, feeding frequency, fetal condition, gestational age, mastitis incidence, metabolic control and maternal dietary intake. Lactation management of the IDDM woman must address these factors.

  12. Period Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Period Cramps KidsHealth > For Kids > Period Cramps Print A ... re a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or ...

  13. Pup age and aggressive behavior in lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovenardi M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of aggressive behaviors against intruders in the nest area are displayed by female rats during the first 10 days after delivery, declining thereafter to very low levels, even though lactation continues. Cross-fostering experiments were undertaken to test the hypothesis that pup age may affect aggression in lactating rats. The behavior of females on the 8th day after delivery when raising fostered 8-day-old pups was compared to that of females on the 8th postpartum day raising older pups (18 days old for the last 5 days, and females on the 18th day after delivery raising fostered 18-day-old pups were compared to females in the same postpartum period nursing younger pups (8 days of age at the time of the maternal aggression test for 5 days. Pup retrieval activity and plasma prolactin level were also analyzed. Females on the 8th postpartum day nursing 18-day-old pups were less aggressive than females in the same postpartum period, but with 8-day-old pups. Likewise, females on the 18th postpartum day nursing younger pups were more aggressive and presented higher levels of prolactin than females nursing older pups. Thus, pup development can alter the natural decline of maternal aggressive behavior.

  14. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  15. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  16. Lactation support and breastfeeding duration in jaundiced infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Catherine M; Moreau, Katherine; Rohde, Kristina; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Farion, Ken J; Plint, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is the most common problem in full-term infants during the immediate post-natal period. We examined the effect of a lactation support intervention on breastfeeding duration in hospitalized jaundiced infants. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component involving mothers of hospitalized jaundiced breastfed infants <4 weeks of age. Mothers receiving the intervention met with an International Board-Certified Lactation Consultant in hospital and 1-3 times post discharge. Both groups received the standard care for jaundice. The primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months. To the exception of research assistants enrolling participants and completing qualitative interviews, all research staff, investigators and statisticians were blinded to group assignment. Qualitative interviews elicited feedback on breastfeeding experiences for both groups. 99 participants were recruited, and 86 analyzed for primary outcome. There was no difference in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months between groups (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.56-1.24, p = 0.40) or in the secondary outcomes. 31 participants were included in the qualitative analysis. Participants in the intervention group described an increase in comfort and confidence levels with breastfeeding. Participants in the control group reported limited lactation support. Our hospital-based lactation support program did not result in a higher proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months compared to current hospital standard care. Qualitative feedback from the intervention group suggests that mothers' confidence was increased, which is linked to breastfeeding duration. The decision to breastfeed is multifactorial and hospital-based lactation support may be only a small piece of the puzzle in hospitalized jaundiced infants. Further studies may be needed to fully elucidate the impact of an in-hospital lactation support program on successful breastfeeding for these infants. Clinical

  17. Lactate flux and gluconeogenesis in fasting, weaned northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Stephen K; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2013-05-01

    Elephant seals maintain rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP) typical of post-absorptive mammals despite enduring prolonged periods of food deprivation concurrent with low rates of glucose oxidation. These high rates of EGP suggest extensive glucose recycling during fasting. We investigated lactate metabolism in fasting elephant seals to assess its role in glucose recycling. Whole-animal glucose and lactate fluxes were measured as the rates of appearance of glucose and lactate (Ra gluc and Ra lac, respectively) using a primed constant infusion of [U-(14)C] lactate and [6-(3)H] glucose, and we calculated the minimum contribution of lactate to gluconeogenesis (GNG lac). Ra lac was high compared to resting values in other species (3.21 ± 0.71 mmol min(-1)* kg(-1)), did not change between 14 ± 1 and 31 ± 8 days of fasting and varied directly with Ra glu. The minimum GNG lac was 44.6 ± 6.0% of EGP, varied directly with plasma lactate levels, and did not change over the fast. Ra lac and Ra glu both varied directly with plasma insulin concentrations. These data suggest that lactate is the predominant gluconeogenic precursor in fasting elephant seals and that high rates of glucose recycling through Cori cycle activity contribute to the maintenance of EGP during fasting. High levels of Cori cycle activity and EGP may be important components of metabolic adaptations that maintain glucose production while avoiding ketosis during extended fasting or are related to sustained metabolic alterations associated with extended breath-holds in elephant seals.

  18. Glycogen synthesis from lactate in skeletal muscle of the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T T

    1985-01-01

    The capacity of skeletal muscle to synthesize glycogen from lactate was tested in the iliofibularis muscle of the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Like other reptiles, Dipsosaurus accumulates significant lactic acid concentrations following vigorous exercise. After 5 min of progressively faster treadmill running at 35 degrees C (final speed = 2.2 km/h), blood lactate concentration increased over 14 mM, which decreased 11 mM after 2 h of recovery. Blood glucose concentration remained unchanged throughout at 8.6 +/- 0.46 mM. The role that muscle gluconeogenesis might play in the removal of post-exercise lactate was evaluated. Animals were run to exhaustion at 1.5 km/h on a treadmill thermostatted at 35 degrees C. Animals (n = 43) ran 6.9 +/- 0.75 min prior to exhaustion. Animals were sacrificed and iliofibularis muscles of both hindlimbs removed and stimulated at 2 Hz for 5 min, reducing twitch tension to 6% of prestimulus tension. Fatigued muscles were then split into red and white fiber bundles and incubated 2 h or 5 h at 35 degrees C in Ringer solution or in Ringer plus 20 mM lactate. In muscles tested in August, red fiber bundles incubated in lactate demonstrated a rate of glycogen synthesis of approximately 1 mg/(g muscle . h). In muscles tested in December, red fiber bundles synthesized glycogen at a reduced rate that was not statistically different than in fiber bundles incubated in Ringer solution without lactate. Glycogen synthesis from lactate was not evident in white fiber bundles in either August or December. The period of peak gluconeogenic capacity coincides with the field active season of Dipsosaurus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Breast infections in non-lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Maha S A; Bukharie, Huda A

    2005-09-01

    Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.

  20. Hematological and serum biochemical analytes reflect physiological challenges during gestation and lactation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Nollens, Hendrik H

    2013-01-01

    Gestation and lactation result in metabolic alterations of the dam because of varying demands of the fetus and offspring during the different stages of development. Despite killer whales (Orcinus orca) having one of the longest gestations and highest birth weights of all mammals in human care, these metabolic alterations, and their impact on the physiology of the dam have not been measured. The objectives of this analysis were to determine if physiologic demands on the killer whale during pregnancy and lactation have measurable effects on hematology and biochemical analytes and if detectable, to compare these changes to those which are observed in other mammalian species. Forty hematologic and biochemical analytes from seven female killer whales (22 pregnancies, 1,507 samples) were compared between the following stages: (1) non-pregnant or lactating (control); (2) gestation; and (3) the first 12 months of lactation. Decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell counts were indicative of plasma volume expansion during mid and late gestation. The killer whales exhibited a progressively increasing physiologic inflammatory state leading up to parturition. Gestation and lactation caused significant shifts in the serum lipid profiles. Gestation and lactation cause significant physiologic changes in the killer whale dam. The last 12 months of gestation had greater physiological impact than lactation, but changes associated with and immediately following parturition were the most dramatic. During this period, killer whales may experience increased susceptibility to illness, and anthropogenic and environmental disturbances.

  1. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  2. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol.

  3. Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Langendijk, P.; Dieleman, S.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this

  4. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C

    2013-08-01

    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Adiposity and fat metabolism in lactating and fasting northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Daniel E; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian S

    2014-01-01

    Several taxa of animals fast completely from food and water during energy-intensive periods such as lactation, breeding, and development. In elephant seals, these behaviors are sustained by high adiposity, high rates of fat mobilization, and reduced oxidation of carbohydrates and proteins. Adiposity and the regulation of lipolysis directly affect lactation energetics, milk composition, and mating success. Long-term fasting induces changes in regulation of lipolysis and lipid metabolism that influence fatty acid (FA) availability and the onset of insulin resistance. Hypoinsulinemia and elevated circulating FAs are also associated with several unique features of carbohydrate metabolism, including elevated plasma glucose, gluconeogenesis, and Cori cycle activity as well as high rates of pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycling. Glucose-lactate pools and triacylglycerol-FA cycles may be linked via glyceroneogenesis and this may be an important pathway influencing both fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Together, these features allow a sustained, high intensity, fat-based metabolism without substantial accumulation of ketoacids.

  6. Concentration of trace element in milk of West African dwarf goats affected by state of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinsoyinu, A.O.; Tewe, O.O.; Mba, A.U.

    1979-06-01

    Ten adult West African dwarf (Fouta djallon) does about 2 yr old and weighing from 22 to 28 kg were kept for two lactations with 18 wk per lactation. During these periods the does were handmilked twice daily, and the daily samples were bulked for each animal for subsequent chemical analysis. Each goat was fed Cynodon nlemfuensis ad libitum and 1 kg of dairy concentrate mixture daily. Colostrum contained (mg/liter) much higher iron, 2.46 +- .27; copper, 3.14 +- .12; manganese, .20 +- .03; zinc, 14.11 +- .45; and iodine, 319.69 +- 14.13 mg/liter than the corresponding values in mature milk which were .43 +- .12; .28 +- .20; .5 +- .04; 4.01 +- .51, and 108.52 +- 28.25. These elements in the colostrum approached normal values between the 5th and 6th day after parturition. The concentration decreased with advance in lactation except for zinc.

  7. Neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin secretion during late pregnancy: easing the transition into lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Z B

    2005-07-01

    Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone critical for maintaining pregnancy and lactation. Under normal conditions, prolactin secretion is tightly regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neuronal systems within the mediobasal hypothalamus in a process known as short-loop negative feedback. This review focuses on neuroendocrine adaptations to prolactin negative feedback during late pregnancy. It is suggested that, in terms of prolactin regulation, late pregnancy is a transition period into lactation because many of the neuroendocrine adaptations promoting hyperprolactinemia in lactation develop during late pregnancy. As a consequence, the maternal brain is geared to provide unrestrained prolactin release critical for milk production, maternal care and thus survival of the offspring before parturition. The mechanisms responsible for these changes are discussed.

  8. Admission serum lactate predicts mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisiku, Imo P; Chen, Peng Roc; Truong, Hanh; Monsivais, Daniel R; Edlow, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most devastating form of hemorrhagic stroke. Primary predictors of mortality are based on initial clinical presentation. Initial serum lactic acid levels have been shown to predict mortality and disease severity. Initial serum lactate may be an objective predictor or mortality. Retrospective review of aneurysmal SAH in a large academic center over a 42-month period. Data collected included demographics, clinical data, serum, and clinical outcomes data. Epidemiologic data were collected at baseline, and patients were followed up through their inpatient stay. We compared data in the group of patients who were deceased (group A) vs survivors (group B). There were a total of 249 patients. Mortality was 21.5%. Mean age was the same for both groups: 57 years (group A) and 55 years (group B). Mean admission serum lactate level was 3.5 ± 2.5 (group A) and 2.2 ± 1.6 (group B; P <. 0001). The range was 0.01 to 14.7. Multivariable analysis controlling for Hunt and Hess grades showed lactic acid levels to be an independent predictor of mortality with a P value of .0018. In aneurysmal SAH, elevated serum lactate levels on admission may have a predictive role for mortality and represent a marker of disease severity. Currently, lactic acid levels are not ordered on all patients with SAH but perhaps should be part of the routine initial blood work and may serve as an additional prognostic marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Succinate and Lactate Production from Euglena gracilis during Dark, Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yuko; Yoshioka, Kazumasa; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakashima, Ayaka; Iwata, Osamu; Suzuki, Kengo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic, unicellular phytoflagellate that has been widely studied in basic science and applied science. Under dark, anaerobic conditions, the cells of E. gracilis produce a wax ester that can be converted into biofuel. Here, we demonstrate that under dark, anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis excretes organic acids, such as succinate and lactate, which are bulk chemicals used in the production of bioplastics. The levels of succinate were altered by changes in the medium and temperature during dark, anaerobic incubation. Succinate production was enhanced when cells were incubated in CM medium in the presence of NaHCO3. Excretion of lactate was minimal in the absence of external carbon sources, but lactate was produced in the presence of glucose during dark, anaerobic incubation. E. gracilis predominantly produced L-lactate; however, the percentage of D-lactate increased to 28.4% in CM medium at 30°C. Finally, we used a commercial strain of E. gracilis for succinate production and found that nitrogen-starved cells, incubated under dark, anaerobic conditions, produced 869.6 mg/L succinate over a 3-day incubation period, which was 70-fold higher than the amount produced by nitrogen-replete cells. This is the first study to demonstrate organic acid excretion by E. gracilis cells and to reveal novel aspects of primary carbon metabolism in this organism. PMID:28066371

  10. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  11. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  12. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  13. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the ...

  14. Effects of protocol design on lactate minimum power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use a validated lactate minimum test protocol and evaluate whether blood lactate responses and the lactate minimum power are influenced by the starting power (study 1) and 1 min inter-stage rest intervals (study 2) during the incremental phase. Study 1: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase comprising 5 continuous 4 min stages with starting power being 40% or 45% of the maximum power achieved during the lactate elevation phase, and with power increments of 5% maximum power. Study 2: 8 subjects performed 2 identical lactate minimum tests except that during one of the tests the incremental phase included 1 min inter-stage rest intervals. The lactate minimum power was lower when the incremental phase commenced at 40% (175±29 W) compared to 45% (184±30 W) maximum power (pvalidity and therefore training status evaluation and exercise prescription.

  15. BREAST CONDITIONS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day with either an elevated temperature or constitutional symptoms of fever. ... Blood-stained nipple discharge during pregnancy and or lactation is fairly common. .... malignancy during gestation, after cervical cancer.16 ... (after surgery) or neo-adjuvant (prior to surgery). It is best avoided during the first trimester of ...

  16. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  17. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  18. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvu

  19. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19

  20. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  1. Five-year Study of Patients with Lactating Adenoma and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiie Olfatbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactating adenoma is a benign breast mass related to physiological changes during pregnancy and increased estrogen level. Fibroadenoma and breast cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this lesion. The purpose of this study was to report cases of lactating adenoma in Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC and review the relevant literature.Methods: All patients with histological diagnosis of lactating adenoma between April 2010 and December 2015 were selected. Patients’ data were extracted from their medical records and follow-up of the patients were done through in-person examination or rarely by telephone call.Results: A total of 22 patients with pathological diagnosis of lactating adenoma were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 27±4.6 years. Fourteen patients were in breast-feeding period and eight were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. The chief complaint was breast mass in 16 patients and pain 6 patients. The mean size of masses was 4.1 cm (1.8-8 cm. For 13 patients, core needle biopsy (CNB and for 6 patients open biopsy were performed and for the other 3 patients vacuum-assisted biopsy were done. In 5 patients, excisional biopsy was done in the follow-up period that one of them proved to be medullary carcinoma and other cases were benign.Conclusions: Lactating adenoma commonly presents as a palpable mass during the breastfeeding period or the third trimester of pregnancy. The most common ultrasonographic appearance is a hypoechoic mass with regular borders. It usually regresses after cessation of breastfeeding, however in patients with mass enlargement during the follow-up, period pathologic evaluation of the lesion through core needle biopsy should be performed to rule out coexistent carcinoma.

  2. The use of test day information to predict energy intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to validate a previously developed model for the estimation of energy balance in high producing dairy cows from test day information during the first 12 wk of lactation. Monensin (an ionophor) increases the energy status of dairy cows. Gold standard for the validation was a higher energy status, indicated by lower blood ketone body concentrations, lower percent milk fat, and higher milk-yield of monensin-supplemented than control cows in 8 randomized block design feeding trials. Estimated energy intake (eE(intake)) was calculated as estimated energy balance (eEB) plus energy in actual milk produced (in units of MJ(nel)) plus a constant or variable amount of energy required for maintenance. The variable amount was based on BW, while the constant was the average BW in each parity group (1, 2, 3, 4+). Both eEB and eE(intake) were compared between groups of cows with and without monensin supplementation (n = 600 lactations). The trials started with a presupplement period during lactation wk 2 to 5 followed by a supplementation period during lactation wk 6 to 12. During the presupplement period, both eEB and eE(intake) were similar for all cows. At 2, 3, and 8 wk after starting the monensin supplementation, the eEB of the supplemented cows was significantly higher, while eE(intake) was significantly higher throughout the supplementation period. The results were similar for the 2 methods of calculating energy for maintenance, variable or constant. The feed conversion efficiency, calculated as kg of fat-protein corrected milk per MJ(nel) of eE(intake), was highest in first calving cows compared with cows having more lactations, and correlated with standard milk production at trial group level. It was concluded that eE(intake) was a valid measure of net energy absorption.

  3. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    1999-01-01

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  4. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  5. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moezelaar, R.; Teixeira, de M.J.; Stal, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806 was found to possess an NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) which catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to l-lactate. The enzyme required fructose 1,6-bisphosphate for activity and displayed positive cooperativity towards pyruvate. Lactate was not

  7. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  8. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  9. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction programmed by maternal smoking in pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cristina Lisboa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic, and maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood obesity. Overall, approximately 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is well known that environmental changes within a critical window of development, such as gestation or lactation, can initiate permanent alterations in metabolism that lead to diseases in adulthood, a phenomenon called programming. It is known that programming is based on epigenetic alterations (changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation or small interfering RNA expression that change the expression pattern of several genes. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms by which smoke exposure in neonatal life programmes the adipose tissue and endocrine function. Here, we review several epidemiological and experimental studies that confirm the association between maternal nicotine or tobacco exposure during gestation or lactation and the development of obesity and endocrine dysfunction. For example, a positive correlation was demonstrated in rodents between increased serum leptin in the neonatal period and exposure of the mothers to nicotine during lactation, and the further development of leptin and insulin resistance, and thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, in adulthood in the same offspring. Thus, a smoke-free environment during the lactation period is essential to improving health outcomes in adulthood and reducing the risk for future diseases. An understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on programming can provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for obesity.

  10. IS BLOOD LACTATE REMOVAL DURING WATER IMMERSED CYCLING FASTER THAN DURING CYCLING ON LAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Di Masi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare lactate removal during active recovery performed during cycling in water immersion (CW and during cycling on land (CL, after a similar exercise bout in male adults. Eleven healthy and physically active men, aged between 20 and 26 years old participated in the experiment. Before the experimental tests, the ventilatory threshold of the subjects was determined. Each subject completed the experimental tests twice, with one week separating the two periods of experiment. The subjects exercised on the treadmill during 6 min at a speed 10% above the speed corresponding to their ventilatory threshold. Subsequently, the subjects recovered from the exercise bout either on a stationary bike (CL or on a aquatic-specific bike (CW. On the subsequent week the subjects performed the same protocol but with a different recovery condition. Recovery condition assignment for the first test was counterbalanced (six subjects started with one condition and five with the other. Capillary blood samples were collected after each test and during the recovery period (at 3, 6, 9 and 15 minutes and blood lactate was measured. The blood lactate values during CW were lower than during CL and significant differences were observed at the 6th minute (p < 0.05 and at the 15th minute of recovery (p < 0.05. Therefore, we may conclude that active recovery using cycling in water immersion may be more efficient than cycling on land for blood lactate removal.

  11. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between early lactation Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis, and culling in the same lactation. The 178 commercial dairy herds were randomly placed into 3 penicillin- or penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments and 3 different postmilking teat disinfection groups-negative control, iodine, or external teat sealant. All cows were sampled in early lactation, and Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows were followed throughout the remainder of the lactation. Mixed models, including repeated measurements, with test-day observation as dependent variable, were used to compare milk yield, SCC, and available milk quality variables throughout the remaining lactation. Survival analyses, using a positive frailty model to account for any herd random effects, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for clinical mastitis and culling. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive cows had a significantly higher SCC throughout the lactation compared to culture-negative cows. For primiparous or multiparous cows, respectively, the differences in the geometric mean SCC between Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows was 197,000 or 280,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the lactation, 24,000 or 46,000 cells/mL in mid lactation, and 39,000 or 111,000 cells/mL at the end of the lactation. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive primiparous or multiparous cows produced 334 or 246 kg less milk, respectively, during a 305-d lactation compared with culture-negative cows. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratios for clinical mastitis in Strep. dysgalactiae-positive cows were 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) for culling. For cows with both Strep. dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the hazard ratio for culling significantly increased to 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2).

  12. Milk production capacity of priangan prolific sheep: II. The lactation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Tiesnamurti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A calculation was made for the lactation curve of Priangan sheep using Wood equation to find out how much differences actual milk production of uncorrected ewes compared to those corrected using parity and litter size born. Milk production was measured using weighing of the lambs before and shortly after suckling, with average of daily and total milk production were 519.5 g/head and 43.6 kg head-1 lactation-1, respectively. The average of parameter a, which reflected milk production at the beginning of the lactation period was 6.296 that equivalent to 571.5 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The b parameter which reflected the rate of milk increment at the beginning of the lactation period was found to be 0.528 and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The c parameter which reflected the rate of milk decline at the end of lactation period was found to be -0.20 and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The average persistency which reflected the duration of maximum milk production was found to be 22.58 days without any significant contribution of parity and the number of lamb born. The average time to reach maximum milk production was found to be at week 3.5 after lambing without any significant contribution of parity and litter size. The average estimation of maximum milk production was 708.4 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05 by ewe parity.

  13. Elevated cerebral lactate: Implications in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Rose, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, is a frequent complication of liver failure/disease. Increased concentrations of lactate are commonly observed in HE patients, in the systemic circulation, but also in the brain. Traditionally, increased cerebral lactate is considered a marker of energy failure/impairment however alterations in lactate homeostasis may also lead to a rise in brain lactate and result in neuronal dysfunction. The latter may involve the development of brain edema. This review will target the significance of increased cerebral lactate in the pathogenesis of HE.

  14. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  15. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H;

    2002-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...

  16. Serum electrolyte and mineral variations during pregnancy and lactation in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M Saleem; Farooq, Abdul Asim; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Lodhi, Laeeq Akbar; Hayat, C Sikandar; Aziz, M Mushtaq

    2010-12-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the changes of sodium, potassium, chloride, copper, and zinc in serum of Nili-Ravi buffalo during pregnancy and lactation. The study was carried out on 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during March 2008 to February 2009 at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, District Kasur. Blood samples were taken from each buffalo during early pregnancy (Phase EP), i.e., between 1 and 3 months gestation, mid pregnancy (Phase MP), i.e., between 4 and 6 months gestation, late pregnancy (Phase LP), i.e., between 7 and 10 months gestation, and during lactation (Phase LT). Serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were determined on a clinical chemistry analyzer whereas copper and zinc were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations varied non-significantly (P > 0.05) during pregnancy and lactation. With advancing pregnancy, copper increased and was significantly high (P < 0.05) during late pregnancy whereas during lactation copper concentrations dropped significantly (P < 0.05). The zinc concentrations increased non-significantly during early and mid pregnancy. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in zinc concentrations during lactation compared with late pregnancy. This study demonstrates that concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, and chloride remain unchanged during pregnancy and lactation whereas serum copper concentrations increased and zinc concentrations decreased with advancing pregnancy because of the demand of the fetus at different periods of pregnancy.

  17. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  18. Periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Periodic paralyses are rare diseases characterized by severe episodes of muscle weakness concomitant to variations in blood potassium levels. It is thus usual to differentiate hypokalemic, normokalemic, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Except for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis and periodic paralyses secondary to permanent changes of blood potassium levels, all of these diseases are of genetic origin, transmitted with an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. Periodic paralyses are channelopathies, that is, diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels. The culprit genes encode for potassium, calcium, and sodium channels. Mutations of the potassium and calcium channel genes cause periodic paralysis of the same type (Andersen-Tawil syndrome or hypokalemic periodic paralysis). In contrast, distinct mutations in the muscle sodium channel gene are responsible for all different types of periodic paralyses (hyper-, normo-, and hypokalemic). The physiological consequences of the mutations have been studied by patch-clamp techniques and electromyography (EMG). Globally speaking, ion channel mutations modify the cycle of muscle membrane excitability which results in a loss of function (paralysis). Clinical physiological studies using EMG have shown a good correlation between symptoms and EMG parameters, enabling the description of patterns that greatly enhance molecular diagnosis accuracy. The understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of periodic paralysis has contributed to refine and rationalize therapeutic intervention and will be without doubts the basis of further advances.

  19. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  20. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePieulle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  1. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  2. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  3. In vivo voltammetric detection of rat brain lactate with carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shram, N F; Netchiporouk, L I; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bonnet, C; Cespuglio, R

    1998-07-01

    To allow rat brain lactate measurement in vivo, a specific sensor based on a carbon fiber (phi = 30 microns) microelectrode coated with lactate oxidase was prepared. Combined with the differential normal pulse voltammetry measurement method, such a sensor, with a sensitivity of 9.15 +/- 0.91 mA.M-1.cm-2, provided a lactate linear response in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM. The measurements performed appeared to be essentially insensitive to usual interference caused by the electroactive compounds present in the brain (ascorbic acid and peptides). In vivo detection performed in the cortex of the anesthetized rat led to the determination of a lactate concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.02 mM. Moreover, to validate the results obtained in vivo, an ex vivo determination of the lactate level was also performed in samples of brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, using both voltammetry and a clinical analyzer with colorimetric-based detection. A good correlation was observed between the sets of data established by both methods.

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  5. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling.

  6. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  7. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  8. Irregular Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood become too low or too high. Some women have irregular periods because their bodies produce too much androgen, which is a hormone that causes increased muscle mass, facial hair, and deepening of the voice in males and ...

  9. Period Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  10. Dietary energy source at two feeding levels during lactation in primiparous sows. I. Effects on glucose, insulin and LH and on follicle development, weaning-to-estrus interval and ovulation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to study the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during and after lactation on the reproductive performance of primiparous sows. During a 21-d lactation period, 48 sows were allotted to a 2x2 factorial experiment. Treatments were feeding level (high or low; 44 MJ or 33 M

  11. Diurnal variations in plasma insulin and growth hormone associated with two stages of lactation in high producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatos, R; Wangsness, P J

    1981-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of GH, insulin, glucose, and FFA were measured in high yielding dairy cows at periods of peak milk production and later during periods of increased feed intake. During each period, five cows were prepared with indwelling jugular catheters, and blood was sampled at 10-min intervals for 24 h, followed by hourly sampling for an additional 24 h. During early lactation (30 days post partum), the plasma GH concentration was elevated (13.2 ng/ml) compared to that in later lactation (90 days post partum; 9.8 ng/ml). This increased GH status was due to a greater magnitude of individual secretory spikes (27.3 vs. 20.2 ng/ml) rather than a difference in the frequency of spikes or in baseline plasma levels of GH. As lactation progressed from 30-90 days post partum, milk yield decreased, feed intake increased, and overall plasma concentration of insulin increased (17.3 vs. 29.3 microU/ml), reflecting both an elevated magnitude of hormone secretory spikes (30.2 vs. 55.2 microU/ml) and an elevated baseline concentration (16.8 vs. 27.3 microU/ml). The short term repeatability of overall mean and total 24-h GH and insulin secretion in lactating cows was demonstrated as well as the uniqueness of individual cow GH secretory patterns. Significant differences were not found in either glucose or FFA concentrations between lactation periods. Increased GH and decreased insulin during early lactation are likely to promote the mobilization of adipose tissue stores needed to supplement dietary energy consumption.

  12. Crude glycerin in supplement to primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture: nutritional and productive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida de Santana Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and productive characteristics of primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, using different levels of crude glycerin in the supplement. The experiment was conducted at Rancho Santana farm, located in Jequié city, Bahia, Brazil, in the period from December 21, 2010 to March 16, 2011. Ten ¾ Holstein × ¼ Dairy Gyr lactating primiparous cows, with 109±24 days of lactation and a mean age of 30±6 months and mean body weight of 426.2±68.29 kg were distributed into five treatments, using two simultaneous 5 × 5 latin squares. Treatments consisted of inclusion levels (0, 94, 191, 289, 389 g/kg dry matter basis of crude glycerin in the supplement. Intake, digestibility, milk production and composition were measured. Results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and regression at 0.05 probability. For all consumption variables no significant differences were found between the levels of crude glycerin. Except for the digestibility of ether extract, all digestibility values were similar between treatments. The fat content and yield showed quadratic effect between treatments. No significant differences were observed for protein, lactose, total solids, nonfat dry extract, fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen and somatic cell count between treatments. For primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, up to 389 g of crude glycerin/kg of dietary supplement can be included without nutritional and productive interference.

  13. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  14. The Influence of Lactation Education toward Growth of Infants 0-6 Months in Kendari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmiaty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth is the basis for assessing nutritional adequacy of baby. Appropriate intake of nutrition give an impact on the optimal growth. Growth of infants 0-6 months is a critical period in the first 1000 days of life and appropriate intake is exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding lowers the risk of morbidity and mortality infants. This study aims to determine the effect of lactation education toward the growth of infants 0-6 months. This study design was Quasy Experiment, ie. pre-test and post-test with control group design. Samples were 28-30 weeks pregnant women, divided into three groups: 1 those who received education lactation and a modification module (n = 21, 2 a group that only received a modification module (n = 21 and 3 groups only get the MCH book (n = 20. Growth indicators were body weight and body length that measured at birth, months 1, 3 and 6. Statistical analysis using chi square, Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed lactation education affected the baby's growth at 1, 3 and 6 months. Group 1 has an increase in length and weight of body higher than group 2 and 3. So it is very important to pregnant women and maternity lactation routinely receiveing education to improve breastfeeding practice for optimilizing infant growth.

  15. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  16. A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Terzi; Hasan Terzi; Tülay Özer; Ahmet Kale

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactati...

  17. Effect of lactation on the decline of brush border lactase activity in neonatal pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D.; King, T P; McFadyen, M; Travis, A J

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that during the early phase of lactation porcine milk contains high concentrations of hormones and growth factors. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the hypothesis that the temporal coordination of intestinal maturation in piglets can be extrinsically regulated through changes in the composition of milk during the suckling period. Gut morphology and the ontogeny of brush border lactase activity were investigated in piglets reared on two suckling regimens de...

  18. Preanalytical handling of samples for measurement of plasma lactate in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Jørgensen, L T

    2003-01-01

    (0.78 mmol/Lh +/- 0.02 vs. 0.63 mmol/Lh +/- 0.05, (p=0.009) and 0.65 mmol/Lh +/- 0.03 vs. 0.53 mmol/Lh +/- 0.05, (p=0.042)). It was found that placing the tubes on crushed ice rather than keeping them at 25 degrees C controlled glycolysis and lactate production measured over a 6-h period (0.033 mmol...

  19. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (ppregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (phormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers with varied caretaking experience. In addition, infant exposure to relatively higher levels of maternal cortisol during the late fetal and early postnatal periods is predictive of poorer developmental outcomes.

  20. Efficient production of pyruvate from DL-lactate by the lactate-utilizing strain Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The platform chemical lactate is currently produced mainly through the fermentation of sugars presented in biomass. Besides the synthesis of biodegradable polylactate, lactate is also viewed as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Pyruvate, another important platform chemical, can be produced from lactate through biocatalysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was established that whole cells of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM catalyze lactate oxidation with lactate-induced NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases (iLDHs through the inherent electron transfer chain. Unlike the lactate oxidation processes observed in previous reports, the mechanism underlying lactate oxidation described in the present study excluded the costliness of the cofactor regeneration step and production of the byproduct hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biocatalysis conditions were optimized by using the cheap dl-lactate as the substrate and whole cells of the lactate-utilizing P. stutzeri SDM as catalyst. Under optimal conditions, the biocatalytic process produced pyruvate at a high concentration (48.4 g l(-1 and a high yield (98%. The bioconversion system provides a promising alternative for the green production of pyruvate.

  1. Administration of antibiotics to ewes at the beginning of the dry-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Ioannis G; Fthenakis, George C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the significance of administration of antibiotics at the end of a lactation period/beginning of the dry-period in ewes. During the stage of active involution, there is an increased risk of new mastitis cases and recrudescence of subclinical infections that had occurred during the previous lactation period. The main pathogens involved in the so-called 'dry-period mastitis' are coagulase-negative staphylococci. The principle of antibiotic administration at the end of a lactation period involves the intramammary infusion of a preparation to both mammary glands of ewes in the flock. Although a variety of products is licensed for administration in ewes, preferably the product for administration should be selected on the results of susceptibility testing of bacteria to be isolated from samples from ewes in the flock. In many clinical studies from around the world, performed in dairy- or mutton-production flocks, administration of antimicrobial agents at the end of a lactation period has been found beneficial in curing intramammary infections present at cessation of a lactation period, as well as in minimising the risk for intramammary infections during the dry-period. In dairy flocks, there are also benefits from increase in milk yield and decrease flock bulk milk mean somatic cell counts during the subsequent lactation period. Antibiotic administration at drying-off may be performed to all animals in a flock ('complete') or only to those considered to be infected ('selective'). In all cases, after administration of the antibiotic, definite and complete cessation of the lactation period is essential for success of the procedure. Moreover, maintenance of the prescribed withdrawal periods is essential to safeguard public health. The procedure should always be applied as part of a strategic udder health management plan in a flock; implementation improves the welfare of animals and affords significant financial benefits to the

  2. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  3. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  4. The association of early combined lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Jorge, Pedro; Wieringa, Nienke; de Felice, Eva; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2017-08-21

    The development of renal and liver dysfunction may be accompanied by initially subtle derangements in the gluconeogenetic function. Discrepantly low glucose levels combined with high lactate levels might indicate an impaired Cori cycle. Our objective was to examine the relation between early lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. Over a 4-year period (2011 to 2014), all adult patients admitted to our adult 48-bed teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU) for at least 12 h were retrospectively analyzed. Lactate and glucose were regularly measured with point-of-care analyzers in all ICU patients. Lactate and glucose measurements were collected from 6 h before to 24 h after ICU admission. Patients with fewer than four lactate/glucose measurements were excluded. Patients received insulin according to a computer-guided control algorithm that aimed at a glucose level 2.3 mmol/L) and glucose quintiles (≤7.0; 7.0-7.6; 7.6-8.2; 8.2-9.0; >9.0 mmol/L) were related with outcome in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV, lactate, and glucose were associated with renal and liver dysfunction in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001), with a U-shaped relationship for glucose. The combination of the highest lactate quintile with the lowest glucose quintile was associated with the highest rates of renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, and mortality (p < 0.001) with a significant interaction between lactate and glucose (p ≤ 0.001). Abnormal combined lactate and glucose measurements may provide an early indication of organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients a 'normal' glucose with an elevated lactate should not be considered desirable, as this combination is related with increased mortality.

  5. Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects inclusion of 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% natural matter (NM of mesquite pod meal (MPM, in substitution of corn, on the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of lactating Saanen goats. The forage:concentrate ratio in the diet was 40:60, using elephant grass silage as a forage source. Eight adult lactating goats with about 60 days in milk and weighting 50 kg were divided into two 4 × 4 latin squares and four 17-day experimental periods. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrient (TDN intakes were not influenced by MPM levels. Ether extract (0.51; 0.34; 0.36; 0.20 kg/day and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC (0.54; 0.53; 0.49; 0.36 kg/day intakes showed a linear effect with increased MPM. Organic matter (OM and NDF intakes presented a quadratic behavior. The maximum OM intake was estimated with the replacement of 40.5%. The maximum estimated intakes for NDF were 0.665 kg/day and 14.8 g/kg body weight, with a replacement close to 60%. Nutrient digestibility coefficients and TDN levels (655.0 g/kg were not affected, except for NFC. The time spent eating, ruminating and idle was not influenced by the addition of MPM. The feeding rate of DM had a linear decrease which reflected the intake restriction. Corn replacement with MPM should not exceed 40.5%, although its total replacement does not interfere with the intake of DM, CP and TDN on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and most ingestive behavior parameters.

  6. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Jury

    Full Text Available The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST and marble burying task (MBT. Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although

  7. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pup during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Hall, A.J.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  8. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Hall, AJ; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  9. Self-assembled monolayers with biospecific affinity for lactate dehydrogenase for the electroenzymatic oxidation of lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, Daniela D.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Surface modified gold electrodes with high biospecific affinity for NAD(H)-dependent lactate dehydrogenase have been prepared by covalent attachment of several traizine dyes to stepwise functionalized mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. The biospecific affinity of such ligand-anchored

  10. Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.

  12. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  13. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    A series of mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis were constructed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities ranging from below 1% to 133% of the wild-type activity level. The mutants with 59% to 133% of lactate dehydrogenase activity had growth rates similar to the wild-type and showed...... a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...

  15. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-09-22

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples.

  16. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  17. Failure of maintained hyperprolactinemia to improve lactational performance in late puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barguño, J M; del Pozo, E; Cruz, M; Figueras, J

    1988-04-01

    Although stimulation of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period has been found to improve lactational performance, the effect of chronic maintenance of elevated plasma PRL levels on milk production is not known. In a randomized design, 66 lactating women were assigned to receive either a placebo (n = 32) or the dopamine antagonist sulpiride (n = 34; 100 mg, three times daily), for 4 days, followed by 50 mg, three times daily, for a 90-day period). Their basal and 30 min postsuckling plasma PRL levels as well as the weights of their infants were measured 1, 4, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postpartum. Forty-one women (20 sulpiride-treated and 21 placebo-treated) completed the study. Compared with the placebo group, which had the expected postpartum plasma PRL decline, the sulpiride-treated women maintained significantly elevated basal plasma PRL values up to the 90th postpartum day. In contrast, the postsuckling plasma PRL level was significantly diminished in the latter group, and on day 90 was practically absent. On day 15, weight gain was significantly greater in the infants whose mothers received sulpiride, but later, no differences were detectable between groups of infants despite the disparity in PRL levels in their mothers. We conclude that enhancement of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period may transiently increase milk production, but chronic hyperprolactinemia has no effect on lactational performance. The plasma PRL response to suckling is not essential for the maintenance of milk secretion. Instead, basal plasma PRL levels and neurogenic reflexes may be more instrumental in maintaining established lactation.

  18. Confinement of lactating sows in crates for 4 days after farrowing reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustsen, V A; Hales, J; Lahrmann, H P; Weber, P M; Hansen, C F

    2013-04-01

    To reduce mortality among suckling piglets, lactating sows are traditionally housed in farrowing crates. Alternatively, lactating sows can be housed in farrowing pens where the sow is loose to ensure more behavioural freedom and consequently a better welfare for the sow, although under commercial conditions, farrowing pens have been associated with increased piglet mortality. Most suckling piglets that die do so within the first week of life, so potentially lactating sows do not have to be restrained during the entire lactation period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether confinement of the sow for a limited number of days after farrowing would affect piglet mortality. A total of 210 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Yorkshire) were farrowed in specially designed swing-aside combination farrowing pens measuring 2.6 m × 1.8 m (combi-pen), where the sows could be kept loose or in a crate. The sows were either: (a) loose during the entire experimental period, (b) crated from days 0 to 4 postpartum, (c) crated from days 0 to 7 postpartum or (d) crated from introduction to the farrowing pen to day 7 postpartum. The sows and their subsequent litters were studied from introduction to the combi-pen ∼1 week before expected farrowing and until 10 days postpartum. Confinement period of the sow failed to affect the number of stillborn piglets; however, sows that were crated after farrowing had fewer live-born mortality deaths (P piglet mortality among the loose sows was because of higher mortality in the first 4 days after farrowing. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that crating the sow for 4 days postpartum was sufficient to reduce piglet mortality.

  19. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  20. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Mulcahy, G; Murphy, T M

    2010-09-01

    To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the onset of diarrhoea and did not reduce the risk of infection amongst calves reared together in a highly contaminated environment. The use of halofuginone lactate in combination with good hygienic measures, such as rearing animals in clean individual pens, was the most effective method to reduce the risk of cryptosporidiosis amongst 7-13 days old calves. It was concluded that the control of the parasite could be achieved by the combination of using effective preventive drugs, such as halofuginone lactate and good animal husbandry procedures.

  1. Effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on nutritional and hormonal profiles in mothers and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, A P; Oliveira, E; Pinheiro, C R; Nunes-Freitas, A L; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Santana, A C; Nascimento-Saba, C C; Nogueira-Neto, J F; Reis, A M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is related to changes in energy balance regulation and several endocrine dysfunctions. Previously, we showed that maternal nicotine (the main addictive compound of tobacco) exposure exclusively during lactation affects biochemical profiles in mothers, milk, and pups. As the possible consequences for mothers and offspring of maternal smoking during lactation are still unknown, we evaluated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal parameters in dams and pups at weaning. After 72 h from birth, lactating rats were divided into two groups: smoke-exposed (S) in a cigarette-smoking machine, 4 × 1 h per day throughout the lactation period without pups; control (C), rats were treated the same as the experimental group but exposed to filtered air. Dams and pups were killed at weaning (21 days of lactation). Body weight and food intake were evaluated. Milk, blood, visceral fat, adrenal, and carcass were collected. S dams showed hyperprolactinemia (+50%), hypoinsulinemia (-40%), hypoleptinemia (-46%), as well as lower triglycerides (-53%) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-50%). Milk of S dams had higher lactose (+52%) and triglycerides (+78%). S pups presented higher body protein (+17%), lower total (-24%) and subcutaneous fat contents (-25%), hypoglycemia (-11%), hyperinsulinemia (+28%), hypocorticosteronemia (-40%), lower adrenal catecholamine content (-40%), hypertriglyceridemia (+34%), higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+16%), and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-45%). In conclusion, tobacco smoke exposure leads to changes in nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal parameters in dams and, passively through the milk, may promote several important metabolic disorders in the progeny.

  2. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  3. Breed and parity effects on energy balance profiles through lactation: evidence of genetically driven body energy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Berg, P; Theilgaard, P; Korsgaard, I R; Ingvartsen, K L; Løvendahl, P; Jensen, J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of energy balance through lactation of cows kept under constant feeding conditions. Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Jersey cows were studied during consecutive lactations and remained on the same dietary treatment throughout. They were fed a normal (13.55 MJ of digestible energy/kg of dry matter) or a lower energy diet (12.88 MJ of digestible energy/kg of dry matter) ad libitum throughout lactation. Energy balance was calculated using the effective energy (EE) system in such a way that energy balance equated to body energy reserve change. In the EE system the energy values assigned to feeds are directly equivalent to the energy requirements of the animal; 1 MJ of EE supply has the same energy value as 1 MJ of lipid loss from the body. The resulting body energy change data were analyzed using a linear spline model. There was no evidence to suggest that different combinations of breed and parity required different knot placements. The Holstein mobilized significantly more body energy in early lactation than the Danish Red and Jersey breeds. Parity 1 cows mobilized significantly less than parity 2 and 3 cows. There was a significant interaction between breed and parity in the first half of lactation due to parity 1 Jersey cows having a greater mobilization than would be expected of the difference between parities in the other breeds. As lactation progressed, the differences between parities and between breeds decreased. Cows on the higher energy diet had a more positive energy balance. Within breed and parity, the following possible predictors of individual differences in body energy change were examined: fatness-corrected live weight, condition score at calving, and genotype. There was no difference in the predicted cow effect or residual energy balance profile when grouped according to quartiles of corrected live weight or according to condition score at calving. During the period of most negative energy balance (d

  4. Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25-750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P pregnancy (P pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker.

  5. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  6. Lactation support and breastfeeding duration in jaundiced infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Pound

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice is the most common problem in full-term infants during the immediate post-natal period. We examined the effect of a lactation support intervention on breastfeeding duration in hospitalized jaundiced infants.We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component involving mothers of hospitalized jaundiced breastfed infants <4 weeks of age. Mothers receiving the intervention met with an International Board-Certified Lactation Consultant in hospital and 1-3 times post discharge. Both groups received the standard care for jaundice. The primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months. To the exception of research assistants enrolling participants and completing qualitative interviews, all research staff, investigators and statisticians were blinded to group assignment. Qualitative interviews elicited feedback on breastfeeding experiences for both groups.99 participants were recruited, and 86 analyzed for primary outcome. There was no difference in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months between groups (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.56-1.24, p = 0.40 or in the secondary outcomes. 31 participants were included in the qualitative analysis. Participants in the intervention group described an increase in comfort and confidence levels with breastfeeding. Participants in the control group reported limited lactation support.Our hospital-based lactation support program did not result in a higher proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months compared to current hospital standard care. Qualitative feedback from the intervention group suggests that mothers' confidence was increased, which is linked to breastfeeding duration. The decision to breastfeed is multifactorial and hospital-based lactation support may be only a small piece of the puzzle in hospitalized jaundiced infants. Further studies may be needed to fully elucidate the impact of an in-hospital lactation support program on successful breastfeeding for these

  7. Emerging evidence of the physiological role of hypoxia in mammary development and lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Shao; Feng-Qi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a physiological or pathological condition of a deficiency of oxygen supply in the body as a whole or within a tissue. During hypoxia, tissues undergo a series of physiological responses to defend themselves against a low oxygen supply, including increased angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glucose uptake. The effects of hypoxia are mainly mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting ofαandβsubunits. HIF-1βis constantly expressed, whereas HIF-1αis degraded under normal oxygen conditions. Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-1αand the HIF complex, and HIF then translocates into the nucleus to initiate the expression of target genes. Hypoxia has been extensively studied for its role in promoting tumor progression, and emerging evidence also indicates that hypoxia may play important roles in physiological processes, including mammary development and lactation. The mammary gland exhibits an increasing metabolic rate from pregnancy to lactation to support mammary growth, lactogenesis, and lactation. This process requires increasing amounts of oxygen consumption and results in localized chronic hypoxia as confirmed by the binding of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole HCl in mouse mammary gland. We hypothesized that this hypoxic condition promotes mammary development and lactation, a hypothesis that is supported by the following several lines of evidence:i) Mice with an HIF-1αdeletion selective for the mammary gland have impaired mammary differentiation and lipid secretion, resulting in lactation failure and striking changes in milk compositions;ii) We recently observed that hypoxia significantly induces HIF-1α-dependent glucose uptake and GLUT1 expression in mammary epithelial cells, which may be responsible for the dramatic increases in glucose uptake and GLUT1 expression in the mammary gland during the transition period from late pregnancy to early lactation;and ii ) Hypoxia and HIF-1αincrease the

  8. Effects of feeding dry glycerin to early postpartum Holstein dairy cows on lactational performance and metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Rico, D E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Noirot, V; Ames, A; Varga, G A

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 39 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (19 control and 20 glycerin-supplemented; lactation number = 2.2 +/- 1.3 SD) on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and blood metabolic profiles were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d as a top dressing (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) to the common lactating total mixed ration from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 2 consecutive milkings weekly and analyzed for components. Blood was sampled from the coccygeal vein at 4, 7, 14, and 21 (+/-0.92, pooled SD) d in milk and analyzed for urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Urine was tested for the acetoacetate level weekly by using Ketostix. Average feed intake, milk yield and components, blood metabolites, and serum insulin concentrations were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation. Glycerin-supplemented cows experienced a more positive energy status (higher concentrations of plasma glucose, lower concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lower concentrations of urine ketones), which was observed during the second week of lactation, suggesting that energy availability may have been improved. This glucogenic effect of dry glycerin did not result in an increase in feed intake or milk yield during the first 3 wk of lactation, likely because of the relatively less negative energy status of cows transitioning into lactation. The tendency toward higher milk yield for glycerin-supplemented cows during wk 6 of lactation (52 vs. 46 kg/d) after the supplementation period (dry glycerin was terminated at wk 3 of lactation) suggested a potential benefit of dry glycerin on subsequent milk production, perhaps through changes in metabolism, which requires further investigation.

  9. An assessment of dioxin exposure across gestation and lactation using a PBPK model and new data from Seveso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, C; DeVito, M; Warner, M; Eskenazi, B; Mocarelli, P; Birnbaum, L S

    2016-01-01

    On July 10, 1976, an explosion at a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy, released up to 30kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-the most potent dioxin congener. Twenty years later, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) initiated a follow-up assessment of a cohort of female Seveso residents. Researchers collected serial blood, measured for TCDD levels, and recorded information about the women's medical history after the explosion. The study's aims were to: 1) modify the human PBPK model for TCDD (Emond et al. 2004; Emond et al. 2005; NCEA-USEPA, 2010) to include repetitive gestation and lactation; 2) simulate TCDD blood concentrations during different life stages including pregnancy and lactation, under different exposure scenarios; and 3) use this PBPK model to compare the influence of gestation and lactation on elimination of TCDD. After optimization of the model, it was assessed using data from the SWHS cohort. The 23 women in Subcohort A, were 4-39years old and in Subcohort B, the 18 women were 3-17years old when the explosion occurred. The model accurately predicted the blood concentrations during the 20years post-exposure, including periods of pregnancy and lactation. The model was also used to analyze the contribution of gestation and lactation to the mother's elimination of TCDD. The results suggest that gestation and lactation do not significantly impact TCDD blood elimination. Future efforts will focus on using additional data to evaluate the PBPK model and improving the mathematical descriptions of lactation and multiple gestations.

  10. Morphological evaluation of rat incisor enamel and dentin induced by pregnancy and lactation using a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Murat; Dural, Sema; Kanli, Aydan; Tuncel, Murvet; Orhan, Kaan

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the morphology of the dentine tubules and external enamel surface of rat incisor teeth using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) system. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were divided into three groups; group A rats were at the end of pregnancy, group B rats were in the post-lactation period and group C rats, the control group, were unmated. The outer enamel surface and openings of the dentine tubules at the neck regions of the incisors were observed under the SEM and photographed. Examination of the incisor teeth of pregnant and post-lactation rats revealed scratches on the enamel surface. There were few eroded areas and slight changes and the dentine tubules of the pregnant group were fully or partially occluded on the entire surface of the enamel in the lactating rats. Almost all dentine tubules of the rats in this group were open. During the study, EDX analysis of calcium, phosphate and magnesium was also performed at 20 kV and 0 degree tilt. The results of EDX analyses of magnesium were significantly lower in the pregnant group compared with the lactation and control groups for the dentine in the neck region (p<0.05). The calcium values increased in the lactation group compared with those of the rats in the other two groups (p<0.05). These results might indicate that changes during pregnancy and lactation affect the content and morphology of mineralized dental hard tissue.

  11. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  12. [Pregnancy and lactation are not risk factors for osteoporosis or fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Karlsson, Caroline

    Observational and case control studies infer that a pregnancy and a period of lactation are followed by loss in bone mass of up to 5%. The reason for this loss is virtually impossible to conclude as so many factors known to influence the bone mass undergo changes during a pregnancy and lactation. The increased calcium demand, changed nutritional habits, reduced smoking and alcohol consumption seen in many women during these periods, the changes in body weight and fat content, the changed level of physical activity and the changed levels of hormones with potential to influence the bone metabolism could all influence the bone mass. Most studies also report that the deficit in "bone mass" normalises after weaning. Multiple pregnancies and long total duration of lactation can not be regarded as risk factors for osteoporosis and fragility fractures as most reports indicate that women with multiple pregnancies have similar or higher bone mass and similar or lower fracture incidence than their peers with no children.

  13. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  14. Differential expression and localization of lipid transporters in the bovine mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Sørensen, M T; Sejrsen, K

    2009-01-01

    The transport of lipids across mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC) determines milk lipid content and composition. We investigated the expression of lipid transporters and their regulators in comparison to blood metabolites during lactation and dry period (DP) in dairy cows. Repeated mammary gland...... enzymatic chemistries. Elevated mRNA profiles of ABCA1 and ABCA7 were found during DP as compared with lactation and were inversely associated with blood cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of ABCG2, NPC1, SREBP1, SREBP2, LXR , and PPAR were found postpartum, whereas ABCG1 did not differ between...... the functional stages of the mammary gland. The ABCA1 protein was localized in MEC and showed differential activity between DP and lactation suggesting a role of ABCA1 in the removal of excess cellular cholesterol from MEC during the DP. The expression profiles of ABCA7 and NPC1 may reflect a role...

  15. Influence of udder infection status on milk enzyme activities and somatic cell count throughout early lactation in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr, T; Aulrich, K; Barth, K;

    2013-01-01

    . A total of 60 dairy goats were sampled at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks after kidding and the bacteriological status, milk SCC and the activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of udder halves were analysed. Infections with minor...... after parturition, the study revealed a highly significant influence of lactation week on log10 SCC (F4,255 = 11.63, p LDH (F4,285 = 5.02, p ...-glucuronidase activity were not influenced by the stage of lactation. The infection status of udder halves had a highly significant effect on log10 SCC (F3,528 = 18.88, p LDH (F3,534 = 12.39, p

  16. Colostrum yield and piglet growth during lactation are related to gilt metabolic and hepatic status prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2014-07-01

    It was hypothesized that colostrum production could be influenced by sow peripartum endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic status. The plant extract silymarin was shown to influence endocrine and hepatic status in several species. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of silymarin intake during late pregnancy on sow hormonal and hepatic status and to determine whether relations exist between sow hepatic and metabolic status during the peripartum period and colostrum yield and piglet performances during lactation. From d 107 of pregnancy until farrowing, nulliparous sows were either fed 12 g/d of silymarin (SIL; n = 15) or no treatment (Control; n = 12). Piglet BW was recorded directly after birth, 24 h after birth of the first piglet, and at 7, 14, and 21 d of lactation. Blood samples were collected from sows on d 107 and 109 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of pregnancy until d 2 of lactation, and on d 7 and 21 of lactation. They were assayed for endocrine, metabolic, and hepatic variables. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of farrowing. Silymarin did not influence colostrum yield (3.7 ± 0.3 kg) or gross composition (P > 0.10), nor did it affect serum prolactin concentrations or plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol-17β, or cortisol (P > 0.10). Mean litter BW gain was lower (P 0.10). Colostrum yield was positively correlated with urea (r = 0.50; P = 0.01) and creatinine (r = 0.43; P = 0.03) concentrations in sows on the day before farrowing. Mean litter BW gain over 2 wk was negatively correlated with concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid (r = -0.50; P = 0.01) and γ-GT (r = -0.42; P = 0.03) on the day before farrowing and was positively correlated with urea concentrations on the day before farrowing (r = 0.54; P = 0.01). In conclusion, at the dose of 12 g/d, silymarin did not influence prolactin concentrations or the hepatic status of sows, had no impact on colostrum production, and decreased litter

  17. Effects of postexercise supplementation of chicken essence on the elimination of exercise-induced plasma lactate and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsin-I; Tsi, Daniel; Tan, Amabel C L; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2005-12-31

    We investigated the effects of chicken essence (CE) supplementation on exercise-induced changes of lactate and ammonia during recovery. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study, twelve healthy subjects performed a single bout of exercise to exhaustion, and then consumed either a placebo or CE within 5-min of the exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected before exercise, at exhaustion (0 minute), and 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes, respectively during the recovery period. There were no differences in plasma glucose, creatine kinase, or heart rate responses between treatments. The exercise exhaustion significantly increased the levels of lactate and ammonia, and both measured values gradually declined during the recovery period. Ammonia levels at 40, 60, and 120 min. of the recovery period were observed lower significantly in the CE group, as compared to those in the placebo group. Additionally, lactate concentrations at 60 and 120 min were lower in the CE group, as compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the main finding of this study was that CE supplementation after exercise reduces plasma lactate and ammonia levels. The results indicated that CE supplementation after an exhaustive exercise could enhance physiological recovery in humans.

  18. Maternal high-fat diet during lactation impairs thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in offspring mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingwei; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Lupei; Maricelli, Joseph W; Rodgers, Buel D.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Due to uncoupling, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy via heat generation, mitigating obesity and diabetes. The lactation stage is a manageable period for improving the health of offspring of obese mothers, but the impact of maternal HFD during lactation on offspring BAT function is unknown. To determine, female mice were fed either a control or HFD during lactation. At weaning, HFD offspring gained more body weight and had greater body fat mass compared to the control, and these differences maintained into adulthood, which correlated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD offspring. Adaptive thermogenesis of BAT was impaired in HFD offspring at weaning. In adulthood, HFD offspring BAT had lower Ucp1 expression and thermogenic activity. Mechanistically, maternal HFD feeding during lactation elevated peripheral serotonin, which decreased the sensitivity of BAT to sympathetic β3-adrenergic signaling. Importantly, early postnatal metformin administration decreased serotonin concentration and ameliorated the impairment of offspring BAT due to maternal HFD. Our data suggest that attenuation of BAT thermogenic function may be a key mechanism linking maternal HFD during lactation to persisted metabolic disorder in the offspring. PMID:27686741

  19. Variation of the cholesterol content in breast milk during 10 days collection at early stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelska, Anna M; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Bryl, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    More and more research is done concerning nutritional programming. Human milk nutrients which are consumed by infants can influence their health in later life. High level of cholesterol in human milk paradoxically lowers the cholesterol concentration in blood in adults. During the course of human lactation the cholesterol concentration decreases from 31 mg/100cm(3) (colostrum) to 16 mg/100 cm(3) (mature milk). According to Scopesi et al., 2002, Clin Nutr 21: 379-384, cholesterol concentration in mature milk ranged from 6.5 to 18.4 mg/100 cm(3). The aim of the study was to assess the variations in breast milk cholesterol content during 10 day collection at early lactation. 48 samples of human milk were analyzed. Mean age of women was 31 years. Women were collecting samples during 10 days of an early lactation stage (1-3 months after delivery). An Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR-ATR) method for easy and rapid determination of cholesterol in human milk was elaborated. Cholesterol content assessed by the FTIR method ranged from 3.36 to 12.98 mg/100 cm(3). Results indicate that milk cholesterol concentration during 10 consecutive days of early lactation is highly variable. Cholesterol content depends on an individual. Therefore it is suggested that not only the period of lactation but also mother's diet, age, season and place of residence are important factors determining cholesterol content.

  20. Lactate to creatinine ratio in amniotic fluid : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Helen L.; Pistorius, Lourens; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of amniotic fluid (AF) lactate concentration in complicated pregnancies may provide information on the extent of fetal acidemia. However, normalisation for AF volume may be necessary by calculating the lactate: creatinine (L: C) ratio. We measured these AF parameters and compared them to

  1. Lactic acid and Lactates in Health and wellness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan; Schreurs, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  2. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admit

  3. Kinetics of lactate and pyruvate transport in cultured rat myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Grumbckow, Lena; Elsner, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva;

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle transport of lactate and pyruvate was studied in primary cultures of rat myotubes, applying the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 2', 7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The initial rate of decrease in intracellular pH (pHi) upon lactate or pyruvate incubation was used...

  4. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A.; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    was determined in nine men during sodium lactate infusion to enhance the evaluation (0.5 mol x L(-1) at 16 ± 1 mL x min(-1); mean ± s) both at rest and during cycling exercise (heart rate 139 ± 5 beats x min(-1)). The renal release of erythropoietin was used to detect kidney tissue ischaemia. At rest, the a-v O......(2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P ...Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...

  5. Early Embryo Survival and Development in Sows with Lactational Ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    During lactation, daily separation of sow and piglets, intermittent suckling (IS), can induce lactational oestrus and ovulation. This study examined effects of IS on subsequent early embryo survival and development. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were separated from their piglets for either 12 consecutiv

  6. Evidence for facilitated lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E R; Gleeson, T T

    2001-12-01

    To understand more fully lactate metabolism in reptilian muscle, lactate uptake in lizard skeletal muscle was measured and its similarities to the monocarboxylate transport system found in mammals were examined. At 2 min, uptake rates of 15 mmol l(-1) lactate into red iliofibularis (rIF) were 2.4- and 2.2-fold greater than white iliofibularis (wIF) and mouse soleus, respectively. alpha-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (15 mmol l(-1)) caused little inhibition of uptake in wIF but caused a 42-54 % reduction in the uptake rate of lactate into rIF, suggesting that much of the lactate uptake by rIF is via protein-mediated transport. N-ethymaleimide (ETH) (10 mmol l(-1)) also caused a reduction in the rate of uptake, but measurements of adenylate and phosphocreatine concentrations show that ETH had serious effects on rIF and wIF and may not be appropriate for transport inhibition studies in reptiles. The higher net uptake rate by rIF than by wIF agrees with the fact that rIF shows much higher rates of lactate utilization and incorporation into glycogen than wIF. This study also suggests that lactate uptake by reptilian muscle is similar to that by mammalian muscle and that, evolutionarily, this transport system may be relatively conserved even in animals with very different patterns of lactate metabolism.

  7. Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt iodization and iodine status among infants and lactating mothers in papua ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... intake of iodine was 186.93ug, which is below the 250ug recommended for ... There is, therefore, a need to advocate strongly for increased dietary intake of iodine by lactating mothers.

  8. 0.3 MM Diameter Flexible Amperometric Lactate Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-26

    also the oxidation of the FADH 2 by 02, whereby H202 is formed. LOX-FAD + Lactate -, Pvruvate + LOX-FADH2 (1) Amperometric lactate sensors have been...tile reduced forms of a diffusional mediator, such :is 0- H-,O, or Fc-/Fc (where Fc is a ferrocene derivativei. 5 -10 FAD/ FADH - centers of LOX were also

  9. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult.

  10. A rare cause of postpartum low back pain: pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated.

  11. A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Terzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated.

  12. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis: a narrative mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, K; Peitsidis, P; Ilias, I

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation represent stress states for maternal health and development. Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLaOs) are uncommon and rare conditions characterized by the occurrence of fragility fracture(s), most commonly vertebral, in late pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The etiology and pathogenesis of these conditions is not clear and several theories are proposed. Due to the rarity of the disease, various isolated clinical cases are reported in the medical literature and only one case-control study thus far. In the current review we try to analyze the pathophysiologic pathways implicated in these conditions and provide possible explanations regarding etiology; we present data on the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis and current approved treatment modalities of PLaOs.

  13. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout...... gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T4 in dams, but no significant effects on T4 levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure...... through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3–16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T4 reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing...

  14. Response of lactating cows to supplemental rumen protected methionine and Niacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Jianguo LI; Wenbin JIA; Qiufeng LI; Yufeng CAO

    2008-01-01

    Eight Chinese Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effects of rumen protected methionine (RPMet) and Niacin on milk yield and milk composition of lactating cows with 14 d adaptation and 6-d sampling periods. The cows were fed the control diet or the control diet plus RPMet tion in the diet increased 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield (P 0.05) and lactose percentage (P>0.05). Dietary niacin supplementation increased milk yield (P 0.05) and SNF (P>0.05). RPMet supplementation in the diet of lactating cows significantly decreased serum urea nitrogen (P0.05). Niacin supplementation influ-enced the contents of glucose and NEFA in serum, but had no effects on the urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride (P>0.05).

  15. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: Effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. G.; Nielsen, M. O.; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  16. Effects of Chinese herbs on lactation of rat and performance of offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Baoming; SHAN Anshan

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different Chinese herbs on lactation in the rat. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley female rats at gestation day 18 were assigned to 9 groups randomly, with 8 rats each. Control rats were offered basal diets until the end of the weaning period. Rats in the other 8 groups were administered diets supplemented with 1% Medulla tetrapanacis (MT),Astragalus membranacens (AM), Vaccaria segetalis (VS), Leonurus heterophyllus sweet (LHS), Radix rehmanniae preparata (RRP),Squama manitis (SM), Schisandra chinensis (SC), Ligustrum lucidum (LL), respectively. After parturition, the litter size was culled to 8pups per dam. Pup weight and milk yield were significantly higher in the VS, LHS, AM and SM groups than these in the control group during middle and late lactation (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The weight and feed intake were not different in the dams fed either diet.

  17. Performance and metabolic profile of dairy cows during a lactational and deliberately induced negative energy balance with subsequent realimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M; Schwarz, F J

    2011-04-01

    Homeorhetic and homeostatic controls in dairy cows are essential for adapting to alterations in physiological and environmental conditions. To study the different mechanisms during adaptation processes, effects of a deliberately induced negative energy balance (NEB) by feed restriction near 100 d in milk (DIM) on performance and metabolic measures were compared with lactation energy deficiency after parturition. Fifty multiparous cows were studied in 3 periods (1=early lactation up to 12 wk postpartum; 2=feed restriction for 3 wk beginning at 98±7 DIM with a feed-restricted and control group; and 3=a subsequent realimentation period for the feed-restricted group for 8 wk). In period 1, despite NEB in early lactation [-42 MJ of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/d, wk 1 to 3] up to wk 9, milk yield increased from 27.5±0.7 kg to a maximum of 39.5±0.8 kg (wk 6). For period 2, the NEB was induced by individual limitation of feed quantity and reduction of dietary energy density. Feed-restricted cows experienced a greater NEB (-63 MJ of NEL/d) than did cows in early lactation. Feed-restricted cows in period 2 showed only a small decline in milk yield of -3.1±1.1 kg and milk protein content of -0.2±0.1% compared with control cows (30.5±1.1 kg and 3.8±0.1%, respectively). In feed-restricted cows (period 2), plasma glucose was lower (-0.2±0.0 mmol/L) and nonesterified fatty acids higher (+0.1±0.1 mmol/L) compared with control cows. Compared with the NEB in period 1, the decreases in body weight due to the deliberately induced NEB (period 2) were greater (56±4 vs. 23±3 kg), but decreases in body condition score (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.34±0.04) and muscle diameter (2.0±0.4 vs. 3.5±0.4 mm) were lesser. The changes in metabolic measures in period 2 were marginal compared with the adjustments directly after parturition in period 1. Despite the greater induced energy deficiency at 100 DIM than the early lactation NEB, the metabolic load experienced by the dairy cows was not

  18. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  19. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  20. Nutritional regulation of mammary cell apoptosis in lactating ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Colitti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in understanding the control of the mammary cell population now offer new insights to understand the decline in milk yield of dairy animals, which has long been a biological conundrum for the mammary biologists. Evidence indicates that change in mammary cell number is the result of an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell removal and that this is a principal cause of declining production (Stefanon et al., 2001. Further, it suggests that the persistency of lactation, the rate of decline in milk yield with stage of lactation, is strongly influenced by the rate of cell death by apoptosis in the lactating gland (Wilde et al., 1997. The most significant advance in understanding the cell biology underpinning persistency of lactation has come from the demonstration that cell loss during lactation occurs by apoptosis. Several researches obtained in cell cultures in mouse and rat have indicated that gene expression and cellular activities are modulated by the reactive oxygen species..........

  1. Regulation and Function of Lactate Oxidation in Streptococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jack

    1968-01-01

    Regulation of the synthesis and function of an l(+)-specific lactate-oxidizing enzyme system found in a homofermentative Streptococcus was investigated. With the exception of fructose, aerobic growth at the expense of a variety of substrates resulted in the formation of a lactate oxidation system; anaerobic growth resulted in a marked reduction or complete loss of lactate-oxidizing activity. Growth on fructose, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, invariably produced a decrease in the activity of the lactate oxidation system. A negative control, activated by an early intermediate product of glycolysis, appeared to be responsible for repression of the lactate-oxidizing enzyme(s). The enzyme system confers upon the organism the ability to grow aerobically at the expense of l(+)-lactic acid. PMID:5646625

  2. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from...

  3. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactational mastitis is a painful, debilitating condition that if inappropriately managed, may lead women to discontinue breastfeeding prematurely. The aim of this paper is to report the incidence of mastitis in the first six months postpartum in a Scottish population, its impact...... questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...... they received from health professionals. RESULTS: In total, 74 women (18%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis. More than one half of initial episodes (53%) occurred within the first four weeks postpartum. One in ten women (6/57) were inappropriately advised to either stop breastfeeding from...

  4. Managing Migraine During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Turner, Dana P; Lee, Michelle; Bishop, Laura; Strauss, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    While over half of women with migraine report improvement during pregnancy, having a history of migraine may increase the chance of negative health outcomes. The state of pregnancy increases the risk of several dangerous secondary headache disorders, especially those associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and providers need to know the red flags to diagnose and treat emergently. Non-pharmacological migraine treatments can be instituted in advance of pregnancy as many are considered the safest options during pregnancy, but understanding the safety of medications and dietary supplements ensures appropriate care for the refractory migraine patient. New controversy exists over the safety of several historically routine and safe migraine treatment options in pregnancy, such as magnesium, acetaminophen, ondansetron, and butalbital. While it is not clear if breastfeeding decreases the postpartum recurrence of migraine, understanding safe treatment options during lactation can allow women to continue breastfeeding while achieving migraine relief.

  5. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-01-13

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  6. Effect of prostaglandin on estrus response and conception rate in lactating ongole cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Ramana

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried to study the estrus response and conception rate in lactating Ongole cows consequence to double injection of prostaglandin. Material and Methods: Estrus synchronization was performed by double injection of PGF2α (Lutalyse, 5ml/cow in purposively selected 22 lactating Ongole cows. The 1st injection was administered on 60 days post partum (day 0 followed by 2nd injection on 72 days postpartum (day 12 and then insemination was carried out at observed estrus. Results: The ovarian response by ultrasound scanning revealed a dominant follicle of 10.00 ± 0.78 mm 3-4 days after the PGF2α administration. Out of 22 cows treated with double injections of prostaglandins 18 cows exhibited estrus within 68.66 ± 10.24 hrs. The duration of estrus and mean estrous cycle length recorded as 14.20±2.56 hrs and 21.50±0.21 days, respectively. The estrous cycle was observed in 79.45 % cows. The remaining cows showed 11-17 (5.48%, 26-36 (9.59% and 37- 60 (5.48 % days of estrous cycle length. The conception rate of observed to be 67.00 ± 0.26 %. The mean calving to service period found to be 81.18±1.62 days in lactating multiparous Ongole cows. Conclusion: It may be concluded that double injection of Prostaglandin has reduced the calving to service period which would even truly reduce calving interval in lactating Ongole cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 413-415

  7. Maternal regulation of offspring development in mammals is an ancient adaptation tied to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Power

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD is a paradigm for understanding metabolic diseases of modern humans. Vulnerability to disease is linked to perturbations in development during critical time periods in fetal and neonatal life. These perturbations are caused by environmental signals, often generated or transduced by the mother. The regulation of mammalian development depends to a large extent on maternal biochemical signals to her offspring. We argue that this adaptation is ancient, and originated with the evolution of lactation. Lactation evolved earlier than live birth and before the extensive placental development of modern eutherian mammals. Milk contains a host of signaling molecules including nutrients, immunoglobulins, growth factors and metabolic hormones. As evidenced by marsupials, lactation originally served to supply the biochemical factors for growth and development for what is essentially a fetus to a weanling transitioning to independent existence. In placental mammals maternal signaling in earliest life is accomplished through the maternal–placental–fetal connection, with more of development shifted to in utero life. However, significant development occurs postpartum, supported by milk. Mothers of all taxa provide biochemical signals to their offspring, but for non-mammalian mothers the time window is short. Developing mammals receive maternal biochemical signals over an extended period. These signals serve to guide normal development, but also can vary in response to environmental conditions. The ancient adaptation of lactation resulted in a lineage (mammals in which maternal regulation of offspring development evolved to a heightened degree, with the ability to modify development at multiple time points. Modern metabolic diseases may arise due to a mismatch between maternal regulation and eventual circumstances of the offspring, and due to a large proportion of mothers that exceed past evolutionary norms

  8. Analysis of the effect of dietary protected organic acid blend on lactating sows and their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of blends of dietary protected organic acid supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microflora, and gas emission on sows and piglets with emphasis on their modes of action to improve pig performance. A total of 12 sows with an average initial body weight (BW of 252.40±11.7 kg were used in this trial. Growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets fed protected organic acid were evaluated. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (CON; CON + 0.1% protected organic acid; and CON + 0.2% protected organic acid. The BW and back fat of sows was checked four days prior to farrowing and at the weaning day to calculate BW loss and back fat loss during that period. Inclusion of 0.2% protected organic acid provided a greater digestibility than CON diets throughout the experimental period in lactating sows. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% protected organic acid led to a higher white blood cell and lymphocyte concentration than CON treatment in sucking piglets. Immunoglobulin G concentration observed was greater in protected organic acid groups in lactating sow and sucking piglets. Increased faecal Lactobacillus counts with decreased E. coli concentrations were observed with the diets of protected organic acid fed to lactating sows. The E. coli counts were decreased in weaning piglets. The faecal H2S contents were decreased in 0.2% protected organic acid diets during farrowing on day 1. Dietary supplementation with protected organic acid blends beneficially affects the nutrient digestibility, ileal noxious gas (NH3 and H2S emission, as well as intestinal microbial balance in lactating sows.

  9. Recent Advances in Lactate Estimation and Lactate Sensors for Diagnosis of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is one of the principle products of anaerobic metabolism in living organism. Determination of lactate (lactic acid is required in the diagnosis and medical management of various diseases such as tissue hypoxia, the individual causes include shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic or endotoxic, systemic disorder (neoplastic diseases, liver or renal failure, diabetes mellitus, respiratory failure (asphyxia, severe congestive heart failure and also in food industry. Various methods are available for the measurement of lactic acid such as colorimetric, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography, near IR spectroscopy, HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, FIA, enzymic colorimetric and finally biosensor and biochip method. The principle, advantage and disadvantages of these methods have been compared and summarized in this review.

  10. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  11. [Lactate acidosis: a rare or common disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubát, K

    1995-05-01

    The authors present a survey of 50 documented cases of metabolic lactic acidosis (MLAC) recorded in the course of 5 years. To this study cases of severe hyperlactataemia (determined minimum lactate level of concentration 4 mmol/l) have been included. The sample consists of patients hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine Litomĕrice (hinterland of about 110,000 inhabitants). Liver involvement in 5 cases, cardiogenous shock in 6 cases, sepsis in 2 cases were the cause of lactic acidosis. The administration of biguanids (Adebit, Silubin R, Diformin) seems to be the probable cause in 21 cases, other cases were triggered by rarer causes. Dehydratation (16), vomiting (9), diarrhoea (11) dominate often in the clinical picture. The patients were admitted to the hospital often unconscious, with diagnose of vasculo-cerebral incidence, transitory ischaemic incidence... Quit rarely the typical Kussmaul's respiratory (only 9 cases) was recorded. Hyperlactatemia was usually associated with decrease of blood pH (theta = 7.12, pH less than 7.35 was recorded in 49 cases, pH less than 6.8 in 5 cases) and with decrease of BE value (= Ccoase, theta = -15.3 mmol/l). When the hypochloremia and/or hypocapnia was simultaneously more severe, only in these cases the value of pH was within physiological limits or even increased (10). The conclusions show that MLAC is not a rare disorder, however, its occurrence is depended rather on the clinician's capacity to diagnose this disorder and to indicate lactate examination. Usual signs of acidosis (Kussmaul's respiratory, decrease of pH, decrease of BE) can be missing in many cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. New Research Strategies in Lactation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Ogorevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches have been used to study milk related traits in farm animals, reaching from statistical dissection of phenotypic variation to the search of candidate genes with major phenotypic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a new research tool devoted to in vitro studies of physiological pathways responsible for mammary gland development, lactation, remodeling and immune response, supported by a user friendly map based bioinformatics tool for integration of different types of data. We established goat mammary gland derived primary epithelial cell line with predominantly epithelial morphology, responsive to lactogenic hormones and exhibiting regeneration potential in heterologous mouse system. The response of primary epithelial cells to pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae was studied using RNA sequencing approach and 1553 differentially expressed genes were detected 24h post infection. The majority of differentially expressed genes belonged to cell cycle regulating genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and genes involved in lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis of 359 putative target sites for mammary gland expressed miRNAs revealed polymorphic miRNA target sites for bta-miR-199b, -199a-5p, and -361 in the IL1B gene and for -miR-126 in the CYP11B1 gene. Graphical integration of different types of data to DairyVis platform allowed identification of genomic regions with higher number of potential functional elements that deserve further experimental analysis. The newly developed MEC line and integration of bioinformatics tools into DairyVis database represent a promising methodological support for further research in the field of lactation biology.

  13. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  14. Lactate uptake into mouse cardiomyocytes is coupled to CO2-dependent acid/base regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The heart is reported to show a net consumption of lactate. This may contribute up to 15% to the total body lactate disposal. In this work, the consumption of lactate was shown for the first time on the single cell level with the new FRET-based lactate sensor Laconic. Research published until today, almost exclusively reports the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the transporter responsible for myocardial lactate uptake. As this membrane transporter transports lactate togeth...

  15. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  16. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  17. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0.01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However

  18. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  19. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  20. Effects of intramammary antibiotic therapy during the dry period on the performance of Lacaune dairy sheep under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira, Laura; Fernández, Beatriz; Egea, Marta; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan V; Astiz, Susana

    2015-02-01

    Often the only way to ensure profitability of Lacaune dairy sheep is intensive management, which requires appropriate dry-period treatment to ensure animal productivity and health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intramammary antibiotic dry therapy on the performance and health of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded data for 5981 complete lactation periods that followed a dry period. A total of 2402 lactation periods were preceded by a dry period involving intramammary administration of 300 mg of cephapirin benzathine (antibiotic group) and 3579 lactation periods were preceded by dry periods with no treatment (control group). The following on-farm yield data were collected for individual lactation periods: length of the subsequent lactation period; total milk yield per lactation period; daily milk yield and length of the subsequent dry period. Data on confounding factors that might affect productivity were also recorded, including the individual ewe, number of lactation periods and length of the previous dry period. Milk quality was assessed using data on somatic cell count (SCC) and content of protein and fat taken from the Spanish National Official Milk Yield Recording System. Antibiotic dry therapy significantly improved total yield per lactation period, which was 429±151·1 l in the antibiotic group and 412±165·5 l in the control group, as well as the daily milk yield, which was 1986±497·0 and 1851±543·2 ml/d, respectively (both P<0·0001). The initial dry period was significantly longer in the antibiotic group than in the control group, and dry period length correlated inversely with yield variables such us total yield per lactation period (r=-0·055; P<0·0001) and yield per day in milk (r=-0·039; P<0·0001). As a result, milk yield records systematically underestimated the positive effects of antibiotic dry therapy. Antibiotic dry therapy also significantly improved milk quality. Milk from the antibiotic

  1. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-08-01

    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  2. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  3. Lactational oestrus and reproductive performance following a delayed limited nursing schedule in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Turpin, D L; Knight, A L; Bouwman, E G; Soede, N M; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2017-07-01

    With conventional lactation management, sows only conceive after weaning. However, intermittent suckling (IS) enables follicle growth and ovulation during lactation by reducing the suckling-induced inhibition of gonadotrophins. The current study evaluated IS regimes initiated at Day 21 or Day 28 post farrowing compared to conventional weaning on Day 28, in primiparous sows. Sows (Large White and Large White x Landrace) were randomly allocated to Control (C28; n = 44), IS21 (n = 29) and IS28 (n = 34) treatments at Day 20. Sows in IS21 and IS28 were subjected to intermittent suckling from Day 21 or Day 28 post farrowing. During IS, sows were separated from their piglets for 8 h daily, then weaned 7 d later at Day 28 and Day 35 respectively, whereas piglets in the C28 treatment had continuous access to sows until weaning at Day 28. Percentage of IS sows that showed oestrus during lactation was 59% (16/27) in IS21 and 72% (21/29) in IS28 (P > 0.05). Cumulatively over the lactation and 7 d post-weaning period, 93% of IS21, 85% of IS28 and 93% (31/33) of C28 sows showed oestrus (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate at Day 30 post mating, for sows that were mated during lactation was 93% (15/16) in IS21 and 95% (20/21) in IS28, whereas C28 sows had a 96% (30/31) pregnancy rate (P > 0.05). No difference was found in the time of oestrus relative to weaning (C28) or onset of IS (IS21 and IS28) (P > 0.05). The IS sows that did not ovulate before weaning all showed oestrus within 7 days from weaning, and the weaning to oestrus interval was similar to control sows (P > 0.05). However, for all IS sows (across IS treatments) that showed lactational ovulation, LH secretion pattern at onset of IS was different (P sows that did not ovulate in lactation. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be lower in the IS21 treatment (P sows at 4 d after ovulation. The subsequent litter size was not affected by treatments although numerically lower for IS21 (P > 0.05). The

  4. Cerebral Lactate Dynamics Across Sleep/Wake Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rempe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA in the electroencephalogram (EEG, increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS. We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated.

  5. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  6. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  7. Induced lactation: a study of 37 non-puerperal mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemba, K

    1994-08-01

    Of a series of 37 non-puerperal women aged between 19 and 55 years who requested bottle feeding, 27 were known to have completed a lactation induction programme and 24 (89 per cent) of these women were known to be successfully breast feeding well nourished children. All 11 women who had never previously lactated were successful. Of the three mothers in whom induction was unsuccessful, two obtained a bottle from other sources and both their children were malnourished. This study indicates that given a high degree of motivation combined with medication, support, and encouragement, lactation induction is likely to be highly successful and may thus be an important factor in child survival.

  8. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi J

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual and reproductive history of 178 women referred to the thyroid clinic was compared with 49 healthy controls. Cases were classified as euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid after clinical examination and after serum T3, T4, TSH measurements. Reproductive history was related chronologically to symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction. Only 31.8% of hypothyroid and 35.3% of hyperthyroid women had normal menstrual pattern in contrast with 56.3% of Euthyroid and 87.8% of healthy controls (p < 0.001. Reproductive failure (infertility, pregnancy wastage, failure of lactation occurred in 37.5% of hypothyroid and 36.5% of hyperthyroid cases against 16.3% of euthyroid and 16.7% of healthy controls (p < 0.05. Interestingly, in 45% of cases with menstrual abnormality, the anomaly was antecedent to other clinical features by a variable period of two months to ten years. Reproductive failure and lactation failure also preceded thyroid dysfunction or goitre. Reproductive dysfunction may therefore be considered as one of the presenting symptoms of thyroid disorders in women, keeping in mind both menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may also arise from other common or idiopathic origins. Especially in women with menstrual irregularities in the perimenopausal age if thyroid dysfunction is detected, pharmacotherapy may be a superior alternative to surgical interventions like hysterectomy.

  9. IMPACT OF LACTATION STAGE ON MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN GRAZING DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about correlation of current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows (n=134 at summer pasture period in mountain dairy farms in Slovakia to milk production and quality parameters. The FAs composition of individual milk was determined by GC-MS, where 54 FAs were identified. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA (70.48 ± 4.04% in the milk fat show in the first third of lactation highly significant positive correlation coefficients (r> 0.45, P <0.01 with all indicators of milk production (days, the total amount of milk fat and protein in kg. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (26.26 ± 3.59% have to the total milk production significant indirect relationship. Their content decreases with the rise of the total amount (kg of produced fat (r=-0.426, protein (r=-0.494, milk (r=-0.514, and with the increasing number of days of lactation (r=-0.583, P <0.001. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (3.26 ± 0.069% show negative correlation coefficients to total amount of produced milk, fat, protein (kg and the number of days in lactation from r=-0.468 to r=-0.485 (P <0.01. Grazing of dairy cows at mountain farms has a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective, but at the account of lower production.

  10. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  11. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed whole cottonseed coated with gelatinized cornstarch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K

    1999-06-01

    The handling characteristics of whole cottonseed are improved by coating with gelatinized cornstarch, but limited information is available on the effects of feeding the coated cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six lactating Jersey cows were used in a crossover design trial with 4-wk experimental periods to evaluate the influence of coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch on dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. Cows were fed diets containing 10.2% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay, 45.2% corn silage, 15.0% coated or uncoated whole cottonseed, and 29.6% concentrate for ad libitum consumption. Coating whole cottonseed with gelatinized cornstarch tended to reduce dry matter intake, which averaged 16.2 and 15.9 kg/d for uncoated and coated cottonseed, respectively. Milk yield and composition were similar for uncoated and coated cottonseed. The yield of energy-corrected milk per unit of dry matter consumed was greater with coated cottonseed. Cows fed coated cottonseed gained body weight, but cows fed uncoated cottonseed lost weight. Concentrations of plasma urea were similar among treatments; however, NEFA concentrations were lower for cows fed coated whole cottonseed. Results of this trial indicate that coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch does not alter its feeding value for lactating dairy cows.

  12. VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION - IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR LACTATING MOTHERS AND BREAST-FED INFANTS??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vit D deficiency is an upcoming health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is an essential nutrient required for bone metabolism and growth. Need for vitamin D and calcium is higher in embryonic period, infancy, early childhood, puberty, pregnancy, lactation and old age. Vit D supplementation is not included in the present antenatal care and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI programmes in India. AIM This study was done to evaluate the Vit D status of lactating mothers and their exclusively breast fed infants. The study also aims to find the correlation of Vit D with the blood biochemical markers like ALP, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and find the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty two lactating mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants up to 4 months age were selected and their blood was analysed for Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, ALP and PTH. RESULTS An 86% of mothers and 87% of infants showed hypovitaminosis D. There is significant positive correlation between maternal and infant Vit D levels. Vit D of infants showed significant inverse correlation with BMI of mothers and PTH of infants. CONCLUSION Vit D status of exclusively breast fed infants depend on maternal Vit D levels. Infant’s bone mineral status is affected by hypovitaminosis D. Therefore, both mothers and infants should be supplemented with Vit D to prevent complications in future

  13. Adiposity and Fat Metabolism in Lactating and Fasting Northern Elephant Seals12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Daniel E.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian S.

    2014-01-01

    Several taxa of animals fast completely from food and water during energy-intensive periods such as lactation, breeding, and development. In elephant seals, these behaviors are sustained by high adiposity, high rates of fat mobilization, and reduced oxidation of carbohydrates and proteins. Adiposity and the regulation of lipolysis directly affect lactation energetics, milk composition, and mating success. Long-term fasting induces changes in regulation of lipolysis and lipid metabolism that influence fatty acid (FA) availability and the onset of insulin resistance. Hypoinsulinemia and elevated circulating FAs are also associated with several unique features of carbohydrate metabolism, including elevated plasma glucose, gluconeogenesis, and Cori cycle activity as well as high rates of pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycling. Glucose-lactate pools and triacylglycerol-FA cycles may be linked via glyceroneogenesis and this may be an important pathway influencing both fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Together, these features allow a sustained, high intensity, fat-based metabolism without substantial accumulation of ketoacids. PMID:24425723

  14. Extensive analysis of milk fatty acids in two fat-tailed sheep breeds during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Ghadimi, D; Marín, A L Martínez

    2016-12-01

    The profile of fatty acids (FA) in the milk fat of two Iranian fat-tailed sheep breeds, Sanjabi and Mehraban, was compared during lactation. Eight ewes of each breed, balanced in parity and carrying one foetus, were selected before parturition. Ewes were kept separated in individual pens during the experimental period, under the same management practices and fed the same diet, in order to eliminate any confounding effects on milk FA profile. Milk was sampled at biweekly intervals up to 10 weeks of lactation, starting 2 weeks after parturition. More than 100 FA were determined in milk fat by means of gas chromatography. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes contained more cis-9 18:1, that of Mehraban ewes was richer in 10:0, 12:0 and 14:0, and no differences were found for 16:0 and 18:0. No breed differences were found for most branched-chain FA. Mehraban ewes showed a higher presence of vaccenic and rumenic acids in their milk fat. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes had a lower atherogenicity index and n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The contents of several FA showed time-dependent changes, so breed differences were more apparent or disappeared as lactation progressed. The milk fat of Sanjabi ewes showed a better FA profile from the human health point of view.

  15. Serum fructosamine concentrations in relation to metabolic changes during late pregnancy and early lactation in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Natalija; Stojević, Zvonko; Prvanović, Nikica

    2010-01-01

    The changes in blood serum fructosamine concentrations as indicators of glycaemia during a longer period of time were investigated in mares during late pregnancy and early lactation, as well as their relationship to the changes in the concentration of biochemical indicators of energetic status. The samples were taken from eleven mares on 60 +/- 10 and 20 +/- 10 days before foaling, and 20 +/- 10 and 60 +/- 10 days after foaling. Concentrations of serum fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides were higher during late pregnancy (from P < 0.05 to P < 0.0005), while the concentrations of beta- hydroxybutyrate increased significantly (P < 0.00001) during early lactation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of fructosamine and metabolic parameters was observed. The results indicate a relationship between energetic status and serum fructosamine in mares. Higher concentrations of fructosamine are related to the adaptation to late pregnancy. Therefore, the measurement of the serum fructosamine concentrations could serve as an indicator of energetic status of mares during pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the nutritional status of predominantly breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, S; Flores-Huerta, S; Fajardo, A; Hernandez-Beltran, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of ethanol, consumed as a mild fermented beverage called "pulque", during pregnancy and lactation on the food intake and some anthropometric indices of body composition of a group of lactating mothers in a town in central Mexico. Thirty two mothers who drank pulque during pregnancy and lactation and 61 non-drinking women with comparable characteristics were evaluated anthropometrically, their dietary and ethanol intake recorded during a 6-month postpartum period. Energy [(8360 +/- 2997 vs. 7156 +/- 2177 J) and protein (52.7 +/- 20.9 vs. 44.6 +/- 16.1 g)] 24-h intake, height, weight, body mass index, arm muscle and fat areas were greater in drinking mothers than in controls. Average total ethanol consumption varied from 0.48 - 0.55 g-1 kg-1.d-1. Drinking mothers lost weight less frequently. Additional energy provided by pulque might explain such a difference. More precise information about the changes in their body composition and energy balance are in order for confirmation.

  17. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-05-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake of fish, seafood and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation and visual and cognitive development. The review focuses on new findings by both observational and interventional studies on the influence of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation on gestation length and birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, maternal depression and infant visual function and neural development. Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Observational and interventional studies indicate a significant association with prolonging gestation and reducing the risk of preterm delivery both in low-risk and in high-risk pregnancies. Further benefits have been suggested for intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and postpartum depression, but the evidence is inconclusive. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake both in pregnancy and lactation is associated with positive infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Women of reproductive age should achieve an average dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake of at least 200 mg/day.

  18. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation: how a healthy infant is born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mecacci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences the growth and potential development of the fetus and contributes to the maturity of a healthy baby.The lack of sufficient calories, of macro- and micronutrients, can lead to deficiencies in building materials for the development and growth of the fetus: moreover there is growing evidence that the maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state of the fetal genome, therefore alterations in nutrition during crucial periods of fetal development may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the physiology, the metabolism of the offspring, and, as a consequence, predispose these individuals to diseases as adults.In this review we collected indications for the recommended intake of calories and nutrients for a healthy diet during pregnancy and lactation, also analyzing some nutritional choices that may increase the risk of nutritional deficiencies and the way to prevent them.Pregnancy-related dietary changes should begin prior to conception, with appropriate modifications throughout pregnancy and lactation, and appropriate supplementation of vitamins and minerals. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  19. Iodine excess exposure during pregnancy and lactation impairs maternal thyroid function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Pantaleão, Thiago; Corrêa da Costa, Vânia Maria

    2017-01-01

    Adequate maternal iodine consumption during pregnancy and lactation guarantees normal thyroid hormones (TH) production, which is crucial to the development of the fetus. Indeed, iodine deficiency is clearly related to maternal hypothyroidism and deleterious effects in the fetal development. Conversely, the effects of iodine excess (IE) consumption on maternal thyroid function are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of IE exposure during pregnancy and lactation periods on maternal hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis. IE-exposed dams presented reduced serum TH concentration and increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Moreover, maternal IE exposure increased the hypothalamic expression of Trh and the pituitary expression of Trhr, Dio2, Tsha and Tshb mRNA, while reduced the Gh mRNA content. Additionally, IE-exposed dams presented thyroid morphological alterations, increased thyroid oxidative stress and decreased expression of thyroid genes/proteins involved in TH synthesis, secretion and metabolism. Furthermore, Dio1 mRNA expression and D1 activity were reduced in the liver and the kidney of IE-treated animals. Finally, the mRNA expression of Slc5a5 and Slc26a4 were reduced in the mammary gland of IE-exposed rats. The latter results are in accordance with the reduction of prolactin expression and serum levels in IE-treated dams. In summary, our study indicates that the exposure to IE during pregnancy and lactation induces primary hypothyroidism in rat dams and impairs iodide transfer to the milk. PMID:28814477

  20. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Houghton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.

  1. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  2. NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase is required for L-lactate utilization in Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM.

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    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various Pseudomonas strains can use L-lactate as their sole carbon source for growth. However, the L-lactate-utilizing enzymes in Pseudomonas have never been identified and further studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-iLDH was purified from the membrane fraction of Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate by using FMN as cofactor. After cloning its encoding gene (lldD, L-iLDH was successfully expressed, purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, and characterized. An lldD mutant of P. stutzeri SDM was constructed by gene knockout technology. This mutant was unable to grow on L-lactate, but retained the ability to grow on pyruvate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is proposed that L-iLDH plays an indispensable function in Pseudomonas L-lactate utilization by catalyzing the conversion of L-lactate into pyruvate.

  3. A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaad, Doua; ElSalem, Samah; Abdulrouf, Palli Valapila; Thomas, Binny; Alsaad, Tayseer; Ahmed, Afif; AlHail, Moza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE) studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians. Objective The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety. Method A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women’s Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken. Results Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6%) was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1%) and neonatal death (12.9%). The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6). Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting hypertensive disorder and 58.3% of them were diagnosed as uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion The current DUE study found that cabergoline was mainly used to inhibit lactation for patients with stillbirth, abortion, and neonatal death. In mothers who use medications for other medical conditions, benefits and risks of breastfeeding should be carefully balanced before prescribing cabergoline. Current prescribing pattern

  4. Comparison of simultaneous and separate processes: saccharification and thermophilic L-lactate fermentation of catch crop and aquatic plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Satoshi; Maeda, Koutaro; Nakatani, Shingo; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Nagare, Hideaki; Maeda, Morihiro; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Catch crop candidates (corn, guinea grass) for recovering nutrients from farm soil and aquatic plants (water caltrop, water hyacinth) were utilized to produce L-lactic acid. The efficiencies ofpre-treatment methods for enzymatic saccharification and L-lactate production of two fermentation processes, thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), as well as separate saccharification and fermentation, were compared. Conditions were set at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5 for non-sterile fermentation. Alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment proved the most effective for saccharification in pre-treated corn, guinea grass, water caltrop and water hyacinth with glucose yields of 0.23, 0.20, 0.11 and 0.14 g/g-dry native biomass (24-hour incubation period), respectively. Examination of the two types of thermophilic L-lactate fermentation employed following alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment and saccharification demonstrated that the L-lactate yield obtained using SSF (0.15 g/g in the case of corn) was lower than that obtained using separate saccharification and fermentation (0.28 g/g in the case of corn). The lower yield obtained from SSF is likely to have resulted from the saccharification conditions used in the present study, as the possibility of cellulase deactivation during SSF by thermophilic L-lactate producing bacteria existed. A cellulase that retains high activity levels under non-sterile conditions and a L-lactate producer without cellulose hydrolysis activity would be required in order for SSF to serve as an effective method of L-lactate production.

  5. [Lactation behavior and delivery care in a group of women from a Mexican rural community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; de la Paz Andrade Contreras, M; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza-Ogazón, A

    1991-09-01

    This article presents a brief discussion on the role that "medical practice" plays, related to the type of infant lactation after delivery, and breast-feeding practice during the first months of life. Data on hospital routines and how these predispose artificial feeding practices are seen from a critical angle. The information presented in this paper corresponds to a project carried out in a rural community of the state of México, called Malinalco, where the lactation behavior of 65 women after birth of the child, was followed as of their last period of pregnancy. The main objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between the place of delivery (hospital or home delivery) and the type of lactation practiced by the mothers, as well as to determine the infants nutritional status during their first year of life. Results showed that the greater part of women from the sample were young others (less than 30 years old) with one or two children. As to the place where delivery took place, 72% of the sample were attended by midwives at their own homes, and at last 65% practiced breast feeding exclusively during the first three months. No significant correlation between these two indicators (place of delivery and type of lactation) was found, although a tendency to a more prolonged breast-feeding practice was observed in those women who delivered at home. Problems related to weaning practices were detected, since they start this only with bean broth after five months of life. Finally, information on nutritional status during the first 12 months of life, shows serious nutritional problem after the child's third month of life, since the normality percentage starts decreasing while there occurs a significant increase of 1st an 2nd degree malnutrition.

  6. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  7. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  8. Physiological and behavioral responses to different watering intervals in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Tafesse; Olsson, Kerstin; Olsson, Ulf; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2013-09-15

    During drought periods camels are watered at long intervals, but effects on body fluid homeostasis of lactating camels are not known. It was hypothesized that camels store water after drinking and minimize water losses by diurnal variation in body temperature, changes in behavior, and release of vasopressin. The aim was to find a sustainable watering interval for lactating camels. Seven lactating camels were studied in a cross-over trial in which they were watered once daily (W1), every fourth day (W4), every eighth day (W8), or after 16 days (W16) with a 5-day interval between treatments. When offered water every fourth or eighth days, the camels drank sufficient amounts to cover their needs for subsequent days, but after 16 days of dehydration they did not drink enough to compensate the body weight loss. Rectal temperature fell at night and the camels searched shade during daytime minimizing evaporative fluid losses. Plasma osmolality and sodium concentration were elevated after 4 days of water deprivation and plasma protein and vasopressin concentrations after 8 days. Milk production decreased during the last week of W16. Plasma aldosterone concentration was elevated upon rehydration after W16, indicating sodium deficiency. In conclusion, lactating camels stored water after drinking and reduced water losses by staying in shade, keeping body temperature low, and releasing plasma vasopressin. However, serious dehydration was observed during W8, and after 16 days of water deprivation recovery took a long time. A watering interval between 4 and 7 days seems advisable under similar environmental conditions.

  9. Detraining in pregnancy and/or lactation modulates neuropeptidergic hypothalamic systems in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leandro; Calegare, Bruno F A; Cavalcante-Silva, Vanessa; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-12-01

    Manipulations in metabolic parameters during pregnancy/lactation can impact the development of short- and long-term energy control mechanisms, which are mainly modulated by neural and hormonal inputs to the hypothalamus. Thus, we tested how mice training and detraining during pregnancy and lactation affect hypothalamus gene expression and change biometric and metabolic profiles of the offspring. Three-month-old female Swiss mice were submitted to an 8-week exercise program (swimming 5 times/week, 1 h/day). Following this physical exercise protocol, these conditioned animals and the control group were submitted to matting. After pregnancy verification, the animals were distributed into four groups: training during pregnancy and lactation (T); detraining after pregnancy confirmation (DP); detraining during lactation (DL); and control (CT), without interventions. After weaning, the offspring of the four groups were derived into these as follows: TO, DPO, DLO, and CTO, respectively. The body weight was lower in conditioned females compared to control at weeks 4-8 of the exercise regimen. No statistical difference in dam's body weight was observed during pregnancy. Related to offspring, at post-natal day 90, the animals were euthanized and DPO and DLO showed decrease in Npy and Cart expression in hypothalamus, and DLO also had increased Lep gene expression in white adipose tissue. Additionally, DPO showed increase in plasma triglycerides levels, total liver weight, and decrease in brown adipose tissue compared to CTO. Together, these results support that detraining during critical periods of development leads to altered gene expression in hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems.

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  11. Psychological stress and breast diseases during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Dakn, Michael; Schäfer-Graf, Ute; Wöckel, Achim

    2009-11-01

    Termination of breastfeeding in the first six months after childbirth is frequently caused by breastfeeding-related diseases and problems of the breast such as pain, milk stasis or mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological stress and the occurrence of breastfeeding associated disorders. In a prospective cohort study of 379 primiparous women without breast anomalies or diseases, psychometric data were collected from participants between the confirmation of the pregnancy and one year post-partum. Primarily, standardised questionnaires (PSQ, WHO QoL and F-SOZU K22) were used for data analysis while additional data was gathered in follow-up interviews. The subgroup analysis showed a significant relationship between stress and breastfeeding-related diseases. Women with pain, cracked nipples, milk stasis or mastitis reported a higher stress level than women without breast problems. Additionally, the majority of women with breast problems and increased psychological stress gave up breastfeeding sooner and, in contrast to the group without problems, indicated significantly more frequently that the milk quantity was insufficient. Breast diseases during lactation are associated with higher levels of psychological stress. Further studies are needed to examine the causes of the higher stress in order to develop strategies to prolong breastfeeding duration.

  12. [Lactation after breast plastic surgery: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhassira, J; Haddad, K; Burin des Roziers, B; Achouche, J; Cartier, S

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of lactation is a rare complication of breast plastic surgery. During the course of his practice, the plastic surgeon will probably encounter this complication. The goal of this article is to carry out a literature review of all published galactorrhea and/or galactocele cases following a breast-reduction or a breast-augmentation, representing a total of 34 cases reported in 21 articles. The physiopathology of this complication is linked to an inappropriate secretion of prolactin in a surgical context. The factors favoring this complication would be the number of pregnancies, a history of recent and extensive nursing, and the intake of certain medicines such as an oestro-progestative pill. The main symptom of this complication is the occurrence of a uni- or bilateral galactorrhea, on average 12.6 days after the surgery. The main differential diagnosis is a postoperative infection. The explorations presented a hyperprolactinemia in 69% of cases. No biological inflammatory syndrome was reported. A fluid collection evoking a galactocele was visible on the ultrasound in 65% of cases. One case of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was reported. Depending on the case, the treatment varied from a simple surveillance to the association of a dopamine agonist, an antibiotic therapy, and a surgical revision. A diagnostic and therapeutic management strategy is proposed.

  13. Effect of methylxanthines on lactational performance of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A D; Grimble, R F

    1990-01-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are commonly consumed methylxanthines. There are conflicting reports that methylxanthines may adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. The effects of methylxanthines on lactational performance were investigated by administration of pure alkaloids via drinking water to Wistar albino rats throughout pregnancy and lactation. Litter growth was used as an index of lactational performance in relation to maternal food and fluid intake, changes in weight, and lipid content of the carcass. Caffeine induced increased fluid intake (p less than 0.01). While theophylline produced no significant differences in litter growth, maternal weight and carcass fat during pregnancy/lactation compared with controls, caffeine and theobromine significantly enhanced litter growth (p less than 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). The enhancement in pup growth did not involve increases in maternal food intake or maternal lipid mobilization.

  14. Study of safflower on blood lactate concentration and exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... The blood lactate concentration (BLA) experiment results indicated that the BLA of mice in the experimental ... linolenic acid, flavonoids, amino acids and polysac- .... Determination of mice experiments on exercise function.

  15. [Maintenance of lactation: a challenge for hospitalized premature infant's mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Melissa; Mendes, Eliane Norma Wagner

    2008-03-01

    Preterm birth is a difficult situation for all family members, interfering with the establishment of parental bonding and attachment with the baby. This paper is a qualitative and collective case study, carried out with the purpose of identifying the perception of mothers concerning the maintenance of lactation during the hospital stay of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (Clinic Hospital of Porto Alegre), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected from March to April/2006 through interviews and observations and resulted in four categories. This article focuses only on the categories that refer to the mechanisms used by mothers to maintain lactation during hospitalization: beliefs and attitudes related to maintenance of lactation and breast milk expression at the human milk bank. The maintenance of lactation constitutes a complex process to be learnt by mothers involved with their infant's prematurity and hospitalization.

  16. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  17. Determination of cadmium in human milk during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Loebbert, F.J. (Univ., Muenster, Ger.); Bohn, G.

    1977-01-01

    During lactation,, Cd-levels in human milk were determined by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels in colostrum were some 50 to 65% higher than in transitional and mature milk.

  18. Food variety, dietary diversity and perceived hunger among lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding has profound benefits for the child and has always been the gold ... Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional status of lactating ... that can be used in nutrition intervention programs for optimising breast feeding.

  19. Suppression of puerperal lactation using jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, P; George, K; Balasubramaniam, N; Jasper, M P; Thomas, M; Kanagasabhapathy, A S

    1988-02-01

    The efficacy of jasmine flowers (Jasminum Sambac) applied to the breasts to suppress puerperal lactation was compared that of Bromocriptine. Effectiveness of both regimens was monitored by serum prolactin levels, clinical evaluation of the degree of breast engorgement and milk production and the analgesic intake. While both bromocriptine and jasmine flowers brought about a significant reduction in serum prolactin, the decrease was significantly greater with bromocriptine. However, clinical parameters such as breast engorgement, milk production and analgesic intake showed the 2 modes of therapy to be equally effective. The failure rates of the 2 regimens to suppress lactation were similar; however, rebound lactation occurred in a small proportion of women treated with bromocriptine. Jasmine flowers seem to be an effective and inexpensive method of suppressing puerperal lactation and can be used as an alternative in situations where cost and nonavailability restrict the use of bromocriptine.

  20. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Petrovski, Steve; Moate, Peter J; Hayes, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    ... (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location...

  1. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  2. 1981 EFFECT OF STAGE OF LACTATION ON THE PHYSICAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBNELBACHYR

    positive factors, Morocco's dairy goat production has increased to 80% of self- ... consumers because of a very low specific consumption of about 100 grams .... goat milk is directly influenced by the stage of lactation; that is, levels of dry matters,.

  3. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating Mothers in Abia ... Using antiseptic procedures, breast milk samples were collected from these 20 ... bacteria isolated in the breast milk samples under both storage conditions.

  5. Treatment of insufficient lactation is often not evidence-based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Paul Bryde; Bjerrum, Flemming; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast milk has many advantages over formula for infants in developed and developing countries alike. Despite intentions of breastfeeding, some women develop insufficient lactation. Treatment options traditionally include breastfeeding education and pharmacotherapy. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire regarding treatment of insufficient lactation was sent to all obstetric departments (n = 21) and neonatal wards (n = 17) in Denmark. Three main questions were included which focused on: breastfeeding education for women, use of pharmacotherapy and availability of local...... guidelines. RESULTS: In all, 30 out of a total of 38 departments participated; and among those, 93% offered some form of breastfeeding education. 50% used either metoclopramide or syntocinon to promote lactation. None used domperidone. 73% had a local clinical guideline. 77% offered sessions with a lactation...

  6. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  7. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    increased lactate dehydrogenase activity as a consequence of increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide substrate availability due to upregulation of the polyol pathway, i.e., pseudohypoxia. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in mediating these metabolic alterations using state......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  8. Maternal consumption of a cafeteria diet during lactation in rats leads the offspring to a thin-outside-fat-inside phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, C A; van Nes, R; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Keijer, J; Palou, A

    2017-08-01

    The suckling period is a critical phase of development, in which maternal overnutrition may program the susceptibility of developing chronic diseases and disorders, such as obesity and metabolic alterations, in adult life. Here, we questioned whether the consumption of a cafeteria diet throughout lactation in rats affects the macronutrient composition of milk and whether it results in permanent metabolic effects in the offspring. Nursing rats were fed a control diet or a cafeteria diet during lactation. Milk was obtained at different time points of lactation. Offspring (males and females) were weaned onto a control diet until the age of 6 months. Circulating parameters were measured under ad libitum feeding and under 12-h fasting conditions at weaning and at 3 and 6 months of age. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 3 and 6 months of age. Rats fed a cafeteria diet during lactation consumed an unbalanced diet, with lower protein and higher fat content versus controls, which was reflected in the composition of the milk. The offspring of rats fed a cafeteria diet during lactation showed lower body weight and lower lean mass, but greater fat accumulation, compared with controls. They also displayed hyperleptinaemia, altered lipid profile and impaired response to an OGTT. Maternal consumption of a cafeteria diet throughout lactation in rats produces lasting effects in the metabolic health of their offspring, which are not associated with a higher body weight but with a greater fat accumulation, similarly to the thin-outside-fat-inside phenotype.

  9. Immediate and delayed effects of gill-net capture on acid-base balance and intramuscular lactate concentration of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Lorenz H; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Many sharks are captured as untargeted by-catch during commercial fishing operations and are subsequently discarded. A reliable assessment of the proportion of discarded sharks that die post-release as a result of excessive physiological stress is important for fisheries management and conservation purposes, but a reliable physiological predictor of post-release mortality has not been identified. To investigate effects of gill-net capture on the acid-base balance of sharks, we exposed gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, to 60 min of gill-net capture in a controlled setting, and obtained multiple blood and muscle tissue samples during a 72-h recovery period following the capture event. Overall mortality of gummy sharks was low (9%). Blood pH was significantly depressed immediately after the capture event due to a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Maximum concentrations of plasma lactate (9.9 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1)) were measured 3h after the capture event. Maximum intramuscular lactate concentrations (37.0 ± 4.6 μmol g(-1)) were measured immediately after the capture event, and intramuscular lactate concentrations were substantially higher than plasma lactate concentrations at all times. Sharks in poor condition had low blood pH and high intramuscular lactate concentration, but blood pH does not appear to be a reliable predictor of survival. Suitability of intramuscular lactate concentration as predictor of delayed mortality deserves further investigation.

  10. Prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio regulate the expression of SNAT2 amino acid transporter in the mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; López-Barradas, Adriana M; Torres, Nimbe; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Granados, Omar; Ortíz, Victor; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-05-01

    The sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2/SAT2/ATA2) is expressed in the mammary gland (MG) and plays an important role in the uptake of alanine and glutamine which are the most abundant amino acids transported into this tissue during lactation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the amount and localization of SNAT2 before delivery and during lactation in rat MG, and to evaluate whether prolactin and the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio might influence SNAT2 expression in the MG, liver and adipose tissue during lactation. Our results showed that SNAT2 protein abundance in the MG increased during lactation and this increase was maintained along this period, while 24 h after weaning it tended to decrease. To study the effect of prolactin on SNAT2 expression, we incubated MG explants or T47D cells transfected with the SNAT2 promoter with prolactin, and we observed in both studies an increase in the SNAT2 expression or promoter activity. Consumption of a high-protein/low carbohydrate diet increased prolactin concentration, with a concomitant increase in SNAT2 expression not only in the MG during lactation, but also in the liver and adipose tissue. There was a correlation between SNAT2 expression and serum prolactin levels depending on the amount of dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio consumed. These findings suggest that prolactin actively supports lactation providing amino acids to the gland through SNAT2 for the synthesis of milk proteins.

  11. Gluconeogenesis and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise at the lactate threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhoff, Chi-An W; Messonnier, Laurent A; Horning, Michael A; Fattor, Jill A; Carlson, Thomas J; Brooks, George A

    2013-02-01

    Because the maintenance of glycemia is essential during prolonged exercise, we examined the effects of endurance training, exercise intensity, and plasma lactate concentration ([lactate]) on gluconeogenesis (GNG) and hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) in fasted men exercising at, and just below, the lactate threshold (LT), where GNG precursor lactate availability is high. Twelve healthy men (6 untrained, 6 trained) completed 60 min of constant-load exercise at power outputs corresponding to their individual LT. Trained subjects completed two additional 60-min sessions of constant-load exercise: one at 10% below the LT workload (LT-10%), and the other with a lactate clamp (LT-10%+LC) to match the [lactate] of the LT trial. Flux rates were determined by primed continuous infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [(13)C]bicarbonate tracers during 90 min of rest and 60 min of cycling. Exercise at LT corresponded to 67.6 ± 1.3 and 74.8 ± 1.7% peak O(2) consumption in the untrained and trained subjects, respectively (P < 0.05). Relative exercise intensity was matched between the untrained group at LT and the trained group at LT-10%, and [lactate] during exercise was matched in the LT and LT-10%+LC trials via exogenous lactate infusion. Glucose kinetics (rate of appearance, rate of disposal, and metabolic clearance rate) were augmented with the lactate clamp. GNG was decreased in the trained subjects exercising at LT and LT-10% compared with the untrained subjects, but increasing [lactate] in the LT-10%+LC trial significantly increased GNG (4.4 ± 0.9 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) compared with its corresponding control (1.7 ± 0.4 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05). Hepatic GLY was higher in the trained than untrained subjects, but not significantly different across conditions. We conclude that GNG plays an essential role in maintaining total glucose production during exercise in fasted men, regardless of training state. However, endurance training increases the ability to

  12. EFFECTS OF ACTIVE RECOVERY ON LACTATE CONCENTRATION, HEART RATE AND RPE IN CLIMBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Draper

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance advantage of active rather than passive recovery during subsequent trials for repeated high intensity short-term exercise is well documented. Research findings suggest that shorter periods of active recovery, than traditionally employed, can be prescribed and still retain performance benefits over passive recoveries in successive exercise trials. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of a short duration active recovery for repeat climbing trials. Ten recreational climbers volunteered for the study. In this randomly assigned crossover study each climber completed five two-minute climbing trails before a two minute active or passive recovery. This was followed by a one and a half minute passive refocusing period for all climbers before the subsequent climbing trial. Heart rate was monitored continuously, RPE immediately post climbing and fingertip capillary blood samples collected during each refocusing phase. There was a non-significant difference between active and passive recoveries for heart rate during climbing. After the active phase climbers had higher heart rates than when following the passive recovery protocol, however, by the end of the refocusing phase the active recovery protocol led to lower heart rates than for the entirely passive recovery. There was a significant difference between active and passive recovery conditions in lactate concentration (F(1,9 = 18.79, p = 0.002 and RPE (F(1,9 = 6.51, p = 0.031. Lactate concentration and RPE were lower across all five climbing trials for the active recovery protocol. After active recovery climbers started the next trial with a lower arterial lactate concentration than for a passive recovery and indicated lower RPE scores at the end of each climb. The refocusing period following active recovery allowed climbers heart rates to return to a lower level at the start of the next climb than for the passive recovery condition

  13. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K.; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F.; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E.; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning th...

  14. Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Sakwinska, Olga; Moine, Déborah; Delley, Michèle; Combremont, Séverine; Rezzonico, Enea; Descombes, Patrick; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol wi...

  15. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  16. Maternal caffeine intake during gestation and lactation down-regulates adenosine A1 receptor in rat brain from mothers and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, A M; León, D; Castillo, C A; Ruiz, M A; Albasanz, J L; Martín, M

    2010-05-01

    Even though caffeine can be excreted in breast milk, few studies have analyzed the effect of maternal caffeine consumption during lactation on neonatal brain. In the present work pregnant rats were treated daily with 1 g/L of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and/or lactation and the effect on adenosine A(1) receptor in brains from both lactating mothers and 15 days-old neonates was assayed using radioligand binding and real time PCR assays. Mothers receiving caffeine during gestational period developed motor activation in gestational days 8-10 which was associated with a significant decrease of total adenosine A(1) receptor number (84%). A similar decrease was detected in mothers treated with caffeine during lactation (76%) and throughout gestation and lactation (73%); this was accompanied by a significant decrease in mRNA level coding adenosine A(1) receptor (28%). In male neonates, adenosine A(1) receptor was also decreased after chronic caffeine exposure during gestation (80%), lactation (76%) and gestation plus lactation (80%). In female neonates, adenosine A(1) receptor tended to decrease in response to caffeine exposure although no significant variations were found. No variation in the level of mRNA coding adenosine A(1) receptor was detected in neonates in any case. Concerning adenosine A(2A) receptor, radioligand binding assays revealed that this receptor remains unaltered in maternal and neonatal brain in response to caffeine exposure. However, caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation evoked a significant decrease in mRNA level coding A(2A) receptor (32%) in mothers' brain.

  17. Alterations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and expression of genes involved in mammary gland and adipose tissue lipid metabolism during pregnancy and lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Charlotte Moffett

    Full Text Available Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP is a gut derived peptide with multiple emerging physiological actions. Effects of pregnancy and lactation on GIP secretion and related gene expression were studied in Wistar rats. Pregnancy moderately increased feeding (p<0.05, whilst lactation substantially increased food intake (p<0.01 to p<0.001. Circulating GIP was unchanged during pregnancy, but non-fasting plasma glucose was significantly (p<0.01 decreased and insulin increased (p<0.05. Lactation was associated with elevated circulating GIP concentrations (p<0.001 without change of glucose or insulin. Oral glucose resulted in a significantly (p<0.001 decreased glycaemic excursion despite similar glucose-induced GIP and insulin concentrations in lactating rats. Pregnant rats had a similar glycaemic excursion but exhibited significantly lowered (p<0.05 GIP accompanied by elevated (p<0.001 insulin levels. Pregnant rats exhibited increased (p<0.001 islet numbers and individual islet areas were enlarged (p<0.05. There were no significant differences in islet alpha-cell areas, but all groups of rats displayed co-expression of glucagon and GIP in alpha-cells. Lactating rats exhibited significantly (p<0.01 increased intestinal weight, whereas intestinal GIP stores were significantly (p<0.01 elevated only in pregnant rats. Gene expression studies in lactating rats revealed prominent (p<0.01 to p<0.001 increases in mammary gland expression of genes involved in energy turnover, including GIP-R. GIP was present in intestines and plasma of 17 day old foetal rats, with substantially raised circulating concentrations in neonates throughout the period of lactation/suckling. These data indicate that changes in the secretion and action of GIP play an important role in metabolic adaptations during pregnancy and especially lactation.

  18. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  19. Investigation of the Incidence and Diagnosis of Subclinical Mastitis in Early Lactation Period Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞTANC, Ayhan; KAÇAR, Cihan; ACAR, Duygu B.; ŞAHİN, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of the California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture for detection of subclinical intramammary infections after 10 days postpartum. Samples were collected from 102 cows. The CMT was performed once on each cow. The results of bacteriological culture and the CMT were compared in 344 milk samples. Two hundred fifty samples were CMT (+) and 94 samples were CMT (-); 224 samples were bacteriologic culture (+) and 120 samples were culture...

  20. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...... budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  1. Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Spanos, S A; Mitsoura, A; Ptochos, S; Gougoulis, D A; Barbagianni, M S; Kyriazakis, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2014-02-01

    Objective was to investigate if trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis and/or metritis. We used 80 trematode-infected ewes: primigravidae in group P-A and multigravidae in M-A remained untreated, primigravidae in P-B and multigravidae in M-B were drenched with netobimin and multigravidae in M-C were given rafoxanide. We collected faecal samples for parasitological examination, blood samples for β-hydroxybutyrate concentration measurement and uterine content, teat duct material and milk samples for bacteriological examination. We found significant differences in blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations between M-A, M-B and M-C during pregnancy (P ⩽ 0.002). We did not observe significant differences between groups regarding development of metritis (P>0.83). We found that for M-A, M-B and M-C ewes, respectively, median time to first case of mastitis was 5.75, 21 and 6.75 days after lambing (P = 0.003) and incidence risk of mastitis was 0.308, 0.069 and 0.222 (P = 0.047). We postulate that trematode infections predispose ewes to mastitis; perhaps, increased β-hydroxybutyrate blood concentrations adversely affect mammary cellular defences. This is the first report associating parasitic infections with mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms in Regulating Mammary Cell Turnover During Lactation and Dry Period in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Theil, P K; Sørensen, M T

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactaion cycle in dairy cows are unclear. The objective of present experiment was to describe expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in pathways regulating mammary cell proliferation, apoptosis......, differentiation, cell survival, and tissue remodeling....

  3. AUTOGENIC TRAINING RELAXATION HELPING POSTPARTUM MOTHERS TO ACHIEVE SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING ON EARLY LACTATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Juanita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The numbers of breastfeeding failures are mostly caused by mothers` disbelief to themselves. One method that can be done to overcome these problems in accordance with the self-care nursing theory is the autogenic training relaxation. This method teaches mothers to be self-sufficient in building a positive intention and motivation to help the process of breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the influence of autogenic training relaxation to the effectiveness of breastfeeding and the enhancement of breast milk volume on maternal postpartum. Method: By using an experimental posttest only-non equivalent control group design, 26 samples were taken based on the criteria and divided into two groups by matching technuiqe. autogenic training was given through MP3 Player for 3 weeks. Post-test observation conducted on the third week by home visit. Via Christi Breastfeeding Assessment Tool Jan Riordan modifications used to assess the effectiveness of breastfeeding, and to measure the milk ejection volume, used weighing test using electronic baby scales. Data were analyzed using one-tailed independent t test with α ≤ 0.05. Result: The analysis showed that mothers who did autogenic training relaxation could breastfeed more effectively and had greater average volume of milk ejection than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that autogenic relaxation training techniques affect the effectiveness of breastfeeding and breast milk volume. These results can be considered that autogenic training as an intervention in program of support for breastfeeding mothers.

  4. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  5. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  6. Lactational transfer of volatile chemicals in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Mahle, D; Bankston, L; Greene, R; Gearhart, J

    1997-06-01

    Lactational transfer of chemicals to nursing infants is a concern for occupational physicians when women who are breast-feeding return to the workplace. Some work environments, such as paint shops, have atmospheric contamination from volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Very little is known about the extent of exposure a nursing infant may receive from the mother's occupational exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for a lactating woman to estimate the amount of chemical that a nursing infant ingests for a given nursing schedule and maternal occupational exposure. Human blood/air and milk/air partition coefficients (PCs) were determined for 19 VOCs. Milk/blood PC values were above 3 for carbon tetrachloride, methylchloroform, perchloroethylene, and 1,4-dioxane, while the remaining 16 chemicals had milk/blood PC values of less than 3. Other model parameters, such as solid tissue PC values, metabolic rate constants, blood flow rates, and tissue volumes were taken from the literature and incorporated into the lactation model. In a simulated exposure of a lactating woman to a threshold limit value concentration of an individual chemical, only perchloroethylene, bromochloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency non-cancer drinking water ingestion rates for children. Very little data exists on the pharmacokinetics of lactational transfer of volatile organics. More data are needed before the significance of the nursing exposure pathway can be adequately ascertained. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can play an important role in assessing lactational transfer of chemicals.

  7. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  8. Effect of Multiparity and Prolonged Lactation on Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896

  9. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A

    2016-10-18

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  10. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  11. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the week

  12. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  13. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  14. The utility of lactate dehydrogenase in the follow up of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem Magdy William

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lactate dehydrogenase is a non-specific marker for lymphoma whose prognostic significance is well established for both indolent and aggressive lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The performance characteristics of this enzyme in predicting relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has not been well studied. Methods: This study compared serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in 27 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who relapsed after sustaining a complete response versus 87 patients who did not relapse. For relapsed patients, the serum lactate dehydrogenase level at relapse was compared with the level three months before (considered baseline. For non-relapsed patients, the last two levels during follow-up were compared. For statistical analysis the T-test was used to compare differences in mean values between groups. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for serum lactate dehydrogenase in detecting relapse compared to confirmatory imaging were calculated. Results: At relapse, only 33% patients had increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase above the upper limit of normal. The mean increase was 1.2-fold above the upper limit of normal for relapsed vs. 0.83 for those who did not relapse (p-value = 0.59. The mean increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase, from baseline, was 1.1-fold in non-relapsed vs. 1.3 in relapsed patients (p-value = 0.3. The likelihood ratio of relapse was 4.65 for patients who had 1.5-fold increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase above baseline (p-value = 0.03. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 1.5-fold increases for detecting relapse, compared to clinical and imaging findings were 0.18, 0.95, 0.55, and 0.79, respectively. Conclusion: A 1.5-fold increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase, over a period of 3 months, is associated with increased likelihood of relapse from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  15. Clinical performance of an interactive clinical decision support system for assessment of plasma lactate in hospitalized patients with organ dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Elevated plasma lactate concentration can be a useful measure of tissue hypo-perfusion in acutely deteriorating patients, focusing attention on the need for urgent resuscitation. But lactate is not always assessed in a timely fashion in patients who have deteriorating vital signs. We hypothesized that an electronic medical record (EMR-based decision support system could interact with clinicians to prompt assessment of plasma lactate in appropriate clinical situations in order to risk stratify a population of inpatients and identify those who are acutely deteriorating in real-time. Methods: All adult patients admitted to our hospital over a three month period were monitored by an EMR-based lactate decision support system (lactate DSS programmed to detect patients exhibiting acute organ dysfunction and engage the clinician in the decision to order a plasma lactate concentration. Inpatient mortality was determined for the five risk categories that this system generated, and chart review was performed on a high-risk subgroup to describe the spectrum of bedside events that triggered the system logic. Results: The lactate DSS segregated inpatients into five strata with mortality rates of 0.8% (95%CI:0.6-1.0%; 2.7% (95%CI:1.0-4.4%; 7.9% (95%CI: 6.0-10.1%, 13.0% (95%CI: 9.0-17.8% and 42.1% (95%CI: 32.0-52.4%, achieving a discriminant accuracy of 80% (95%CI:76-84% by AUROC for predicting inpatient mortality. Classification into the two highest risk strata had a positive predictive value for detecting acute life-threatening clinical events of 54% (95%CI: 41.5-66.5%. Conclusions: Our lactate decision support system is different than previously-described computerized “early warning systems”, because it engages the clinician in decision-making and incorporates clinical judgment in risk stratification. Our system has favorable operating characteristics for the prediction of inpatient mortality and real-time detection of acute life

  16. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Kelsea A; McCormick, Caroline A; Odt, Christine L; Weimer, Paul J; Suen, Garret

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles.

  17. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    to their individual requirements for maintenance and milk production. Thus, a basal diet was formulated and supplied to meet the energy requirement for maintenance and a lactation supplement was formulated to meet the dynamic requirement of nutrients for milk production. Sows and piglets were weighed and feed intake......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  18. A review of the safety of clozapine during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Taylor M; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation. The limited available data do not support an increased risk of congenital malformations in foetuses exposed to clozapine during pregnancy, though rates of gestational diabetes are twice as high in pregnant women using clozapine. Clozapine accumulation in foetal serum possibly contributes to increased rates of floppy infant syndrome at delivery, decreased foetal heart rate variability, and seizures in infancy. Clozapine crosses the placenta and also accumulates in breast milk, which may increase the risk of agranulocytosis in infants and may necessitate infant testing. The majority of these data come from case reports and case series, making it unclear if the published risks associated with clozapine are due to mental illness, lifestyle factors, or co-treatment with other psychotropic medications. While the available literature on clozapine use during the perinatal period is very limited, the risks of clozapine use during pregnancy and the postpartum period should be discussed with women and weighed against those associated with other treatments and partially or untreated schizophrenia.

  19. The effect of erythropoietin on lactate, pyruvate and excess lactate under physical exercise in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, R; Jedicke, H; Voigt, A; Lange, H

    1996-02-01

    To investigate EPO-induced increase of hemoglobin on energy metabolism plasma concentrations of lactate (L), pyruvate (P) and excess lactate (XL) were determined in ten dialysis patients at rest, immediately after 6 minutes of ergometric exercise as well as after recovery for 15 and 30 min. The investigations were performed before EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 7.5 +/- 0.9 g/dl and under EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 10.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl and at a mean Hb = 11.9 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Ten healthy subjects were subjected to the same investigation at Hb = 14.7 +/- 1.1 g/dl. There was a significant rise of L and XL in all patient groups under ergometric exercise. The increase of hemoglobin from 7.5 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl led to significantly (p beyond 10.5 g/dl will have an additional positive effect on oxygen supply only in occasional cases. The comparison with healthy subjects shows that despite a very large degree of normalization of the hemoglobin content, no normalization of energy metabolism can be attained.

  20. Quantifying inter-group variability in lactation curve shape and magnitude with the MilkBot® lactation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Ehrlich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection programs have driven development of most lactation models, to estimate the magnitude of animals’ productive capacity from sampled milk production data. There has been less attention to management and research applications, where it may also be important to quantify the shape of lactation curves, and predict future daily milk production for incomplete lactations since residuals between predicted and actual daily production can be used to quantify the response to an intervention. A model may decrease the confounding effects of lactation stage, parity, breed, and possibly other factors depending on how the model is constructed and used, thus increasing the power of statistical analyses. Models with a mechanistic derivation may allow direct inference about biology from fitted production data. The MilkBot® lactation model is derived from abstract suppositions about growth of udder capacity. This permits inference about shape of the lactation curve directly from parameter values, but not direct conclusions about physiology. Individual parameters relate to the overall scale of the lactation, the ramp, or rate of growth around parturition, decay describing the senescence of productive capacity (inversely related to persistence, and the relatively insignificant time offset between calving and the physiological start of milk secretion. A proprietary algorithm was used to fit monthly test data from two parity groups in 21 randomly selected herds, and results displayed in box-and-whisker charts and Z-test tables. Fitted curves are constrained by the MilkBot® equation to a single peak that blends into an exponential decline in late lactation. This is seen as an abstraction of productive capacity, with actual daily production higher or lower due to random error plus short-term environmental effects. The four MilkBot® parameters, and metrics calculated directly from them including fitting error, peak milk and cumulative production, can