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Sample records for twelve-month lactation period

  1. Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line S; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg

    2010-12-15

    At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p changes during the lactation period. After a year of nursing the breast-milk concentrations of PFCs, PBDEs, and PCBs were reduced by 15-94%.

  2. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

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    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  3. Influence of lactation stages and rain periods on subclinical mastitis in meat producing ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mastitis negatively influences the survival and weight gain of ovines for meat production. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in sheep for meat production, the occurrence of subclinical mastitis in ewes at the end of lactation and beginning of the consecutive lactation and to assess the composition and cellular characteristics of milk as a function of different rainfall indices. Mammary halves (821 of Santa Ines (479 and Morada Nova (342 ewes were examined. Milk samples were collected in two different moments of lactation: at weaning and postpartum of the consecutive lactation. Sample collection periods were called "dry" or "rainy" according to the rainfall index in the month immediately before the month of collection. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis at weaning in the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes were 16.4 and 12.6% in the dry period, and 17.7 and 23.5% in the rainy period, respectively. In the consecutive lactation period, the occurrences were 26.7 and 27.7% in the dry period and 41.8 and 39.1% in the rainy period, for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes, respectively. Postpartum stage was critical for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, as compared to that at the end of the previous lactation. Occurrence of the disease negatively influenced the SCC in the milk at the beginning of lactation and changed its composition, mainly in the rainiest periods, probably due to a difficulty in maintaining hygiene in the environment where the animals remained.

  4. Yield of acid curd cheese produced from cow's milk from different lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa; Młynek, Krzysztof; Guliński, Piotr; Zawadzka, Wiesława

    2017-01-01

    Milk production intensification has led in many countries, including Poland, to increased milk yields per cow. A higher milk yield resulted in changes in cow productivity, including extended lactations. There is a paucity of information on the quality of milk harvested during the last months of lactations exceed- ing 10 months. Production capacity cheese (“cheese expenditure”) is an important parameter of providing   a recovery as much as the possible components of the milk processed are dry substances, which in turn af- fects the economics of production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the lactation period (from standard lactation; extended lactation phase) on the performance of the acid curd cheese. the relation- ship between total protein content and acidity of fresh milk collected in two separate periods of lactation on the yield of acid cheese was also evaluated. The study included 1384 samples of milk collected from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, the Black-White variety. The basic chemical composition of fresh milk and acid-curd cheese produced in the laboratory were analyzed. The cheese milk yield was evaluated on the basis of the quantity of the re- sulting curd mass. According to our estimates, under laboratory conditions an average of 100 kg of milk per cow in population produced an estimated 20.1 kg of curd cheese. The basic chemical composition of raw milk, which was diverse in terms of the period of lactation, showed a higher dry matter, fat and protein content in milk acquired during the extension phase of lactation compared to the milk of standard lactation. It has been found that the lower titratable acidity of fresh milk appeared with a higher yield of cheese curd. This difference was between 1.76 kg (with milk from cows milked during the extended lactation phase) to 2.72 kg from 100 kg of cheese milk (milk with the standard lactation). Thus, the optimum level of titratable acidity of milk for cheese yield is 6.0–7.5

  5. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  6. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  7. a multi-period markov model for monthly rainfall in lagos, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    A twelve-period. Markov model has been developed for the monthly rainfall data for Lagos, along the coast of .... autoregressive process to model river flow; Deo et al. (2015) utilized an ...... quences for the analysis of river basins by simulation.

  8. Effect of dry period length on milk production in subsequent lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1991-01-01

    , two treatments were compared within herd. Compared with a 7-wk planned dry period, a 3-wk decrease lowered the level of milk production by 2.8 kg of 4% FCM/d in the first 84 d of the subsequent lactation, whereas a 3-wk increase raised the level of milk production by .5 kg/d. In the first 168 d......The effect of planned dry period lengths of 4, 7, and 10 wk on subsequent lactational yield was estimated with 366 cows in an experiment in which dry period was manipulated independently of milk yield prior to drying off. In two herds, all three treatments were compared within herd; in six herds...... of the subsequent lactation, the difference between 4-wk and 7-wk planned dry periods was 2.7 kg/d, and the difference between 7- and 10-wk periods was .4 kg/d. There was no indication of interaction among planned dry period length and lactation number, days open in previous lactation, previous milk yield, breed...

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dnakook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Tae Hee [Cha Women' s Hospital of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic findings and usefulness in the diagnosis of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 18 breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with linear-array 5 MHz transducer (ATL). Final diagnoses were obtained by the excisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration and clinical follow-up. Total 18 cases of breast diseases were consisted of 8 cases of galactocele, 4 cases of fibroadenoma, 3 cases of axillary accessory breast, 2 cases of lactating adenoma, and 1 case of phylloides tumor. The ultrasonographic findings of the above breast diseases were valuable in the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Ultrasonography is the initial and useful method of diagnosing breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period.

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Park, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Tae Hee

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic findings and usefulness in the diagnosis of breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 18 breast diseases during pregnancy and lactation retrospectively. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed with linear-array 5 MHz transducer (ATL). Final diagnoses were obtained by the excisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration and clinical follow-up. Total 18 cases of breast diseases were consisted of 8 cases of galactocele, 4 cases of fibroadenoma, 3 cases of axillary accessory breast, 2 cases of lactating adenoma, and 1 case of phylloides tumor. The ultrasonographic findings of the above breast diseases were valuable in the diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Ultrasonography is the initial and useful method of diagnosing breast diseases during pregnancy and lactating period

  11. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega ...

  12. Effects of two months training on blood lactate levels in adolescent swimmers

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    T Atan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effects of two months swimming training on aerobic and anaerobic capacities with blood lactate. A total of 17 adolescent male swimmers (15.17±0.81 years were included in the study. The first measurement was conducted 1.5 months after the beginning of the season and this was followed by a second measurement conducted two months after the first measurement. A test protocol of 8x100 m crawl style was applied in the measurements and the subjects swam from slow to fast at five different swimming workloads. Between each training run, blood samples were provided from the earlobes of the subjects in order to measure the amount of blood lactate. Heart rate was measured after five swims. Furthermore, swimming styles and duration were recorded in order to calculate the swimming speed of each subject at each swimming workload. The comparison of blood lactate and speed values of all subjects before and after the training season revealed that lactate acid values had not changed significantly (p>0.05 at the lowest swimming workload (75% and that the speed had significantly increased (p<0.01. As for the rest of the swimming workloads, both lactate acid and speed increased significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01. Our two month training programme dwelt heavily upon anaerobic training and accordingly aerobic capacity decreased and anaerobic capacity increased at higher speeds. On the other hand, in our study, we found out that anaerobic capacity had not increased only at the 75% workload and that it had decreased at the rest of the workloads.

  13. Do pregnancy, postpartum period and lactation predispose to recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2015-02-23

    The aim of the study was a statistical analysis of the possible effects of pregnancy, postpartum period, and lactation on increased risk for reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical records of 661 patients referred with the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis to the Department of Zoonoses and Tropical Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw and to the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw in the years 1994-2014. This group of inpatients consisted of 213 women of child-bearing age (18 to 40 years). Reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was observed in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years who were pregnant, in the postpartum period, or lactating. To compare the rate of the relapses in pregnant/lactating patients vs. non-pregnant/non-lactating patients, the Fisher exact test was used. Calculations were performed with WinPepi software (Abramson JH (2004) WINPEPI (PEPI-for-Windows) for epidemiologists. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 2005, 1: 6). A total of 28 reactivations of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed (16 episodes in pregnancy, 4 in the postpartum period, and 8 during lactation) in 24 women aged 15 to 39 years. In 3 women, multiple episodes were reported (in early pregnancy and the postpartum period in 2 women, and during 2 pregnancies and lactation in 1 woman). Statistical analysis showed that the risk of an episode of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is 7.4-fold higher in pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant/non-lactating women (p<0.0001). Women of childbearing age with toxoplasma ocular lesions should be informed by their doctors about possible active recurrences during pregnancy and should be followed carefully by an ophthalmologist when pregnant.

  14. Pulque intake during pregnancy and lactation in rural Mexico: alcohol and child growth from 1 to 57 months.

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    Backstrand, J R; Goodman, A H; Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    2004-12-01

    To examine maternal intake of a mildly alcoholic beverage (pulque) during pregnancy and lactation, and its potential effect on postpartum child growth and attained size. A prospective cohort study that followed mothers (during pregnancy and lactation) and their offspring (from birth to approximately 57 months of age). Six villages in rural, central Mexico. Subjects are 58 mother-child pairs. Pulque intake was measured as part of a dietary assessment that was conducted for 2days/month during pregnancy and early lactation. Most mothers consumed pulque during pregnancy (69.0%) and lactation (72.4%). Among pulque drinkers, the average ethanol intake was 125.1 g/week during pregnancy and 113.8 g/week during lactation. Greater pulque intake during lactation, independent of intake during pregnancy, was associated with slower weight and linear growth from 1 to 57 months, and smaller attained size at 57 months. Low-to-moderate pulque intake during pregnancy, in comparison to either nonconsumption or heavy intake, was also associated with greater stature at 57 months. Pulque intake during lactation may have adversely influenced postnatal growth in this population. Public health interventions are urgently needed in Mexico to reduce heavy intake of pulque by pregnant and lactating women, and to replace intake with foods that provide the vitamins and minerals present in the traditional alcoholic beverage.

  15. Intermittent suckling during an extended lactation period: Effects on piglet behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.; Langendijk, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine how intermittent suckling (IS) affects nursing behavior, litter activity, and general behavioral patterns during lactation, and whether IS during an extended lactation period results in behavioral patterns associated with piglet distress.

  16. Juvenile hormone and insulin suppress lipolysis between periods of lactation during tsetse fly pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Aaron A; Benoit, Joshua B; Michalkova, Veronika; Mireji, Paul; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Moulton, John K; Wilson, Thomas G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-06-15

    Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods. The dry period occurs over the course of oogenesis and embryogenesis, while the lactation period spans intrauterine larvigenesis. Genes involved in the JH and IIS pathways were upregulated during dry periods, correlating with lipid accumulation between bouts of lactation. RNAi suppression of Forkhead Box Sub Group O (FOXO) expression impaired lipolysis during tsetse lactation and reduced fecundity. Similar reduction of the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant (Met), but not its paralog germ cell expressed (gce), reduced lipid accumulation during dry periods, indicating functional divergence between Met and gce during tsetse reproduction. Reduced lipid levels following Met knockdown led to impaired fecundity due to inadequate fat reserves at the initiation of milk production. Both the application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene and injection of insulin into lactating females increased stored lipids by suppressing lipolysis and reduced transcripts of lactation-specific genes, leading to elevated rates of larval abortion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to address the molecular physiology of JH and IIS in a viviparous insect, and specifically to provide a role for JH signaling through Met in the regulation of lipid metabolism during insect lactation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

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    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  18. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  19. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habran, Sarah; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Daniel E.; Houser, Dorian S.; Das, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. → The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. → The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  20. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  1. First-lactation performance in cows affected by digital dermatitis during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Socha, M T; Döpfer, D

    2015-07-01

    The long-term effects of prepartum digital dermatitis (DD) on first-lactation performance were evaluated in a cohort of 719 pregnant heifers. All heifers were followed for a period of 6 mo until calving and classified on the basis of the number of DD events diagnosed during this period as type I, type II, or type III (no DD, one DD event, and multiple DD events, respectively). Health during the initial 60d in milk (DIM), reproductive and hoof health outcomes, and milk production were compared between the 3 heifer type groups. All logistic and linear models were adjusted for age, height, and girth circumference at enrollment, and the type of trace mineral supplementation during the prepartum period. Overall, cows experiencing DD during the rearing period showed worse production and health outcomes compared with healthy heifers during the first lactation. The percentages of assisted calvings, stillbirths, culled before 60 DIM, and diseased cows during the fresh period were numerically higher in type III cows compared with type I cows. However, none of these differences were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Significantly lower conception at first service [odds ratio (OR)=0.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.89] and increased number of days open (mean=24d, 95% CI: 5.2, 43) were observed in type III cows compared with type I cows. In relation to hoof health, a significantly increased risk of DD during the first lactation was found in type II and III cows (OR=5.16, 95% CI: 3.23, 8.29; and OR=12.5, 95% CI: 7.52, 21.1, respectively), as well as earlier occurrence of DD following calving (OR=59d, 95% CI=20, 96, and OR=74d, 95% CI: 37, 109). Compared with type I cows, statistically significant milk production losses during the initial 305 DIM of 199 and 335kg were estimated in type II and III cows, respectively. This difference was due to a greater rate of production decline (less persistence) after peak yield. No differences in monthly fat

  2. Histological features in the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanou, D C; Pourlis, A; Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Taitzoglou, I A; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the histology of the mammary glands of female dogs throughout lactation. Twelve lactating female dogs were operated 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70 and 84 days post-partum; four mammary glands of each animal were excised for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric examination. During early lactation and mid-lactation, all lobes and lobules within the same gland had similar features; alveoli were well developed and distended and had a spherical to slightly ovoid structure, with muscular fibres grasping them around; inflammatory cells were seen in the inter- and intra-alveolar space; mammary lobules were separated with a scant amount of connective tissue. In late lactation, connective tissue was abundant and dense, with large numbers of inflammatory cells; alveoli appeared to be irregularly shaped and collapsing, shrunken or fully collapsed. Number of alveoli per lobule and number of epithelial cells per alveolus, as well as diameter of alveoli and height of epithelial cells decreased as lactation progressed. The third mammary glands (from caudal to cranial) had a significantly smaller number of alveoli, but not of epithelial cells per alveolus, than each of the two mammary glands caudally to that. The results suggest that progressive involution of the normal mammary gland starts around the end of the 2nd month of lactation and continues until the end of the 3rd month. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Influence of composition of feed and lactation period on mineral composition of Mare's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Fišera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE Effects of lactation period and feed on essential minerals composition of mare's milk were studied. Average Ca, P, Na and Mg concentrations in feed DM were 0.66, 4.30, 0.13 and 2.21 g.kg-1 of DM (dry matter, respectively. In regard to milk all elements concentrations were not similar to each other due to the changes of the lactation day differences. Average Ca, P, Na and Mg concentrations (in DM caused by breed differences and lactation days were 1.95, 1.08, 0.53 and 0.22 g.kg-1, respectively. During the milk period, a high-quality feed were maintaining the major mineral composition of mare's milk in 1.5 - 2 times higher amount than milk of mare fed with pasture and a low-quality feed. The colostrum stage of mare was much shorter than other animals, the mare's milk on the 2nd day of lactation showed properties of initial milk in which its composition, particularly in minerals, were two times higher when compare to that on milk periods that was started from 5th day after parturition. It seemed that some factors, except well physiological conditions, such as mare's age, number of foaling, sex of foal etc. did not affect milk nutrient composition.

  4. Twelve month follow-up on a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for post-stroke anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Katherine; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Kneebone, Ian

    2017-09-01

    To follow up participants in a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for anxiety after stroke at 12 months. Twelve month follow-up to a randomised controlled trial, in which the control group also received treatment. Community. Fifteen of twenty one original participants with post-stroke anxiety participated in a one year follow-up study. A self-help autogenic relaxation CD listened to five times a week for one month, immediately in the intervention group and after three months in the control group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status for inclusion. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale for outcome. All measures were administered by phone. Anxiety ratings reduced significantly between pre and post-intervention, and between pre-intervention and one year follow-up ( χ 2 (2) = 22.29, p autogenic relaxation CD appear to be maintained after one year.

  5. An assessment of twelve- versus eighteen-month cycles for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momsen, B.F.; Dale, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic factors involved in 18-month cycles for Zion pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The technical factors are divided into the factors that define input to the economic analysis and factors that are combined with the economic results in the final decisionmaking process. The economic analysis was performed by using a Present Value of the Revenue Requirements (PVRR) method and a complementary cash flow examination. The PVRR analysis examined total costs associated with both the 12- and 18-month cycles. The only significant technical problem that was identified was the relatively low new fuel enrichment limit of 3.2 w/o U 235 . The economic analysis demonstrated that 18-month cycles yielded significant PVRR savings over the 15-year study period. The economic benefits of 18-month cycles decreased as the fuel cost increased, the operating capacity factor decreased, the refueling outage length decreased, the differential 18-month cycle outage length increased, the replacement power cost decreased, and the escalation rate decreased

  6. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Consumption during Lactation and Duration of Breastfeeding At Puskesmas Margajaya Bekasi City in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syafiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite recommendation for higher energy intake during lactation than during pregnancy, researches at Jakarta and Depok showed that energy consumption during lactation was lower than during pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between individual characteristics and energy consumption during lactation, and to assess the relationship between energy consumption during lactation to duration of breastfeeding among 60 mothers in the working area of PuskesmasMargajayaBekasi City in 2014. This research used a cross-sectional design; data was collected through primary data collection by questionnaire and Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Analysis was conducted using chi-square technique. The study found that mothers of sufficient age (>27 years old, multiparous, and had low (<2,100 kcal/day energy intake during pregnancy had significant higher risk to low energy consumption during lactation. Mothers with low energy consumption during lactation had 4 times higher risk of short duration of breastfeeding. It is recommended to provide information on the importance of higher energy intake during lactation due to the higher need to support breastmilk production and also to shift forward the nutrition recommendation regarding additional energy intake during lactation period from month 6 to month 4 due to higher energy requirement that commences when lactating mothers enter the fourth month of lactation.

  8. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  9. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  10. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  11. The influence of supplemental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at eighteen months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. The effects of DHA (220 mg/day, n=41), DHA+AA (220 mg/day, n=39) or placebo (n=34) during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment at 18 months, and the relations between umbilical cord DHA, AA and Mead acid

  12. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  13. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Moosavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM, duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3 were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005. In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001. In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02 and winter (p = 0.03 in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities.

  14. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk during late pregnancy and the first three months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-05-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the effect of lactation period on the secretion of carotenoids in cow's milk. Our objective was to determine the variations in carotenoids in the plasma and milk of dairy cows from drying off to wk 12 of lactation, and to specify whether these variations depend on body stores of these micronutrients at calving. We also investigated the relationship between beta-carotene (BC) and color in plasma and milk to evaluate the methods based on direct or indirect characterization of these micronutrients for traceability of feeding management. The experiment was carried out on 18 dairy cows, which were dried off 8 wk before their expected date of parturition. They were then divided into 2 homogeneous groups and fed diets contrasting in carotenoid content, high (grass silage) vs. low (corn silage), from wk -7 until parturition. From parturition through wk 12 of lactation, both groups received a grass silage-based diet. Variations in concentrations of carotenoids and the color index (CI) in plasma and milk were monitored from drying off to wk 12 of lactation. Other components of nutritional interest (i.e., vitamins A and E) were also measured. Lutein, all-trans BC and cis-13 BC were the carotenoids found in plasma and milk. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E decreased throughout the dry period and in the first week of lactation, then increased through the first 3 mo of lactation, parallel to grass silage intake. For both groups, carotenoid and vitamin concentrations in milk drastically decreased during the first week of lactation, then did not vary significantly throughout the remainder to the experiment (wk 12). Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were higher in the high-carotenoid group than in the low-carotenoid group during the dry period. Those differences were also observed in colostrum and disappeared in both plasma and milk during the first 10 d of the lactation period. This work allowed

  15. 24 CFR 203.264 - Payment of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Payment § 203.264 Payment of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay each MIP in twelve equal monthly installments. Each monthly installment shall be due and payable to the Commissioner no later than the tenth day...

  16. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  17. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  18. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  19. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period...... they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... values for placebo (PL) or lactate (L) treatment groups during different tests were as follows: Test 1 PL, 13.49 +/- 3.71; L, 13.70 +/- 1.90; Test 2 PL, 12.64 +/- 2.32; L, 12.00 +/- 2.23; Test 3 PL, 12.29 +/- 2.92; L, 11.35 +/- 1.38 and were reached 3 min postexercise. The decrease in blood lactate...

  20. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Wei, Gina S; Whitmer, Rachel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Steve

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between duration of lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. This 3-year prospective study examined changes in metabolic risk factors among lactating women from preconception to postweaning and among nonlactating women from preconception to postdelivery, in comparison with nongravid women. Of 1,051 (490 black, 561 white) women who attended two consecutive study visits in years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996), 942 were nongravid and 109 had one interim birth. Of parous women, 48 (45%) did not lactate, and 61 (55%) lactated and weaned before year 10. The lactated and weaned women were subdivided by duration of lactation into less than 3 months and 3 months or more. Multiple linear regression models estimated mean 3-year changes in metabolic risk factors adjusted for age, race, parity, education, and behavioral covariates. Both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned gained more weight (+5.6, +4.4 kg) and waist girth (+5.3, +4.9 cm) than nongravid women over the 3-year interval; Pdecrements for both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned were 4.0 mg/dL greater than for nongravid women (Pdecrement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-1.3 mg/dL versus -7.3 mg/dL for less than 3 months; P<.01). Lactation may attenuate unfavorable metabolic risk factor changes that occur with pregnancy, with effects apparent after weaning. As a modifiable behavior, lactation may affect women's future risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. II.

  1. The work patterns of lactating women in Madura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, L J

    1993-08-01

    Little is known about the work patterns of mildly malnourished lactating women: are they modified to accommodate the demands of lactation? What factors influence their pattern of work during this period of nutritional stress? These questions were addressed using quantitative and qualitative data collected from 36 randomly selected women living in a poor community in Madura, Indonesia. Work patterns of the lactating women and their family members were documented for the first 12 months post-partum. Changes in work activity were analysed within four time periods corresponding to Madurese views on development during infancy: the vulnerable neonatal (birth-40 days), early (6-12 wk) and mid (13-31 wk) stages and the independent late (32-54 wk) stage. Quantitative data suggest that women did adjust work patterns to accommodate the demands of lactation and that these adjustments went beyond the neonatal stage. Mothers curtailed their participation in high- and low-energy income-generating activities, modified their conditions of work to promote maternal-infant proximity and conserved energy while performing specific activities. These patterns were most common through the mid infancy stage. Data are presented that describe how cultural values supporting maternal-infant proximity, intra- and inter-familial work exchanges, season and resources played a role in the type of accommodations mothers were able to make to breast-feed. These data suggest that even in relatively poor environments alterations in work patterns that may be favourable to lactation are possible, particularly when cultural concepts of infancy support such a trade-off.

  2. Effect of bicarbonate and lactate buffer on glucose and lactate metabolism during hemodiafiltration in patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Marc-Daniel; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Tappy, Luc; Berger, Mette M; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Martinez, Alexandre; Chioléro, René-Louis

    2004-06-01

    To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in critically ill patients. Prospective crossed-over controlled trial in the surgical and medical ICUs of a university hospital. Eight patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) requiring CVVHDF. Each patient received the two buffers in a randomized sequence over two consecutive days. The following variables were determined: acid-base parameters, lactate production and utilization ((13)C lactate infusion), glucose turnover (6,6(2)H(2)-glucose), gas exchange (indirect calorimetry). No side effect was observed during lactate administration. Baseline arterial acid-base variables were equal with the two buffers. Arterial lactate (2.9 versus 1.5 mmol/l), glycemia (+18%) and glucose turnover (+23%) were higher in the lactate period. Bicarbonate and glucose losses in CVVHDF were substantial, but not lactate elimination. Infusing (13)C lactate increased plasma lactate levels equally with the two buffers. Lactate clearance (7.8+/-0.8 vs 7.5+/-0.8 ml/kg per min in the bicarbonate and lactate periods) and endogenous production rates (14.0+/-2.6 vs 13.6+/-2.6 mmol/kg per min) were similar. (13)C lactate was used as a metabolic substrate, as shown by (13)CO(2) excretion. Glycemia and metabolic rate increased significantly and similarly during the two periods during lactate infusion. Lactate was rapidly cleared from the blood of critically ill patients without acute liver failure requiring CVVHDF, being transformed into glucose or oxidized. Lactate did not exert undesirable effects, except moderate hyperglycemia, and achieved comparable effects on acid-base balance to bicarbonate.

  3. 17 CFR 210.3-06 - Financial statements covering a period of nine to twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements covering... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-06 Financial statements covering a period of nine...

  4. Effect of heat stress and genotype on water turnover in pregnant and lactating sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlamlih, S.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on the effect of acute heat stress and on the influence of genotype on water turnover of pregnant and lactating ewes are described. Ewes exposed to acute heat stress during pregnancy and lactation maintained their body temperature within the same range as during the subsequent post-lactation period, but paradoxically the polypneic response was reduced during pregnancy. The drinking response to acute heat stress was markedly increased during pregnancy with a corresponding water diuresis. Thus, during acute heat stress, body temperature is maintained during pregnancy by the loss of heat to ingested water and probably also via increased sweating. Under natural environmental conditions, water turnover was higher in the sheep genotypes from the mountains (Timahdit) and the desert oases (Dman) than in the breeds from the Moroccan arid lands (Sardi and Beniguil). In all these genotypes, water turnover was lower during pregnancy than during lactation and the post-lactation period which occurred respectively in winter, spring and summer. Thus, the water demands during the summer are much higher than those for pregnancy during the winter months. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Lactational Infertility- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prema

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition during the last 10 years indicate that prolonged breast-feeding is still the rule among rural and urban low income group population in Hyderabad. Lactation induced hyperprolactinaemia prolongs postpartum amenorrhea and inter pregnancy interval by about 6 months. Duration of lactational amenorrhea infants results in a fall of plasma prolactin levels and rapid return of menstruation and fertility. Lactational amenorrhea lasts longer in undernourished women with low body weight and low fat fold rural women, duration of lactational amenorrhea is longer as compared to urban women. This might be partly attributable to the delay in introduction of supplements to the rural infants and partly to the lower body weight and fat fold thickness of rural women.

  6. A Review of Worksite Lactation Accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.

  7. Lactation support and breastfeeding duration in jaundiced infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Pound

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice is the most common problem in full-term infants during the immediate post-natal period. We examined the effect of a lactation support intervention on breastfeeding duration in hospitalized jaundiced infants.We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component involving mothers of hospitalized jaundiced breastfed infants <4 weeks of age. Mothers receiving the intervention met with an International Board-Certified Lactation Consultant in hospital and 1-3 times post discharge. Both groups received the standard care for jaundice. The primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months. To the exception of research assistants enrolling participants and completing qualitative interviews, all research staff, investigators and statisticians were blinded to group assignment. Qualitative interviews elicited feedback on breastfeeding experiences for both groups.99 participants were recruited, and 86 analyzed for primary outcome. There was no difference in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months between groups (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.56-1.24, p = 0.40 or in the secondary outcomes. 31 participants were included in the qualitative analysis. Participants in the intervention group described an increase in comfort and confidence levels with breastfeeding. Participants in the control group reported limited lactation support.Our hospital-based lactation support program did not result in a higher proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months compared to current hospital standard care. Qualitative feedback from the intervention group suggests that mothers' confidence was increased, which is linked to breastfeeding duration. The decision to breastfeed is multifactorial and hospital-based lactation support may be only a small piece of the puzzle in hospitalized jaundiced infants. Further studies may be needed to fully elucidate the impact of an in-hospital lactation support program on successful breastfeeding for these

  8. Backfat thickness during gestation and lactation period in respect to reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of backfat thickness measured during gestation and after lactation of primiparous and multiparous sows on the value of reproductive traits. Backfat thickness was determined at mating, at 105 day of gestation and after weaning and were correlated with selected reproductive indicators including placenta weight. The study was carried out 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows of Polish Landrace breed. The nutrition and housing conditions were the same for all pigs. Backfat and loin depth (P2, P4 , P4 M were measured using PIGLOG 105 device. The evaluation of reproductive performance included the weight of placenta at parturition, the number of born piglets, litter weight, piglet body weight at birth, at 21 and at weaning (28 days. Multiparous sows were characterized by greater fatness than primiparous sows in all periods of use. In all examined sows the backfat depth during gestation increased and decreased after lactation. Those changes were more pronounced in multiparous sows than in primiparous sows (P ≤ 0.01. Multiparous sows born and reared more piglets to 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. There have not been dead piglets in primiparous litters. Litters weight from multiparous sows were higher than from primiparous sows only at birth (P ≤ 0.01 and similar in rest periods of rearing. Individual body weight of piglets from primiparous was higher than that from multiparous sows at 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. Fatness changes during lactation, particularly in multiparous sows, were positively correlated with litter weight at birth and negatively correlated with piglet’s weight at 21 and 28 days of life and their daily gains (P ≤ 0.05. Correlations between placenta weight and backfat thickness during lactation were positive in both groups of sows (P ≤ 0.01.

  9. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  10. A Successful Induction of Lactation in Surrogate Pregnancy with Metoclopramide and Review of Lactation Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Elahe Mirzaaga; Arezoo Arabipoor; Mitra Frotan; Marzieh Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In surrogate pregnancies genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding with their infants,either prenatally (in utero) or during the immediate postnatal period. Procedures commonlyused to induce lactation include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, often incombination. Studies reporting induced lactation are sparse, due to the rarity of augmentedlactation. Here we report a case of lactation induction following a surrogate pregnancy. Othermethods that can be used to au...

  11. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    , exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children......, aged 1 to 3 years, with recurrent wheeze randomized in a 3:1 ratio to treatment for 52 weeks with FP (100 microg twice daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Babyhaler spacer device or SCG (5 mg 4 times daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Nebuhaler spacer device, respectively. RESULTS...

  12. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  13. [Effect of pregnancy and lactation on the nutritional status of essential fatty acids in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, J; Barriga, C

    1996-08-01

    Pregnancy and lactation could be high risk situations for the development of essential fatty acid deficiencies. To study the effect of pregnancy and lactation on red blood cell phospholipids percentual fatty acid composition of virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Twenty four pregnant rats of 50 +/- 1 days of age were supplement with soy and 24 with fish oil during 21 days. Twelve rats of each group were sacrificed after 18 days of lactation, twenty four non pregnant rats received soy oil and acted as controls of pregnant and lactating rats. Red blood cell phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. The percentage of total omega-6 fatty acids of red blood cell phospholipid was 37.8 +/- 5.9, 32.6 +/- 0.6 and 38.3 +/- 3.5% in non pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats respectively (p oil reverted the decrease in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid percentage of pregnant and lactating rats. Pregnancy and lactation decrease the capacity to transform precursors of essential fatty acids in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. A Successful Induction of Lactation in Surrogate Pregnancy with Metoclopramide and Review of Lactation Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Mirzaaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In surrogate pregnancies genetic parents have little opportunity for early bonding with their infants,either prenatally (in utero or during the immediate postnatal period. Procedures commonlyused to induce lactation include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods, often incombination. Studies reporting induced lactation are sparse, due to the rarity of augmentedlactation. Here we report a case of lactation induction following a surrogate pregnancy. Othermethods that can be used to augment lactation are described below. We used metoclopramide inthis case due to the success rates reported in previous studies and case reports. Additionally, itis a well tolerated and safe agent.

  15. Blood lactate recovery measurements, training, and performance during a 23-week period of competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, P; Mujika, I; Sidney, M; Chatard, J C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate measurements of blood lactate concentration, performance during a maximal anaerobic lactic test (MANLT) and training loads during a 23-week swimming season. Six elite 200-m freestyle male swimmers [mean age 19.5 (SD 1.6) years, height 184 (SD 5) cm and body mass 77.7 (SD 9.0) kg], participated in the study. The MANLT consisted of four all-out 50-m swims interspersed with 10-s recovery periods. Blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3 and 12-min post-exercise and were performed on weeks 2,6,10,14,18 and 21. Swimmers participated in 200-m freestyle competitions on weeks 1,7,13 and 23 (national championships). During weeks 1-10, training mostly involved aerobic exercise, while during weeks, 11-23, it involved anaerobic exercise. At 3-min and 12-min post-MANLT lactate concentrations varied throughout the season [range from 14.9 (SD 1.2) to 18.7 (SD 1.0) mmol.l-1] but demonstrated non-systematic variations. In contrast, the percentage of mean blood lactate decrease (% [La-]recovery) between min 3 and min 12 of the passive recovery post-MANLT increased from week 2 to 10 with aerobic training and decreased from week 10 to 21 with anaerobic training. The MANLT performance improved continuously throughout the season, while competition performance improved during the first three competitions but declined in the final championships, coinciding with the lowest % [La-]recovery and signs of overtraining, such as bad temper and increased sleeping heart rate. The results of this study indicated that % [La-]recovery could be an efficient marker for monitoring the impact of aerobic and anaerobic training and avoiding overtraining in elite 200-m swimmers.

  16. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  17. Economic performance of lactating dairy cows submitted for first service timed artificial insemination after a voluntary waiting period of 60 or 88 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Masello, M; Thomas, Mark J; Giordano, J O

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic performance of dairy cows managed with a voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 60 or 88 d. A secondary objective was estimating variation in cash flow under different input pricing scenarios through stochastic Monte Carlo simulations. Lactating Holstein cows from 3 commercial farms were blocked by parity group and total milk yield in their previous lactation and then randomly assigned to a VWP of 60 (VWP60; n = 1,352) or 88 d (VWP88; n = 1,359). All cows received timed-artificial insemination (TAI) for first service after synchronization of ovulation with the Double-Ovsynch protocol. For second and greater services, cows received artificial insemination (AI) after detection of estrus or the Ovsynch protocol initiated 32 ± 3 d after AI. Two analyses were performed: (1) cash flow per cow for the calving interval of the experimental lactation and (2) cash flow per slot occupied by each cow enrolled in the experiment for an 18-mo period after calving in the experimental lactation. Extending the VWP from 60 to 88 d delayed time to pregnancy during lactation (~20 d) and increased the risk of leaving the herd for multiparous cows (hazard ratio = 1.21). As a result, a smaller proportion of multiparous cows calved again and had a subsequent lactation (-6%). The shift in time to pregnancy combined with the herd exit dynamics resulted in longer lactation length for primiparous (22 d) but not multiparous cows. Longer lactations led to greater milk income over feed cost and a tendency for greater cash flow during the experimental lactation for primiparous but not multiparous cows in the VWP88 group. On the other hand, profitability per slot for the 18-mo period was numerically greater ($68 slot/18 mo) for primiparous cows but numerically reduced (-$85 slot/18 mo) for multiparous cows in the VWP88 treatment. For primiparous cows most of the difference in cash flow was explained by replacement cost, whereas for multiparous

  18. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  19. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  20. 34 CFR 75.250 - Project period can be up to 60 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period can be up to 60 months. 75.250 Section... Are Made Approval of Multi-Year Projects § 75.250 Project period can be up to 60 months. The Secretary may approve a project period of up to 60 months. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474) [45 FR 22497...

  1. A novel continuous subcutaneous lactate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, A; Messeri, D; Moscone, D; Ricci, F; Valgimigli, F

    2005-05-15

    A novel continuous lactate monitoring system has been developed modifying the GlucoDay portable medical device (A. Menarini Diagnostics), already present in the European market, and used to continuously measure glucose levels. Lactate oxidase based biosensors have been developed immobilising the enzyme on nylon net and placing it on a Pt electrode. The biosensor was connected to the portable device provided with a micro-pump and coupled to a microdialysis system. It is capable to record subcutaneous lactate every 3 min. In vitro analytical results confirmed that the sensors respond linearly in the interval of concentration between 0.1 and 10 mmol/L, covering the whole physiological range. During prolonged monitoring periods, the response of the biosensors remained stable, showing a limited drift of 8%, within 60 h. Stability tests are still on route. However, preliminary results have shown a shelf life of about 10 months. In vivo experiments performed on healthy rabbits have demonstrated the good accuracy and reproducibility of the system. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.9547 (N=80) was found, which represents a good correlation between the GlucoDay and the laboratory reference analyser. A 16 h in vivo monitoring on a healthy volunteer has been also performed.

  2. [Length of lactational amenorrhea in an urban population of Temuco, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Patricio; Sierralta, Pablo; Ossa, Ximena; Barría, Angélica

    2002-01-01

    Studies done in Santiago, Chile show that menses return before the sixth month of puerperium in 50% of lactating women, even in those that continue with exclusive breast feeding. To study the length of lactational amenorrhea in a group of women living in Southern Chile. One hundred fourteen women giving exclusive breast feeding, were followed from the third postpartum month, to determine the length of lactational amenorrhea. Its relationship with general characteristics of the mothers and children and breast feeding pattern was also studied. Sixty six women (58%) recovered their menses before the 6th postpartum month and their length of lactational amenorrhea was 101 +/- 5 days. In the rest of the sample, the length was 277 +/- 10 days. No differences in characteristics of the mothers and children or breast feeding pattern, were observed between these two groups. A short lactational amenorrhea is common in the Chilean population. Clinical characteristics or pattern of breast feeding do not explain the length of LA in this population.

  3. Long chain fatty acids and related pro-inflammatory, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their intermediates in preterm human milk during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D T; Palac, H L; Baillif, V; Van Goethem, E; Dubourdeau, M; Van Horn, L; Martin, C R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure longitudinal quantities of the long chain fatty acids, their biologically active terminal metabolites and related intermediates (also called oxylipins) in preterm human milk expressed during the first month of lactation. In a prospective cohort, breast milk was collected throughout the first month of lactation in 30 women who delivered preterm infants. Eighteen bioactive lipids and their intermediates were quantified via solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. Analysis by GC-FID quantified the fatty acid precursors. Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) milk concentrations significantly declined throughout the first month. Oxylipin concentrations did not change during lactation. Positive associations existed between ARA and thromboxane B2, eicosapentaenoic acid and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, and between DHA and PDX and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids. DHA concentrations were 1.5 times higher and 14-HDHA was 1.7 times higher in milk from women taking DHA supplements. This investigation showed conditionally essential fatty acids, ARA and DHA, decreased in preterm milk, suggesting a need to supplement their intake for the breast milk-fed preterm infant. Positive associations between parent fatty acids, bioactive lipids and intermediates, as well as sensitivity of milk to maternal fatty acid intake, support consideration of a comprehensive approach to providing fatty acids for preterm infants through both maternal and infant supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonic lactate metabolism and D-lactic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H; Mortensen, P B

    1995-01-01

    D-Lactic acidosis is seen in patients with intestinal bypass or short bowels in whom colonic produced D-lactate accumulates. An intestinal bypassed patient with D-lactic acidosis had higher fecal D-lactate (122.4 mmol/liter) and L-lactate (90.1 mmol/liter) than described before in humans. D......-Lactate fluctuated between 0.5 and 3.1 mmol/liter in plasma (normal liter) and between 1.1 and 52.8 mmol/liter in urine (normal liter) within a few hours, indicating that the human organism do metabolize and excrete D-lactate. The patient with D-lactic acidosis had a 10-fold increased DL......-lactate in feces (84.0 mmol/liter) and plasma (2.3 mmol/liter) considerably in the patient with D-lactic acidosis. Intestinal prolongation (22 cm ileum) had a temporary effect on fecal and plasma D-lactate, but intestinal continuity was reestablished 26 months later because D-lactic acidosis recurred (plasma 8...

  5. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  6. Bisphenol S Alters the Lactating Mammary Gland and Nursing Behaviors in Mice Exposed During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Charlotte D; Catanese, Mary C; Bansal, Ruby; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2017-10-01

    High doses of estrogenic pharmaceuticals were once prescribed to women to halt lactation. Yet, the effects of low-level xenoestrogens on lactation remain poorly studied. We investigated the effects of bisphenol S (BPS), an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, on the lactating mammary gland; the arcuate nucleus, a region of the hypothalamus important for neuroendocrine control of lactational behaviors; and nursing behavior in CD-1 mice. Female mice were exposed to vehicle, 2 or 200 µg BPS/kg/d from pregnancy day 9 until lactational day (LD) 20, and tissues were collected on LD21. Tissues were also collected from a second group at LD2. BPS exposure significantly reduced the fraction of the mammary gland comprised of lobules, the milk-producing units, on LD21, but not LD2. BPS also altered expression of Esr1 and ERα in the mammary gland at LD21, consistent with early involution. In the arcuate nucleus, no changes were observed in expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, a marker of prolactin signaling, or ERα, suggesting that BPS may act directly on the mammary gland. However, observations of nursing behavior collected during the lactational period revealed stage-specific effects on both pup and maternal nursing behaviors; BPS-treated dams spent significantly more time nursing later in the lactational period, and BPS-treated pups were less likely to initiate nursing. Pup growth and development were also stunted. These data indicate that low doses of BPS can alter lactational behaviors and the maternal mammary gland. Together, they support the hypothesis that pregnancy and lactation are sensitive to low-dose xenoestrogen exposures. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  7. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  8. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  10. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  11. reducing the partum.to-mating period in autumn lactating ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and/or synchronization of oestrus in farm animals (La- mond, 1964: Hunter, 1968; ... In the lactating ewe progesterone therapy soon ..... by oestrus after a relatively short delay (Table l). Con- sequently, more time was available for oestrus to be.

  12. Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance and lactation stage in post parturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Páez Cano, A.E.; Vinitwatanakhun, J.; Boeren, S.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vervoort, J.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The early lactation period of dairy cows, which produce high quantities of milk, is normally characterized by an insufficient energy intake to cover milk production and maintenance requirements. Mobilization of body reserves occurs to compensate this negative energy balance (NEB), and probably as a

  13. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  14. Eight month post program completion; change in risk factors for chronic disease amongst participants in a four-month pedometer-based workplace health program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    -months. RESULTS: 76% of participants returned at twelve-months. Sustained improvements at twelve-months were observed for self-reported vegetable intake, self-reported sitting time and independently measured blood pressure. Modest improvements from baseline in self-reported physical activity and independently...

  15. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level

  16. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R Piccolotto; Lemos, J R Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R Souza; Martins, M Gassen; Nascimento, C H; Bayona, M; Marcon, J L; Monteiro, J Barros

    2013-09-01

    The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI

  17. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum

  18. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  19. Nutritional strategies to cope with reduced litter weight gain and total tract digestibility in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, J; Mir, L; Seradj, A R; Morazán, H; Balcells, J; Babot, D

    2017-10-01

    Twelve lactating sows were used to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) (14% vs. 12%) and increasing neutral detergent fibre (NDF) levels (18% vs. 22%) on litter performance, total tract apparent digestibility and manure composition in a 4 × 4 latin square arrangement during a 36-day lactation period. Diets were isoenergetic (2.9 Mcal ME/kg) and had similar total lysine content (0.9%). In addition, a second aim was to compare a reference external marker method (Cr 2 O 3 ) with an internal feed marker [acid-insoluble ash (AIA)] for the calculation of apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows. The reduction of dietary CP level in lactating sows had no effect on either live-weight or backfat thickness or apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. However, the piglets' average daily gain (ADG) was reduced in low dietary CP diets, which suggests that sows reduced milk production due to an underestimation of certain essential amino acid requirements (e.g. valine). The increase of dietary NDF level did not affect sow and litter performance. Nevertheless, the total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP and carbohydrates was reduced, and ether extract digestion was increased in high NDF compared to normal NDF diets equally balanced for ME and lysine content. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows were greater when using AIA compared to Cr 2 O 3 marker, regardless of dietary CP or NDF level, but their coefficients of variation were lower in the former than in the latter. In lactating sows, a trade-off between litter performance and nutrient digestion is established when reducing dietary CP or increasing NDF levels while maintaining similar lysine content through synthetic amino acids and balancing metabolizable energy through dietary fat sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misselwitz Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the

  1. BIOKID: randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Barbara; Schmitt, Claus P; Almeida, Margarida; Arbeiter, Klaus; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Bonzel, Klaus E; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Haluany, Karin; Misselwitz, Joachim; Kemper, Markus J; Rönnholm, Kai; Wygoda, Simone; Schaefer, Franz

    2004-10-14

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera solution for a period of

  2. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  3. Twelve-month follow-up of cognitive behavioral therapy for children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Walker, Lynn S; Romano, Joan M; Christie, Dennis L; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M; Ballard, Sheri A; Labus, Jennifer; Welsh, Ericka; Feld, Lauren D; Whitehead, William E

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether a brief intervention for children with functional abdominal pain and their parents' responses to their child's pain resulted in improved coping 12 months later. Prospective, randomized, longitudinal study. Families were recruited during a 4-year period in Seattle, Washington, and Morristown, New Jersey. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents. A 3-session social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy intervention or an education and support intervention. Child symptoms and pain-coping responses were monitored using standard instruments, as was parental response to child pain behavior. Data were collected at baseline and after treatment (1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment). This article reports the 12-month data. Relative to children in the education and support group, children in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month follow-up decreases in gastrointestinal symptom severity (estimated mean difference, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.63 to -0.01) and greater improvements in pain-coping responses (estimated mean difference, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.02). Relative to parents in the education and support group, parents in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms (estimated mean difference, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.03) and greater decreases in maladaptive beliefs regarding their child's pain (estimated mean difference, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.59 to -0.13). Results suggest long-term efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce parental solicitousness and increase coping skills. This strategy may be a viable alternative for children with functional abdominal pain. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00494260.

  4. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  5. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  6. A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactati...

  7. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood lactate kinetics in normal and stress-susceptible pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrah, P.S.; Beitz, D.C.; Topel, D.G.; Christian, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro rates of lactate metabolism were determined in stress-susceptible (SS) and stress-resistant (SR) pigs. Three SR and three SS pigs were given 20 muCi of [U-/sup 14/C] L-lactate by a single injection method and resting blood lactate kinetics were measured. Seventeen blood samples were taken during the 60 min after injection. Lactate was separated from the deproteinized plasma by silicic acid column chromatography, and specific radioactivity was determined. Kinetic characteristics were calculated from plots of specific activity versus time. Pigs met steady-state requirements during the sampling period. There were no differences in kinetic characteristics of resting SS and SR pigs. Later, a second isotope injection was given after 5 min of electrical stress. Lactate pool sizes increased similarly in both types of pigs after stress; however, SS pigs had greater plasma lactate concentrations after stress. It is concluded that SS and SR pigs respond differently to stress but have similar capacities to metabolize lactate while resting

  9. Breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Mubarek, Mohammed A.; Al-Tufaif, Ahmed A.

    2004-01-01

    We report 3 cases of gestational breast cancer that were encountered by the authors over a year period (1998) and discuss the diagnostic dilemma and modern management options. The first case was a 38-year-old Saudi female who was 8 month pregnant presented with 3 month history of left breast lump and intermittent bloody nipple discharge. She started menarche at the age of 13 years and denied any past history of benign breast diseases or oral contraceptive pill. There was no family history of malignant breast disease. Clinical examination revealed an irregular hard lump (3x3 cm) in the subareolar area of the left breast with no palpable axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. She underwent left simple mastectomy and axillary clearance together with cesarian section (CS) and tubal ligation at the same time. Histology revealed grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma with 2 of the 11 level I nodes were positive for malignancy. She later underwent adjuvant chemoradiation and remained well with no evidence of locoregional recurrence 34 months later. The second case was a 40-year-old Saudi female who has been lactating for 10 months presented with a left breast lump of one week duration. There was no history of breast pain or nipple discharge and denied any past history of benign breast disease. There was no family history of breast cancer. Clinically, there was a 2x3 cm irregular left breast mass, in the upper outer quadrant with no palpable axillary lymphadenopathy. Mammography revealed suspicious opacity in the left breast but bone scan and ultrasonography showed no bone or liver metastases. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed suspicious of malignancy. She underwent a wide excision and left axillary clearance. Histopathology showed grade II medullary carcinoma and 2 out of 20 axillary lymph nodes were malignant. She later underwent systemic chemotherapy and radiation to left breast and

  10. The relationship between twelve-month home stimulation and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorninck, W J; Caldwell, B M; Wright, C; Frankenburg, W K

    1981-09-01

    Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) was designed to reflect parental support of early cognitive and socioemotional development. 12-month HOME scores were correlated with elementary school achievement, 5--9 years later. 50 low-income children were rank ordered by a weighted average of centile estimates of achievement test scores, letter grades, and curriculum levels in reading and math. 24 children were classified as having significant school achievement problems. The HOME total score correlated significantly, r = .37, with school centile scores among the low-income families. The statistically more appropriate contingency table analysis revealed a 68% correct classification rate and a significantly reduced error rate over random or blanket prediction. The results supported the predictive value of the 12-month HOME for school achievement among low-income families. In an additional sample of 21 middle-income families, there was insufficient variability among HOME scores to allow prediction. The HOME total scores were highly correlated, r = .86, among siblings tested at least 10 months apart.

  11. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. No change in energy efficiency in lactation: Insights from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Richard L; Williams, Heather S; Dufour, Darna L

    2017-11-01

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of reproduction for human females, but it is still unclear how women in different environments are able to meet this additional energy demand. Previous studies have investigated whether changes in metabolism could have an energy-sparing effect in lactation, with conflicting results. Here, we asked whether increased energy efficiency in physical activity serves as an energy-sparing mechanism in lactation. We used a longitudinal design with a control group. Participants were 33 well-nourished, exclusively breastfeeding women and 29 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL) controls aged 32 ± 4 years. Lactating women were measured at peak- and post-lactation. NPNL controls completed a baseline measurement and a follow-up visit. Energy efficiency in physical activity was assessed using a graded submaximal exercise test and calculated as delta efficiency (change in work accomplished over change in energy expended) and gross efficiency (work accomplished over energy expended). There was no significant change in either delta efficiency or gross efficiency from peak to post lactation in lactating women, and no significant difference in delta efficiency between lactating women and NPNL controls at any time period. However, lactating women showed greater between-visit variation in delta efficiency than the NPNL controls. Additionally, 79% of lactating participants lost weight between visits (mean weight loss -3.6 ± 2.3kg), consistent with a mobilization of body tissues to support lactation. We found no support for the idea that lactating women undergo an increase in energy efficiency to support the energy costs of lactation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in dairy cows: consequences for new lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminio Trevisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To verify the potential relevance of proinflammatory cytokine (PIC with periparturient health problems and performances, the changes of plasma interleukin-1beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6 have been investigated in 21 Holstein-Friesian cows from 35 d before to 28 d after parturition. The overall PIC concentration was higher during late pregnancy compared to the first month of lactation, but showed a high variability among the cows. Therefore, cows were retrospectively divided in 3 groups according to the values of area under the concentration curve of IL- 1β concentrations from -35 d before to the day of parturition and designated as up (UPIL1, intermediate (INIL1 and low (LOIL1 IL-1β group. The concentrations of IL-6 and to some extent the concentrations of albumin and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were well related to the grouping based on IL-1β concentrations. After calving the UPIL1 cows showed a more severe acute phase reaction (APR, based on the marked increase of haptoglobin and the lower plasma albumin concentrations during the first week of lactation, and the highest oxidative stress, based on the higher concentrations of ROMs. Moreover, the UPIL1 group showed higher number of mastitis, lower feed intake and milk yield compared with INIL1 and LOIL1. Our results demonstrated that cows with the highest PIC concentrations in the last month of pregnancy showed the worse health status in early lactation (clinical and subclinical problems and a lower milk yield. Thus, these data support the utility of PIC measurement in late pregnancy as prognostic markers for a risky transition period.

  15. Ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the nutritional status of predominantly breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, S; Flores-Huerta, S; Fajardo, A; Hernandez-Beltran, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of ethanol, consumed as a mild fermented beverage called "pulque", during pregnancy and lactation on the food intake and some anthropometric indices of body composition of a group of lactating mothers in a town in central Mexico. Thirty two mothers who drank pulque during pregnancy and lactation and 61 non-drinking women with comparable characteristics were evaluated anthropometrically, their dietary and ethanol intake recorded during a 6-month postpartum period. Energy [(8360 +/- 2997 vs. 7156 +/- 2177 J) and protein (52.7 +/- 20.9 vs. 44.6 +/- 16.1 g)] 24-h intake, height, weight, body mass index, arm muscle and fat areas were greater in drinking mothers than in controls. Average total ethanol consumption varied from 0.48 - 0.55 g-1 kg-1.d-1. Drinking mothers lost weight less frequently. Additional energy provided by pulque might explain such a difference. More precise information about the changes in their body composition and energy balance are in order for confirmation.

  16. A rare cause of postpartum low back pain: pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Terzi, Hasan; Özer, Tülay; Kale, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated.

  17. A Rare Cause of Postpartum Low Back Pain: Pregnancy- and Lactation-Associated Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Terzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO is a rare form of osteoporosis. It results in severe low back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, decreases in height, and fragility fractures, particularly in the vertebra. The current case report presents a 32-year-old patient who presented with back and low back pain that began in the last trimester of the pregnancy and worsened at two months postpartum and who was diagnosed with pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis after exclusion of other causes; the findings are discussed in view of the current literature. PLO is a rare clinical condition causing significant disability. PLO must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with low back pain during or after pregnancy. The patients must be evaluated for the risk factors of PLO, and an appropriate therapy must be initiated.

  18. Blood and Milk Contents of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Cortisol in Lactating Buffaloes and Changes in Milk Yield and Composition as a Function of Lactation Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.M. Al-Saied.; Ibrahim, M.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactation number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. Two experiment were carried out on 72 animals in two periods through 1994. The first one was carried out on 36 animals during February, where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree while the second was conducted on another 36 animals during July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree. In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactation number into 6 equal groups from the 1 st to the 6 Th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T-3 either in milk or in blood besides milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in july than in february. Whereas the opposite trend was noted for cortisol levels either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , mil and blood cortisol, milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly by lactation number

  19. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  20. Duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joan; McGilligan, Kathryn; Kelly, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Maternal employment has been one of the greatest barriers to breastfeeding. Women are increasingly solving this problem by expressing milk at work and taking it home to their infants. The objective was to determine duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program. Retrospective reviews were conducted on the lactation records of 462 women employed by 5 corporations in order to describe and characterize their experiences. The lactation program included the employees' choice of (a) a class on the benefits of breastfeeding; (b) services of a certified lactation consultant (CLC); and (c) private room in the workplace with equipment for pumping. Breastfeeding was initiated by 97.5% of the participants, with 57.8% continuing for at least 6 months. Of the 435 (94.2%) who returned to work after giving birth, 343 (78.9%) attempted pumping milk at work, and 336 (98%) were successful. They expressed milk in the workplace for a mean of 6.3 months (SD = 3.9, range 2 weeks to 21 months). The mean age of infants when the mothers stopped pumping at work was 9.1 months (SD = 4.1, range 1.9 to 25 months). Most of the women who pumped their milk at work were working full time (84.2%). The mean postnatal maternity leave was 2.8 months. The proportion of women who chose to pump at work was higher among women who were salaried than among those who were paid hourly wages (p < 0.01). Company-sponsored lactation programs can enable employed mothers to provide breast milk for their infants as long as they wish, thus helping the nation attain the Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% of mothers breastfeeding until their infants are 6-months-old.

  1. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    =46) or standard cages (2.550 cm², n=44). Behavioural observations were made four weeks before birth until kits were nine weeks old with one-zero sampling during two hours before feeding. During week 1-4 after females had given birth they were mostly recorded in the nest box and there were......The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...

  2. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi J

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual and reproductive history of 178 women referred to the thyroid clinic was compared with 49 healthy controls. Cases were classified as euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid after clinical examination and after serum T3, T4, TSH measurements. Reproductive history was related chronologically to symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction. Only 31.8% of hypothyroid and 35.3% of hyperthyroid women had normal menstrual pattern in contrast with 56.3% of Euthyroid and 87.8% of healthy controls (p < 0.001. Reproductive failure (infertility, pregnancy wastage, failure of lactation occurred in 37.5% of hypothyroid and 36.5% of hyperthyroid cases against 16.3% of euthyroid and 16.7% of healthy controls (p < 0.05. Interestingly, in 45% of cases with menstrual abnormality, the anomaly was antecedent to other clinical features by a variable period of two months to ten years. Reproductive failure and lactation failure also preceded thyroid dysfunction or goitre. Reproductive dysfunction may therefore be considered as one of the presenting symptoms of thyroid disorders in women, keeping in mind both menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may also arise from other common or idiopathic origins. Especially in women with menstrual irregularities in the perimenopausal age if thyroid dysfunction is detected, pharmacotherapy may be a superior alternative to surgical interventions like hysterectomy.

  3. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  4. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  5. Toxicology research projects directory, 1978. Monthly repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Toxicology Research Projects Directory is a monthly publication of ongoing research projects in toxicology and related fields selected from the files of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE). Each issue lists toxicology-related research projects reported to SSIE during the one-month period preceding that issue. Each of the summaries is categorized by scientific discipline and assigned a unique identification number for cross-referencing from the Directory Indexes--Subject, Investigator, Performing Organization, Supporting Agency, and Master Grant Number. The thirteenth issue consists of Cumulative Indexes for the entire volume with referencing to projects in all of the previous twelve issues. The emphasis of the Directory is on the manifestations of the exposure of man and animals to toxic substances. Projects are classified by toxic agents, research orientation, and areas of environmental concern

  6. EXERCISE LIMITATIONS IN A COMPETITIVE CYCLIST TWELVE MONTHS POST HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Walton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT

  7. Analysis of twelve-month degradation in three polycrystalline photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2016-09-01

    Polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules have the advantage of lower manufacturing cost as compared to their monocrystalline counterparts, but generally exhibit both lower initial module efficiencies and more significant early-stage efficiency degradation than do similar monocrystalline PV modules. For both technologies, noticeable deterioration in power conversion efficiency typically occurs over the first two years of usage. Estimating PV lifetime by examining the performance degradation behavior under given environmental conditions is, therefore, one of continual goals for experimental research and economic analysis. In the present work, accelerated lifecycle testing (ALT) on three polycrystalline PV technologies was performed in a full-scale, industrial-standard environmental chamber equipped with single-sun irradiance capability, providing an illumination uniformity of 98% over a 2 x 1.6m area. In order to investigate environmental aging effects, timedependent PV performance (I-V characteristic) was evaluated over a recurring, compressed day-night cycle, which simulated local daily solar insolation for the southwestern United States, followed by dark (night) periods. During a total test time of just under 4 months that corresponded to a year equivalent exposure on a fielded module, the temperature and humidity varied in ranges from 3°C to 40°C and 5% to 85% based on annual weather profiles for Tucson, AZ. Removing the temperature de-rating effect that was clearly seen in the data enabled the computation of normalized efficiency degradation with time and environmental exposure. Results confirm the impact of environmental conditions on the module long-term performance. Overall, more than 2% efficiency degradation in the first year of usage was observed for all thee polycrystalline Si solar modules. The average 5-year degradation of each PV technology was estimated based on their determined degradation rates.

  8. Lactate shuttles in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    2002-04-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously under fully aerobic conditions. "Cell-cell" and "intracellular lactate shuttle" concepts describe the roles of lactate in the delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates, as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, between working skeletal muscle and heart, and between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate exchange between astrocytes and neurons that is linked to glutamatergic signalling in the brain is an example of a lactate shuttle supporting cell-cell signalling. Lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate-lactate exchange in peroxisomes are examples of intracellular lactate shuttles. Lactate exchange between sites of production and removal is facilitated by monocarboxylate transport proteins, of which there are several isoforms, and, probably, also by scaffolding proteins. The mitochondrial lactate-pyruvate transporter appears to work in conjunction with mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase, which permits lactate to be oxidized within actively respiring cells. Hence mitochondria function to establish the concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities (e.g. cardiocytes) to take up and oxidize lactate. Arteriovenous difference measurements on working cardiac and skeletal muscle beds as well as NMR spectral analyses of these tissues show that lactate is formed and oxidized within the cells of formation in vivo. Glycolysis and lactate oxidation within cells permits high flux rates and the maintenance of redox balance in the cytosol and mitochondria. Other examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake and oxidation in sperm mitochondria and the facilitation of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes by pyruvate-lactate

  9. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  10. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  11. 1981 EFFECT OF STAGE OF LACTATION ON THE PHYSICAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBNELBACHYR

    The results of the present investigation show that Drâa goat milk is rich with desirable components like fat and protein for dairy product manufacturers, and that the late lactation stage seems to be the best period to ensure an optimum technological valorization. Key words: Goat, Morocco, milk, physicochemical, lactation ...

  12. Lactational Lead Exposure Perturbates Androgenesis in Juvenile and Pubertal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odukoya SOA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High to low lead (Pb concentrations in breast milk has been found to perturb some biological events in the postnatal life. While postnatal Pb exposure has been reported to impair some andrological parameters in mammals, the age-dependent andrological signature of lactational Pb poisoning is not clear. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the effects of Pb exposure during lactational period on the testicular andrological profiles of rats at certain postlactational ages using varying doses of Pb. Material and Methods: Lactating mothers and their pups were randomly divided into 4 groups comprising 24 pups each. The treatment groups received 10mg/dL, 30mg/dL, and 70mg/dLof lead acetate in their drinking water from postnatal day one (P1 to P21 of the lactational period. The control rats received distilled water. At P22, P60, P90 and P120, the pups from each group were euthanized, testes were collected, homogenized and the supernatant was used to assay for testosterone and oestrogen using standard methods. Results: Lactational lead poisoning was associated with depressed testicular testosterone productions (P<0.05 compared with controls and abnormally high levels of testicular oestrogen. These statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in androgens levels were corrected to near normal with increasing postnatal ages at low doses. Conclusion: These results show that lactational Pb intoxication causes reversible androgenic perturbations at low doses but irreversible damage at high doses during postnatal life. Conclusively, high lactational Pb is associated with post-lactational irreversible impairment of androgenic profiles.

  13. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  14. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  15. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  16. Inhibition of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism and hormonal regulation of lactation is explained and illustrated with a schematic representation. Circulating estrogen above a critical amount seems to be the inhibitory factor controlling lactation during pregnancy. Once delivery occurs, the level of estrogen falls, that of prolactin rises, and lactation begins. Nonsuckling can be used to inhibit lactation. Estrogens can also be used to inhibit lactation more quickly and with less pain. The reported association between estrogens and puerperal thromboembolism cannot be considered conclusive due to defects in the reporting studies. There is no reason not to use estrogens in lactation inhibition except for women over 35 who experienced a surgical delivery. Alternative therapy is available for these women. The recently-developed drug, brom-ergocryptine, may replace other methods of lactation inhibition.

  17. Administration of antibiotics to ewes at the beginning of the dry-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Ioannis G; Fthenakis, George C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the significance of administration of antibiotics at the end of a lactation period/beginning of the dry-period in ewes. During the stage of active involution, there is an increased risk of new mastitis cases and recrudescence of subclinical infections that had occurred during the previous lactation period. The main pathogens involved in the so-called 'dry-period mastitis' are coagulase-negative staphylococci. The principle of antibiotic administration at the end of a lactation period involves the intramammary infusion of a preparation to both mammary glands of ewes in the flock. Although a variety of products is licensed for administration in ewes, preferably the product for administration should be selected on the results of susceptibility testing of bacteria to be isolated from samples from ewes in the flock. In many clinical studies from around the world, performed in dairy- or mutton-production flocks, administration of antimicrobial agents at the end of a lactation period has been found beneficial in curing intramammary infections present at cessation of a lactation period, as well as in minimising the risk for intramammary infections during the dry-period. In dairy flocks, there are also benefits from increase in milk yield and decrease flock bulk milk mean somatic cell counts during the subsequent lactation period. Antibiotic administration at drying-off may be performed to all animals in a flock ('complete') or only to those considered to be infected ('selective'). In all cases, after administration of the antibiotic, definite and complete cessation of the lactation period is essential for success of the procedure. Moreover, maintenance of the prescribed withdrawal periods is essential to safeguard public health. The procedure should always be applied as part of a strategic udder health management plan in a flock; implementation improves the welfare of animals and affords significant financial benefits to the

  18. Essential trace elements in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys as affected by lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantuz, F; Ferraro, S; Todini, L; Mariani, P; Piloni, R; Salimei, E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the concentration of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co) and iodine (I) in milk and blood serum of lactating donkeys, taking into account the effects of lactation stage and dietary supplementation with trace elements. During a 3-month period, 16 clinically healthy lactating donkeys (Martina-Franca-derived population), randomly divided into two homogeneous groups (control (CTL) and trace elements (TE)), were used to provide milk and blood samples at 2-week intervals. Donkeys in both groups had continuous access to meadow hay and were fed 2.5 kg of mixed feed daily, divided into two meals. The mixed feed for the TE group had the same ingredients as the CTL, but was supplemented with a commercial premix providing 163 mg Zn, 185 mg Fe, 36 mg Cu, 216 mg Mn, 0.67 mg Se, 2.78 mg Co and 3.20 mg I/kg mixed feed. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, Co and I were measured in feeds, milk and blood serum by inductively coupled plasma-MS. Data were processed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The milk concentrations of all the investigated elements were not significantly affected by the dietary supplementation with TE. Serum concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu Mn and Se were not affected by dietary treatment, but TE-supplemented donkeys showed significantly higher concentrations of serum Co (1.34 v. 0.69 μg/l) and I (24.42 v. 21.43 μg/l) than unsupplemented donkeys. The effect of lactation stage was significant for all the investigated elements in milk and blood serum, except for serum manganese. A clear negative trend during lactation was observed for milk Cu and Se concentrations (-38%), whereas that of Mn tended to increase. The serum Cu concentration was generally constant and that of Co tended to increase. If compared with data reported in the literature for human milk, donkey milk showed similarities for Zn, Mn, Co and I. Furthermore, this study indicated that, in the current experimental conditions

  19. Metabolism of D-lactate and structurally related organic acids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husic, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the initial minutes of anaerobiosis, 14 C-labeled D-lactate, derived from the photosynthetic sugar phosphate pool, accumulated in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The production of the D-isomer of lactate by algae is in contrast to plant and mammalian cells in which L-lactate is formed. After initial lactate formation, Chlamydomonas exhibits a mixed-acid type fermentation, thereby avoiding lactate accumulation and enabling the cells to tolerate extended periods of anaerobiosis. A pyruvate reductase which catalyzes the formation of D-lactate in Chlamydomonas was partially purified and characterized. Lactate produced anaerobically was metabolized only when Chlamydomonas cells were returned to aerobic conditions, and reoxidation of the D-lactate was apparently catalyzed by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase, rather than by the soluble pyruvate reductase. Mutants of Chlamydomonas, deficient in mitochondrial respiration, were used to demonstrate that lactate metabolism was linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In addition, the oxidation of glycolate, a structural analog of lactate, was also linked to mitochondrial electron transport in vivo

  20. Survey Of Ketosis In Lactating Wadara Cows | Igbokwe | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples collected from 203 lactating Wadara cows at various periods of lactation from April to August, 1999, in Borno State, Nigeria, were negative for ketones by Rothera\\'s test. The protein, lactose, fat and total solids contents of 30 milk samples were 12.5 6.7mg/ml, 12.3 2.0mg/ml, 3.2 1.2% and 12.9 2.8%, ...

  1. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Ishii, T

    1976-11-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 ..mu..g/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 ..mu..g/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 ..mu..g/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 ..mu..g/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 ..mu..g/dl at the end of lactation.

  2. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  3. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  4. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...... of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two...

  5. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh

    2011-06-01

    Poorly treated or untreated maternal overt hyperthyroidism may affect pregnancy outcome. Fetal and neonatal hypo- or hyper-thyroidism and neonatal central hypothyroidism may complicate health issues during intrauterine and neonatal periods. To review articles related to appropriate management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE with the terms 'hyperthyroidism and pregnancy', 'antithyroid drugs and pregnancy', 'radioiodine and pregnancy', 'hyperthyroidism and lactation', and 'antithyroid drugs and lactation', both separately and in conjunction with the terms 'fetus' and 'maternal.' Antithyroid drugs are the main therapy for maternal hyperthyroidism. Both methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) may be used during pregnancy; however, PTU is preferred in the first trimester and should be replaced by MMI after this trimester. Choanal and esophageal atresia of fetus in MMI-treated and maternal hepatotoxicity in PTU-treated pregnancies are of utmost concern. Maintaining free thyroxine concentration in the upper one-third of each trimester-specific reference interval denotes success of therapy. MMI is the mainstay of the treatment of post partum hyperthyroidism, in particular during lactation. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation requires special considerations and should be carefully implemented to avoid any adverse effects on the mother, fetus, and neonate.

  6. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  7. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  8. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  9. Application of Wilmink’s Exponential Function in Genetic Analysis of 305-d Milk Production and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Cows of Razavi Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Izadkhah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate heritability and genetic trend for 305-d milk production and lactation persistency, a total of 130,668 monthly test day milk yields belonging to 15,183 first lactation Holstein cows in 131 herds and calved from 2000 to 2009 were used. To calculate 305-d milk yield as well as lactation persistency, estimated parameters of Wilmink’s exponential function were applied. The parameters of the function were estimated by SAS software. Genetic and environmental variance components and heritability of the traits were estimated by single trait animal model using DMU software. Genetic trend was estimated based upon weighted simple linear regression of average breeding values on calving year. Heritability estimate of 305-d milk yield and lactation persistency were found to be 0.184 and 0.05, respectively. A positive significant phenotypic trend (166.11 kg per year was observed for 305-d milk yield while a non-significant genetic trend (-2.0107 was revealed for the trait. For the lactation persistency, there were no significant phenotypic (0.054 % per year and genetic (0.003 % per year trends over the period of time.

  10. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC. A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20 and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers. 24-h milk intake (MI and feeding frequency (FFQ were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003. Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM (US: p ≤ 0.002, greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008, greater FM index (FMI (US: p ≤ 0.001 and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI (US: p = 0.015. Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001 and FFMI (US: p < 0.001. Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011. Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.

  11. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  12. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoda, Yoichi; Ishii, Tadao.

    1976-01-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 μg/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 μg/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 μg/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 μg/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 μg/dl at the end of lactation. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  14. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  15. Changes in myocardial lactate, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate ratio during cardiopulmonary bypass for elective adult cardiac surgery: Early indicator of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial lactate assays have been established as a standard method to compare various myocardial protection strategies. This study was designed to test whether coronary sinus (CS lactates, pyruvate and lactate-pyruvate (LP ratio correlates with myocardial dysfunction and predict postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 40 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CS blood sampling was done for estimation of myocardial lactate (ML, pyruvate (MP and lactate-pyruvate ratio (MLPR namely: pre-CPB (T 1 , after removal of aortic cross clamp (T 2 and 30 minutes post-CPB (T 3 . Results: Baseline myocardial LPR strongly correlated with Troponin-I at T1 (s: 0.6. Patients were sub grouped according to the median value of myocardial lactate (2.9 at baseline T1 into low myocardial lactate (LML group, mean (2.39±0.4 mmol/l, n=19 and a high myocardial lactate (HML group, mean (3.65±0.9 mmol/l, n=21. A significant increase in PL, ML, MLPR and TropI occurred in both groups as compared to baseline. Patients in HML group had significant longer period of ICU stay. Patients with higher inotrope score had significantly higher ML (T2, T3. ML with a baseline value of 2.9 mmol/l had 70.83% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity (ROC area: 0.7109 Std error: 0.09 while myocardial pyruvate with a baseline value of 0.07 mmol/l has 79.17% sensitivity and 68.75% specificity (ROC area: 0.7852, Std error: 0.0765 for predicting inotrope requirement after CPB. Conclusion: CS lactate, pyruvate and LP ratio correlate with myocardial function and can predict postoperative outcome.

  16. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  17. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  18. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  19. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2006-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased

  20. Fate and metabolism of radiolabelled insecticide Coumaphos in egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.Z.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Hazzaa, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    Our study was initiated to determine the residues of 14 C-coumaphos and its metabolites which might appear in milk, meat and other different organs of lactating goats subjected to coumaphos treatment. 14 C-coumaohos (Asunto) was synthesized and applied dermally on two lactating goats. Two equal dermal applications, with 2 weeks interval, were applied on each goat. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results indicate that coumaphos has a slow absorption rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. After the withdrawal period, liver, kidney, skin and subcutaneous fat were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other different organs and milk. Thin layer chromatography showed the presence of coumaphos, its oxygen analogue, and two unknown metabolites.3 fig.,2 tab

  1. Risk of stress urinary incontinence twelve years after the first pregnancy and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, Lars; Rortveit, Guri; Lose, Gunnar

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the impact of onset of stress urinary incontinence in first pregnancy or postpartum period, for the risk of symptoms 12 years after the first delivery. In a longitudinal cohort study, 241 women answered validated questions about stress urinary incontinence after first delivery and 12 years later. Twelve years after first delivery the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence was 42% (102 of 241). The 12-year incidence was 30% (44 of 146). The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence 12 years after first pregnancy and delivery was significantly higher (Ppregnancy (56%, 37 of 66) and in women with onset shortly after delivery (78%, 14 of 18) compared with those without initial symptoms (30%, 44 of 146). In 70 women who had onset of symptoms during first pregnancy or shortly after the delivery but remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 40 (57%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. In 11 women with onset of symptoms during the first pregnancy or shortly after delivery but no remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 10 (91%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. Cesarean during first delivery was significantly associated with a lower risk of incontinence. Other obstetric factors were not significantly associated with the risk of incontinence 12 years later. Patients who were overweight before their first pregnancy were at increased risk. Onset of stress urinary incontinence during first pregnancy or puerperal period carries an increased risk of long-lasting symptoms.

  2. Fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affects the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Genki; Munetsuna, Eiji; Yamada, Hiroya; Ando, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Mirai; Murase, Yuri; Kondo, Kanako; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Teradaira, Ryoji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    Neurosteroids, steroidal hormones synthesized de novo from cholesterol within the brain, stimulate hippocampal functions such as neuron protection and synapse formation. Previously, we examined the effect of maternal fructose on the transcriptional regulation of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. We found that the mRNA expression level of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), cytochrome P450(11β), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), and 17β-HSD was altered. However, we could not determine whether maternal fructose intake played a role in the gestation or lactation period because the dam rats were fed fructose solution during both periods. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the hippocampi of the offspring of dams fed fructose during the gestation or lactation period. Maternal fructose consumption during either the gestation or lactation period did not affect the mRNA levels of StAR, P450(17α), 11β-HSD-2, and 17β-HSD-1. PBR expression was down-regulated, even when rats consumed fructose during the lactation period only, while fructose consumption during gestation tended to activate the expression of P450(11β)-2. We found that maternal fructose intake during gestation and lactation differentially affected the expression of hippocampal neurosteroidogenic enzymes in the offspring.

  3. The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes of lactating mothers and their infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.H.; Nielsen, P.K.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in breastmilk, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for infant brain development. Accretion of DHA in the infant brain is dependent on DHA-status, intake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe changes in maternal...... and infant erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status during the first four months of lactation. We examined 17 mothers and their term infants at 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Milk samples and RBC from the mothers and infants were obtained and analysed for fatty acid composition. Comparative analysis of the results showed...... that the content of DHA in maternal RBC-phosphatidylcholine (PE) decreased over the four month period and this was not accompanied by a decrease in DHA in infant RBC-PE (P = 0.005). The ratio of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA increased over time in maternal RBC-PE, but not in infant RBC-PE (P

  4. REGIONAL FIRST ORDER PERIODIC AUTOREGRESSIVE MODELS FOR MONTHLY FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun ÖZÇELİK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available First order periodic autoregressive models is of mostly used models in modeling of time dependency of hydrological flow processes. In these models, periodicity of the correlogram is preserved as well as time dependency of processes. However, the parameters of these models, namely, inter-monthly lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients may be often estimated erroneously from short samples, since they are statistics of high order moments. Therefore, to constitute a regional model may be a solution that can produce more reliable and decisive estimates, and derive models and model parameters in any required point of the basin considered. In this study, definitions of homogeneous region for lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients are made; five parametric and non parametric models are proposed to set regional models of lag-1 autocorrelation coefficients. Regional models are applied on 30 stream flow gauging stations in Seyhan and Ceyhan basins, and tested by criteria of relative absolute bias, simple and relative root of mean square errors.

  5. Effect of gestational and lactational exposure to heat stress on performance in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marco-Jiménez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature. Heat stress (HS during pregnancy and lactation can influence not only foetal growth but also postnatal development of kits. The aim of this study was to test the effect of HS during gestation and lactation on postnatal growth till Spanish commercial liveweight. To investigate this, 32 primiparous non lactating rabbit does were exposed to 1 of 2 environmental treatments: high temperature (between 25 and 36°C, HS group; n=16 or thermoneutral conditions (between 14 and 20°C, TN group; n=16. Does were allowed to acclimate 30 d before the artificial insemination. At birth, kits were allocated into 4 groups: HS was only applied during gestation (G group; n=54; HS was applied during gestation and lactation period (GL group; n=85; HS was only applied during lactation period (L group; n=60; and TN was applied during gestation and lactation period (C group; n=77. All litters were kept under each experimental environment until weaning at day 30. Then, litters were moved to TN temperatures until slaughter at day 63. Compared with TN does, the HS does presented lower litter size (9.7 and 11.4; P<0.05, litter weight (503.0 vs. 630.5 g; P<0.05 and kit weight at birth (56.6 vs. 61.4 g; P<0.05, as well as a higher stillborn rate (25.4 vs. 9.9%; P<0.05. The kits from does subjected to HS during gestation (G group had similar postnatal growth compared to offspring from does gestated in TN conditions (C group, whereas kits from does that experienced HS during gestation and lactation (GL group and during their lactation (L group presented decreased postnatal growth. Together, these results demonstrate that kits from does that underwent HS during gestation did not alter postnatal growth until Spanish commercial liveweight, whereas HS during lactation resulted in decreased postnatal growth.

  6. Ovarian activity and embryo yield in relation to the postpartum period in superovulated dairy cows

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    Luděk Stádník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate superovulation response in cows at various postpartum periods (early postpartum period up to 3.5 months; middle postpartum period 3.7–7 months; later postpartum period above 7.5 months after calving. The data included observation of 55 Holstein cows superovulated at one farm in the Czech Republic during the years 2010 and 2013. Reproduction traits (dependent variable were represented as number of the corpora lutea, number of transferable embryos, morulae, blastocysts, total number of embryos and embryo recovery. For statistical evaluation we used the PROC GLM of SAS® with fixed effect - breeding value of milk production. The study results show significant differences (P < 0.05–0.01 in the three postpartum periods (early, middle, and later postpartum periods and the number of corpora lutea (4.6; 7.4; 10.8, number of total embryos (3.2; 2.9; 6.5 and transferable embryos (1.8; 1.7; 4.4. Effective timing of embryo transfer in the later postpartum period resulted in greater ovarian activity and embryo yield compared to early lactation periods.

  7. EVALUATION OF SERUM LACTATE LEVELS AS A PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR IN VARIOUS TYPES OF SHOCK

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    Siddaraj Wali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sepsis is a lethal disease that has a complex pathophysiology including a dysregulated inflammatory response, endothelial injury, microvascular thrombosis, vasoplegia and myocardial depression leading to multiorgan failure. Prompt recognition of sepsis, early initiation of antibiotics, source control, optimal fluid and vasopressor therapy are of utmost importance. Early diagnosis of sepsis is very critical for the timely and efficient use of treatment modalities, however, there are no reliable, specific biomarkers that can guide the diagnosis of sepsis. Cardiopulmonary failure, sepsis, trauma, oncologic pathology and so can lead to lactic acidosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the serum lactic acid levels as a prognostic marker in various type of shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective clinical study with 50 patients studied for 1 year. To study the values of serum lactate levels in shock patients. Statistical analysis- Chi-square test 2. Student’s t-test (two tailed, independent. RESULTS Out of the 50 patients included in the study, the incidence of shock was found to be high in the 21-30 years age group, 13 (26%. This study of ours revealed the most common focus of sepsis as respiratory tract (60%, followed by urinary tract (25%, skin and soft tissue (15%. Out of the 18 patients who died, it was noted that mortality rates were highest 10 (55.5% in patients with initial (0 hours high positive serum lactate levels (>4 mmol/L. Out of the 32 patients who recovered, majority 21 (65.6% had low positive serum lactate levels (0-2.5 mmol/L on admission (0 hours. Serum lactate level is significantly reduced in recovered patients. CONCLUSION Approximately, 30% to 45% of patients with septic shock and 60% to 90% of patients with cardiogenic shock die within 1 month of presentation. Lactate was chosen because it is used as a prognostic marker of global hypoxia. Serial lactate values followed over a period of time can be used to

  8. Maternal avoidance, anxiety cognitions and interactive behaviour predicts infant development at 12 months in the context of anxiety disorders in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, C; Van Den Bergh, B; Tietz, A; Müller, M; Ropeter, A; Zipser, B; Pauen, S

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between anxiety disorders in the postpartum period and cognitive as well as language development in infancy. This longitudinal study investigated whether anxiety disorder in the postpartum period is linked to infant development at twelve months. A closer look was also taken at a possible link between maternal interaction and infant development. Subjects were videotaped during a Face-to-Face-Still-Face interaction with their infant (M = 4.0 months). Specific maternal anxiety symptoms were measured by self-report questionnaires (Anxiety Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ), Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), Mobility Inventory (MI)) to check for a connection with infant development. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) were used to assess infant language and cognitive development at one year of age. n = 34 mothers with anxiety disorder (SCID-I; DSM-IV) and n = 47 healthy mothers with their infant. Infant performance on Bayley-III language and cognitive scales. Infants of mothers with anxiety disorder yielded significantly lower language scores than infants of controls. No significant group differences were found regarding infant cognitive development. Exploratory analyses revealed the vital role of "maternal avoidance accompanied" in infant language and cognitive development. Maternal neutral engagement, which lacks positive affect and vocalisations, turned out as the strongest negative predictor of cognitive development. Maternal anxiety cognitions and joint activity in mother-infant interaction were the strongest predictors of infant language performance. Results underline the importance to also consider the interaction behaviour of women with anxiety disorders to prevent adverse infant development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

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    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  10. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  11. Metabolic kinetics and absorbed doses of 137Cs in lactating rats and progeny during suckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaginskaya, A.M.; Osipov, V.A.; Dement'ev, S.I.; Ermalitskij, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of 137 Cs with maternal milk to progeny was studied in rats The rats were administered with 25 kBq/g of 137 Cs nitrate (pH = 6) in a single oral dose immediately after delivery. Nonpregnant females served as control. Absorbed doses per activity unit to lactating rats were 23 % lover than to nonlactating ones. Over the suckling period absorbed doses to young rats amounted to about 35 % of the absorbed dose to the nursing female. For nonlactating females the internal dose approximately equalled the sum of doses to the nursing female and young rats. Lactating is the effective way for removal of 1 '3 7 Cs from organism of the rats. Content of 1 '3 7 Cs in lactating rat becomes on 42.9 % lower than in organism of nonlactating rat during period of lactating (near 20 days) [ru

  12. High-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Woo; Shin, Jungin; Shin, Moon Sam; Bae, Won; Kim, Hwayong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in scCO 2 was measured. ► Experimental data were correlated by the PR-EOS. ► The critical constants were estimated by the three group contribution methods. ► Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method. ► The Nannoolal–Rarey and Lee–Kesler method shows the best correlation results. - Abstract: Lactate esters synthesized with lactic acid and ester are used as solvents and reactants in various industries, including agricultural chemistry, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and fine chemicals. Among lactate esters, high purity propyl lactate and butyl lactate are used to produce fine chemicals and in the synthesis of chiral intermediates for use in pesticides and drugs. However, distillation for the removal of propyl lactate and butyl lactate alters or degenerates products due the high boiling points of these two lactate esters. This problem can be solved by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) at lower temperatures. SCFE process requires high-pressure phase behavior data on CO 2 and lactates for its design and operation. In this study, high-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in CO 2 was measured from (323.2 to 363.2) K using a variable-volume view cell apparatus. Experimental data were well correlated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. The critical constants were estimated by the Joback method, the Constantinou–Gani method, and the Nannoolal–Rarey method. Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method.

  13. [Pregnancy and lactation are not risk factors for osteoporosis or fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Karlsson, Caroline

    Observational and case control studies infer that a pregnancy and a period of lactation are followed by loss in bone mass of up to 5%. The reason for this loss is virtually impossible to conclude as so many factors known to influence the bone mass undergo changes during a pregnancy and lactation. The increased calcium demand, changed nutritional habits, reduced smoking and alcohol consumption seen in many women during these periods, the changes in body weight and fat content, the changed level of physical activity and the changed levels of hormones with potential to influence the bone metabolism could all influence the bone mass. Most studies also report that the deficit in "bone mass" normalises after weaning. Multiple pregnancies and long total duration of lactation can not be regarded as risk factors for osteoporosis and fragility fractures as most reports indicate that women with multiple pregnancies have similar or higher bone mass and similar or lower fracture incidence than their peers with no children.

  14. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...... were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10...

  15. Occurrence Probabilities of Wet and Dry Periods in Southern Italy through the SPI Evaluated on Synthetic Monthly Precipitation Series

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    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates dry and wet periods in a large area of the Mediterranean basin. First, a stochastic model was applied to a homogeneous database of monthly precipitation values of 46 rain gauges in five regions of southern Italy. In particular, after estimating the model parameters, a set of 104 years of monthly precipitation for each rain gauge was generated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Then, dry and wet periods were analyzed through the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI over 3-month and 6-month timespan (short-term and 12-month and 24-month period (long-term. As a result of the SPI application on the generated monthly precipitation series, higher occurrence probabilities of dry conditions than wet conditions have been detected, especially when long-term precipitation scales are considered.

  16. Exercise timing and blood lactate concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kanaley, Jill A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize how resistance exercise prior to or after a meal alters fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (N = 12) completed three 2-day trials, including (i) no exercise (NoEx), (ii) resistance exercise prior to dinner (Ex-M), and (iii) resistance exercise beginning at 45 min postdinner (M-Ex). During day 1 of each trial, fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations, perceived exertion, and substrate oxidation were measured, and subsequently on day 2 the following morning fasting blood lactate was measured. The premeal lactate incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during Ex-M (109 ± 66 mmol·L -1 ·1.6 h -1 ) was over 100-fold greater (P 0.05). Perceived exertion, substrate oxidation, or fasting blood lactate concentrations the day after testing were not different between trials. Blood lactate concentrations during acute resistance exercise are greater when exercise is performed in the postprandial period. Acute resistance exercise performed the night prior does not alter fasting blood lactate concentrations the following morning.

  17. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

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    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1/31, and SIRS was present in 61% (19/31 of the female dogs with pyometra. Preoperative lactate levels were not related with presence of SIRS or prolonged hospitalisation. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. The value of a single and repeated lactate analysis in more severely affected cases remains to be determined.

  18. Twelve-month-olds' understanding of intention transfer through communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him; Xiao, Wen; Lai, Ching Man

    2012-01-01

    Do infants understand that intention can be transferred through communication? We answered this question by examining 12-month-olds' looking times in a violation-of-expectation paradigm with two human agents. In familiarization, the non-acting agent spoke, clapped her hands, read aloud a book, or remained silent before the acting agent grasped one (the target) of two objects. During test only the non-actor remained, grasping either the target or distractor. The infants looked longer in the distractor than target condition, suggesting violation of expectation, only if the non-actor had spoken or clapped in familiarization. Because the non-actor never had grasped any of the objects in familiarization, the infants' expectation on her behavior could have developed from the understanding that her intention was transferred to the actor, who executed it by grasping the target in familiarization, via speaking and clapping as acts of communication (but not reading aloud and remaining silent).

  19. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  20. Five-year Study of Patients with Lactating Adenoma and Review of the Literature

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    Asiie Olfatbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactating adenoma is a benign breast mass related to physiological changes during pregnancy and increased estrogen level. Fibroadenoma and breast cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis of this lesion. The purpose of this study was to report cases of lactating adenoma in Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC and review the relevant literature.Methods: All patients with histological diagnosis of lactating adenoma between April 2010 and December 2015 were selected. Patients’ data were extracted from their medical records and follow-up of the patients were done through in-person examination or rarely by telephone call.Results: A total of 22 patients with pathological diagnosis of lactating adenoma were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 27±4.6 years. Fourteen patients were in breast-feeding period and eight were pregnant at the time of diagnosis. The chief complaint was breast mass in 16 patients and pain 6 patients. The mean size of masses was 4.1 cm (1.8-8 cm. For 13 patients, core needle biopsy (CNB and for 6 patients open biopsy were performed and for the other 3 patients vacuum-assisted biopsy were done. In 5 patients, excisional biopsy was done in the follow-up period that one of them proved to be medullary carcinoma and other cases were benign.Conclusions: Lactating adenoma commonly presents as a palpable mass during the breastfeeding period or the third trimester of pregnancy. The most common ultrasonographic appearance is a hypoechoic mass with regular borders. It usually regresses after cessation of breastfeeding, however in patients with mass enlargement during the follow-up, period pathologic evaluation of the lesion through core needle biopsy should be performed to rule out coexistent carcinoma.

  1. Maternal and Infantile Adiponectin as Marker for Anthropometric Parameters of Lactating Mothers and their Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreldin, Ahmed Ragab

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk adiponectin could play a role in the regulation of infants' growth during lactation. The aim is to evaluate adiponectin concentration in human milk and to investigate its relationship with serum adiponectin concentration in lactating mothers and their breastfed infants and with anthropometric parameters of infants and mothers. Sixty healthy term infants and their healthy lactating mothers are included at infant age of 1 month then repeated again at the age of 4 months. All subjects included in this study were subjected to history, clinical examination, investigations including serum level of adiponectin of infants and their mothers by RIA test, human milk level of adiponectin by ELISA test. There was a significant decrease in serum adiponectin of infant and mothers and maternal breast milk at the age of 4 months when compared to them at the age of 1 month. There was a significant positive correlation between infant serum adiponection, maternal serum adiponectin and breast milk adiponectin at infant's age of 1 month and at infant's age of 4 months. There was a significant negative correlation between maternal serum adiponectin and BMI of mothers. There was a significant negative correlation between infant serum adiponectin and their weight and length of infants at the age of 1 month and at the age of 4 months. There's a metabolic link between mothers and their infants through breast milk during the first 6 months of life. A gradual decline in adiponectin level in maternal breast milk is associated with a gradual increase in infant growth up to 6 months of age.

  2. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  3. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  4. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  5. Effective treatment of severe pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis with teriparatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Aydin, Cevdet; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy or lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) is a very rare and debilitating condition which is usually diagnosed during the last trimester of the pregnancy or early postpartum period. Herein, we report a case with severe PLO and multiple vertebral compression fractures that were successfully treated with teriparatide. Twenty-three-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic two months after her first spontaneous vaginal delivery with the complaint of severe back pain. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and low T- and Z-scores were observed in lumbar vertebrae. In vertebral MRI, severe height loss was detected in thoracic (T) 5,7,10,11,12 vertebrae. After exclusion of the other possible causes of OP, she was diagnosed to have PLO and the lactation was stopped. She was treated with calcium 1000 mg/day, cholecalciferol 800 mg/day and teriparatide 20 µg/day. At the 12th and 18th month of therapy, BMD was increased by 8% and 27%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and pain was completely relieved in few months. There are pharmacological therapy modalities that can be used in PLO. Bisphosphonates are effective, but there are some concerns that they accumulate in bone and may expose fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Teriparatide is a strong candidate to be the optimal medical therapy in severe cases since it is effective and safe.

  6. PREVENTION OF NIPPLE CRACKS OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN THE EARLY POSTNATAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina L. Travina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation and prolongation of the lactation period is not only a guarantee of the child's full physical and mental development but also one of the most important methods for reducing the risk of developing breast cancer. Problems with the mammary gland nipple in a woman in the early postnatal period lead to a refusal of lactation. We carried out a retrospective analysis (period from 2010 to 2016 of the causes of traumatizing mammary gland nipples in the early postnatal period in 172 women (mean age 29.1 ± 4.3 years. Methods of prevention and treatment of nipple injuries in the early postnatal period have been offered for the lactation period prolongation.

  7. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  8. Post-analysis methods for lactate threshold depend on training intensity and aerobic capacity in runners. An experimental laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate different mathematical post-analysis methods of determining lactate threshold in highly and lowly trained endurance runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in a tertiary-level public university hospital. METHOD: Twenty-seven male endurance runners were divided into two training load groups: lowly trained (frequency < 4 times per week, < 6 consecutive months, training velocity ≥ 5.0 min/km and highly trained (frequency ≥ 4 times per week, ≥ 6 consecutive months, training velocity < 5.0 min/km. The subjects performed an incremental treadmill protocol, with 1 km/h increases at each subsequent 4-minute stage. Fingerprint blood-lactate analysis was performed at the end of each stage. The lactate threshold (i.e. the running velocity at which blood lactate levels began to exponentially increase was measured using three different methods: increase in blood lactate of 1 mmol/l at stages (DT1, absolute 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (4 mmol, and the semi-log method (semi-log. ANOVA was used to compare different lactate threshold methods and training groups. RESULTS: Highly trained athletes showed significantly greater lactate thresholds than lowly trained runners, regardless of the calculation method used. When all the subject data were combined, DT1 and semi-log were not different, while 4 mmol was significantly lower than the other two methods. These same trends were observed when comparing lactate threshold methods in the lowly trained group. However, 4 mmol was only significantly lower than DT1 in the highly trained group. CONCLUSION: The 4 mmol protocol did not show lactate threshold measurements comparable with DT1 and semi-log protocols among lowly trained athletes.

  9. Oxytocin and prolactin suppress cortisol responses to acute stress in both lactating and non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J

    1997-08-01

    Cortisol response to stress appears to differ between lactating and non-lactating animals. Lactating (14 d post partum) and non-lactating sheep were fitted with probes so that drugs and hormones could be infused directly into the posterior pituitary and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animals were also fitted with instruments to allow monitoring of heart rate, body temperature and blood cortisol levels. Their reactions to a source of acute stress (a barking dog) were then followed, with or without drug and hormone manipulation. Results in both lactating and non-lactating animals indicated shortcomings in the use of cortisol as a stress indicator. Infusing prolactin and oxytocin into either the posterior pituitary or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus suppressed cortisol responsiveness to stress in both lactating and non-lactating animals (the latter to a greater extent). In the absence of drugs, lactating animals had a slightly higher basal level of cortisol and a lower cortisol response to stress than their non-lactating counterparts. Despite suppression of cortisol responses, with or without drugs, other indicators of stress still changed with the presence of a barking dog, suggesting the complexity of control involved in stress responses.

  10. Lack of appropriate stoichiometry: Strong evidence against an energetically important astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-11-01

    Glutamate-stimulated aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes coupled with lactate shuttling to neurons where it can be oxidized was proposed as a mechanism to couple excitatory neuronal activity with glucose utilization (CMR glc ) during brain activation. From the outset, this model was not viable because it did not fulfill critical stoichiometric requirements: (i) Calculated glycolytic rates and measured lactate release rates were discordant in cultured astrocytes. (ii) Lactate oxidation requires oxygen consumption, but the oxygen-glucose index (OGI, calculated as CMR O2 /CMR glc ) fell during activation in human brain, and the small rise in CMR O2 could not fully support oxidation of lactate produced by disproportionate increases in CMR glc . (iii) Labeled products of glucose metabolism are not retained in activated rat brain, indicating rapid release of a highly labeled, diffusible metabolite identified as lactate, thereby explaining the CMR glc -CMR O2 mismatch. Additional independent lines of evidence against lactate shuttling include the following: astrocytic oxidation of glutamate after its uptake can help "pay" for its uptake without stimulating glycolysis; blockade of glutamate receptors during activation in vivo prevents upregulation of metabolism and lactate release without impairing glutamate uptake; blockade of β-adrenergic receptors prevents the fall in OGI in activated human and rat brain while allowing glutamate uptake; and neurons upregulate glucose utilization in vivo and in vitro under many stimulatory conditions. Studies in immature cultured cells are not appropriate models for lactate shuttling in adult brain because of their incomplete development of metabolic capability and astrocyte-neuron interactions. Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling does not make large, metabolically significant contributions to energetics of brain activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Breast abscess, an early indicator for diabetes mellitus in non-lactating women: a retrospective study from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Basil George; Ravikanth, R

    2012-05-01

    Breast abscess is commonly seen in lactating and non-lactating women. Diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently predisposes to soft tissue infections and has many different presentations. But DM presenting in the form of breast abscess is yet to be studied, and we believe our study is the first to explore this connection. We collected 30 cases of breast abscess in women who presented to our hospital from May 2010 to June 2011 retrospectively. They were classified into lactating and non-lactating women, and their glycemic status was evaluated, together with length of hospital stay, management, recurrence, and follow-up status after 6 months. We found that of the 30 patients in our study, 20% had high blood sugar levels. And 37.5% of the non-lactating women were diagnosed newly with DM. This study shows that DM can present as breast abscess in non-lactating women. Therefore, non-lactating women with a breast abscess should be evaluated for DM.

  12. Excretion of moxidectin into breast milk and pharmacokinetics in healthy lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Gossart, Sophie; Bryson, Philip; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Moxidectin, registered worldwide as a veterinary antiparasitic agent, is currently under development for humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy lactating women, including the excretion into breast milk. Twelve women, ages 23 to 38 years, weighing 54 to 79 kg, all more than 5 months postpartum, were enrolled, following their plan to wean their infants and provision of informed consent. A single 8-mg, open-label dose was administered orally after consumption of a standard breakfast. Complete milk collection was done for approximately 28 days, and plasma samples were collected for 90 days. Moxidectin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, with a validated range of 0.08 to 120 ng/ml. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods were used to find the following results: peak concentration in plasma (C(max)), 87 ± 25 ng/ml; time to C(max) (t(max)), 4.18 ± 1.59 h; terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)), 832 ± 321 h; total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 4,046 ± 1,796 ng · h/ml; apparent oral dose clearance (CL/F), 2.35 ± 1.07 l/h; ratio of CL/F to the terminal-phase disposition rate constant, λ(z) (Vλ(z)/F), 2,526 ± 772 liters; percentage of maternal dose excreted in milk, 0.701 ± 0.299%; absolute amount excreted in milk, 0.056 ± 0.024 mg; relative infant dose, 8.73 ± 3.17% of maternal dose assuming complete absorption; clearance in milk (CL(milk)), 0.016 ± 0.009 liter/h. Nine of 12 subjects reported adverse events, all of which were considered treatment emergent but not drug related and were mostly reported during the long outpatient period 8 to 90 days after dose administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and nausea (n = 4), oropharyngeal pain (n = 2), rhinitis, viral pharyngitis, and viral upper

  13. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    parity sows and their litters were included in the experiment from d 28 to 38 of lactation, including an adaptation period of 3 d. On d 28 of lactation sows were allotted, to two dietary treatments, a control diet or a diet with NSP enzyme addition, and fed for 10 d. The sows continued with their own...

  14. Calcium lactate effect on the shelf life of osmotically dehydrated guavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leila M; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra M; Junqueira, Valéria C A; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-01-01

    The effect of calcium lactate on osmodehydrated guavas in sucrose and maltose solutions was monitored during storage under passive modified atmosphere for 24 d at 5 °C. Sample texture and color characteristics, microbial spoilage, sensory acceptance, structural changes, and gas composition inside the packages were periodically evaluated. Calcium lactate inhibited microbial growth on guavas, with yeast and mold counts in the order of 10(2) CFU/g throughout storage. The calcium salt reduced respiration rate of guava products, showing O(2) and CO(2) concentrations around 18% and 3% inside the packages. A firming effect on fruit texture, with up to 5 and 2 times higher stress and strain at failure values and tissue structure preservation could also be attributed to calcium lactate use. However, fruits treated with calcium lactate, osmodehydrated in maltose and sucrose solutions, showed sensory acceptance scores below the acceptability limit (4.5) after 13 and 17 d of storage, respectively. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Quantitative studies of skeletal muscle lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliassotti, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In Situ, single-pass perfusions were employed on three isolated rabbit skeletal muscle preparations of differing fiber type and oxidative capacity to investigate the influence of fiber type and oxidative capacity per se on net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose fluxes. Preparations were exposed to six lactate concentrations ranging from 1-11mM. At basal lactate concentrations all preparations displayed net lactate release, 14 C-lactate removal and 14 CO 2 release, all were linearly correlated with lactate concentration. By 4mM all preparations switched to net lactate uptake and 14 C-lactate removal always exceeded net lactate uptake. To quantify the fate of net carbon, 14 C-lactate, and 3 H-glucose removal preparations were perfused at either basal or elevated lactate. Under basal conditions net carbon influx from glucose and glycogen was removed primarily via net lactate release in the glycolytic and mixed preparations and oxidation and net lactate release in the oxidative preparation. At elevated lactate, net carbon influx from lactate, pyruvate and glucose was removed primarily by net glycogen synthesis in the glycolytic preparation and both alanine release and oxidation in the mixed and oxidative preparations

  16. Whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor for monitoring mammalian cell cultures during biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Lisa; Ainsworth, Catherine; Goey, Cher Hui; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Freemont, Paul S; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    Many high-value added recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic glycoproteins, are produced using mammalian cell cultures. In order to optimize the productivity of these cultures it is important to monitor cellular metabolism, for example the utilization of nutrients and the accumulation of metabolic waste products. One metabolic waste product of interest is lactic acid (lactate), overaccumulation of which can decrease cellular growth and protein production. Current methods for the detection of lactate are limited in terms of cost, sensitivity, and robustness. Therefore, we developed a whole-cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor based on the lldPRD operon and successfully used it to monitor lactate concentration in mammalian cell cultures. Using real samples and analytical validation we demonstrate that our biosensor can be used for absolute quantification of metabolites in complex samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. Importantly, our whole-cell biosensor was able to detect lactate at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude lower than the industry standard method, making it useful for monitoring lactate concentrations in early phase culture. Given the importance of lactate in a variety of both industrial and clinical contexts we anticipate that our whole-cell biosensor can be used to address a range of interesting biological questions. It also serves as a blueprint for how to capitalize on the wealth of genetic operons for metabolite sensing available in nature for the development of other whole-cell biosensors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1290-1300. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Serum lactate levels in infants exposed peripartum to antiretroviral agents to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Agence Nationale de Recherches Sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales 1209 study, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Touré, Ramata; Becquet, Renaud; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Rouet, François; Towne-Gold, Besigin; Fassinou, Patricia; Leroy, Valériane; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial toxicity was described in infants exposed to long-term antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) containing nucleoside analogues for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We measured the serum lactate levels in children born to HIV-1 infected (HIV+) African women receiving short-term ARV PMTCT regimens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in women-child pairs from the third trimester of pregnancy to three months of life. The exposed group was formed by children exposed in utero to nucleoside analogue ARVs, zidovudine (ZDV) or ZDV + lamivudine (3TC) from 32–36 weeks of amenorrhea until delivery. All these women received nevirapine single-dose (NVPsd) at the beginning of labor. The children received ZDV during the first 7 days of life and a NVPsd at day 3. The control group was formed by infants born to HIV+ women who had received NVPsd only and not exposed to nucleoside analogue ARVs. Serum lactate levels were measured at 4, 6 and 12 weeks of life by Cobas Integra 400™. Results A total of 836 blood samples from 338 infants were collected (262 exposed and 76 controls). Median lactacidemia was 1.8 mmol/l, Interquartile Range [1.2–2.7 mmol/l]). Overall serum lactate levels ≥2.5 mmol/l, defining hyperlactatemia were observed in 39 of the 292 infants who had at least two serum lactate measurements, 13.4%, 95% confidence Interval [9.6–17.8%]. The three-month period prevalence of hyperlactatemia did not differ between the exposed group (13.1%) and the control group (14.3%) (p=0.84). All serum lactate levels returned to normal values in all subsequent samples No case of symptomatic hyperlactatemia was detected during the study period. Conclusion Increased lactate levels were identified equally in infants whose mother received a short-term of nucleoside analogues or NVPsd for PMTCT. Although not rare, hyperlactatemia was not related to short-term exposure to nucleoside analogue ARVs PMID:16950945

  18. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  19. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory (...

  1. Twelve-month space changes after premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yai-Tin; Lin, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2011-05-01

    Many early investigations concerning space changes following premature extraction of primary molars had a cross-sectional design, a small sample size, and a somewhat crude methodology, which may have led to misunderstandings. The aim of this study was to use established longitudinal data to investigate ongoing (12-month) dental-arch space problems arising as a result of premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar. Thirteen children (mean ± SD age at time of tooth extraction, 6.0 ± 0.74 years) with unilateral premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar were selected for this study. Maxillary dental study casts were obtained from participants 2 or 3 days after the tooth was removed, as well as at a follow-up appointment 12 months later. Six reference lines were measured on the study cast: D + E space, arch width, arch length, intercanine width, intercanine length, and arch perimeter. For each participant, the D + E space of the contralateral intact primary molar served as a control. A paired t-test was used to compare the cast measurements between initial examination and 12-month follow-up. A t-test was used to compare D + E space changes with those of the control group. The D + E space of the extraction side after 12 months was significantly smaller than that of the control side (P 0.05). The 12-month space changes in the maxillary dental arch after premature loss of a primary maxillary first molar consist mainly of distal drift of the primary canine toward the extraction site. Mesial movement of permanent molars or tilting of the primary molars did not occur. An increased arch dimension was found especially in the anterior segment (intercanine width and length). There is no need for the use of space maintainers from the results in this study in cases of premature loss of a primary first molar. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  3. Change of selenium in plasma of dairy cows receiving two levels of sodium-selenite during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giubbiotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the plasma Se content during transition period, 2 groups of 12 dairy cows were monitored the month before and after calving. In stall 1 (S1 cows were tied and individually fed, in stall2 (S2 cows were free and fed TMR. In both stalls cows were supplied with Se as Na-selenite. In S1 3 mg/d of Se were fed mixed with corn silage while, in S2, Se was offered with TMR, in dry period 2 mg/d were added with a mineral-vitamin supplement, in lactation 2.6 mg/d (when DMI was 22.2 kg/d with the concentrate. Forages, the same for both stalls, and concentrates were sampled for chemical composition and Se determination. Cows were checked for milk yield and its content of somatic cells (SCC, health problems, and bled for Se determination in plasma. Average Se intake was higher in S1, in both dry (4.08 vs 2.76 mg/d and lactating (5.80 vs 2.11 mg/d period. Besides the supplementation, differences depended on high Se intake in S1 with the concentrate (increased after calving to 11.5 kg/DM on d 30 and containing 0.24 mg/kg DM of Se. According to the intake, plasma Se content resulted higher in S1 in dry (1.20 vs 0.74 μmol/L and lactating (1.47 vs 0.62 μmol/L cows. In close-up plasma Se decreased in both groups, in first days of lactation increased in S1, while decreased in S2 to level indicating a deficient intake (0.50 μmol/L. These results confirm the link between Se intake and its plasma level. Finally, Se plasma content did not seem related to cow health status during transition period.

  4. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  5. Influence of the selection from incremental stages on lactate minimum intensity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Eiji Miyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to assess the influence of stage selection from the incremental phase and the use of peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction on the determination of the lactate minimum intensity (iLACmin. Twelve moderately active university students (23±5 years, 78.3±14.1 kg, 175.3±5.1 cm performed a maximal incremental test to determine the respiratory compensation point (RCP (initial intensity at 70 W and increments of 17.5 W every 2 minutes and a lactate minimum test (induction with the Wingate test, the incremental test started at 30 W below RCP with increments of 10 W every 3 minutes on a cycle ergometer. The iLACmin was determined using second order polynomial adjustment applying five exercise stage selection: 1 using all stages (iLACmin P; 2 using all stages below and two stages above iLACminP (iLACminA; 3 using two stages below and all stages above iLACminP (iLACminB; 4 using the largest and same possible number of stages below and above the iLACminP (iLACminI; 5 using all stages and peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction (iLACminD. No differences were found between the iLACminP (138.2±30.2 W, iLACminA (139.1±29.1 W, iLACminB (135.3±14.2 W, iLACminI (138.6±20.5 W and iLACmiD (136.7±28.5 W protocols, and a high level of agreement between these intensities and iLACminP was observed. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and lactate corresponding to these intensities was not different and was strongly correlated. However, the iLACminB presented the lowest success rate (66.7%. In conclusion, stage selection did not influence the determination of iLACmin but modified the success rate

  6. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  7. DOME-SHAPED MACULA IN MYOPIC EYES: Twelve-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Arias, Luis; Choudhry, Netan; Millan, Eduard; Flores, Ignacio; Rubio, Marcos J; Cobos, Estefanía; García-Bru, Pere; Filloy, Alejandro; Caminal, Josep M

    2017-04-01

    To study the long-term clinical course of dome-shaped macula in myopic eyes and to evaluate treatment efficacy for subretinal fluid (SRF) as a related complication. A retrospective, single-center consecutive case series study was conducted. The authors analyzed myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula in patients who presented for evaluation of decreased vision. Dome-shaped macula was defined as a convexity of the retina-choroidal macular complex seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 25 months). Fluorescein angiography and/or indocyanine green angiography were performed in cases with SRF to rule out choroidal neovascularization. A total of 56 dome-shaped macula eyes from 36 patients were included in the study (bilateral in 55% of patients). Mean patient age was 56.9 ± 13.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -9.1 ± 6.0 diopters; 53% of eyes were considered highly myopic (>-6 diopters) and 47% of eyes were mildly myopic. In most cases (37 eyes; 66.1%), the dome-shaped macula was detected on vertical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan patterns. No significant changes (P ≥ 0.1) were observed in mean best-corrected visual acuity or mean central foveal thickness from baseline to final follow-up. Subretinal fluid was present in 29 eyes (51.8%) at baseline, with no differences in best-corrected visual acuity in eyes with and without SRF (P ≥ 0.05). Nineteen of the 29 SRF eyes were treated: 8 underwent low-fluence photodynamic therapy, whereas 7 received bevacizumab, and 4 ranibizumab. No significant differences were found between treated and untreated SRF eyes in best-corrected visual acuity improvement (P ≥ 0.1), or complete resolution of SRF (P ≥ 0.1). Likewise, photodynamic therapy did not yield any significant benefit versus untreated eyes in best-corrected visual acuity or improvement of SRF. Dome-shaped macula is a condition associated with myopic eyes that seems

  8. Relationships between energy balance and health traits of dairy cattle in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B L; Boettcher, P J; Dekkers, J C; Petitclerc, D; Schaeffer, L R

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate phenotypic relationships between energy balance in early lactation and health and reproduction in that lactation. Data were 26,701 daily records of dry matter intake and milk production, periodic measures of milk composition and body weight, and all health and reproductive information from 140 multiparous Holstein cows. Daily energy balance was calculated by multiplying feed intake by the concentration of energy of the ration and subtracting the amount of energy required for maintenance (based on parity and body weight) and for milk production (based on yield and concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose). Six measures of energy balance were defined: mean daily energy balance during the first 20, 50, and 100 d of lactation; minimum daily energy balance; days in negative energy balance; and total energy deficit. Measures of health were the numbers of occurrences of each of the following during lactation: all udder problems, mastitis, all locomotive problems, laminitis, digestive problems, and reproductive problems. Reproductive traits were the number of days to first observed estrus and number of inseminations. Several significant relationships between energy balance and health were observed. Increased digestive and locomotive problems were associated with longer and more extreme periods of negative energy balance.

  9. Effect of soybean hulls on lactation curves and the composition of goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean hulls (SBH as a ground corn replacement (0, 50, and 100% SBH on the parameters of the lactation curve and on lactation curves and milk composition. Fourteen multiparous Saanen goats were used during their lactation period, from kidding until the drying of their milk on the 228th day of lactation, and were distributed in a completely randomised design. The data was analysed using Bayesian methodology to minimise the effect of the low number of animals and to allow for comparison of the curve parameters estimated by Wood's nonlinear model. The SBH had no effect on the initial milk yield; nevertheless, the SBH reduced the rate of yield until lactation peak and accelerated the declining rate of yield after lactation. The treatments did not affect dry matter intake. The inclusion of SBH increased the fat content in the milk, which was also influenced by the lactation stage of the goats. Effects were observed on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, PUFA/total AG ratio, and the n-6:n-3 ratio of goat milk fat. The lactation stage changed the content of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and C18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid. The SBH can therefore be used as a ground corn replacement in the diets of lactating goats, as changes in the lactation curve parameters did not result in changes in total yields. Nevertheless, if the milk fat increases, then as quality rises, so could payment by quality, and thus an increase in profit margins per liter of milk sold.

  10. Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilised continuously under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges (i) between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed; (ii) between working skeletal muscle and heart; and (iii) between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate shuttles exist in diverse tissues including in the brain, where a shuttle between astrocytes and neurons is linked to glutamatergic signalling. Because lactate, the product of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, is disposed of by oxidative metabolism, lactate shuttling unites the two major processes of cellular energy transduction. Lactate disposal is mainly through oxidation, especially during exercise when oxidation accounts for 70-75% of removal and gluconeogenesis the remainder. Lactate flux occurs down proton and concentration gradients that are established by the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex. Marathon running is a power activity requiring high glycolytic and oxidative fluxes; such activities require lactate shuttling. Knowledge of the lactate shuttle is yet to be imparted to the sport.

  11. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  12. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  13. Comparison of colloid (polygeline) over crystalloid (lactated ringer) preloading in preventing hypotension in patients undergoing caesarean-section under spinal anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boota, M.; Haq, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy of colloid (Polygeline) over crystalloid (Lactated Ringer) preloading in preventing hypotension in patients undergoing caesarean-section under spinal anaesthesia. Study design: Randomized control trial. Settings: The study was conducted in department of Anesthesiology and Intensive care Combined Military Hospital Peshawar over a period of 6 months from 01 March 2007 to 31 August 2007. Material and Methods: One hundred patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for study and divided into two groups of 50 each. Group A was given 500 ml Polygeline as preloading solution while group B received 1 liter of Ringer's Lactate as preloading solution just before administration of spinal anaesthesia. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded at 01 min, 05 mins, 10 mins, 15 mins, 20 mins, 30 mins and 45 mins after the performance of spinal block. Dose of ephedrine given to treat hypotension after the block was also recorded. Results: There was significant difference in terms of heart rate and systolic arterial pressure 1 and 5 minutes after block between both the groups. There was also significant difference in terms of dose of ephedrine between both the groups. Conclusion: Polygeline is more effective than Ringer's Lactate as preloading fluid in preventing hypotension for caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. (author)

  14. Daidzein enhances immune function in late lactation cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Yi; He, Shao-Jun; Liu, Shi-Qing; Tang, Yi-Guo; Jin, Er-Hui; Chen, Hui-Liang; Li, Sheng-He; Zhong, Liang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress decreases natural immunity making cows more vulnerable to diseases. A previous study reported that daidzein can enhance animal resistance to heat stress and regulate animal immunocompetence. However, it is unclear whether daidzein regulates the immune performance of late lactation cows under heat stress. In this study, late lactation cows in four groups were raised in hot weather and fed with basic diet, basic diet plus 200, 300, 400 mg/day daidzein, respectively, and the experimental period was 60 days. Blood was collected to examine the changes of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), immunoglobulin G (IgG), interferon alpha (IFN-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). We found the levels of serum IgG and INF-α were significantly higher in late lactation cows after 300 and 400 mg/day daidzein treatment compared to those in the control group and 200 mg/day daidzein treatment (P 0.05). Daidzein can enhance the immunocompetence of late lactation cows and strengthen cow resistance to heat stress. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  16. A twelve-month field study of the West African Thrush Turdus pelios (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae: Part 2: annual cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsola I Akinpelu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, birds inhabiting forested regions are less seasonal in their activities than those from open areas. In order to study annual cycles in forest regions of South western Nigeria, West African Thrushes (Turdus pelios were mist-netted and banded during the last two weeks of each month. The nest is a cup-shaped structure built out of grasses, herbs, weeds, roots and earth laid out in a clockwise manner. Only the nesting tree and feeding sites were defended during the breeding period. The clutch size was 2.69 ±0.20 eggs with a mean incubation period of 14.11 ±0.26 days. The mean nestling period was 15 ±1.00 days. The nestlings were fed on a variety of plant and animal matter, of which grass seeds and insects were predominant. Moult was found to be protracted with a population moult period of 194 days and a much shorter individual moult period. Moult and breeding periods were spread out: moult period dovetailed into the breeding period. The birds were found to gain weight during the period but they attained their maximum weight in August after the moult period. The lowest weight was recorded in February, during the peak of the dry season, when food availability was lower. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:239-247. Epub 2005 Jun 24El nido del tordo africano occidental es una estructura en forma de copa construida con pastos, hierbas, malezas, raíces y tierra, proyectado en el sentido de las manecillas del reloj. Solamente el árbol con el nido y los sitios de alimentación son defendidos durante la crianza. El tamaño de la nidada fue 2.69 ± 0.20 huevos con un periodo de incubación de 14.11 ± 0.26 días. El periodo promedio de cría fue de 15 ± 1.00 días. Los polluelos fueron alimentados con una variedad de material animal y vegetal, predominando las semillas de pasto y los insectos. La muda del plumaje alar es prolongada, con un período poblacional de muda de 194 días y un periodo individual mucho menor. La muda y crianza son tan prolongados

  17. Evaluation of initial plasma lactate values as a predictor of gastric necrosis and initial and subsequent plasma lactate values as a predictor of survival in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 84 dogs (2003-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tiffany I; Tonozzi, Caroline C; Kirby, Rebecca; Rudloff, Elke

    2011-02-01

    To test whether an initial plasma lactate ≥ 6.0 mmol/L is associated with the presence of macroscopic gastric wall necrosis and overall survival in dogs presenting with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Additionally, if no association was identified we sought to identify a different predictive initial plasma lactate concentration and to examine whether serial plasma lactate concentrations provide better prediction of survival. Retrospective study over a 5-year period (2003-2007). Urban private referral small animal teaching hospital. Eighty-four client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of GDV and plasma lactate measurements. None. There was no statistically significant relationship found between survival and the presence of macroscopic gastric wall necrosis with the initial plasma lactate ≥ 6 mmol/L. There was a significant relationship between the initial plasma lactate >2.9 mmol/L for predicting necrosis and dogs that had an increased initial plasma lactate (>2.5 mmol/L) also had a subsequent plasma lactate measured within 12 hours of presentation, with 37/40 dogs surviving and 70% of these surviving dogs having the subsequent lactate decrease by ≥ 50% within 12 hours. The 3/40 that died failed to decrease their plasma lactate by ≥ 50% from the initial blood lactate. The results of this study indicate that an initial presenting plasma lactate concentration ≥ 6.0 mmol/L is not predictive of macroscopic gastric wall necrosis or survival in dogs presenting with GDV. A decrease in plasma lactate concentrations ≥ 50% within 12 hours may be a good indicator for survival. Limitations to the study include its retrospective nature, the small number of patients, and the number of dogs that were euthanized rather than allowed to progress to a natural outcome. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  18. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  19. Twelve Girls' Band' A Modern Miracle of Traditional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoZhanxiong

    2004-01-01

    Twelve antique traditional instruments. Twelve spirited, pretty girls. "Twelve Girls' Band" is a traditional instrument orchestra playing well-known folk music in the form of pop. Besides age-old traditional instruments peculiar to China, such as zheng (ancient 21 to 25-stringed plucked instrument), qin (seven-stringed plucked instrument) and erhu (two-stringed Chinese fiddle),

  20. Student radiographers' attitudes towards the older patient: Six and twelve months post intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, S.; Booth, L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on Norwegian student radiographer attitudes towards older people. Design: A longitudinal study design, using pre-test and post-test data was used to determine student attitudes to older people across their educational tenure. Attitudes were measured using Kogan's attitudes towards older people scale. This paper, the second in the series, reports on the changes in student radiographer attitudes, post an educational intervention and post their first experience of clinical placement. Results: Although students initially demonstrated significantly improved attitudes towards older people (p = 0.01), this significance was not noted at 6 months and 12 months post intervention. In fact average scores reduced to an almost identical level to those found pre-intervention Conclusion: Whereas an educational intervention can have an initial positive effect on student attitudes towards older people, the experience of clinical placement reduces these initial effects. - Highlights: • Reports the effects of an intervention to improve attitudes to older people. • Pre-intervention students had generally positive attitudes to older people. • Post-intervention attitudes were significantly more positive. • At 6 months and 12 months post-intervention mean positive scores were reduced. • Some questions score significantly more negatively than others.

  1. Posthemorrhage glycogen and lactate metabolism in the liver: an experimental study with postprandial rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boija, P.O.; Nylander, G.; Suhaili, A.; Ware, J.

    1988-01-01

    Glycogen and lactate metabolism was studied in livers from three groups of postprandial rats sustaining 70 mm Hg hemorrhagic hypotension for variable periods, 60 min (60H group), 120 min (120H group), and nonbled controls. The donor livers were investigated after completed hemorrhage using an in vitro perfusion system with L-lactate as substrate, together with U- 14 C-lactate. The residual glycogen stores were determined after perfusions. The incorporation of labelled lactate to glucose was increased in the 120H group by 66.7% and 116.8% compared to the 60H group and controls (p less than 0.01), but glycogenolysis was still the main source of glucose released in the 120H group. Glycogen formation from labelled lactate was 46.6% higher in the 120H group compared to controls (p less than 0.05) and lactate oxidation was decreased by 67.5% (p less than 0.05). The data suggest that hepatocytes are capable of rapid change from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis during hemorrhagic hypovolemia. However, energy-sparing glycogen breakdown is given priority over gluconeogenesis as long as glycogen remains available

  2. Energy requirements for gestation and lactation in a delayed implanter, the American badger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, H J; Miller, B; Ryder, T; Ryder, L

    1985-01-01

    1. Two adult female badgers were water-deprived and/or fasted during the last one-half to two-thirds of pregnancy while a third pregnant female received water ad libitum and was fed meat and dog food. 2. The litter size, birth weights, post partum energy consumption, growth rate, development of homeothermy, tooth eruption and date of weaning, as well as other developmental characteristics, were not significantly different between cubs born to the fed or fasted mothers. 3. The energy demands for gestation are apparently small and are accommodated by fat reserves during periods of food deprivation. However, the calculated energy for lactation is 16 times that of gestation, which is quadruple the expenditure for most mammals. 4. As a result of delayed implantation, the length of gestation and litter weights of badgers are considerably below those predicted from allometric equations. 5. The period of lactation is therefore extremely critical to the survival of both the cubs and lactating adults which require heavy fat stores and possibly torpor to ensure sufficient energy availability during prolonged winter food shortage.

  3. Lactate up-regulates the expression of lactate oxidation complex-related genes in left ventricular cardiac tissue of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gabriel-Costa

    Full Text Available Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex.Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2 levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2.Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of the lactate oxidation complex in

  4. Cerebral Lactate Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: In Relation to Time, Characteristic of Injury, and Serum Lactate Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wei Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate.Design/methodsFifty-two newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI + MR spectroscopy were performed during and after TH at 54.6 ± 15.0 and 156 ± 57.6 h of life, respectively. Severity and predominant pattern of injury was scored radiographically. Single-voxel 1H MR spectra were acquired using short-echo (35 ms PRESS sequence localized to the basal ganglia (BG, thalamus (Thal, gray matter (GM, and white matter. Cerebral lactate concentration was quantified by LCModel software. Serum and cerebral lactate concentrations were plotted based on age at time of measurement. Multiple comparisons of regional cerebral lactate concentration based on severity and predominant pattern of injury were performed. Spearman’s Rho was computed to determine correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the respective regions of interest.ResultsOverall, serum lactate concentration decreased over time. Cerebral lactate concentration remained low for less severe injury and decreased over time for more severe injury. Cerebral lactate remained detectable even after TH. During TH, there was a significant higher concentration of cerebral lactate at the areas of injury and also when injury was more severe. However, these differences were no longer observed after TH. There was a weak correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the BG (rs

  5. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  6. Lactate promotes specific differentiation in bovine granulosa cells depending on lactate uptake thus mimicking an early post-LH stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Baufeld

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LH-induced folliculo-luteal transformation is connected with alterations of the gene expression profile in cells of the granulosa layer. It has been described that hypoxic conditions occur during luteinization, thus favoring the formation of L-lactate within the follicle. Despite being a product of anaerobic respiration, L-lactate has been shown to act as a signaling molecule affecting gene expression in neuronal cells. During the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-lactate may influence differentiation of follicular granulosa cells (GC. Methods In a bovine granulosa cell culture model effects of L- and D-lactate, of increased glucose concentrations and of the lactate transport inhibitor UK5099 were analyzed. Steroid hormone production was analyzed by RIA and the abundance of key transcripts was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results L-lactate decreased the production of estradiol and significantly affected selected genes of the folliculo-luteal transition as well as genes of the lactate metabolism. CYP19A1, FSHR, LHCGR were down-regulated, whereas RGS2, VNN2, PTX3, LDHA and lactate transporters were up-regulated. These effects could be partly or completely reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with UK5099. The non-metabolized enantiomer D-lactate had even more pronounced effects on gene expression, whereas increased glucose concentrations did not affect transcript abundance. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that L-lactate specifically alters physiological and molecular characteristics of GC. These effects critically depend on L-lactate uptake, but are not triggered by increased energy supply. Further, we could show that L-lactate has a positive feedback on the lactate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine and possibly other monovular species supporting differentiation during the folliculo-luteal transformation.

  7. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    AMP. The localization and function of HCAR1 and the three MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) expressed in brain constitute the focus of this review. They are possible targets for new therapeutic drugs and interventions. The author proposes that lactate actions in the brain through MCTs and the lactate receptor underlie part......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...... to some, lactate is a preferred fuel for brain metabolism. Immediately after brain activation, the rate of glycolysis exceeds oxidation, leading to net production of lactate. At physical rest, there is a net efflux of lactate from the brain into the blood stream. But when blood lactate levels rise...

  8. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carol L; Taylor, Sarah N; Johnson, Donna D; Hollis, Bruce W

    2012-05-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time in the lifecycle of a woman where she is responsible not only for her own well-being, but also that of her developing fetus, a process that continues during lactation. Until recently, the impact of vitamin D status during this period had not been fully appreciated. Data regarding the importance of vitamin D in health have emerged to challenge traditional dogma, and suggest that vitamin D - through its effect on immune function and surveillance - plays a role beyond calcium and bone metabolism on the health status of both the mother and her fetus. Following birth, this process persists; the lactating mother continues to be the main source of vitamin D for her infant. Thus, during both pregnancy and lactation, maternal deficiency predicts fetal and infant deficiency; the significance of this is just beginning to be understood and will be highlighted in this review.

  9. State updating and calibration period selection to improve dynamic monthly streamflow forecasts for an environmental flow management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Matthew S.; McInerney, David; Humphrey, Greer; Thyer, Mark A.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2018-02-01

    Monthly to seasonal streamflow forecasts provide useful information for a range of water resource management and planning applications. This work focuses on improving such forecasts by considering the following two aspects: (1) state updating to force the models to match observations from the start of the forecast period, and (2) selection of a shorter calibration period that is more representative of the forecast period, compared to a longer calibration period traditionally used. The analysis is undertaken in the context of using streamflow forecasts for environmental flow water management of an open channel drainage network in southern Australia. Forecasts of monthly streamflow are obtained using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model combined with a post-processor error model for uncertainty analysis. This model set-up is applied to two catchments, one with stronger evidence of non-stationarity than the other. A range of metrics are used to assess different aspects of predictive performance, including reliability, sharpness, bias and accuracy. The results indicate that, for most scenarios and metrics, state updating improves predictive performance for both observed rainfall and forecast rainfall sources. Using the shorter calibration period also improves predictive performance, particularly for the catchment with stronger evidence of non-stationarity. The results highlight that a traditional approach of using a long calibration period can degrade predictive performance when there is evidence of non-stationarity. The techniques presented can form the basis for operational monthly streamflow forecasting systems and provide support for environmental decision-making.

  10. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  12. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) were...... studied at rest and during 20 min of bicycle exercise at 146 W at sea level (SL) and after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,260 m (Alt). Whole body glucose Ra was similar at SL and Alt at rest and during exercise. Lactate Ra was also similar for the two conditions at rest; however, during exercise, lactate Ra...... was substantially lower at SL (65 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) than it was at Alt (150 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) at the same exercise intensity. During exercise, net lactate release was approximately 6-fold at Alt compared with SL, and related to this, tracer-calculated leg lactate uptake...

  13. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants: a study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutjesdijk, Eline; Schaafsma, Anne; Nhien, Nguyen V; Khor, Geok Lin; Kema, Ido P; Hollis, Bruce W; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2017-11-01

    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D 'adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 µg/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure reaches the AI. We measured milk ARA of lactating mothers with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes. Mature milk was derived from 181 lactating women in the Netherlands, Curaçao, Vietnam, Malaysia and Tanzania. Milk ARA and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by liquid-chromatography-MS/MS; milk fatty acids were analysed by GC-flame ionisation detector (FID). None of the mothers reached the milk vitamin D AI. Milk ARA (n; median; range) were as follows: Netherlands (n 9; 46 IU/l; 3-51), Curaçao (n 10; 31 IU/l; 5-113), Vietnam: Halong Bay (n 20; 58 IU/l; 23-110), Phu Tho (n 22; 28 IU/l; 1-62), Tien Giang (n 20; 63 IU/l; 26-247), Ho-Chi-Minh-City (n 18; 49 IU/l; 24-116), Hanoi (n 21; 37 IU/l; 11-118), Malaysia-Kuala Lumpur (n 20; 14 IU/l; 1-46) and Tanzania-Ukerewe (n 21; 77 IU/l; 12-232) and Maasai (n 20; 88 IU/l; 43-189). We collected blood samples of these lactating women in Curaçao, Vietnam and from Tanzania-Ukerewe, and found that 33·3 % had plasma 25(OH)D levels between 80 and 249·9 nmol/l, 47·3 % between 50 and 79·9 nmol/l and 19·4 % between 25 and 49·9 nmol/l. Milk ARA correlated positively with maternal plasma 25(OH)D (range 27-132 nmol/l, r 0·40) and milk EPA+DHA (0·1-3·1 g%, r 0·20), and negatively with latitude (2°S-53°N, r -0·21). Milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure is not even close to the vitamin D AI for 0-6-month-old infants. Our data may point at the importance of adequate fetal vitamin D stores.

  14. Misconceptions regarding basic thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics have led to erroneous conclusions regarding the metabolic importance of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-11-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate involving the coenzyme NAD + . Part of the foundation for the proposed shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons during brain activation is the differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes between the two cell types. In this short review, we outline the basic kinetic properties of the LDH isoenzymes expressed in neurons and astrocytes, and argue that the distribution of LDH isoenzymes does not in any way govern directional flow of lactate between the two cellular compartments. The two main points are as follows. First, in line with the general concept of chemical catalysis, enzymes do not influence the thermodynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction but merely the speed at which equilibrium is obtained. Thus, differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes with different kinetic parameters does not predict which cells are producing and which are consuming lactate. Second, the thermodynamic equilibrium of the reaction is toward the reduced substrate (i.e., lactate), which is reflected in the concentrations measured in brain tissue, suggesting that the reaction is at near-equilibrium at steady state. To conclude, the cellular distribution of LDH isoenzymes is of little if any consequence in determining any directional flow of lactate between neurons and astrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayslip, C.C.; Klein, T.A.; Wray, H.L.; Duncan, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral contents were estimated by dual photon absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and single photon absorptiometry of the mid- and distal radius in 19 healthy women on their second postpartum day and at 6 months postpartum. All bone mineral measurements were performed by one technician, and the single and dual photon absorptiometry results were read by one observer. Daily oral calcium intakes were estimated from dietary histories obtained by a dietitian. Twelve women who breast-fed exclusively throughout the first 6 months postpartum were compared with seven formula-feeding women who did not breast-feed or who breast-fed for less than 3 months postpartum. No differences were found in age, parity, height, weight, or daily calcium intake between the breast- and formula-feeding women. Breast-feeding women had a significant decrease (averaging 6.5%) in bone mineral of the lumbar spine at 6 months postpartum as compared with 2 days postpartum (1.14 +/- 0.03 versus 1.22 +/- 0.03 g/cm2, mean +/- SEM; P less than .001), whereas no significant change occurred in the formula-feeding women at 6 months (1.24 +/- 0.03 versus 1.26 +/- 0.04 g/cm2). At 6 months postpartum, the breast-feeding women had a significantly lower mean bone mineral content of the lumbar spine than did formula-feeding women (P less than .05). No significant changes were noted in bone mineral content of the mid- or distal radius in either group of women during the period of evaluation. We conclude that during the first 6 months postpartum, breast-feeding is associated with bone mineral loss from the lumbar spine, but not from the mid- or distal radius

  17. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  18. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  19. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  20. A controlled trial of Partners in Dementia Care: veteran outcomes after six and twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, David M; Judge, Katherine S; Snow, A Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L; Morgan, Robert O; Maslow, Katie; Randazzo, Ronda; Moye, Jennifer A; Odenheimer, Germaine L; Archambault, Elizabeth; Elbein, Richard; Pirraglia, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas A; McCarthy, Catherine A; Looman, Wendy J; Kunik, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    "Partners in Dementia Care" (PDC) tested the effectiveness of a care-coordination program integrating healthcare and community services and supporting veterans with dementia and their caregivers. Delivered via partnerships between Veterans Affairs medical centers and Alzheimer's Association chapters, PDC targeted both patients and caregivers, distinguishing it from many non-pharmacological interventions. Hypotheses posited PDC would improve five veteran self-reported outcomes: 1) unmet need, 2) embarrassment about memory problems, 3) isolation, 4) relationship strain and 5) depression. Greater impact was expected for more impaired veterans. A unique feature was self-reported research data collected from veterans with dementia. Five matched communities were study sites. Two randomly selected sites received PDC for 12 months; comparison sites received usual care. Three structured telephone interviews were completed every 6 months with veterans who could participate. Of 508 consenting veterans, 333 (65.6%) completed baseline interviews. Among those who completed baseline interviews, 263 (79.0%) completed 6-month follow-ups and 194 (58.3%) completed 12-month follow-ups. Regression analyses showed PDC veterans had significantly less adverse outcomes than those receiving usual care, particularly for more impaired veterans after 6 months, including reduced relationship strain (B = -0.09; p = 0.05), depression (B = -0.10; p = 0.03), and unmet need (B = -0.28; p = 0.02; and B = -0.52; p = 0.08). PDC veterans also had less embarrassment about memory problems (B = -0.24; p = 0.08). At 12 months, more impaired veterans had further reductions in unmet need (B = -0.96; p needs and improve the psychosocial functioning of persons with dementia. NCT00291161.

  1. Breastfeeding Counseling, Barriers and Facilitators of Lactation in the Military Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first four to six months of an infant s life ( AAP , 1978; ADA, 1993). Breastfeeding offers advantages to both...women. Nurse practitioners should be familiar with the recommended breastfeeding practices set forth by the AAP (see Appendix C). Nurse practitioners... BREASTFEEDING COUNSELING, BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF LACTATION IN THE MILITARY COMMUNITY Captain Bernadette Ann Harlow APPROVED

  2. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamatsu Akinori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine dioxide (CD gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human.

  3. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. II: Effect of genetic strain and diet on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Roche, J R; Kolver, E S

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-six genetically divergent New Zealand and North American Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows grazed pasture, and were offered 0, 3, or 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day for an extended lactation (605 +/- 8.3 d in milk; mean +/- standard error of the mean). Weekly blood samples collected from individual cows from wk 1 to 10 postpartum (early lactation), and from wk 47 to 63 postpartum (extended lactation) were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), calcium, and urea. During early lactation, NEFA and GH concentrations were greater and IGF-I concentrations were less, and increased at a slower rate in North American HF. During this 10-wk period, there were no strain effects on plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, or calcium. During the extended lactation period, North American HF had greater NEFA and GH concentrations; there were strain x diet interactions for insulin and leptin, and a tendency for a strain x diet interaction for glucose. These interactions were primarily due to greater plasma insulin, leptin, and glucose concentrations in the New Zealand HF fed 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day, a result of excessive body condition in this treatment. In this period, there was no strain effect on plasma IGF-I, calcium, or urea concentration. During early lactation, there was a linear increase in glucose and IGF-I, and a linear decrease in GH and urea with increasing concentrate in the diet. However, plasma calcium, NEFA, insulin, and leptin remained unchanged. During the extended lactation period, there was an effect of feed supplementation on GH and urea, which decreased linearly with increasing concentrate in the diet. There was, however, no supplementation effect on NEFA, calcium, or IGF-I. These data indicate potential strain differences in recoupling of the somatotropic axis, insulin resistance, and energy partitioning, and may help explain the physiology behind the previously

  4. Influence of thermal environment on sows around farrowing and during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Sund Kammersgaard, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of floor heating duration (HEAT: 35°C for 12 or 48 h) after birth of first piglet (BFP) under different room temperatures (ROOM: 15, 20, 25°C) on sows during farrowing and lactation. The study included 8 to 11 repetitions for each combination of ROOM...... for the HEAT =48 h treatment 13 to 48 h after BFP (P piglets (82 to 95%) were born on the heated solid floor, regardless of room temperature (P = 0.46). Sows spent approximately twice as much time standing/walking at 15°C during 13 to 48 h after BFP, at HEAT = 12 h only (ROOM and HEAT...

  5. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in glucose synthesis during the lactation cycle were estimated in pen-fed and grazing reindeer. The pool size, space, transfer rate, and irreversible loss of glucose were determined using simultaneous injections of (2-/sup 3/H)glucose and primed infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose in reindeer lactating for 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 12-16 weeks. Glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were higher during early to midlactation than at other times of the year; maximum estimates were at 8-9 week postpartum (July), and a decline was noted at 12-16 weeks (August). During the first 1-2 weeks in pen-fed and 4-5 weeks in grazing reindeer, glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were almost twice the values reported for reindeer at maintenance. No difference in the irreversible loss of glucose was noted between lactating and non-lactating reindeer at 18-20 weeks postpartum (September), and there is evidence that this may occur as early as 12-16 weeks postpartum. No significant trend was noted in the glucose space throughout lactation; however, a significant increase in plasma glucose concentration and pool size was noted when glucose synthesis was highest (8-9 weeks postpartum). Glucose turnover time was consistently faster (78-88 min) in lactating than in non-lactating reindeer (107-140 min). Reindeer used a smaller proportion of plasma glucose-C for lactose synthesis than did other domestic species. This probably results from the low lactose content of reindeer milk and the relatively low rate of milk secretion. (auth)

  6. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    The effects of metabolic diseases (MD) occurring during the transition period on milk production of dairy cows have been evaluated in many different ways, often with conflicting conclusions. The present study used a fitted lactation model to analyze specific aspects of lactation curve shape and magnitude in cows that avoided culling or death in the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Production and health records of 1,946 lactations in a 1-yr follow-up study design were collected from a transition management facility in Germany to evaluate both short- and long-term effects of MD on milk production. Milk production data were fitted with the nonlinear MilkBot lactation model, and health records were used to classify cows as healthy (H), affected by one MD (MD), or by multiple MD (MD+). The final data set contained 1,071 H, 348 MD, and 136 MD+ cows, with distinct incidences of 3.7% twinning, 4.8% milk fever, 3.6% retained placenta, 15.4% metritis, 8.3% ketosis, 2.0% displaced abomasum, and 3.7% mastitis in the first 30 DIM. The model containing all healthy and diseased cows showed that lactations classified as H had milk production that increased faster (lower ramp) and also declined faster (lower persistence) compared with cows that encountered one or more metabolic problems. The level of production (scale) was only lowered in MD+ cows compared with H and MD cows. Although the shape of the lactation curve changed when cows encounter uncomplicated (single) MD or complicated MD (more than one MD), the slower increase to a lower peak seemed to be compensated for by greater persistency, resulting in the overall 305-d milk production only being lowered in MD+ cows. In the individual disease models, specific changes in the shape of the lactation curve were found for all MD except twinning. Milk fever, retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis mainly affected the lactation curve when accompanied by another MD, whereas metritis and displaced abomasum affected the lactation curve

  7. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  8. Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Frances N; Power, Michael L; Dickson, Melissa A; Brown, Janine; Oftedal, Olav T

    2013-01-01

    We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year. Milk samples (n = 74) were analyzed for dry matter (DM), fat, crude protein (CP), sugar, ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K); gross energy (GE) was calculated. Concentrations of most nutrients changed over lactation: DM, fat, CP, Ca, P, and GE were positively correlated to calf age; sugar was negatively correlated to calf age. GE doubled between birth (1 kcal/g) and 2 years of age (2 kcal/g). After accounting for calf age, GE, fat, Ca, and P concentrations differed among the cows. Milk composition also differed between two lactations from the same cow. When milk nutrients were expressed on a mg per kcal basis, the pattern changes: CP, Ca, and P remained relatively constant over lactation on a per energy basis. Calf mass quadrupled over the first year of life; mass gain was linear at 0.9 kg/day. Asian elephant milk composition is variable, both across lactations and between cows, complicating efforts to determine representative values for comparative studies and for the formulation of elephant milk formulas. The fact that CP, Ca, and P were all relatively constant when expressed on a per energy basis may be of biological significance. The increase in nutrient density over lactation undoubtedly limits maternal water loss, reducing the volume of milk necessary to support the calf. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  10. A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlSaad D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Doua AlSaad,1 Samah ElSalem,1 Palli Valapila Abdulrouf,1 Binny Thomas,1,2 Tayseer Alsaad,3 Afif Ahmed,1 Moza AlHail4 1Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, 4Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians.Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety.Method: A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women’s Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken.Results: Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6% was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1% and neonatal death (12.9%. The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6. Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting

  11. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  12. H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging detects prolonged elevation of lactate and increased Ch/NAA ratio in patients with focal cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijen, P.C.; Tulleken, C.A.F.; den Hollander, J.A.; Luyten, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    H-1 MR spectroscopy of patients with a recent stroke (range, 78 hours to 18 days after stroke) showed an increased Ch/NAA ratio in a large ischemic region of the brain, while lactate was increased in the center of the infarct. A spectroscopic image taken 8 months after the stroke did not show any increased lactate; however, the Ch/NAA ratio image still showed increased intensity even in regions that looked normal on the MR images. H-1 MR spectra measured during clinical recovery (range 10-48 days) still showed elevated lactate compared with control regions, although lactate was lower than in the acute phase. This suggests on ongoing anaerobic glycolysis in the metabolically compromised penumbra

  13. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. Bacterial Load in Expressed and Stored Breast Milk of Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of expressed breast milk has been advocated as an effective way of encouraging and maintaining lactation when the mother is separated from the baby for a while. However, prospects of storage of expressed breast milk for any considerable period of time is hindered by the possibility of bacterial contamination and ...

  15. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R. [UNESP; Rodello, L. [UNESP; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  16. The effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation estimated using a non-linear function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friggens, N C; Badsberg, J H

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to see if the body condition score curve during lactation could be described using a model amenable to biological interpretation, a non-linear function assuming exponential rates of change in body condition with time, and to quantify the effect of breed and parity on curves of body condition during lactation. Three breeds were represented: Danish Holstein (n = 112), Danish Red (n = 97) and Jerseys (n = 8). Cows entered the experiment at the start of first lactation and were studied during consecutive lactations (average number of lactations 2, minimum 1, maximum 3). They remained on the same dietary treatment throughout. Body condition was scored to the nearest half unit on the Danish scale (see Kristensen (1986); derived from the Lowman et al. (1976) system) from 1 to 5 on days: 2, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, 112, 168, 224 after calving. Additionally, condition score was recorded on the day of drying off the cow, 35, 21, and 7 days before expected calving and finally on the day of calving. All condition scores were made by the trained personal on the research farm, where the same person made 92% of the scores. The temporal patterns in condition score were modelled as consisting of two underlying processes, one related to days from calving, referred to as lactation only, the other to days from (subsequent) conception, referred to as pregnancy. Both processes were assumed to be exponential functions of time. Each process was modelled separately using exponential functions, i.e. one model for lactation only and one for pregnancy, and then a combined model for both lactation only and pregnancy was fitted. The data set contained 467 lactation periods and 378 pregnancy periods. The temporal patterns in condition score of cows kept under stable and sufficient nutritional conditions were successfully described using a two component non-linear function. First lactation cows had shallower curves, they had greater condition scores at the nadir

  17. A 12-month randomized crossover study on the effects of Lanreotide Autogel and Octreotide long-acting repeatable on GH and IGF-l in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Kvistborg, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Background Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully for the treatment of acromegaly but no randomized studies have compared the effects of lanreotide Autogel (LAN) and octreotide acetate long-acting repeatable (OCT). Objective To compare the effect of LAN and OCT for the treatment...... of acromegaly in a randomized study design. Material and methods Twelve acromegalic patients were included and 10 patients completed treatment with LAN or OCT for 6 months and were then switched to the opposite treatment modality for 6 months without a washout period in a randomized crossover design. GH and IGF...

  18. Characterization of plasma metabolites at late gestation and lactation in early parity sows on production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation is a very energy demanding period for sows. The current study provides a better understanding of the biochemical response of first- (n = 246) or second-parity (n = 127) sows during late gestation through lactation and assesses relationships with piglet production and dam reproductive perfo...

  19. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J; Weerwind, P W; Teerenstra, S; Brouwer, M H J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the GEM Premier 3000 was compared with the Ciba Corning 865 analyser for blood gas/electrolytes/metabolites, and for hematocrit with the Sysmex XE 2100 instrument. During a 6-month period, 127 blood samples were analysed on both the GEM Premier 3000 analyser and our laboratory analysers (Ciba Corning 865/Sysmex 2100 instrument), and compared using the agreement analysis for quantitative data. With the exception of K+, the other parameters (pCO2, pO2, Na+, Ca2+, hematocrit, glucose, and lactate) can be described in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the differences. For K+ measurement, a clear linear trend (r=0.79, panalyser seems to be suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes, metabolites, and blood gases during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its downward bias in hematocrit values below 30% suggests that using the GEM Premier 3000 as a transfusion trigger leads to overtreatment with packed red cells.

  20. Computed exercise plasma lactate concentrations: A conversion formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood lactate measurements are common as a marker of skeletal muscle metabolism in sport medicine. Due to the close equilibrium between the extracellular and intramyocellular space, plasma lactate is a more accurate estimate of muscle lactate. However, whole blood-based lactate measurements are more convenient in field use. The purpose of this investigation was therefore (1 to establish a plasma-converting lactate formula for field use, and (2 to validate the computed plasma lactate levels by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Design and methods: A total of 91 venous samples were taken from 6 individuals with type 1 diabetes during resting and exercise conditions and assessed for whole blood and plasma lactate using the YSI 2300 analyzer. A linear model was applied to establish a formula for converting whole blood lactate to plasma lactate. The validity of computed plasma lactate values was assessed by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Results: Whole blood YSI lactate could be converted to plasma YSI values (slope 1.66, intercept 0.12 for samples with normal hematocrit. Computed plasma levels compared to values determined by the laboratory standard method using Passing-Bablok regression yielded a slope of 1.03 (95%CI:0.99:1.08 with an intercept of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.18:-0.06. Conclusions: Whole blood YSI lactate values can be reliably converted into plasma values which are in line with laboratory determined plasma measurements. Keywords: Lactate, Plasma vs whole-blood, Hematocrit, Enzyme electrodes, Sample treatment

  1. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...... and 25 stable CF patients via spectrophotometry and gaschromatography. Lung function was assessed via spirometry. Seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and three patients with acute lung inflammation served as control groups. Neutrophil and bacterial lactate production...

  2. Effectiveness of community-based treatment for problem gambling: a quasi-experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral vs. twelve-step therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Dragonetti, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing availability of gambling throughout North America, there is interest in developing more effective treatments. This study compares the effectiveness of two brief outpatient treatments for problem gambling: eight sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (n = 65) and eight sessions of a twelve-step treatment-oriented approach based on the first five steps of Gamblers Anonymous (n = 61). There were no baseline group differences on gambling-relevant variables. Twelve months post-treatment showed no group differences on key gambling variables (eg, frequency, abstinence rates, money wagered) in an analysis of completers. Participants who attended more sessions and chose an initial abstinent treatment goal appeared to achieve better outcomes.

  3. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  4. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  5. A metabolic switch in brain: glucose and lactate metabolism modulation by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maite A; Beltrán, Felipe A; Brauchi, Sebastián; Concha, Ilona I

    2009-07-01

    In this review, we discuss a novel function of ascorbic acid in brain energetics. It has been proposed that during glutamatergic synaptic activity neurons preferably consume lactate released from glia. The key to this energetic coupling is the metabolic activation that occurs in astrocytes by glutamate and an increase in extracellular [K(+)]. Neurons are cells well equipped to consume glucose because they express glucose transporters and glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Moreover, neuronal cells express monocarboxylate transporters and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1, which is inhibited by pyruvate. As glycolysis produces an increase in pyruvate concentration and a decrease in NAD(+)/NADH, lactate and glucose consumption are not viable at the same time. In this context, we discuss ascorbic acid participation as a metabolic switch modulating neuronal metabolism between rest and activation periods. Ascorbic acid is highly concentrated in CNS. Glutamate stimulates ascorbic acid release from astrocytes. Ascorbic acid entry into neurons and within the cell can inhibit glucose consumption and stimulate lactate transport. For this switch to occur, an ascorbic acid flow is necessary between astrocytes and neurons, which is driven by neural activity and is part of vitamin C recycling. Here, we review the role of glucose and lactate as metabolic substrates and the modulation of neuronal metabolism by ascorbic acid.

  6. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  7. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027 is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  8. Pondering Motivational Ups and Downs throughout a Two-Month Period: A Complex Dynamic System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a two-month longitudinal study in which five secondary education students learning English as a foreign language at school will be interviewed in order to analyse how their motivation varies during this period and what variables affect their motivational changes. The emphasis will thus be on motivation's dynamicity and…

  9. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  10. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  11. Changes in NAA and lactate following ischemic stroke: a serial MR spectroscopic imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Maniega, S; Cvoro, V; Chappell, F M; Armitage, P A; Marshall, I; Bastin, M E; Wardlaw, J M

    2008-12-09

    Although much tissue damage may occur within the first few hours of ischemic stroke, the duration of tissue injury is not well defined. We assessed the temporal pattern of neuronal loss and ischemia after ischemic stroke using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We measured N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and lactate in 51 patients with acute ischemic stroke at five time points, from admission to 3 months, in voxels classified as normal, possibly or definitely abnormal (ischemic) according to the appearance of the stroke lesion on the admission DWI. We compared changes in NAA and lactate in different voxel classes using linear mixed models. NAA was significantly reduced from admission in definitely and possibly abnormal (p < 0.01) compared to contralateral normal voxels, reaching a nadir by 2 weeks and remaining reduced at 3 months. Lactate was significantly increased in definitely and possibly abnormal voxels (p < 0.01) during the first 5 days, falling to normal at 2 weeks, rising again later in these voxels. The progressive fall in N-acetylaspartate suggests that some additional neuronal death may continue beyond the first few hours for up to 2 weeks or longer. The mechanism is unclear but, if correct, then it is possible that interventions to limit this ongoing subacute tissue damage might add to the benefit of hyperacute treatment, making further improvements in outcome possible.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  15. Effect of components of a workplace lactation program on breastfeeding duration among employees of a public-sector employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkam, Jane A Johnston; Cadwell, Karin; Fein, Sara B

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the individual services offered via a workplace lactation program of one large public-sector employer on the duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as exclusive feeding of human milk for the milk feeding. A cross-sectional mailed survey approach was used. The sample (n = 128) consisted of women who had used at least one component of the lactation program in the past 3 years and who were still employed at the same organization when data were collected. Descriptive statistics included frequency distributions and contingency table analysis. Chi-square analysis was used for comparison of groups, and both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and univariate analysis of variance from a general linear model were used for comparison of means. The survey respondents were primarily older, white, married, well-educated, high-income women. More of the women who received each lactation program service were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months of infant age in all categories of services, with significant differences in the categories of telephone support and return to work consultation. After adjusting for race and work status, logistic regression analysis showed the number of services received was positively related to exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and participation in a return to work consultation was positively related to any breastfeeding at 6 months. The study demonstrated that the workplace lactation program had a positive impact on duration of breastfeeding for the women who participated. Participation in the telephone support and return to work consultation services, and the total number of services used were related to longer duration of exclusive and/or any breastfeeding.

  16. Consequences of supplying methyl donors during pregnancy on the methylome of the offspring from lactating and non-lactating dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bach

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of methyl donor supplementation of pregnant animals in the presence or absence of a concomitant lactation on the methylome of the offspring. Twenty Holstein cows, 10 nulliparous (non-lactating while pregnant and 10 multiparous (lactating while pregnant were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to an i.m. weekly injections of a placebo (CTRL or a solution containing methyl donors (MET. After calving, 5 calves randomly selected from each treatment (two born to non-lactating and three to lactating dams were blood-sampled to determine their full methylome. There were more than 2,000 CpG differentially methylated between calves born to CTRL and those born to MET, and also between calves born to lactating and non-lactating dams. Most of the differences affected genes involved in immune function, cell growth regulation and differentiation, kinase activity, and ion channeling. We conclude that the coexistence of pregnancy and lactation affects the methylome of the offspring, and that supplementation of methyl donors early in gestation has also consequences on the methylome.

  17. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    calculated in the first part of the study. Current UK emission calculations based on the National Inventory were 329 Gg of methane per year from the dairy herd. Using the national distribution of lactation lengths, this was found to be an underestimate by about 10%. This work showed that the current rise in lactation length or a move towards calving every 18 months would increase GHGE by 7% to 14% compared with the current scenario, assuming the same milk yield in all models. Increased milk yield would have a much greater effect on reducing GHGE than changes to lactation length, replacement rate or persistency. National Inventory methodology appears to underestimate GHGE when the distribution of lactation lengths is considered and may need revising to provide more realistic figures.

  18. Whole‐cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor for monitoring mammalian cell cultures during biopharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Lisa; Ainsworth, Catherine; Goey, Cher Hui; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Freemont, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many high‐value added recombinant proteins, such as therapeutic glycoproteins, are produced using mammalian cell cultures. In order to optimize the productivity of these cultures it is important to monitor cellular metabolism, for example the utilization of nutrients and the accumulation of metabolic waste products. One metabolic waste product of interest is lactic acid (lactate), overaccumulation of which can decrease cellular growth and protein production. Current methods for the detection of lactate are limited in terms of cost, sensitivity, and robustness. Therefore, we developed a whole‐cell Escherichia coli lactate biosensor based on the lldPRD operon and successfully used it to monitor lactate concentration in mammalian cell cultures. Using real samples and analytical validation we demonstrate that our biosensor can be used for absolute quantification of metabolites in complex samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. Importantly, our whole‐cell biosensor was able to detect lactate at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude lower than the industry standard method, making it useful for monitoring lactate concentrations in early phase culture. Given the importance of lactate in a variety of both industrial and clinical contexts we anticipate that our whole‐cell biosensor can be used to address a range of interesting biological questions. It also serves as a blueprint for how to capitalize on the wealth of genetic operons for metabolite sensing available in nature for the development of other whole‐cell biosensors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1290–1300. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28112405

  19. Determination the behavior of the curve lactation Mestizo and dairy cattle Altiplano of the Province Omasuyos Department of La Paz-Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Huallpa Yesenia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research work was conducted in eight communities, Municipality of Achacachi Omasuyos Province, with the following objectives: i calculate the parameters that describe the lactation curve in cows with and without stable. 20 crossbred cows were selected (Holstein crosses with Criollo. 14 and 6 had stable without stable, all were in the last third of gestation to give birth in the months of January month end, February and March earlier this month, milk production was determined from birth until natural drying, their diet was based on native grasslands, pastures of alfalfa, oats and barley (Green, hay and straw. The analysis of the results obtained have on average (a = 4.248, b = 0.348 and c = 0.006 different Ticona (2001, possibly because the average current milk production is (10 kg / day. The average milk production to 305 days of lactation (DL - 305, in cows with stable was 3242.68 kg with an average daily production of 10.6 kg; while the average milk production to 305 days of lactation (PL - 305 in cows without stable was 2621.87 kg, with an average production of 8.6 kg per day. The model proposed by Wood (1967, It was adequate in determining the parameters that define the lactation curve in crossbred cows in the highlands, and to estimate milk production in the town of Achacachi, Omasuyos province, department of La Paz.

  20. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Milk and Blood Cortisol and T3 Hormones Content and Milk Composition in Buffaloes as a Function of Lactating Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb Alsaied, A.M.; Ibahim, M.KH.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of lactating number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in each of milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. The experiment was carried out on 72 animals including two periods through 1994. The first was carried out on 36 animals in February where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree, while the second was conducted on another 36 animals in July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree . In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactating number into 6 equal groups from the 1st to 6 th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T 3 , either in milk or in blood and milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in July than in February. Whereas the opposite was true with cortisol level either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , milk and blood cortisol and milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly due to lactation number

  2. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  3. Using Videoconferencing Technology to Provide Breastfeeding Support to Low-Income Women: Connecting Hospital-Based Lactation Consultants with Clients Receiving Care at a Community Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Petersen, Devan; Babbitt, Tina

    2015-11-01

    The Tele-Lactation Pilot Project (TLPP), 1 of 13 community-based breastfeeding projects implemented in Indiana in 2013 using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funds, explored the feasibility of using videoconferencing technology to provide breastfeeding education and support to low-income women by a centrally located International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC). The IBCLC was housed at the Breastfeeding Center at the hospital where the women would deliver; the women receiving the education and support were located at an inner-city community health center (CHC) where they received their primary care. The videoconferencing sessions were juxtaposed with the women's regularly scheduled prenatal and postnatal visits at the CHC. After delivery, the lactation consultant visited the mother and infant in person at the hospital to offer additional support. Overall, 35 mothers were served by the TLPP during the 9-month project period. A total of 134 visits (30-45 minutes each) were conducted (3.8 sessions per woman). At the conclusion of the project, interviews with key participants indicated that the tele-lactation videoconferencing sessions were easy to implement, allowed the IBCLC to reach a wider client base, and allowed the women to receive expert support that they might not have otherwise received. Comments indicated that, in addition to providing education and increasing the women's confidence, the tele-lactation sessions appeared to have decreased the mothers' anxiety about the birthing process and the hospital experience. The TLPP demonstrated that incorporating videoconferencing technology into routine care can help foster collaboration among health care providers and provide mothers with continuous, easily accessible breastfeeding education and support. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Estimation of 305 Day Milk Yield from Cumulative Monthly and Bimonthly Test Day Records in Indonesian Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, A. P.; Hartatik, T.; Purnomoadi, A.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate 305 day first lactation milk yield of Indonesian Holstein cattle from cumulative monthly and bimonthly test day records and to analyze its accuracy.The first lactation records of 258 dairy cows from 2006 to 2014 consisted of 2571 monthly (MTDY) and 1281 bimonthly test day yield (BTDY) records were used. Milk yields were estimated by regression method. Correlation coefficients between actual and estimated milk yield by cumulative MTDY were 0.70, 0.78, 0.83, 0.86, 0.89, 0.92, 0.94 and 0.96 for 2-9 months, respectively, meanwhile by cumulative BTDY were 0.69, 0.81, 0.87 and 0.92 for 2, 4, 6 and 8 months, respectively. The accuracy of fitting regression models (R2) increased with the increasing in the number of cumulative test day used. The used of 5 cumulative MTDY was considered sufficient for estimating 305 day first lactation milk yield with 80.6% accuracy and 7% error percentage of estimation. The estimated milk yield from MTDY was more accurate than BTDY by 1.1 to 2% less error percentage in the same time.

  5. Florfenicol concentrations in milk of lactating cows postreated by intramuscular or intramammary routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ruiz B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available intramammary administration to establish the optimum withdrawal time, therapeutic efficacy, and its influence on milk yield. Materials and method. Twelve healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected from the University of Antioquia’s teaching dairy herd (Colombia, were randomly assigned to a control (n=6 group or florfenicol (n=6 group that received 20 mg/kg of florfenicol by intramammary and intramuscular routes, with a 15 days washout period between treatments. Results. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramuscular route were 6 hoursand 2.86 mg/L respectively. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramammary route, were estimated at 0 hour and about 20000 mg/L respectively by extrapolated from regression line. The florfenicol elimination phase in milk had an average half-life of elimination (t½ of 19.8 hours and 4.9 hours for intramuscular and intramammary administration, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route, when minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. of florfenicol by Stahphylococcus aureus, was used as reference value. There was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and non-treated cows. Conclusions. According to these results, post-treatment milk withdrawal should be no less than 3 days for intramammary administration, and at least 7 days for intramuscular administration. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and nontreated cows.

  6. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  7. Mortality Trend Among Hemodialysis Patients During the Islamic Month of Ramadan: A 24 Years Retrospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, S.; Nasir, K.; Dhrolia, M.F.; Abbas, H. N.; Ahmad, A.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of month of Ramadan on the mortality in hemodialysis patients, and to compare it with that in all other Islamic months. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Hemodialysis Unit, The Kidney Center, Karachi, from January 1989 to December 2012. Methodology: All those patients who were diagnosed to have end stage kidney disease and on maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months, regardless of underlying cause of kidney failure were included. Patients with acute kidney injury were excluded. Status of the patients was recorded at the end of the study period. The fasting status of the patients was not mentioned. The deaths of the patients were further evaluated and frequencies of death in all twelve Islamic months were calculated. Results: A total of 1,841 patients were registered, out of whom 897 (48.7%) died, and 269 (14.6%) survived till the end of the study. One thousand and fifty six (57.3%) were males, 651 (35.4%) were diabetic. Total number of 143 (7.76%) events occurred in Ramadan, out of which 94 patients died which make nearly 11% of the total deaths distributed in 12 Islamic months. Frequency of death was higher in Ramadan when compared with other months. Conclusion: Ramadan reflected a higher frequency of death. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the risk factors in a prospective study so that the dialysis patients can be better managed during this period. (author)

  8. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-09-01

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (Pdonkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  9. Effect of calcium lactate in erosion and S. mutans in rats when added to Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiraghi, S; Atkins, S; Rosen, S; Wilson, S; Odom, J; Beck, M

    1989-12-01

    Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats, 22 days of age, were divided randomly into three groups of 12 each and housed in a programmable feeder. The three experimental groups received either Coca-Cola (CC), Coca-Cola with calcium lactate (CC-CaL), or distilled water. The programmable feeder was set to deliver 17 equal volumes of fluid per day with each feeding period lasting between 80-90 min. All groups were given Diet MIT 305 in one premeasured amount per 24 hr period (ad libitum). The pH of the CC with calcium lactate was adjusted to match the CC without calcium lactate by the addition of citric and phosphoric acids. The test period lasted five weeks. Each week, the food and fluid consumed and the weight gain were measured. Erosion of the teeth was scored by the method of Restarski et al. (1945). ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the amount of erosion among groups. A Newman-Keuls analysis showed that the mean erosion score of the CC group was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than that of the CC-CaL and distilled water groups (54.2 +/- 0.12; 0.0275 +/- 0.0123; 0.132 +/- 0.070, respectively). There was no significant difference in erosion between the CC-CaL and distilled water groups. There was no difference in the amount of food and fluid consumed among the group of rats. In conclusion, calcium lactate added to CC resulted in significantly reduced tooth erosion in rats.

  10. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  11. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up......)] from a resting value of 6 to exercise, cerebral activation associated with mental activity, or exposure to a stressful situation. The CMR decrease is prevented with combined beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor...

  12. Effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Shi, Rongguang; Cheng, Zhenhua; Dong, Hongmin

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P methane emissions by mineral salt intake could be attributed to decreased density of methanogenic archaea and that fluctuations in methane emission over the lactation period might be related to Methanobrevibacter diversity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Application of isotopes to the study of lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of 14 C as tracer to measure lactate turnover and oxidation and its role in gluconeogenesis are discussed. Lactate is formed as well as utilized in many cells, and most of it in the body is present within cells so that interpretation of 14 C data from labelled lactate is more complex and more difficult than that of compounds present largely extracellularly, such as glucose. Apparent uptake of [ 14 C]lactate may occur in the absence of net lactate utilization, and 14 CO 2 production does not provide a measure of true lactate oxidation. In vivo sites of tracer administration and sampling of blood are of critical significance for evaluation of lactate turnover, lactate space, its incorporation into glucose, and oxidation

  14. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...

  16. Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie A Brown

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  17. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilizatilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Larsen, Uffe Krogh

    2015-01-01

    -fed; analyzed contents; HCP); 2) 15.7% CP (MHCP); 3) 14.3% CP (MLCP); 4) 13.2% CP (LCP); diet HCP was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced CP diets contained CAA to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Sow and piglet BW were measured on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, and 21...... of lactation. Nitrogen retention was measured on sows between d 3 and 7 (early) and d 14 and 18 (peak) of lactation. Milk true protein output was calculated from estimated milk yield and analyzed true protein concentration. Sow BW change (overall mean: -4.2 ± 3.37 kg over the 21-d lactation period) and average...... daily DM intake (overall mean: 4.05 ± 0.18 and 6.12 ± 0.20 kg/d, early and peak lactation, respectively) did not differ between diets. Nitrogen intake decreased as dietary CP concentration decreased (114.3, 106.0, 107.4, and 99.0 ± 5.29 g/d and 169.5, 168.3, 161.2, and 145.1 ± 5.29 g/d for HCP, MHCP...

  18. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    runners was carried out to determine their micronutrient intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over a two-week period, samples of the main eaten food were collected for analysis of micronutrient distribution and a daily 24 recall interview performed to determine additional food intake. RESULTS: The estimated...... mg, 1309 microg, and 79 microg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Total daily micronutrient intake of the twelve Kalenjin runners was far from adequate compared to FAO/WHO daily recommended and suggested adequate intake....

  19. Prospective study of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy or lactation and risk of childhood asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; DeRoo, Lisa A; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J

    2014-04-01

    Many women drink during pregnancy and lactation despite recommendations to abstain. In animals, alcohol exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences lung and immune development, plausibly increasing risk of asthma and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Studies in humans are few. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, we examined maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy and lactation in relation to risk of current asthma at 36 months (49,138 children), recurrent LRTIs by 36 months (39,791 children), and current asthma at 7 years (13,253 children). Mothers reported frequency and amount of alcohol intake each trimester and the first 3 months following delivery. We calculated adjusted relative risk (aRR), comparing children of drinkers to nondrinkers, using Generalized Linear Models. A total of 31.8% of mothers consumed alcohol during first trimester, 9.7% during second trimester, and 15.6% during third trimester. Infrequent and low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure showed a modest statistically significant inverse association with current asthma at 36 months (aRRs ~ 0.85). No association was seen with the highest alcohol intakes during the first trimester when alcohol consumption was most common. RRs of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy with recurrent LRTIs were ~1, with sporadic differences in risk for some metrics of intake, but without any consistent pattern. For current asthma at 7 years, similar inverse associations were seen as with current asthma at 36 months but were not statistically significant. Among children breastfed throughout the first 3 months of life, maternal alcohol intake during this time was not significantly associated with any of the 3 outcomes. The low levels of alcohol exposure during pregnancy or lactation observed in this cohort were not associated with increased risk of asthma or recurrent LRTIs. The slight inverse associations of infrequent or low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure with asthma may not be causal

  20. Proteomics and the Characterization of Fatty Liver Metabolism in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-01-01

    The high-yielding dairy cow faces major adaptions during the transition period from late pregnancy to early lactation where physiological changes occur in support of the dramatically increase in milk yield. The coordinated physiological changes secure mobilization of nutrients and energy from the...

  1. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency during the first 21 days of lactation on production and reproductive performance in high-lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Cohen, M; Doekes, J J

    2017-01-01

    We examined short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency (HMF) for the first 21 days of lactation. The study included 122 Israeli Holstein cows - 32 pregnant heifers, 40 cows in second lactation and 50 cows in >second lactation. Heifers were paired according to predicted transmitting ability and cows according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, age, days in milk and expected calving date. Thin cows (body condition score second lactation cows relative to their control counterparts (-0.37%); ECM production was also higher in 6× milking first and second lactation (7.6% and 5%, respectively) but not for >second lactation cows. Furthermore, HMF had long-lasting effects, expressed as significantly higher milk production through the succeeding lactation in the previous first lactation cows (10%); a tendency toward significance in the second lactation cows relative to the controls (4.7%), but a deleterious effect on the >second lactation cows, reflected by lower milk production (-5.25%) than in controls; similar patterns were found for the ECM. For the entire 305 days of lactation, fat and protein yields were higher for first and second lactation cows, whereas protein yield for >second lactation cows was lower in the 6× milking v. Given that HMF during the first 21 days of first or second lactation increases milk and ECM yields throughout the concurrent and successive lactation with no adverse effect on energy balance, mastitis, metabolic diseases or reproduction, it seems to be economically beneficial. However, caution should be paid for >second lactation cows due to absence of significant effect in the entire of the first HMF applied lactation and the deleterious effect in the succeeding lactation.

  3. Relation between macular morphology and treatment frequency during twelve months with ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Mori

    Full Text Available To investigate whether baseline optical coherence tomography (OCT parameters can predict the treatment frequency of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR injections during the first year in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME treated with pro re nata (PRN IVR injections.We retrospectively reviewed 68 eyes of 63 patients with center-involved DME who received IVR injections for 12 months or longer according to three monthly IVR injections followed by the PRN dosing. We measured the mean retinal thicknesses in the individual subfields of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid and evaluated the qualitative and quantitative parameters on OCT sectional images. We investigated the relationship between these OCT parameters at baseline and the number of IVR injections during the 12-month follow-up.Three loading doses were administered to 10 eyes; four to seven annualized IVR injections were administered to 34 eyes. The number of eyes that received IVR injections decreased gradually until month 6 and was almost constant from months 7 to 11. No relationships were seen between the treatment frequency and baseline systemic factors and the ophthalmic examination findings. Univariate analyses showed that the number of IVR injections during the first year was associated with the mean retinal thickness in the individual subfields and the transverse length of the disrupted external limiting membrane (ELM and ellipsoid zone of the photoreceptors. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association with the thickness in the inferior subfield alone. The treatment frequency during the 12-month follow-up was not correlated with improved visual acuity but was associated with the decrease in the central subfield thickness and disrupted ELM.The retinal thickness in the inferior subfield predicts the treatment frequency during the first year in eyes with DME treated with PRN IVR injections.

  4. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... ency/article/000391.htm . (2002 January, Updated). Lactate (Liquid) Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc. [On-line Reagent ...

  5. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NE L ). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a + , an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that

  6. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-09-01

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  7. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  8. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  9. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ALPINE GOATS DURING LACTATION

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    Zvonko Antunović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present haematological parameters in the Alpine goats during lactation. The study included 15 goats average age of 5 years in the 4th lactation. The blood sampling of goats was conducted on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of lactation. In the blood of goats, significant decrease in the number of red blood cells was determined, as lactation progressed, and their growth in the latter measure, but with no significant difference. Also, a significant decrease was found in the number of leukocytes as lactation progressed, whereas the 120th day of lactation showed their increase compared to the 90th day. A similar trend was found out for the content of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The mean volume of red blood cells and a significant proportion of monocytes were declining as lactation advance, while the mean concentration of hemoglobin significantly increased, and in the end of the study significantly decreased, compared to the measurement of 90th day. The above mentioned changes in hematological parameters indicate the quality of recovery and adjustment of goats in lactation.

  10. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  11. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  12. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Sheng; Ghergurovich, Jonathan M; Morscher, Raphael J; Jang, Cholsoon; Teng, Xin; Lu, Wenyun; Esparza, Lourdes A; Reya, Tannishtha; Le Zhan; Yanxiang Guo, Jessie; White, Eileen; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2017-11-02

    Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear. Here we systematically examine the fluxes of circulating metabolites in mice, and find that lactate can be a primary source of carbon for the TCA cycle and thus of energy. Intravenous infusions of 13 C-labelled nutrients reveal that, on a molar basis, the circulatory turnover flux of lactate is the highest of all metabolites and exceeds that of glucose by 1.1-fold in fed mice and 2.5-fold in fasting mice; lactate is made primarily from glucose but also from other sources. In both fed and fasted mice, 13 C-lactate extensively labels TCA cycle intermediates in all tissues. Quantitative analysis reveals that during the fasted state, the contribution of glucose to tissue TCA metabolism is primarily indirect (via circulating lactate) in all tissues except the brain. In genetically engineered lung and pancreatic cancer tumours in fasted mice, the contribution of circulating lactate to TCA cycle intermediates exceeds that of glucose, with glutamine making a larger contribution than lactate in pancreatic cancer. Thus, glycolysis and the TCA cycle are uncoupled at the level of lactate, which is a primary circulating TCA substrate in most tissues and tumours.

  14. 49 CFR 385.333 - What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.333 What happens at the end of the 18-month safety monitoring period? (a) If a safety audit has been performed within... the same basis as any other carrier. (d) If a safety audit or compliance review has not been performed...

  15. Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Inducing Lactation: Breastfeeding for Adoptive Moms Page Content Article Body A growing number ...

  16. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  17. High serum lactate as an adjunct in the early prediction of anastomotic leak following oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, B; Ng, K T; Packer, S; Paterson-Brown, S; Couper, G W

    2017-10-01

    Anastomotic leak (AL) following oesophagectomy carries a high mortality and morbidity. Early detection and intervention is required for a successful outcome. We have examined the role of a high postoperative serum lactate in predicting which patients are at risk of developing an anastomotic leak(AL). All patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy over a 3-year period were identified from a prospectively collected database. Medical records were reviewed to identify the highest serum lactate recorded from blood gas analysis over each 24hr post-operative period. Patients who underwent transhiatal and left thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomies were excluded. Patients who developed a chyle leak were excluded. Of a total of 136 oesophagectomies included for analysis, 18 developed an AL (13.2%). Of these patients, 10 underwent thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization with cervical anastomosis and the rest an Ivor Lewis procedure. Predictive factors for AL included neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15/18 83.3% vs 55/118 46.6% p = 0.0046) and number of positive lymph nodes (mean 4.2 vs control mean 2.3 p = 0.045). Overall net fluid balance was comparable between the 2 groups, although AL patients received slightly more fluid on Day 3. High lactate levels on days 1-3 were associated with an AL. Using a Day 2 lactate of 1.7 mmol/L, the sensitivity of predicting AL was 72% and specificity 88%. The mean lag time using existing diagnostic modalities was 7.9 days. A serum lactate of >1.7 mmol/l on day 2 should raise the possibility of a potential AL. Such patients should be selected for more intensive monitoring, optimization and selective gastroscopy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or

  19. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some

  1. Lactate, endothelin, and central venous oxygen saturation as predictors of mortality in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Malhotra Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactate and central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 are well known biomarkers for adequacy of tissue oxygenation. Endothelin, an inflammatory marker has been associated with patient′s nutritional status and degree of cyanosis. The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that lactate, ScVO2 and endothelin before induction may be predictive of mortality in pediatric cardiac surgery. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 150 pediatric (6 months to 12 years patients who were posted for intracardiac repair for tetralogy of fallot and measured lactate, ScVO2 and endothelin before induction (T1, 20 minutes after protamine administration (T2 and 24 hours after admission to ICU (T3. Results: Preinduction lactate and endothelin levels were found to predict mortality in patients of tetralogy of fallot with an odds ratio of 6.020 (95% CI 2.111-17.168 and 1.292(95% CI 1.091-1.531 respectively. In the ROC curve analysis for lactate at T1, the AUC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.526-0.899 P = 0.019. At the cutoff value of 1.750mmol/lt, the sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of mortality was 63.6% and 65.5%, respectively. For endothelin at T1, the AUC was 0.699 (95% CI 0.516-0.883, P = 0.028 and the cutoff value was ≤2.50 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 58.3 %. ScVO2 (odds ratio 0.85 at all three time intervals, suggested that improving ScVO2 can lead to 15% reduction in mortality. Conclusions: Lactate, ScVO2 and endothelin all showed association with mortality with lactate having the maximum prediction. Lactate was found to be an independent, reliable and cost-effective measure of prediction of mortality in patients with tetralogy of fallot.

  2. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  3. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  4. Transmammary transfer of toxicity to nursing kids from Isocoma pluriflora (rayless goldenrod) dosed to lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, James A; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Lee, Stephen T; Davis, T Zane; Green, Ben T

    2018-05-01

    Rayless goldenrod (RG; Isocoma pluriflora) poisons livestock in the southwestern U.S., west Texas, and northern Mexico. The putative toxin(s) have historically been thought to be benzofuran ketones. Goats have been used successfully as a model of RG poisoning. The transmammary transfer of toxicity to offspring from lactating goats has not been studied, thus the objective of this study was to determine if nursing kids would become poisoned via mother's milk when the dams were dosed with RG. Twelve lactating goats (6 controls and 6 treated; all with twin kids) were dosed via oral gavage with alfalfa or rayless goldenrod at 2% of BW per day for 14 days. Two kids showed overt clinical signs near the end of the study; however, no dams showed clinical signs, and none developed exercise intolerance or muscle weakness. After day 11 of treatment, the RG kids showed increased (P kids declined rapidly over 7 days after transmammary exposure ended. Histopathology revealed that one kid had extensive myonecrosis that involved both myocardium and skeletal muscles. The other kids from RG-treated does had minimal myocyte degeneration and necrosis characterized by individual myofiber swelling, hypereosinophilia and loss of striation. Benzofuran ketones were not detected in the milk of lactating goats; further, dosing with RG did not alter milk composition. In summary, milk ingestion from does dosed with >300 mg/kg BW of benzofuran ketones from RG over 14 days increased mean CK concentrations in treated kids compared to controls; however kids rapidly recovered when exposure ended. Additional work is needed to better define benzofuran ketone metabolism, toxicity, and animal susceptibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay. Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05 increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05 and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05 higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  6. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  7. Effect of teriparatide on pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis with multiple vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Eun Yeong; Song, Je Eun; Park, Kyeong Hye; Seok, Hannah; Lee, Eun Jig; Lim, Sung-Kil; Rhee, Yumie

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is very rare, but it can cause severe vertebral compression fractures with disabling back pain. PLO patients have commonly been treated with antiresorptive agents against high bone turnover. There are, however, some concerns regarding the use of bisphosphonates: (1) PLO occurs during the first pregnancy with a high possibility of recurrence during the second pregnancy, (2) long-term outcomes of bisphosphonates in PLO are lacking, and (3) there is a possibility of bisphosphonates accumulated in the bones crossing the placenta. Therefore, alternative therapies must be considered. We analyzed the effect of teriparatide (TPTD), the human recombinant parathyroid hormone (1-34), for 18 months in three women with PLO. Multiple vertebral fractures with severe back pain appeared within 6 months after their first childbirth. Two of them had a family history of osteoporosis. Lactation was discontinued immediately after diagnosis of PLO. Calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol, and TPTD were prescribed. The back pain immediately resolved. Bone mineral density (BMD) increased by 14.5-25.0% (mean 19.5%) at the lumbar spine and by 9.5-16.7% (mean 13.1%) at the femoral neck, after 18 months of treatment. The final Z scores in these PLO patients were nearly normalized. Two women had a second baby without any complication. BMD significantly improved after 18 months of treatment with TPTD without further fractures. In conclusion, TPTD should be considered to avoid long-term morbidity in young patients with PLO and is highly encouraged for use in PLO patients with multiple vertebral fractures.

  8. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  9. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  10. CD147 required for corneal endothelial lactate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimin; Nguyen, Tracy T; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2014-06-26

    CD147/basigin is a chaperone for lactate:H(+) cotransporters (monocarboxylate transporters) MCT1 and MCT4. We tested the hypothesis that MCT1 and -4 in corneal endothelium contribute to lactate efflux from stroma to anterior chamber and that silencing CD147 expression would cause corneal edema. CD147 was silenced via small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection of rabbit corneas ex vivo and anterior chamber lenti-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) pseudovirus in vivo. CD147 and MCT expression was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Functional effects were examined by measuring lactate-induced cell acidification, corneal lactate efflux, [lactate], central cornea thickness (CCT), and Azopt (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) sensitivity. In ex vivo corneas, 100 nM CD147 siRNA reduced CD147, MCT1, and MCT4 expression by 85%, 79%, and 73%, respectively, while MCT2 expression was unaffected. CD147 siRNA decreased lactate efflux from 3.9 ± 0.81 to 1.5 ± 0.37 nmol/min, increased corneal [lactate] from 19.28 ± 7.15 to 56.73 ± 8.97 nmol/mg, acidified endothelial cells (pHi = 6.83 ± 0.07 vs. 7.19 ± 0.09 in control), and slowed basolateral lactate-induced acidification from 0.0034 ± 0.0005 to 0.0012 ± 0.0005 pH/s, whereas apical acidification was unchanged. In vivo, CD147 shRNA increased CCT by 28.1 ± 0.9 μm at 28 days; Azopt increased CCT to 24.4 ± 3.12 vs. 12.0 ± 0.48 μm in control, and corneal [lactate] was 47.63 ± 6.29 nmol/mg in shCD147 corneas and 17.82 ± 4.93 nmol/mg in paired controls. CD147 is required for the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in the corneal endothelium. Silencing CD147 slows lactate efflux, resulting in stromal lactate accumulation and corneal edema, consistent with lactate efflux as a significant component of the corneal endothelial pump. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. The effect of zinc supplementation of lactating rats on short-term and long-term memory of their male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohammad; Ehsanivostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats' offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (Plong-term) memory of all groups. Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  12. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print......]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  13. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  14. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  15. Application of L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase for development of amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of amperometric biosensor based on L-lactate-cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b2, FC b2 for lactate determination. Methods. All experiments were performed using the amperometric method of detection. The methods of electrochemical polymerization and immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapors were used for FC b2 immobilization on the surface of electrodes. Results. The FC b2 preparation, which demonstrated the best operational characteristics after immobilization in poly (3,4-ethylen dioxythiophene, was selected. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The analysis of L-lactate in the model solutions and wine samples was carried outusing the developed biosensor. Conclusion. The FC b2-based biosensor due to its high stability can be effectively used for lactate determination in blood and other liquids containing no ethanol. After the selectivity optimization, the devise can be also applied for wine analysis.

  16. Models to estimate lactation curves of milk yield and somatic cell count in dairy cows at the herd level for the use in simulations and predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC for fitting to sparse data to parameterise herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds.Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and SCC of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for SCC. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two or one-parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and SCC were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring.The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and SCC were 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the SCC, and the total SCC was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per ml. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total SCC and the milk yield.The variation of lactation and SCC curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible estimate, but may more precisely predict persistence, and given the independence of parameters, these can be

  17. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... kinetics changed multiple times when exercise mode was changed. Whole body glucose and glycerol turnover was unchanged during the different skiing modes; however, limb net glucose uptake changed severalfold. In conclusion, the arterial lactate concentration can be maintained at a relatively low level...... despite high lactate R(a) during exercise with a large muscle mass because of the large capacity of active skeletal muscle to take up lactate, which is tightly correlated with lactate delivery. The limb lactate uptake during exercise is oxidized at rates far above resting oxygen consumption, implying...

  18. Simulating suppressed and active convection periods during TOGA COARE

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional Non-hydrostatic s-coordinate Model (NSM) is used to simulate two twelve day periods and an eight day period observed during the Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE...

  19. Heart rate and lactate response of junior handball players (Under 18 during competitive match play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study highlights the heart rate (HR and blood lactate (La response of junior handball players of two positions – wings and backs, during competitive matches. Methods: Heart rate and blood lactate of twelve handball players – 6 Backs (B and 6 Wingers (W] – were recorded in quarter- and semifinal matches of the tournament. HR was recorded continuously by heart rate telemeter whereas La was measured at rest, after warm up and immediately after the end of first- and second halves of the matches. Results: Average HR and Maximum Heart Rate Reserve (MHRR of the players were similar in each half of play. No significant difference (p<0.05 in average HR and MHRR were observed between B (169±17.5 beats/min and 74.3±9.4% and W (169.5±16.3 beats/min and 74.1±8.5%. W and B played about 1/5th of their playing time above the Anerobic Threshold level. Average HR of the players in each 5 min of play could vary significantly but no such difference per 15 min of play was found. Lactate of W and B after the first half of play were 7.4±1.6 and 7.2±1.5 mM and after the end of the matches were 7.9±0.4 and 7.6±1.4 mM respectively. No significant difference in La was found between W and B. Conclusion: (a Handball play is a high intensity game, (b the workload does not vary between W and B, (c the intensity of play could vary in every 5 min of play but there is no difference in average intensity for each 15 min, and (d handball is played aerobically for majority of the time.

  20. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  2. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A; Elsayed, M; Margineanu, Michael B.; Boury-Jamot, B; Fragniè re, L; Meylan, E M; Petit, J-M; Fiumelli, Hubert; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Martin, J-L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  3. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A

    2016-10-18

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  4. Monitoring metabolic health of dairy cattle in the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the importance of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows, its associations with disease and reproduction, and strategies for monitoring cows under field conditions during this critical time. Essentially all dairy cattle experience a period of insulin resistance, reduced feed intake, negative energy balance, hypocalcemia, reduced immune function, and bacterial contamination of the uterus soon before, or in the weeks after calving. One-third of dairy cows may be affected by some form of metabolic or infectious disease in early lactation. Routine, proactive actions, observations, or analysis are intended to accurately and efficiently provide early detection of problems, to provide an opportunity for investigation and intervention in order to limit the consequences and costs of health problems and reduced animal performance or welfare. Methods of early detection include monitoring of disease and culling records, feed intake, milk production, body condition, and simple metabolic tests. Methods, strategies, and interpretation of measurement of peripartum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as indicators of aspects of energy status and disease risk are reviewed. High NEFA (> 0.4 mmol/l) in the last 7 to 10 days before expected calving is associated with increased risk of displaced abomasum (DA), retained placenta, culling before 60 days in milk, and less milk production in the first 4 months of lactation. Subclinical ketosis (serum BHB >1200 to 1400 micromol/l) in the first or second week after calving is associated with increased risk of DA, metritis, clinical ketosis, endometritis, prolonged postpartum anovulation, increased severity of mastitis, and lower milk production in early lactation. There are several validated and practical tools for cow-side measurement of ketosis.

  5. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    (2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P renal blood flow...... with no significant change in the renal venous erythropoietin concentration (0.8 ± 1.4 U x L(-1)). The a-v lactate concentration difference increased to 0.5 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), indicating similar lactate elimination as at rest. In conclusion, a -70% reduction in renal blood flow does not provoke critical renal......Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...

  6. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra

    2017-01-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lacta......-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.......Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate...... concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished...

  7. Glymphatic clearance controls state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Lu, Minh Lon; Yang, Ezra; Peng, Weiguo; Mestre, Humberto; Hitomi, Emi; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Brain lactate concentration is higher during wakefulness than in sleep. However, it is unknown why arousal is linked to an increase in brain lactate and why lactate declines within minutes of sleep. Here, we show that the glymphatic system is responsible for state-dependent changes in brain lactate concentration. Suppression of glymphatic function via acetazolamide treatment, cisterna magna puncture, aquaporin 4 deletion, or changes in body position reduced the decline in brain lactate normally observed when awake mice transition into sleep or anesthesia. Concurrently, the same manipulations diminished accumulation of lactate in cervical, but not in inguinal lymph nodes when mice were anesthetized. Thus, our study suggests that brain lactate is an excellent biomarker of the sleep-wake cycle and increases further during sleep deprivation, because brain lactate is inversely correlated with glymphatic-lymphatic clearance. This analysis provides fundamental new insight into brain energy metabolism by demonstrating that glucose that is not fully oxidized can be exported as lactate via glymphatic-lymphatic fluid transport.

  8. Lactate and lactate dehydrogenase in predicting the severity of transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkiraz, Servet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Boke, Saltuk Bugra; Kilicdag, Hasan; Ozel, Deniz; Sert, Ahmet

    2013-08-01

    Low Apgar score is strongly associated with the incidence of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) and other respiratory diseases of the newborn. We aimed to investigate the relationship between hypoxia determinants and the prolonged oxygen and respiratory support requirement even if the Apgar scores were normal. Retrospective case-controlled study. Infants born after 35 weeks of gestational age with clinical signs, chest X-ray findings and clinical course consistent with TTN were included. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the predictive values of determinants in predicting the risk for prolonged oxygen requirement and mechanical ventilatory support. We showed a positive correlation between the duration of oxygen with lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. LDH offered the best predictive value for prolonged oxygen requirement with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88.9%. The predictive value of lactate exceeds the predictive value of LDH, aspartate aminotransferase, and percentage of normoblasts to predict the requirement of respiratory support with a PPV of 88.5%. Lactate and LDH might be useful for clinicians at first level hospitals for decision making to refer the TTN patient to the secondary or tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit before the clinical situation is worsened.

  9. Twelve-month and lifetime health service use in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley Browne, Mark A; Wells, J Elisabeth; McGee, Magnus A

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the 12 month and lifetime use of health services for mental health problems. A nationwide face-to-face household survey carried out in 2003-2004. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used. There were 12 992 completed interviews from participants aged 16 years and over. The overall response rate was 73.3%. In this paper, the outcomes reported are 12 month and lifetime health service use for mental health and substance use problems. Of the population, 13.4% had a visit for a mental health reason in the 12 months before interview. Of all 12 month cases of mental disorder, 38.9% had a mental health visit to a health or non-health-care provider in the past 12 months. Of these 12 month cases, 16.4% had contact with a mental health specialist, 28.3% with a general medical provider, 4.8% within the human services sector and 6.9% with a complementary or alternative medicine practitioner. Most people with lifetime disorders eventually made contact if their disorder continued. However, the percentages seeking help at the age of onset were small for most disorders and several disorders had large percentages who never sought help. The median duration of delay until contact varies from 1 year for major depressive disorder to 38 years for specific phobias. A significant unmet need for treatment for people with mental disorder exists in the New Zealand community, as in other comparable countries.

  10. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  11. Point-of-care lactate and creatinine analysis for sick obstetric patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmacher, S A; Bonongwe, P; Stones, W

    2016-03-01

    To achieve good outcomes in critically ill obstetric patients, it is necessary to identify organ dysfunction rapidly so that life-saving interventions can be appropriately commenced. However, timely access to clinical chemistry results is problematic, even in referral institutions, in the sub-Saharan African region. Reliable point-of-care tests licensed for clinical use are now available for lactate and creatinine. We aimed to assess whether implementation of point-of-care testing for lactate and creatinine is feasible in the obstetric unit at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi, by obtaining the opinions of clinical staff on the use of these tests in practice. During a two-month evaluation period nurse-midwives, medical interns, clinical officers, registrars, and consultants were given the opportunity to use StatStrip® and StatSensor® (Nova Biomedical, Waltham, USA) devices, for lactate and creatinine estimation, as part of their routine clinical practice in the obstetric unit. They were subsequently asked to complete a short questionnaire. Thirty-seven questionnaires were returned by participants: 22 from nurse-midwives and the remainder from clinicians. The mean satisfaction score for the devices was 7.6/10 amongst clinicians and 8.0/10 amongst nurse-midwives. The majority of participants stated that the obstetric high dependency unit (HDU) was the most suitable location for the devices. For lactate, 31 participants strongly agreed that testing should be continued and 24 strongly agreed that it would influence patient management. For creatinine, 29 strongly agreed that testing should be continued and 28 strongly agreed that it would influence their patient management. Twenty participants strongly agreed that they trust point-of-care devices. Point-of-care clinical chemistry testing was feasible, practical, and well received by staff, and was considered to have a useful role to play in the clinical care of sick obstetric patients at

  12. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

  13. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  14. Relation of supplementary feeding to resumptions of menstruation and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Yi

    2007-05-20

    Resumption of menstrual cycles is one of the indicators for restoration of reproductive capability in postpartum women. However, menstruation does not necessarily mean that ovulation has taken place. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of supplementary feeding to return of menstruation and ovulation after delivery. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 101 breastfeeding mothers. The following elements were analyzed: age, education level, breastfeeding practice, time of return of menstruation, contraceptive practice, and starting time of supplementary feeding during the lactation at intervals of 6 weeks to 18 months after delivery. The ovulation was continuously monitored by ultrasonography and basal body temperature (BBT) measurement. By ultrasonography, 53 of the 101 women (52.5%) had the first ovulation (follicle > 1.8 cm in diameter) within 154 days after delivery on average, among whom 11 (10.9%, 11/101) had restoration of ovulation within 4 months and 42 (41.6%, 42/101) had it after 4 months. In women with follicles > 1.8 cm in diameter (n = 53), the menstruation resumed (138 +/- 84) days after delivery, and the supplementary feeding was started at (4.0 +/- 1.1) months, which were significantly earlier than those in the women with follicular diameter menstruation before the end of ultrasonographic monitoring, while only 8 in the women with follicular diameter menstruation (n = 100, r = 0.4764, P < 0.01) and first ovulation after delivery (n = 53, r = 0.5554, P < 0.01). In this series, no woman had pregnancy within 18 months postpartum. Supplementary feeding can affect the restoration of menstrual cycles and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

  15. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M

    2002-11-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number

  16. Regional differences in adipocyte lactate production from glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newby, F.D.; Sykes, M.N.; DiGirolamo, M.

    1988-01-01

    Having shown that lactate is an important product of glucose metabolism by rat epididymal adipocytes, the authors investigated possible regional differences in adipocyte lactate production and the role of the animals' nutritional state and stage of development. [U- 14 C]glucose metabolism, lactate production, and response to insulin were measured in fat cells isolated from four adipose regions from young lean and older fatter rats, killed either in the fed state or after fasting for 48 h. In the absence of insulin, mesenteric fat cells from either age group metabolized significantly more glucose per cell and converted more glucose to lactate than cells from other depots, regardless of nutritional state. Adipocytes from fasted lean rats showed a significant increase in the relative glucose conversion to lactate in all depots when compared with cells from fed lean rats. Fasting of older fatter rats, however, had limited effects on the relative adipocyte glucose conversion to lactate since lactate production was already high. Mesenteric fat cells had the lowest relative response to insulin, possibly due to the high basal rate of glucose metabolism. These findings indicate that differences exist among adipose regions in the rates of glucose metabolism, lactate production and response to insulin. The anatomical location of the mesenteric adipose depot, coupled with a high metabolic rate and blood perfusion, suggests that mesenteric adipocytes may provide a unique and more direct contribution of metabolic substrates for hepatic metabolism than adipocytes from other depots

  17. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  18. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  19. Twelve-month quality of life improvement and all-cause mortality in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczyński, Paweł; Bagieński, Maciej; Dziewierz, Artur; Rzeszutko, Łukasz; Sorysz, Danuta; Trębacz, Jarosław; Sobczyński, Robert; Tomala, Marek; Stąpór, Maciej; Dudek, Dariusz

    2016-10-10

    Restoration of quality of life (QoL) and improvement of clinical outcomes is crucial in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to evaluate changes in QoL and all-cause mortality 12 months after TAVI. A total of 101 patients who underwent TAVI were included. Patients were followed for 12 months. QoL was assessed at baseline and at 1, 6 and 12 months after TAVI using EQ-5D-3L with a visual analog scale (VAS). Patients who reported some problems with mobility at baseline showed better mobility after 12 months (p = 0.001). On the other hand, those who reported issues with self-care, usual activity or pain did not show significant improvement (p = 0.41; p = 0.12; p = 0.27, respectively). Patients reporting anxiety at baseline improved 12 months later (p = 0.003). VAS score showed an incremental increase during follow-up (p<0.001). Transfemoral access was associated with higher VAS score values after 1 month (median (IQR): 65.0 (50.0-75.0) vs. 54.0 (50.0-60.0); p = 0.019) but not after 12 months (70.0 (62.5-80.0) vs. 67.5 (55.0-70.0); p = 0.07) as compared to non-transfemoral access. In multivariable regression analysis, only age and the presence of coronary chronic total occlusion were independently associated with VAS score at 12 months. In-hospital, 1-, 6- and 12-month mortality rates were 6.9%, 10.9%, 15.8 and 17.8%, respectively. TAVI provides improved QoL with relatively good clinical outcomes. However, not all components of QoL may be improved. Patients treated with transfemoral access might have better QoL than those who had non-transfemoral access, especially early after TAVI.

  20. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors

  1. Non-linear modelling to describe lactation curve in Gir crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Bangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modelling of lactation curve provides guidelines in formulating farm managerial practices in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitable non-linear model which most accurately fitted to lactation curves of five lactations in 134 Gir crossbred cows reared in Research-Cum-Development Project (RCDP on Cattle farm, MPKV (Maharashtra. Four models viz. gamma-type function, quadratic model, mixed log function and Wilmink model were fitted to each lactation separately and then compared on the basis of goodness of fit measures viz. adjusted R2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike’s Informaion Criteria (AIC and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC. Results In general, highest milk yield was observed in fourth lactation whereas it was lowest in first lactation. Among the models investigated, mixed log function and gamma-type function provided best fit of the lactation curve of first and remaining lactations, respectively. Quadratic model gave least fit to lactation curve in almost all lactations. Peak yield was observed as highest and lowest in fourth and first lactation, respectively. Further, first lactation showed highest persistency but relatively higher time to achieve peak yield than other lactations. Conclusion Lactation curve modelling using gamma-type function may be helpful to setting the management strategies at farm level, however, modelling must be optimized regularly before implementing them to enhance productivity in Gir crossbred cows.

  2. Lactate Clearance sebagai Prediktor Mortalitas pada Pasien Sepsis Berat dan Syok Septik di Intesive Care Unit Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

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    Muhammad Budi Kurniawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mortality incidence predictor used for sepsis and shock septic in Intensive Care Unit (ICU were measured using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, which needs many complex examinations. The purpose of this study was to examine lactate clearance as an alternative mortality predictor. Decreased percentage of lactate clearance is related to poor perfusion in microcirculation which leads to the possibility that lactate clearance can be used to predict mortality incidence in severe sepsis and shock septic patients in the ICU of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. This was a prospective observational cohort study involving 51 patients who met sepsis and shock septic criteria during the period of September to November 2015. Lactate was examined continuously in all patients at first hour (H0 and H24 and then the lactate clearance value was measured using the following formula: lactate initial–lactate delayed/lactate initial x100%. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the low lactate clearance(40%. The Mann Whitney test was used for numeric data and exact Fisher test was used for categorical data. Results showed that the lactate clearance had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88.4%, positive predictive value of 89.2%, negative predictive value of 100%, likelihood ratio positive of 86.6%, likelihood ratio negative of 0% and accuracy of 94.11%. Thus, lactate clearance can be used to predict mortality incidence in severe sepsis and shock septic patients.

  3. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  4. Is colposcopy necessary at twelve months after large loop excision of the transformation zone? A clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie; Marin, Raymond

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review outcomes from LLETZ (large loop excision of the transformation zone) procedures carried out for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), in particular findings at colposcopy, cytology and HR-HPV(high-risk human papilloma virus) result to assess whether colposcopy provides any additional information in the management of women at 12 months. We retrospectively analysed 252 patients who had a LLETZ procedure for a HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) between January 2005 and December 2010. Eighty per cent of women who had a LLETZ procedure for HSIL were reviewed in our colposcopy clinic at 12 months after the procedure. Colposcopy at 12 months after LLETZ was documented as unsatisfactory for 30% of these women. The sensitivity of colposcopy at 12 months after LLETZ was 0.47, and the specificity was 0.95. Colposcopy examination is an insensitive tool for detection of persisting HPV-related change after excision of high-grade CIN. Its usefulness to investigate persistent or recurrent HSIL is further reduced by the high rate of unsatisfactory colposcopy examinations after a LLETZ procedure. Papanicolaou smear and HRHPV tests may be adequate follow-up at 12 months after LLETZ for women at low risk of recurrence of HSIL. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  6. Increase in accumulation of strontium-90 in the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation: analysis of the Techa River data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Shagina, Natalia B.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    The unique contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) in the 1950s by long-lived {sup 90}Sr allows investigation of the accumulation of bone-seeking elements in humans. This study is based on information compiled at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Chelyabinsk, Russia) over a long period of time. It includes the results of in vivo measurements of {sup 90}Sr-body burden with a whole body counter (WBC), data on personal medical examinations and residence and family histories. Data on 185 women from two Techa riverside villages Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak were selected. The settlements differ in terms of {sup 90}Sr diet intake (higher in Muslyumovo than in Brodokalmak) and ethnicity (residents were mainly Slavs in Brodokalmak and Turkic in Muslyumovo). Results of a total of 555 WBC measurements performed in 1974-1997 were available for the women studied; maximum measured values reached 40 kBq/body. The women from each settlement were subdivided into three groups according to their childbearing history: pregnancy and lactation occurred (1) during the period of maximal {sup 90}Sr intake (1950-1951); (2) after the period of maximal intake and (3) before this period or women who were childless. An increase was found in accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation (group 1) by a factor of 1.5-2 in comparison with non-pregnant, non-lactating women. This result was found in both Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak samples. An increase in accumulation of toxic elements in pregnant/lactating women is associated with increased radiation/toxic doses and risk for the women's health. (orig.)

  7. Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and characterization of a self-powered electrochemical lactate biosensor for real-time monitoring of lactic acid. The bioanode and biocathode were modified with D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOD, respectively, to facilitate the oxidation and reduction of lactic acid and molecular oxygen. The bioelectrodes were arranged in a parallel configuration to construct the biofuel cell. This biofuel cell’s current–voltage characteristic was analyzed in the presence of various lactic acid concentrations over a range of 1–25 mM. An open circuit voltage of 395.3 mV and a short circuit current density of 418.8 µA/cm² were obtained when operating in 25 mM lactic acid. Additionally, a 10 pF capacitor was integrated via a charge pump circuit to the biofuel cell to realize the self-powered lactate biosensor with a footprint of 1.4 cm × 2 cm. The charge pump enabled the boosting of the biofuel cell voltage in bursts of 1.2–1.8 V via the capacitor. By observing the burst frequency of a 10 pF capacitor, the exact concentration of lactic acid was deduced. As a self-powered lactate sensor, a linear dynamic range of 1–100 mM lactic acid was observed under physiologic conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4 and the sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity of 125.88 Hz/mM-cm2. This electrochemical lactate biosensor has the potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of lactic acid level in biological fluids.

  8. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Lundby, C; Araoz, M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use...... and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did...... not exhibit a reduced capacity for the active muscle to produce lactate. Thus, the lactate paradox concept could not be demonstrated. High-altitude natives from the Andes actually exhibit a higher anaerobic energy production than lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization reflected by an increased muscle...

  9. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  10. Flexible graphene bio-nanosensor for lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue

    2013-03-15

    The development of a flexible nanosensor for detecting lactate could expand opportunities for using graphene, both in fundamental studies for a variety of device platforms and in practical applications. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with ultrasensitive sensing capabilities. Lactic acid is important for clinical analysis, sports medicine, and the food industry. Recently, wearable and flexible bioelectronics on plastics have attracted great interest for healthcare, sports and defense applications due to their advantages of being light-weight, bendable, or stretchable. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the development of a flexible graphene-based bio-nanosensor to detect lactate. Our results show that flexible lactate biosensors can be fabricated on a variety of plastic substrates. The sensor can detect lactate sensitively from 0.08 μM to 20 μM with a fast steady-state measuring time of 2s. The sensor can also detect lactate under different mechanical bending conditions, the sensor response decreased as the bending angle and number of bending repetitions increased. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for fundamental studies of flexible graphene bioelectronics by using other bioreceptors, as well as a variety of wearable, implantable, real-time, or on-site applications in fields ranging from clinical analysis to defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term of their offspring (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in reference (long-term memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment.

  12. Association between subclinical hypocalcemia in the first 3 days of lactation and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subclinical hypocalcemia on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In a prospective cohort study, 97 cows on 2 dairy farms with automatic milking systems were monitored for subclinical hypocalcemia. Animals were enrolled 7 ± 3 days prior to estimated calving date and three parity groups were defined based on the lactation that the animals were going to start: lactation = 1, lactation = 2, and lactation ≥3. Serum calcium concentration (Ca) was measured in all animals in the first 3 DIM and subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) was defined as Ca ≤ 8.6 mg/dL; animals that presented a low Ca level during all 3 days were classified as chronic SCH (cSCH). Return to cyclicity during the voluntary waiting period was analyzed based on weekly progesterone concentrations measured in serum. Information on reproductive outcomes (i.e., number of breedings, pregnancy status, days open, etc.), were collected from on-farm software after all study cows had completed their study period. Chronic SCH was present in all parity groups with higher incidence in multiparous animals (20% of parity = 1, 32% of parity = 2; and 46% of parity ≥ 3 animals). The cSCH animals took longer to show active ovaries when compared to eucalcemic and SCH animals. In a multivariable Cox's Proportional Hazard model animals with normal Ca were 1.8 times more likely to return to cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period when compared to cSCH animals. Animals with cSCH also had 0.27 odds of being pregnant at first service compared to eucalcemic cows when analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Subclinical hypocalcemia had a negative effect on return of ovarian function during the voluntary waiting period and decreased the odds of pregnancy at first service. Those cows with cSCH had an even more pronounced impaired reproductive function than those with one subclinical measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  14. Lactate is oxidized outside of the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric A F; George, Mitchell A J; Brebner, Karen; Holloway, Graham P; Kane, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    The nature and existence of mitochondrial lactate oxidation is debated in the literature. Obscuring the issue are disparate findings in isolated mitochondria, as well as relatively low rates of lactate oxidation observed in permeabilized muscle fibres. However, respiration with lactate has yet to be directly assessed in brain tissue with the mitochondrial reticulum intact. To determine if lactate is oxidized in the matrix of brain mitochondria, oxygen consumption was measured in saponin-permeabilized mouse brain cortex samples, and rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal) subregions. While respiration in the presence of ADP and malate increased with the addition of lactate, respiration was maximized following the addition of exogenous NAD + , suggesting maximal lactate metabolism involves extra-matrix lactate dehydrogenase. This was further supported when NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation was significantly decreased with the addition of either low-concentration α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate or UK-5099, inhibitors of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial respiration was comparable between glutamate, pyruvate, and NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation. Results from the current study demonstrate that permeabilized brain is a feasible model for assessing lactate oxidation, and support the interpretation that lactate oxidation occurs outside the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

  15. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  16. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  17. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  18. Heritability of methane emissions from dairy cows over a lactation measured on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Rzewuska, K; Mucha, S; Strabel, T

    2017-11-01

    Methane emission is currently an important trait in studies on ruminants due to its environmental and economic impact. Recent studies were based on short-time measurements on individual cows. As methane emission is a longitudinal trait, it is important to investigate its changes over a full lactation. In this study, we aimed to estimate the heritability of the estimated methane emissions from dairy cows using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during milking in an automated milking system by implementing the random regression method. The methane measurements were taken on 485 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows at 2 commercial farms located in western Poland. The overall daily estimated methane emission was 279 g/d. Genetic variance fluctuated over the course of lactation around the average level of 1,509 (g/d), with the highest level, 1,866 (g/d), at the end of the lactation. The permanent environment variance values started at 2,865 (g/d) and then dropped to around 846 (g/d) at 100 d in milk (DIM) to reach the level of 2,444 (g/d) at the end of lactation. The residual variance was estimated at 2,620 (g/d). The average repeatability was 0.25. The heritability level fluctuated over the course of lactation, starting at 0.23 (SE 0.12) and then increasing to its maximum value of 0.3 (SE 0.08) at 212 DIM and ending at the level of 0.27 (SE 0.12). Average heritability was 0.27 (average SE 0.09). We have shown that estimated methane emission is a heritable trait and that the heritability level changes over the course of lactation. The observed changes and low genetic correlations between distant DIM suggest that it may be important to consider the period in which methane phenotypes are collected.

  19. A neurokinin 3 receptor-selective agonist accelerates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in lactating cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Ohkura, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle. We examined the effects of the administration of an NK3R-selective agonist, senktide, on gonadotropin secretion in lactating cattle. The lactating cattle, at approximately 7 days postpartum, were intravenously infused with senktide (30 or 300 nmol/min) or vehicle for 24 h. The administration of 30 or 300 nmol/min senktide significantly increased LH pulse frequency compared to in the control group during 0-4 or 20-24 h after infusion, respectively. Moreover, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were gradually increased by 300 nmol/min administration of senktide during the 0-4-h sampling period. Ultrasonography of the ovaries was performed to identify the first postpartum ovulation in senktide-administered lactating cattle. The interval from calving to first postpartum ovulation was significantly shorter in the 300 nmol/min senktide-administered group than in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that senktide infusion elicits an increase in LH pulse frequency that may stimulate follicular development and, in turn, induce the first postpartum ovulation in lactating cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  1. Glycogen synthesis from lactate in a chronically active muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmadge, R.J.; Scheide, J.I.; Silverman, H.

    1989-01-01

    In response to neural overactivity (pseudomyotonia), gastrocnemius muscle fibers from C57Bl/6Jdy2J/dy2J mice have different metabolic profiles compared with normal mice. A population of fibers in the fast-twitch superficial region of the dy2J gastrocnemius stores unusually high amounts of glycogen, leading to an increased glycogen storage in the whole muscle. The dy2J muscle also contains twice as much lactate as normal muscle. A [ 14 C]lactate intraperitoneal injection leads to preferential 14 C incorporation into glycogen in the dy2J muscle compared with normal muscle. To determine whether skeletal muscles were incorporating lactate into glycogen without body organ (liver, kidney) input, gastrocnemius muscles were bathed in 10 mM [ 14 C]lactate with intact neural and arterial supply but with impeded venous return. The contralateral gastrocnemius serves as a control for body organ input. By using this in situ procedure, we demonstrate that under conditions of high lactate both normal and dy2J muscle can directly synthesize glycogen from lactate. In this case, normal whole muscle incorporates [14C] lactate into glycogen at a higher rate than dy2J whole muscle. Autoradiography, however, suggests that the high-glycogen-containing muscle fibers in the dy2J muscle incorporate lactate into glycogen at nearly four times the rate of normal or surrounding muscle fibers

  2. Lactation curve of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Ribeiro Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to evaluate the lactation curve of crosss-bred buffalo [Murrah (M, Mediterranean (Me and Jafarabadi(J] under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period of 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period of 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Eight mathematical functions were used: Inverse Polynomial, Linear Hyperbolic, Incomplete Gamma, Logarithmic, Logarithmic Quadratic, Linear, Quadratic and Jenkins & Ferrel. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC NLIN of SAS (2005. Results showed that for both production systems, Incomplete Gama was the best function to describe the lactation curve. Values of coefficient of determination, standard-deviation, coefficient of variation and standard-error were 95%, 0.068, 7.20, and 0.003, respectively. The corresponding values for PS2 were 96%, 0.200, 2.12, and 0.003. Values of the lactation curve parameters (a, b, and c for PS1 and PS2, respectively, were (a 7.0035923 and 10.9209, (b -0.1080043 and -0.1614882, (c 0.0434868 and 0.0679365.

  3. Performance during a strenuous swimming session is associated with high blood lactate: pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, P B; Godoy, G; De Souza, H M; Curi, R; Bazotte, R B

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactatemia elevation and glycemia reduction on strenuous swimming performance in fasted rats. Three rats were placed in a swimming tank at the same time. The first rat was removed immediately (control group) and the remaining ones were submitted to a strenuous swimming session. After the second rat was exhausted (Exh group), the third one was immediately removed from the water (Exe group). According to the period of time required for exhaustion, the rats were divided into four groups: low performance (3-7 min), low-intermediary performance (8-12 min), high-intermediary performance (13-17 min), and high performance (18-22 min). All rats were removed from the swimming tanks and immediately killed by decapitation for blood collection or anesthetized for liver perfusion experiments. Blood glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations, blood lactate/pyruvate ratio, and liver lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose were evaluated. Exhaustion in low and low-intermediary performance were better associated with higher lactate/pyruvate ratio. On the other hand, exhaustion in high-intermediary and high performance was better associated with hypoglycemia. Lactate uptake and glucose production from lactate in livers from the Exe and Exh groups were maintained. We concluded that there is a time sequence in the participation of lactate/pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in performance during an acute strenuous swimming section in fasted rats. The liver had an important participation in preventing hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia during swimming through lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose.

  4. Kinetics of lactate turnover and oxidation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Shames, D.; Cavalieri, R.R.; DeGrazia, J.; Zarcone, V.; Porte, D. Jr.; Bagdade, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The turnover and oxidation of lactic acid have been studied in man by means of 14 C-lactic acid, 14 C-glucose, and 14 C-alanine. The use of these labels in separate studies has enabled us to describe a complete scheme for the kinetics of lactic acid in man. We have determined that lactate arises from a minimum of two sources in overnight fasted man. 66% of lactate at this time arises from the metabolism of glucose while approximately 15% is derived from alanine. These sources and others unidentified supply lactate to the body pool at a rate of approximately 95 mg per kg per h. The disposal of this quantity of lactate is achieved through a minimum of three routes. Approximately 57% of the lactate turnover is oxidized to carbon dioxide, 15% is reduced to glucose, and approximately 25% is converted to alanine. The quantitative changes in the kinetics of this system that are brought on by fasting add an interesting dimension to the system. In agreement with the concepts of fuel economy in fasting the contribution of glucose carbon to lactic acid falls and, in turn, the contribution of lactate carbon to body glucose rises. The study of additional permutations of this system suggest that lactate, with pyruvate, is in the main stream of the intermediary metabolism of the body. The authors suggest that the study of this system offers promise of a fuller understanding of the derangements of metabolic disease. (author)

  5. Blood lactate is an important energy source for the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., van Hall; Stromstad, M.; Rasmussen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Lactate is a potential energy source for the brain. The aim of this study was to establish whether systemic lactate is a brain energy source. We measured in vivo cerebral lactate kinetics and oxidation rates in 6 healthy individuals at rest with and without 90 mins of intravenous lactate infusion...... is taken up and oxidized by the human brain and is an important substrate for the brain both under basal and hyperlactatemic conditions.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 1 April 2009; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.35.......Lactate is a potential energy source for the brain. The aim of this study was to establish whether systemic lactate is a brain energy source. We measured in vivo cerebral lactate kinetics and oxidation rates in 6 healthy individuals at rest with and without 90 mins of intravenous lactate infusion...

  6. Preanalytical handling of samples for measurement of plasma lactate in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Jørgensen, L T

    2003-01-01

    (0.78 mmol/Lh +/- 0.02 vs. 0.63 mmol/Lh +/- 0.05, (p=0.009) and 0.65 mmol/Lh +/- 0.03 vs. 0.53 mmol/Lh +/- 0.05, (p=0.042)). It was found that placing the tubes on crushed ice rather than keeping them at 25 degrees C controlled glycolysis and lactate production measured over a 6-h period (0.033 mmol...

  7. MICROBIOLOGY AND SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF LACTATIONAL AND NON-LACTATIONAL BREAST ABSCESS IN SOUTHERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Sahoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast abscess is one of the most frequently encountered cases in the General Surgery OPD among females. This fact can be supported by the fact that 4.6% and 11% of the women in developed and developing countries are affected by breast abscess. Breast abscesses are generally categorised as one of two types: Lactational abscesses and non-lactational abscesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted from December 2015 to January 2017 on female patients visiting the General Surgery OPD of MKCG Medical College and Hospital with presumptive diagnosis of breast abscess. Both lactational and non-lactational females were included in the study. A total of 53 subjects with breast abscess were included in the study. The diagnosis of breast abscess was made from the clinical signs and symptoms of infection. Patients having any benign or malignant disease of breast were excluded from the study. RESULTS Of the 53 specimens found positive for bacterial yield, 43 were monomicrobial and only 10 were polymicrobial. Out of the 53 samples collected, only 6 showed anaerobic growth. Most common aerobic Gram positive isolate found in the sample was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Most common aerobic Gram negative organism isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in 14 cases followed by Escherichia coli in 10 cases. Anaerobic bacteria were found only in nonlactational breast abscess. Of the anaerobic isolates, 5 are monomicrobial and 1 was polymicrobial. Aerobic Gram positive isolates showed sensitivity to most of the commonly used antibiotics. All the 4 gram negative isolates were found to be 100% sensitive to Piperacillin Tazobactam combination and Imipenem/Cilastatin combination. Pseudomonas was found to be somewhat resistant to Amikacin, Levofloxacin and Cephalosporins. Anaerobes were found to be fully sensitive to Metronidazole, Clindamycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam combination. CONCLUSION Hence, this

  8. Blood flow changes in Alzheimer's disease induced by lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavics, L.; Sera, T.; Kalman, J.; Janka, Z.; Csernay, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Lactate, as metabolite of the glycolysis is a source of energy of the nerves. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed the neuroprotective effect of lactate and improvement of brain function after ischaemic injury. Intravenous infusion of lactate increases the global cerebral blood flow (CBF). In Alzheimer disease (AD) characteristic regional blood flow abnormalities and in the cerebrospinal fluid abnormal lactate levels were detected. Since disturbed CBF and vasoregulation was found in AD the effect of intravenous Na-lactate on CBF and related metabolic parameters was examined in order to assess the CBF response in the AD brain. In twenty (14 woman, 6 man, age ± SD.: 74 ± 7 years) patients with Alzheimer's disease (DSM IV, MMT.:13 ± 6) self-control study was performed. rCBF SPECT (99mTc-HMPAO) investigations were fulfilled during 5 mg/kg body weight 0.5 M Na-lactate infusion and in control state (0.9 % saline infusion) one week apart. The rCBF changes visually and by statistical parametric mapping were analyzed. ECG, blood pressure, heart rate, venous blood pH, pCO 2 , bicarbonate, serum lactate and cortisol level were measured before and after the SPECT investigation. Acute panic inventory and anxiety rating scales were used to access the psychiatric effect of lactate. The serum lactate levels increased in average from 0.8 mmol/L to 4.6 mmol/L, and 6.1 mmol/L 10 and 20 minutes after lactate infusion respectively. Compensatory changes were found in the venous blood pH, pCO 2 and bicarbonate levels. Significant psychiatric symptoms and blood pressure and heart rate increase were not observed. The serum cortisol level remained unchanged. At the baseline investigation all of the patients have bilateral temporal or parietal hypoperfused areas in 8 patients with other additional localization of abnormalities. In 12 patients the global cerebral blood flow increased, in 8 decreased rCBF was detected by visual evaluation. According to the SPM analysis the

  9. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Houghton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.

  10. Comparative evaluation of haematological parameters and erythrocyte membrane stability in pregnant and lactating goats in different seasons of tropical Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibu, B; Makun, H J; Yaqub, L S; Buhari, H U; Aluwong, T; Kawu, M U

    2017-09-01

    Haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) are commonly used as indicators of health status and erythrocyte membrane integrity. Variations in haematological parameters and EOF in late gestation and early lactation during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RAS) seasons were studied in sixty (n = 60) Red Sokoto goats (20 goats for each season). The ambient temperatures and temperature-humidity index recorded were higher in the afternoon hours of the HDS and RAS, but lower in the morning hours of the CDS as compared with the thermoneutral zone of goats. Results revealed that the pregnant goats had significantly (P goats, higher (P goats. The EOF was significantly higher during lactation than pregnancy in the CDS and HDS. Similarly, the magnitude of the left shift in fragiligram during the CDS was more marked in pregnant compared with lactating goats. During gestation, the CDS had lower (P goats during the CDS. In conclusion, seasonal variations exist in physiology of erythrocytes of goats during the peri-partum period, with an increase in PCV and RBC, but a decrease in haemoglobin parameters in pregnant compared with lactating goats during the RAS. Erythrocyte stability and membrane integrity were higher in pregnant than lactating goats, and also higher during the CDS than the HDS and RAS, irrespective of reproductive status. This information may be useful in the design of animal breeding and is of value in animal welfare, research, diagnosis and management of haematological conditions during the peri-partum period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging-associated changes in hippocampal glycogen metabolism in mice. Evidence for and against astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drulis-Fajdasz, Dominika; Gizak, Agnieszka; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Rakus, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Lactate derived from astrocytic glycogen has been shown to support memory formation in hippocampi of young animals, inhibiting it in old animals. Here we show, using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, immunofluorescence, and qPCR that aging is associated with an increase of glycogen metabolism enzymes concentration and shift in their localization from astrocytes to neurons. These changes are accompanied with reorganization of hippocampal energy metabolism which is manifested by elevated capacity of aging neurons to oxidize glucose in glycolysis and mitochondria, and decreased ability for fatty acids utilization. Our observations suggest that astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle may operate in young hippocampi, however, during aging neurons become independent on astrocytic lactate and the metabolic crosstalk between the brain's cells is disrupted. © 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Minimizing the effects of oxygen interference on l-lactate sensors by a single amino acid mutation in Aerococcus viridansl-lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraka, Kentaro; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Lin, Chi-En; Tsugawa, Wakako; Asano, Ryutaro; La Belle, Jeffrey T; Sode, Koji

    2018-04-30

    l-lactate biosensors employing l-lactate oxidase (LOx) have been developed mainly to measure l-lactate concentration for clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and the food industry. Some l-lactate biosensors employ artificial electron mediators, but these can negatively impact the detection of l-lactate by competing with the primary electron acceptor: molecular oxygen. In this paper, a strategic approach to engineering an AvLOx that minimizes the effects of oxygen interference on sensor strips was reported. First, we predicted an oxygen access pathway in Aerococcus viridans LOx (AvLOx) based on its crystal structure. This was subsequently blocked by a bulky amino acid substitution. The resulting Ala96Leu mutant showed a drastic reduction in oxidase activity using molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor and a small increase in dehydrogenase activity employing an artificial electron acceptor. Secondly, the Ala96Leu mutant was immobilized on a screen-printed carbon electrode using glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. Amperometric analysis was performed with potassium ferricyanide as an electron mediator under argon or atmospheric conditions. Under argon condition, the response current increased linearly from 0.05 to 0.5mM l-lactate for both wild-type and Ala96Leu. However, under atmospheric conditions, the response of wild-type AvLOx electrode was suppressed by 9-12% due to oxygen interference. The Ala96Leu mutant maintained 56-69% of the response current at the same l-lactate level and minimized the relative bias error to -19% from -49% of wild-type. This study provided significant insight into the enzymatic reaction mechanism of AvLOx and presented a novel approach to minimize oxygen interference in sensor applications, which will enable accurate detection of l-lactate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRST THREE LACTATIONS OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate relationship between milk yield in the first three lactations regarding levels of milk yield in the first lactation and levels of age at the first calving. Prediction of milk yield in later lactation based on milk yield in the earlier one was also carried out. The data used in this study were 5743 lactation yields collected from 1995 to 2003. All cows finished the first three lactations. Mean value of milk yield in the first lactation was 5283.5 kg, 6033.5 kg in the second and 6338.4 kg the third one. The milk yield estimation coefficients between the first and second lactation was 1.164, between the first and third was 1.231, and 1.079 between the second and third. The levels of milk yield in the first lactation highly significant influenced the value of estimation coefficient between first three lactations, while the age at first calving influenced less significantly. Determination coefficient (R2 values for models used in prediction ranged from 0.348 to 0.396.

  14. Brain Lactate Metabolism in Humans With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Oddo M; Levine JM; Frangos S; Maloney-Wilensky E; Carrera E; Daniel RT; Levivier M; Magistretti PJ; LeRoux PD

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Thirty one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxi...

  15. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...

  16. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    known as HCAR1, may contribute importantly to the control of retinal cell functions in health and disease. GPR81, a G-protein coupled receptor, is known to downregulate cAMP both in adipose and nervous tissue. The receptor also acts through other down-stream mechanisms to control functions......In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also...

  17. Twelve-month follow-up of virtual reality and standard exposure therapies for the fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Hodges, Larry; Anderson, Page L; Price, Larry; Smith, Samantha

    2002-04-01

    This study reports the 12-month follow-up from patients with the fear of flying who were treated in a controlled study and randomly assigned (n = 49) to virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy, standard exposure (SE) therapy, or to a wait-list control (WL). VRE and SE were equally superior to WL. At 12 months posttreatment, data were gathered on 24 of the 30 (80%) patients who were assigned to VRE or SE. Patients maintained their treatment gains, and 92% of VRE participants and 91% of SE participants had flown on a real airplane since the graduation flight. This is the 1st year-long follow-up of patients having been treated with VRE and indicates that short-term treatment can have lasting effects.

  18. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  19. Somatic (CSS and differential cell count (DCC during a lactation period in ass’milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic properties of ass’s milk protein fractions have been recently con- firmed, allowing ass’s milk to be considered as a valid substitute of the available hypoallergenic infant formulas. The objective of this study was to give a further contribution to the knowledge of ass’s milk safety and quality characteristics. A new procedure has been developed with a cytospin centrifuge in differential counts of milk somatic cells. Somatic cells count (SCC, differential somatic cells count (DCC and cultural examinations have been carried out in 62 milk samples collected from 11 asses at three different stages of lactation. Four major cells populations had been identified in ass’s milk too: lymphocytes (Ly, monocytes/macrophages (MA, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNL, and epithelial cells (CE. The patterns of these cells have been discussed in comparison with cells found in dairy cows and ewes milk. In conclusion, a reproducible standard procedure has been developed to determine cell count of ass’s milk.

  20. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting.

  1. Maternal protein restriction during lactation induces early and lasting plasma metabolomic and hepatic lipidomic signatures of the offspring in a rodent programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; El Ghaziri, Angélina; Moyon, Thomas; Pagniez, Anthony; David, Agnès; Simard, Gilles; Parnet, Patricia; Qannari, El Mostafa; Darmaun, Dominique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2018-05-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype. Plasma metabolome and hepatic lipidome of offspring were characterized through suckling period and at adulthood using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of these fingerprints highlighted a persistent metabolomics signature in rats suckled by R dams, with a clear-cut discrimination from offspring fed by control (C) dams. Pups submitted to a nutritional switch at birth presented a metabolomics signature clearly distinct from that of pups nursed by dams maintained on a consistent perinatal diet. Control rats suckled by R dams presented transiently higher branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation during lactation besides increased fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, associated with preserved insulin sensitivity and lesser fat accretion that persisted throughout their life. In contrast, IUGR rats displayed permanently impaired β-oxidation, associated to increased glucose or BCAA oxidation at adulthood, depending on the fact that pups experienced slow postnatal or catch-up growth, as suckled by R or C dams, respectively. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a significant contribution of the lactation period in metabolic programming. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vivo Evidence for a Lactate Gradient from Astrocytes to Neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Mä chler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias  T.; Elsayed, Maha; Stobart, Jillian; Gutierrez, Robin; von  Faber-Castell, Alexandra; Kaelin, Vincens; Zuend, Marc; San  Martí n, Alejandro; Romero-Gó mez, Ignacio; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Lengacher, Sylvain; Schneider, Bernard  L.; Aebischer, Patrick; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Barros, L.  Felipe; Weber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Investigating lactate dynamics in brain tissue is challenging, partly because in vivo data at cellular resolution are not available. We monitored lactate in cortical astrocytes and neurons of mice using the genetically encoded FRET sensor Laconic in combination with two-photon microscopy. An intravenous lactate injection rapidly increased the Laconic signal in both astrocytes and neurons, demonstrating high lactate permeability across tissue. The signal increase was significantly smaller in astrocytes, pointing to higher basal lactate levels in these cells, confirmed by a one-point calibration protocol. Trans-acceleration of the monocarboxylate transporter with pyruvate was able to reduce intracellular lactate in astrocytes but not in neurons. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence for a lactate gradient from astrocytes to neurons. This gradient is a prerequisite for a carrier-mediated lactate flux from astrocytes to neurons and thus supports the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, in which astrocyte-derived lactate acts as an energy substrate for neurons. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  3. In Vivo Evidence for a Lactate Gradient from Astrocytes to Neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Mächler, Philipp

    2015-11-19

    Investigating lactate dynamics in brain tissue is challenging, partly because in vivo data at cellular resolution are not available. We monitored lactate in cortical astrocytes and neurons of mice using the genetically encoded FRET sensor Laconic in combination with two-photon microscopy. An intravenous lactate injection rapidly increased the Laconic signal in both astrocytes and neurons, demonstrating high lactate permeability across tissue. The signal increase was significantly smaller in astrocytes, pointing to higher basal lactate levels in these cells, confirmed by a one-point calibration protocol. Trans-acceleration of the monocarboxylate transporter with pyruvate was able to reduce intracellular lactate in astrocytes but not in neurons. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence for a lactate gradient from astrocytes to neurons. This gradient is a prerequisite for a carrier-mediated lactate flux from astrocytes to neurons and thus supports the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, in which astrocyte-derived lactate acts as an energy substrate for neurons. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  5. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  6. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations and their ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2013-05-01

    Determinations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF lactate:pyruvate (L/P) ratios are important in several clinical settings, yet published normative data have significant limitations. We sought to determine a large dataset of stringently-defined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios. We evaluated data from 627 patients who had determinations of CSF lactate and/or CSF pyruvate from 2001 to 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic. Inclusion in the normal reference population required normal CSF cell counts, glucose and protein and routine serum chemistries and absence of progressive brain disorder, epilepsy, or seizure within 24h. Brain MRI, if done, showed no evidence of tumor, acute changes or basal ganglia abnormality. CSF cytology, CSF alanine and immunoglobulin levels, and oligoclonal band analysis were required to be normal, if done. Various inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared. 92 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria for a reference population. The 95% central intervals (2.5%-97.5%) for CSF lactate and pyruvate levels were 1.01-2.09mM and 0.03-0.15mM, respectively, and 9.05-26.37 for CSF L/P. There were no significant gender-related differences of CSF lactate or pyruvate concentrations or of CSF L/P. Weak positive correlations between the concentration of CSF lactate or pyruvate and age were noted. Using stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, we determined normative data for CSF lactate and pyruvate concentrations and CSF L/P ratios in a large, well-characterized reference population. Normalcy of routine CSF and blood analytes are the most important parameters in determining reference intervals for CSF lactate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lactating performance, water and feed consumption of rabbit does reared under a Mediterranean summer circadian cycle of temperature v. comfort temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, M H; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Terré, M; Sánchez, J P; Piles, M

    2015-07-01

    The general aim of this research was to study the effect of high ambient temperature on the performance of does during lactation, specifically the following factors: average daily feed (ADFI) and water (ADWI) intakes, daily milk yield (DMY); milk composition: dry matter (DM), CP and gross energy (GE); doe BW (DW); individual kit weaning weight (IWW) and litter survival rate during lactation (SR). The study was undertaken comparing the performance of two groups of contemporary does reared under the same management, feeding regime and environmental conditions, except the environmental temperature and humidity. A total of 80 females were randomly allocated, at 60 days of age, into two identical and continuous rooms. In one room, the temperature was maintained permanently within the thermo-neutral zone (between 18°C to 22°C); thus, environmental conditions in this room were considered as comfort conditions. In the second room, the environmental temperature pattern simulated the daily temperature cycles that were characteristic of the summer in Mediterranean countries (24°C at 0800 h, increasing up to 29°C until 1100 h; maintenance at 29°C to 31°C for 4 h and decreasing to about 24°C to 26°C around 1700 h until 0800 h of the following day), which were considered as thermal stress conditions. Females followed a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm, first artificial insemination at 4.5 months of age, with subsequent 42-day reproductive cycles. Traits were recorded from a total of 138 lactations. Does were controlled up to the 5th lactation. Data were analyzed using linear and linear mixed models. High ambient temperature led to a lower ADFI (-9.4%), DW (-6.2%) and IWW (-8%), but it did not affect ADWI. No significant difference was found either for DMY, milk composition (DM, CP and GE) and SR during the lactation period. Heat stress was moderate, and does were able to adapt to it behaviorally by decreasing feed intake (to reduce heat production), but also live

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  11. The freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The freezing point of milk is an important indicator of the adulteration of the milk with water, but heat treatment may also affect its value. The aim of this study was determine freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation. The freezing point was determined in 42 bulk tank raw sheep milk samples and 42 pasteurized milk samples collected during lactation of sheep at one ecofarm in Moravian Walachia (Valašsko in the Czech Republic. The freezing point was determined in accordance with the standard ČSN 57 0538 using a thermistor cryoscope. The average freezing point of raw milk was -0.617 ± 0.052 °C, with a range from -0.560 to -0.875 °C. The freezing point was lower in the first months of lactation and increased at the end of lactation. The freezing point correlated (r = 0.8967 with the content of total non-fat solids. The average freezing point of sheep milk pasteurized at 65 °C for 30 min was -0.614 ± 0.053 °C, with a range from -0.564 to -0.702 °C. The median of freezing point differences between raw and pasteurized milk was 0.004 °C. Our study extends data about physico-chemical properties of sheep milk and registers for the first time specific changes in the freezing point value of sheep milk by heating.

  12. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    -IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels......, indicating an intact glucose-alanine cycle, or [13C]bicarbonate, indicating normal flux through the Krebs cycle. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that diabetes-induced pseudohypoxia, as indicated by an increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, is significantly attenuated by antioxidant treatment......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying...

  13. Data report - charts and graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article is the summary report of uranium transactions. Specific data includes: (1) last month's deals, (2) uranium prices, both ranges and historical trends over twelve year period, and (3) SWU prices and ranges over a twelve year period

  14. Lactate biosensor based on a bionanocomposite composed of titanium oxide nanoparticles, photocatalytically reduced graphene, and lactate oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casero, Elena; Petit- Domínguez, María Dolores; Parra-Alfambra, Ana María; Suárez, Edna; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Alonso, Concepción; Vázquez, Luis; Álvarez-García, Susana; Andrés, Alicia de; Merino, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a lactate biosensor based on a bionanocomposite (BNC) composed of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs), photo catalytically reduced graphene, and lactate oxidase. Graphene oxide was photochemically reduced (without using any chemical reagents) in the presence of TiO 2 -NPs to give graphene nano sheets that were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the nano sheets to possess few oxygen functionalities only and to be decorated with TiO 2 -NPs. These nano sheets typically are at least 1 μm long and have a thickness of 4.2 nm. A BNC was obtained by mixing lactate oxidase with the nano sheets and immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was applied to the determination of lactate. Compared to a sensor without TiO 2 -NPs, the sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (6.0 μA mM −1 ), a better detection limit (0.6 μM), a wider linear response (2.0 μM to 0.40 mM), and better reproducibility (3.2 %). (author)

  15. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  16. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  17. n-Octyl gallate as inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; de Moraes, Amarilis Giaretta; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2015-04-01

    The alkyl gallates are found in several natural and industrial products. In the latter products, these compounds are added mainly for preventing oxidation. In the present work, the potencies of methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, and n-octyl gallate as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis were evaluated. Experiments were done with isolated mitochondria and the isolated perfused rat liver. The potency of the gallic acid esters as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation in isolated mitochondria obeyed the following decreasing sequence: n-octyl gallate > n-pentyl gallate > n-propyl gallate > methyl gallate. A similar sequence of decreasing potency for lactate gluconeogenesis inhibition in the perfused liver was found in terms of the portal venous concentration. Both actions correlate with the lipophilicity of the compounds. The effects are harmful at high concentrations. At appropriate concentrations, however, octyl gallate should act therapeutically because its inhibitory action on gluconeogenesis will contribute further to its proposed antihyperglycemic effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  19. Does high-dose metformin cause lactic acidosis in type 2 diabetic patients after CABG surgery? A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ghafari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is a dimethyl biguanide oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. Lactic acidosis due to metformin is a fatal metabolic condition that limits its use in patients in poor clinical condition, consequently reducing the number of patients who benefit from this medication. In a double blind randomized clinical trial, we investigated 200 type 2 diabetic patients after coronary artery bypass surgery in the open heart ICU of the Mazandaran Heart Center, and randomly assigned them to equal intervention and control groups. The intervention group received regular insulin infusion along with 2 metformin 500 mg tablets every twelve hours, while the control group received only intravenous insulin with 2 placebo tablets every twelve hours. Lactate level, pH, base excess, blood glucose and serum creatinine were measured over five 12 h periods, with data averaged for each period. The primary outcome in this study was high lactate levels. Comparison between the 2 groups was made by independent Student’s t-test. To compare changes in multiple measures in each group and analysis of group interaction, a repeated measurement ANOVA test was used. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding pH, base excess, or bicarbonate intake (P>0.05. No patient showed lactic acidosis in either group. Lactate levels were 23.0 vs 23.4 in the insulin-metformin and insulin only groups when the study was started, respectively. At the end of the study, those levels were 18.7 vs 18.9, respectively. In addition, the ANOVA repeated measurement test did not show a significant difference in terms of changes in the amount of lactate level between the 2 groups during the five measurement tests of the study period (P>0.05. High-dose metformin (1,000 mg twice daily with insulin does not cause lactic acidosis in type 2 diabetic patients after coronary artery

  20. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(−)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L-1 of optically pure D(−)-lactic acid from glucose in coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(−) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  1. Vitamin D Levels Among Pregnant and Lactating Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)

  2. Vitamin D levels among pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha

    2013-12-01

    To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.

  3. A stepwise model to predict monthly streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood Al-Juboori, Anas; Guven, Aytac

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a stepwise model empowered with genetic programming is developed to predict the monthly flows of Hurman River in Turkey and Diyalah and Lesser Zab Rivers in Iraq. The model divides the monthly flow data to twelve intervals representing the number of months in a year. The flow of a month, t is considered as a function of the antecedent month's flow (t - 1) and it is predicted by multiplying the antecedent monthly flow by a constant value called K. The optimum value of K is obtained by a stepwise procedure which employs Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient Optimization (NGRGO) as alternative to traditional nonlinear regression technique. The degree of determination and root mean squared error are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed models. The results of the proposed model are compared with the conventional Markovian and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models based on observed monthly flow data. The comparison results based on five different statistic measures show that the proposed stepwise model performed better than Markovian model and ARIMA model. The R2 values of the proposed model range between 0.81 and 0.92 for the three rivers in this study.

  4. Effect of Fenugreek Supplementation on Physiological Functions and Milk Traits o f Heat Stressed Lactating Baladi Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.; Atta, M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the importance of supplementary fenugreek to the diet of lactating local goats in Egypt for ameliorative their some blood biochemical components, milk production and some milk components. Forty two lactating goats were used in the present study which lasted 5 months. The animals were divided randomly into three equal groups, the 1st group was fed basic ration without supplement (control), while the 2nd and the 3rd groups of animals were fed on the same basic ration with supplemented fenugreek at the rate of 50 and 100 g/head/day. Blood samples were withdrawn at the end of experiment to assess blood concentrations. Also, milk yield and some milk components were determined. The results showed that the addition of fenugreek at the rate of 100 g/ head/ day to the diet of lactating goats significantly increased the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulin , T4 hormone, total antioxidants and hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC) and led to a significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, wight blood cells (WBC) and T3 hormone in blood, while significantly increased milk yield and some milk components. It can be concluded that the addition of fenugreek at the rat of (100 g/ h/day) to heat stressed lactating Baladi goats led to modification of all blood components studied here in and led to amending the setraits, milk production and some milk components. Therefore, the use of the fenugreek in lactating stages can be recommended

  5. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  6. Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.B. Cambraia

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14, B (N = 14, C (N = 9 and D (N = 9, were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

  7. Use of Videoconferencing for Lactation Consultation: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey of Mothers' Acceptance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mona F; Springer, Cary M; Spence, Marsha L; Hansen-Petrik, Melissa B; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2018-05-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates are a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need for identifying effective tools for use in interventions targeting specific barriers to optimal breastfeeding outcomes. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between acceptance of remote lactation consultation using videoconferencing and (a) maternal demographic factors, (b) technology acceptance subscales, (c) maternal learning style preferences, and (d) other potentially explanatory maternal factors. This was a cross-sectional, online study. English-speaking mothers of at least 18 years of age, with an infant age 4 months or younger, and who reported initiating breastfeeding were eligible to participate. Mothers were recruited from 27 randomly selected states. One hundred one mothers completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 71%. The main outcome was acceptance of videoconferencing use for lactation consultation. No significant differences were found in acceptance by maternal demographic factors or learning style preferences. Acceptance was significantly related to perceived ease of use ( r = .680, p acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation ( r = .432, p model ( R 2 = .616, p acceptance, maternal age was inversely related. This sample of mothers indicated general acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation, with younger mothers and those perceiving it to be more useful demonstrating greater acceptance.

  8. Gene regulatory networks in lactation: identification of global principles using bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Katherine S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events underlying mammary development during pregnancy, lactation, and involution are incompletely understood. Results Mammary gland microarray data, cellular localization data, protein-protein interactions, and literature-mined genes were integrated and analyzed using statistics, principal component analysis, gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis, and network analysis to identify global biological principles that govern molecular events during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Conclusion Several key principles were derived: (1 nearly a third of the transcriptome fluctuates to build, run, and disassemble the lactation apparatus; (2 genes encoding the secretory machinery are transcribed prior to lactation; (3 the diversity of the endogenous portion of the milk proteome is derived from fewer than 100 transcripts; (4 while some genes are differentially transcribed near the onset of lactation, the lactation switch is primarily post-transcriptionally mediated; (5 the secretion of materials during lactation occurs not by up-regulation of novel genomic functions, but by widespread transcriptional suppression of functions such as protein degradation and cell-environment communication; (6 the involution switch is primarily transcriptionally mediated; and (7 during early involution, the transcriptional state is partially reverted to the pre-lactation state. A new hypothesis for secretory diminution is suggested – milk production gradually declines because the secretory machinery is not transcriptionally replenished. A comprehensive network of protein interactions during lactation is assembled and new regulatory gene targets are identified. Less than one fifth of the transcriptionally regulated nodes in this lactation network have been previously explored in the context of lactation. Implications for future research in mammary and cancer biology are discussed.

  9. Twelve-month longitudinal parasitological assessment of lymphatic filariasis-positive individuals: impact of a biannual treatment with ivermectin and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamitie, John N; Ahorlu, Collins S; Otchere, Joseph; Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Boakye, Daniel A; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Wilson, Michael D; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2017-11-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections and formulate appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana. In baseline surveys 6 months after the National MDA in 2014, 370 consenting individuals were tested for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards and had their mf count determined through night blood surveys. 48 ICT positives, of whom, 17 were positive for mf, were treated with 400 μg/kg ivermectin + 400 mg albendazole and subsequently followed for parasitological assessment at 3-month intervals for 1 year. This overlapped with the National MDA in 2015. There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (P = 0.0023), 6 months (P = 0.0051), 9 months (P = 0.0113) and 12 months (P = 0.0008). In these settings with persistent LF transmission, twice-yearly treatment may help accelerate LF elimination. Further large-scale evaluations are required to ascertain these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diffusion of lactate and ammonium in relation to growth of Geotrichum candidum at the surface of solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarf, M; Fourcade, F; Amrane, A; Prigent, Y

    2004-07-05

    Geotrichum candidum was cultivated at the surface of solid model media containing peptone to simulate the composition of Camembert cheese. The surface growth of G. candidum induced the diffusion of substrates from the core to the rind and the diffusion of produced metabolites from the rind to the core. In the range of pH measured during G. candidum growth, constant diffusion coefficients were found for lactate and ammonium, 0.4 and 0.8 cm(2) day(-1), respectively, determined in sterile culture medium. Growth kinetics are described using the Verlhust model and both lactate consumption and ammonium production are considered as partially linked to growth. The experimental diffusion gradients of lactate and ammonium recorded during G. candidum growth have been fitted. The diffusion/reaction model was found to match with experimental data until the end of growth, except with regard to ammonium concentration gradients in the presence of lactate in the medium. Indeed, G. candidum preferentially assimilated peptone over lactate as a carbon source, resulting in an almost cessation of ammonium release before the end of growth. On peptone, it was found that the proton transfer did not account for the ammonium concentration gradients. Indeed, amino acids, being positively charged, are involved in the proton transfer at the beginning of growth. This effect can be neglected in the presence of lactate within the medium, and the sum of both lactate consumption and ammonium release gradients corresponded well to the proton transfer gradients, confirming that both components are responsible for the pH increase observed during the ripening of soft Camembert cheese. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Adrenocortical responsiveness in southern elephant seal mothers and pups during lactation and the effect of scientific handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; Brasseur, SMJM; Hall, AJ; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    We examined the cortisol responses to chemical and physical restraint stress in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina females and their pups at three stages during lactation. In anaesthetised females the serum cortisol levels changed moderately during the 45-min sampling period following

  12. Enhancing captive breeding in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): maintaining lactation when cubs are rejected, and understanding variation in milk collection and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Yin, Feng; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Dingzhen

    2009-07-01

    From 1997 to 2002, a female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was artificially stimulated and lactation was maintained, after her neonates were removed due to the female's inability to provide maternal care. Milk samples were collected and the amount of milk collected was quantified. The lactation curve of this animal was estimated based on the Gamma function: Y(t)=at(b)e(-ct). The amount of milk collected showed significant, positive relationships with the number of days after parturition both in 1999 and in the whole study period from 1998 to 2002. This female's lactation curves fit the type I pattern of a typical mammalian lactation curve. Daily milk collection (g) during the first 30 days after parturition, and from 31 to 60 days after parturition, showed a consistent pattern with one peak at around 8:00 hr. More milk was collected during the latter period than during the former period. The amount of milk (g) collected on mucus excretion days was significantly less than that on days after mucus excretion had ended, yet no significant difference was found between milk collected one day before mucus days and on mucus days, or between milk collected one day before and one day after mucus days. Mucus excretion from the gastrointestinal tract significantly impacted the amount of milk collected. The results from this study may aid the captive propagation and conservation of giant pandas and other endangered and rare captive mammal species.

  13. Gender differences in sport injury risk and types of inju-ries: a retrospective twelve-month study on cross-country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M; Kettunen, Jyrki A

    2009-01-01

    This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key pointsOnly a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexesOverall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was smallSome gender differences in the specific anatomical locations of injuries as well as in specific injuries in sports were foundSome of these differences seem to be explained by the differences in the amount of training.

  14. Influence of cow breed type, age and previous lactation status on cow height, calf growth, and patterns of body weight, condition, and blood metabolites for cows grazing bahiagrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Williams, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year. At monthly intervals, all cows were weighed, measured at the hip (HH), scored for BCS, and blood samples collected by jugular puncture from 10 cows per cow breed/block group for plasma urea N (PUN), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed on cows that calved with a statistical model that included fixed effects of year, cowage, cow breed, month, block, supplement group (n = 2, but not presented), and whether the cow weaned a calf the previous year. Cow was a repeated observation over mo. Three-way interactions involving monthly patterns for cowage x year, year x lactation status the previous year, cowage × cow breed, year × cow breed, and cow breed × lactation status the previous year were significant (P cow breed × month was important (P cows compared to 3-yr old cows; 2) greater BW and BCS before calving for cows that did not lactate the previous year; 3) PUN levels were above 11 mg/dl except for February, August and September, and was generally greater in tropically adapted breeds; 4) GLU was greatest in Brahman, lowest in Angus, and intermediate in Romosinuano cows; and 5) plasma levels of NEFA escalated at calving and then declined, but Brahman cows maintained greater (P Cows that lactated the previous year had less NEFA than those that did not lactate. Brahman cows were less fertile than Bos taurus breeds, and weaned heavier calves.

  15. Lactate Parameters Predict Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Min, Yang Won; Bae, Joohwan; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2017-11-01

    The predictive role of lactate in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has been suggested. This study evaluated several lactate parameters in terms of predicting outcomes of bleeding patients and sought to establish a new scoring model by combining lactate parameters and the AIMS65 score. A total of 114 patients with NVUGIB who underwent serum lactate level testing at least twice and endoscopic hemostasis within 24 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between five lactate parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated and the predictive power of lactate parameter combined AIMS65s (L-AIMS65s) and AIMS56 scoring was compared. The most common cause of bleeding was gastric ulcer (48.2%). Lactate clearance rate (LCR) was associated with 30-day rebleeding (odds ratio [OR], 0.931; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872-0.994; P = 0.033). Initial lactate (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.050-1.643; P = 0.017), maximal lactate (OR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.037-1.573; P = 0.021), and average lactate (OR, 1.535; 95% CI, 1.137-2.072; P = 0.005) levels were associated with 30-day mortality. Initial lactate (OR, 1.213; 95% CI, 1.027-1.432; P = 0.023), maximal lactate (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.074-1.504; P = 0.005), and average lactate (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.150-1.959; P = 0.003) levels were associated with admission over 7 days. Although L-AIMS65s showed the highest area under the curve for prediction of each outcome, differences between L-AIMS65s and AIMS65 did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, lactate parameters have a prognostic role in patients with NVUGIB. However, they do not increase the predictive power of AIMS65 when combined. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Outcome producing potential influences twelve-month-olds' interpretation of a novel action as goal-directed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coalter, Esther; Leslie, Alan M

    2014-11-01

    Learning about a novel, goal-directed action is a complex process. It requires identifying the outcome of the action and linking the action to its outcome for later use in new situations to predict the action or to anticipate its outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that linking a novel action to a salient change in the environment is critical for infants to assign a goal to the novel action. We report a study in which we show that 12-month-old infants, who were provided with prior experience with a novel action accompanied with a salient visible outcome in one context, can interpret the same action as goal-directed even in the absence of the outcome in another context. Our control condition shows that prior experience with the action, but without the salient effect, does not lead to goal-directed interpretation of the novel action. We also found that, for the case of 9-month-olds infants, prior experience with the outcome producing potential of the novel action does not facilitate a goal-directed interpretation of the action. However, this failure was possibly due to difficulties with generalizing the learnt association to another context rather than with linking the action to its outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Brander, Lukas; Jansen, Sebastiaan P. A.; Rommes, Johannes H.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients

  19. Lactate induces osteoblast differentiation by stabilization of HIF1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Miaomiao; Feng, Haihua; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jieyun; Qu, Xiuxia; Li, Chunping

    2017-09-05

    Aerobic glycolysis is involved in osteoblast differentiation induced by Wnt signaling or PTH treatment. However, it is still unclear whether lactate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis, plays any role in osteoblast differentiation. Herein we report that in cultures of osteoblast-lineage cells, lactate promoted alkaline phosphatase-positive cell formation, increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and induced the expression of osteocalcin. This osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate can be inhibited by blocking its entry into cells with MCT1 siRNA or inhibitors, and by interfering with its metabolism by using specific siRNAs for LDHB and PDH. Moreover, lactate stabilized HIF1α expression and inhibited HIF1α activity, with BAY87-2243 lowering the osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate. Thus, these findings reveal an unrecognized role for aerobic glycolysis in osteoblast differentiation via its end product, lactate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhagen, Thyra; Albers, Lucia; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas; Filippopulos, Filipp; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Gerstl, Lucia; Jahn, Klaus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed. 72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196) of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1) reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863). The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo. Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  1. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  2. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  3. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojtasik-Bakalarz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO of the superficial femoral artery (SFA. Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim : To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods: We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results: The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5% patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5% patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2% patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8% patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy, 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions : The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications.

  4. Metabolic targeting of lactate efflux by malignant glioma inhibits invasiveness and induces necrosis: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Chaim B; Shen, Yimin; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Yu, Pingyang; Francis, Todd B; Koch, Brandon J; Monterey, Michael D; Galloway, Matthew P; Sloan, Andrew E; Mathupala, Saroj P

    2011-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most malignant among brain tumors. They are frequently refractory to chemotherapy and radiotherapy with mean patient survival of approximately 6 months, despite surgical intervention. The highly glycolytic nature of glioblastomas describes their propensity to metabolize glucose to lactic acid at an elevated rate. To survive, GBMs efflux lactic acid to the tumor microenvironment through transmembrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We hypothesized that inhibition of MCT function would impair the glycolytic metabolism and affect both glioma invasiveness and survival. We examined the effect on invasiveness with α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (ACCA, 4CIN, CHCA), a small-molecule inhibitor of lactate transport, through Matrigel-based and organotypic (brain) slice culture invasive assays using U87-MG and U251-MG glioma cells. We then conducted studies in immunodeficient rats by stereotaxic intracranial implantation of the glioma cells followed by programmed orthotopic application of ACCA through osmotic pumps. Effect on the implanted tumor was monitored by small-animal magnetic resonance imaging. Our assays indicated that glioma invasion was markedly impaired when lactate efflux was inhibited. Convection-enhanced delivery of inhibitor to the tumor bed caused tumor necrosis, with 50% of the animals surviving beyond the experimental end points (3 months after inhibitor exhaustion). Most importantly, control animals did not display any adverse neurologic effects during orthotopic administration of ACCA to brain through programmed delivery. These results indicate the clinical potential of targeting lactate efflux in glioma through delivery of small-molecule inhibitors of MCTs either to the tumor bed or to the postsurgical resection cavity.

  5. Metabolic Targeting of Lactate Efflux by Malignant Glioma Inhibits Invasiveness and Induces Necrosis: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim B Colen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are the most malignant among brain tumors. They are frequently refractory to chemotherapy and radiotherapy with mean patient survival of approximately 6 months, despite surgical intervention. The highly glycolytic nature of glioblastomas describes their propensity to metabolize glucose to lactic acid at an elevated rate. To survive, GBMs efflux lactic acid to the tumor microenvironment through transmembrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs. We hypothesized that inhibition of MCT function would impair the glycolytic metabolism and affect both glioma invasiveness and survival. We examined the effect on invasiveness with α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (ACCA, 4CIN, CHCA, a small-molecule inhibitor of lactate transport, through Matrigel-based and organotypic (brain slice culture invasive assays using U87-MG and U251-MG glioma cells. We then conducted studies in immunodeficient rats by stereotaxic intracranial implantation of the glioma cells followed by programmed orthotopic application of ACCA through osmotic pumps. Effect on the implanted tumor was monitored by small-animal magnetic resonance imaging. Our assays indicated that glioma invasion was markedly impaired when lactate efflux was inhibited. Convection-enhanced delivery of inhibitor to the tumor bed caused tumor necrosis, with 50% of the animals surviving beyond the experimental end points (3 months after inhibitor exhaustion. Most importantly, control animals did not display any adverse neurologic effects during orthotopic administration of ACCA to brain through programmed delivery. These results indicate the clinical potential of targeting lactate efflux in glioma through delivery of small-molecule inhibitors of MCTs either to the tumor bed or to the postsurgical resection cavity.

  6. Evaluation of dairy sheep lambs supplemented with crude glycerin conveyed in water during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemilly Cristina Menezes Sá

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of crude glycerin (CG suplementation in sheep diets during pregnancy and transition period. Twenty-four Lacaune x East Friesian genotypes sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments. Diet was composed of roughage: tifton hay, and standard concentrate for the categories, being these similar among the treatments, whereas the CG differed for the supplements in (zero, 1,5, 3,0 and 4,5% of dry matter being It added to the animals’ drinking water. The sheep received supplementation during all pregnancy and lactation. Dry matter intake during gestation was reduced with the higher supplementation of CG in the animals’ drinking water, presenting a linear decreasing response and remaining until delivery. Throughout lactation, the variable presented a linear behavior with the supplementation of CG on the eighteenth day of this phase, after a quadratic behavior was observed until the end of the evaluated period. The beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids levels were not influenced by CG supplementation throughout the gestation period. CG suplementation conveyed in water did not affect negatively milk production and composition.

  7. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.; Niemeyer, M. I.; Machler, P.; Ruminot, I.; Lerchundi, R.; Wyss, M. T.; Stobart, J.; Fernandez-Moncada, I.; Valdebenito, R.; Garrido-Gerter, P.; Contreras-Baeza, Y.; Schneider, B. L.; Aebischer, P.; Lengacher, S.; San Martin, A.; Le Douce, J.; Bonvento, G.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Sepulveda, F. V.; Weber, B.; Barros, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  8. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  9. Arterial versus venous lactate: a measure of sepsis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous

  10. Ten colour photometry of twelve Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musielok, B.; Lange, D.; Schoeneich, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Zelwanowa, E.; Hempelmann, A.; Salmanov, G.

    1980-01-01

    Ten-colour photoelectric observations are presented for twelve Ap-stars. Improved ephemeris for seven of them is given. Phase relations between the light curves and line intensity variations are discussed. The problem of the electromagnetic flux conctancy of IOTA Cas is approached from a qualitative point of view. (author)

  11. Lactate promotes plasticity gene expression by potentiating NMDA signaling in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangyan; Ruchti, Evelyne; Petit, Jean Marie; Jourdain, Pascal; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Allaman, Igor; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2. L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increase in intracellular calcium. In parallel to this, L-lactate increases intracellular levels of NADH, thereby modulating the redox state of neurons. NADH mimics all of the effects of L-lactate on NMDA signaling, pointing to NADH increase as a primary mediator of L-lactate effects. The induction of plasticity genes is observed both in mouse primary neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse sensory-motor cortex. These results provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of astrocyte-derived L-lactate in long-term memory and long-term potentiation in vivo. This set of data reveals a previously unidentified action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity.

  12. Lactate promotes plasticity gene expression by potentiating NMDA signaling in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangyan

    2014-07-28

    L-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2. L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increase in intracellular calcium. In parallel to this, L-lactate increases intracellular levels of NADH, thereby modulating the redox state of neurons. NADH mimics all of the effects of L-lactate on NMDA signaling, pointing to NADH increase as a primary mediator of L-lactate effects. The induction of plasticity genes is observed both in mouse primary neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse sensory-motor cortex. These results provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of astrocyte-derived L-lactate in long-term memory and long-term potentiation in vivo. This set of data reveals a previously unidentified action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity.

  13. Growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned children of Greece aged 0-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourou, Anna; Konstantinides, Theodoros; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Zarras, Charalambos; Balaska, Athena; Simopoulos, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2012-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with substantial social and economic implications. Moreover, the growth of exclusively breastfed babies differs from that of their formula-fed counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned boys and girls of Greece 0-36 months of age. The physical growth of children was monitored from birth up to 36 months of age. Body weight, length/height, and head circumference were recorded. The study population included 101 boys and 105 girls who were recruited consecutively from a private breastfeeding clinic in the second largest city of Greece and through La Leche League groups throughout the country during 2000 to 2005. All infants were exclusively breastfed for ≥ 6 months. Anthro software ( www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/index.html ) was used to compare the data of our study population and the World Health Organization standards for weight, length/height, and head circumference for age. Male and female infants at 12 months had almost tripled their weight (192% and 190% increase, respectively) and had increased their length (height) by 48% and 47%, respectively, and head circumference had increased by 35% and 33%, respectively. In both sexes the relative length/height and the head circumference-for-age increase rates were higher from the first to the second month of life than at any other period. Long-term exclusively breastfed infants grow normally. Hence, no recommendations for the interruption of lactation and/or supplementation with formula are justified.

  14. Use of erythropoietin and its effects on blood lactate and 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubasi, V; Kremenopoulos, G; Tsantali, C; Savopoulou, P; Mussafiris, C; Dimitriou, M

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO) on oxygen affinity and adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues of stable premature infants. 36 very-low-birth-weight infants were randomly assigned to either receive rHu-EPO (200 units/kg every other day) or not, and both groups were supplemented with iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Arterial blood gases, oxygen saturation, complete blood counts, fetal haemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and blood lactate were analysed weekly, from the 1st week till discharge. Patients in the two groups were comparable. There was a trend in increasing lactate values towards the 4th to 5th weeks of life, which did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between lactate values and the studied variables (pH, BE, oxygen saturation). In 35 transfusions, pre- and 24 h post-transfusion blood lactate status was studied. In 23 of them, a decrease in post-transfusion lactate was noticed, whilst an increased post-transfusion level was shown in 10 cases and no change in 2 cases. The mean pre-transfusion lactate value was significantly higher than the post-transfusion one (24.04 +/- 11.9 mg/dl before and 16.27 +/- 8.5 mg/dl after transfusion; p = 0.0025). In both groups there was a steady rise in 2,3-DPG concentration over the period of study, and the 2,3-DPG values at the end of our study were significantly increased in the rHu-EPO group (rHu-EPO 5.98 +/- 0.9, control 4.84 +/- 0.7; p = 0.04). In conclusion, the use of rHu-EPO did not affect blood lactate levels compared to the control group. Regarding oxygen affinity, it seems that rHu-EPO causes a shift of the oxy-haemoglobin dissociation curve to the right. This is a previously unreported effect of rHu-EPO and its clinical use may, thus, confer to preterm babies an added advantage.

  15. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Cecilie Braarud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3 is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  16. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-24

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n -3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC) was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  17. The acid-base effects of continuous hemofiltration with lactate or bicarbonate buffered replacement fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H K; Uchino, S; Bellomo, R

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate, quantify and compare the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with lactate or bicarbonate-buffered replacement fluids on acid-base balance. Randomized double crossover study. Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Medical Center. Eight patients with severe acute renal failure. Random allocation to either 2 hours of isovolemic lactate-buffered (treatment A) CVVH or 2 hours of bicarbonate-buffered (treatment B) CVVH with cross over and with same procedure repeated the following day (double cross over). Timed collections of arterial blood and ultrafiltrate (UF), measurement of blood and UF gases and lactate concentrations and calculation of buffer-base mass balance. At baseline, both groups of patients had a similar, slight metabolic alkalosis (pH: 7.45 vs. 7.45; BE 3.9 mEq/L for treatment A and 4.0 for treatment B) and a serum bicarbonate of 28.1 mmol/L for treatment A vs. 28.3 mmol/L for treatment B; all NS. This alkalosis was present despite slight hyperlactatemia in both groups (A: 2.4 mmol/L vs. B 2.8 mmol/; NS). Within 60 minutes of treatment, however, treatment A led to a significantly higher lactate concentration (3.9 vs 2.5 mmol/L; p = 0.0011), a significantly lower BE (2.3 vs 4.1 mEq/L; p = 0.0019) and a significantly lower bicarbonate concentration (26.7 vs. 28.3 mmol/L; p = 0.0038) in the presence of an unchanged PaCO2. These differences persisted during the study period. The UF of patients receiving treatment A contained more lactate (10.2 vs 2.9 mmol/L; p buffer-base balance of +20.4 mEq/h compared to -2.6 mEq/h for treatment B; p buffered replacement fluids induces iatrogenic hyperlactatemia. Such hyperlactatemia is associated with an acidifying effect despite a positive buffer-base balance.

  18. Manipulation of reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes using melatonin and controlled internal drug release device treatment during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, T A; Sharma, R K; Phulia, S K; Balhara, A K; Ghuman, S S; Singh, I

    2016-09-01

    Twelve lactating Murrah buffalo, divided into control and treatment group of six animals each, were used to study the effect of melatonin and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device treatment on the resumption of ovarian activity during out-of-breeding season (summer solstice). Treated group implanted with melatonin (18-mg melatonin/50-kg body weight) for 45 days and then animals of both groups received CIDR for 9 days. All animals received intramuscular 500 IU eCG, at day before CIDR removal, and 10-μg GnRH at day after CIDR withdrawal. All animals were subjected to estrus detection daily. Blood samples in conjunction with transrectal ultrasonography were performed once a week to determine serum concentrations of melatonin, progesterone, and antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as to monitor the ovarian activity. Melatonin treatment resulted in an increase (P Day 21 and Day 30 after artificial insemination and achieved higher percentage of conception rate than control. In conclusion, the CIDR treatment preceded by melatonin improved the reproductive performance in lactating buffaloes during out-of-breeding season under tropical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  20. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation: how a healthy infant is born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mecacci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences the growth and potential development of the fetus and contributes to the maturity of a healthy baby.The lack of sufficient calories, of macro- and micronutrients, can lead to deficiencies in building materials for the development and growth of the fetus: moreover there is growing evidence that the maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state of the fetal genome, therefore alterations in nutrition during crucial periods of fetal development may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the physiology, the metabolism of the offspring, and, as a consequence, predispose these individuals to diseases as adults.In this review we collected indications for the recommended intake of calories and nutrients for a healthy diet during pregnancy and lactation, also analyzing some nutritional choices that may increase the risk of nutritional deficiencies and the way to prevent them.Pregnancy-related dietary changes should begin prior to conception, with appropriate modifications throughout pregnancy and lactation, and appropriate supplementation of vitamins and minerals. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  1. Alojamiento conjunto madre-hijo y lactancia humana exclusiva Joined mother-child hospital lodging and exclusive human lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL FLORES-HUERTA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la influencia del alojamiento conjunto (AC madre-hijo, en la frecuencia de lactancia humana exclusiva (LHE, desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de vida. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no aleatorizado realizado en la clínica de lactancia del Hospital "Luis Castelazo Ayala", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de enero de 1993 a octubre de 1994, en el que participaron 178 binomios madre-hijo (BMH sanos con gestación de término. El grupo con alojamiento conjunto (AC se integró con 90 BMH, y la madre recibió asesoría para lactar; 88 se atendieron en forma separada, sin asesoría para lactar. Se realizó análisis estadístico de los datos para apreciar frecuencia y asociaciones de las variables. Resultados. La alimentación se registró como LHE, fórmula o ambas. Los grupos con y sin AC se estratificaron por la forma de nacimiento, parto o cesárea. Con X² de Mantel-Haenszel y de rango logarítmico se aceptaron diferencias con pObjective. To determine the influence of joined mother-child hospital lodging (JL on the frequency of exclusive human lactation (EHL from birth to four months of age. Material and methods. Non-randomized cohort study performed at the lactation clinic of the "Luis Castelazo Ayala" Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute from January 1993 to October 1994 which included 178 healthy mother-child pairs (MCP with term pregnancy. The jointly lodged group (JL consisted of 90 MCP in which mothers received assessment for lactation; 88 MCP were lodged separately and no assessment was provided. Results were statistically analyzed to determine frequency and variable associations. Results. Feeding was recorded as either EHL, powdered milk or both. Groups with or without JL were stratified by form of birth, either labor or Cesarean section. With the Mantel-Haenszel X² and logarithmic range, differences were significant with p<0.05. During the study, global lactation was similar

  2. KNOWLEDGE OF LACTATING MOTHERS ABOUT IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF BREAST FEEDING IN INFANTS - ISFAHAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HASHEMIPOOR

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In spite of high physiologic ability of lactation in mothers, most of them have not cooperation for breast feeding. Mothers' knowledge and attitude are important for lactation behavior. Although 99 percent of mothers are capable for breast feeding, but WHO's reports revealed that breast feeding is decreasing in low socioeconomic families. We decided to evaluate the knowledge of lactating mothers about the importance and necessity of breast feeding. Methods. Based on a descriptive, cross sectional study, 2799 mothers with infants younger than 15 months were selected by a cluster sampling. The study was performed in urban and rural health centers of Isfahan province. Findings. Nearly 80 percent of mothers did not know anything about the necessity of exclusive breast feeding during the first 4 months of life. Eighty five percent of mothers who worked out of home preferred formula feeding and 45 percent of mothers supposed that their milk has no good taste and is watery. More than half of mothers believed that antibiotic consumption, repregnancy and long time hospitalization are inhibitor factors for normal breast feeding. Almost 50 percent of mothers had no insight about the time of breast feeding after cesarean section delivery and the age of supplementary feeding. Knowledge about breast feeding was similar in urban and rural area. About 56 percent of mothers had not any training class and 32 percent had not been oriented in hospital about breast feeding. Conclusion. It seems that knowledge of mothers about importance of breast milk depended on their previous experience especially previous training and cultural believing and this training isn't suitable for maintenance of breast feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the knowledge of mothers especially by radio and television according to their culture and educational levels.

  3. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  4. Release of lead from bone in pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manton, W.I.; Angle, C.R.; Stanek, K.L.; Kuntzelman, D.; Reese, Y.R.; Kuehnemann, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations and isotope ratios of lead in blood, urine, 24-h duplicate diets, and hand wipes were measured for 12 women from the second trimester of pregnancy until at least 8 months after delivery. Six bottle fed and six breast fed their infants. One bottle feeder fell pregnant for a second time, as did a breast feeder, and each was followed semicontinuously for totals of 44 and 54 months, respectively. Bone resorption rather than dietary absorption controls changes in blood lead, but in pregnancy the resorption of trabecular and cortical bone are decoupled. In early pregnancy, only trabecular bone (presumably of low lead content) is resorbed, causing blood leads to fall more than expected from hemodilution alone. In late pregnancy, the sites of resorption move to cortical bone of higher lead content and blood leads rise. In bottle feeders, the cortical bone contribution ceases immediately after delivery, but any tendency for blood leads to fall may be compensated by the effect of hemoconcentration produced by the postpartum loss of plasma volume. In lactation, the whole skeleton undergoes resorption and the blood leads of nursing mothers continue to rise, reaching a maximum 6-8 months after delivery. Blood leads fall from pregnancy to pregnancy, implying that the greatest risk of lead toxicity lies with first pregnancies

  5. Predicting the Occurrence of Hypotension in Stable Patients With Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Point-of-Care Lactate Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Won Young; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Ahn, Shin; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2015-11-01

    It is difficult to assess risk in normotensive patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the initial lactate value can predict the in-hospital occurrence of hypotension in stable patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Retrospective, observational, single-center study. Emergency department of a tertiary-care, university-affiliated hospital during a 5-year period. Medical records of 3,489 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding who were normotensive at presentation to the emergency department. We analyzed the ability of point-of-care testing of lactate at emergency department admission to predict hypotension development (defined as systolic blood pressure upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 157 patients experienced hypotension within 24 hours. Lactate was independently associated with hypotension development (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7), and the risk of hypotension significantly increased as the lactate increased from 2.5-4.9 mmol/L (odds ratio, 2.2) to 5.0-7.4 mmol/L (odds ratio, 4.0) and to greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/L (odds ratio, 39.2) (pupper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, subsequently, prospective validate research will be required to clarify this.

  6. A follow-up study of neonatal interatrial shunt with echocardiography until twelve to fifteen months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Jan, Sheng-Ling; Lin, Ming-Chih; Fu, Yun-Ching

    2008-12-01

    To assess the incidence and natural history of full-term neonates with interatrial shunt (IAS). A follow-up study of 1389 neonates who received screening echocardiography between 2003 and 2006. Babies with IAS at 2 to 4 days of life underwent follow-up echocardiography at 2 to 4 months, 6 to 9 months and 12 to 15 months of age until closure of IAS. The ratio of IAS was 68.3% initially. No significant demographic differences were identified between infants with and without initial IAS. Among 949 neonates with initial IAS, 84.5% infants had a left-to-right interatrial shunt, 13.5% had bidirectional shunt and 2% had predominantly right-to-left shunt. The persistence rate of IAS at 12 to 15 months of age was 3.8% (44/1166). The initial size of IAS ranged from 1.2 to 7.7mm (4.3+/-1.1 mm) detected by color Doppler flow mapping and cases were divided into three groups: small ( or =8 mm). There were 74.6% infants in the small group and 25.4% in the medium group initially. The neonates in the initial small group would always see their IAS close or else they would remain in the small group. Those in the final medium and large size groups always came from the initial medium group. The late closure rate of IAS was 93.9% of infants with initial IAS. The closure curves of initial small and medium sized groups were significantly different, and their late closure rates were 95.1% and 90.4%, respectively. IAS was very common during early neonatal stage, but most cases would close after 1 year. The late closure rate of initial IAS was different if using a cutpoint of 5 mm.

  7. The response of the lactate minimum test to a 12-week swimming training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos

    2014-01-01

    : beginning of the season, T0; after four, T4; and twelve weeks, T12. The LMT consisted of a 200m maximal effort and, after eight minutes of passive rest, five incremental stages of 200m swimming. The intensities of the incremental stages were defined subjectively ("very light," "light," "moderate," "hard......," and "all-out"). The training was divided in two blocks of periodization: endurance training period (ETP, T0 - T4), and quality plus taper period (QTP, T4 - T12). The LMT intensity of T4 and T12 were significantly higher than T0. We conclude that LMT is modified due to swimming training and can be used...

  8. Effect of lactation stage, its number, current milk performance and barn air temperature on laterality of Holstein dairy cows laying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zejdová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of lactation stage and number, current milk performance and ambient temperature on laterality of dairy cows laying behaviour (i.e. preference of either left or right body side. The monitoring was performed at the University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic, (geographical coordinates 49° 0’4’’ N and 16° 36’ E, the altitude 179 m within the six warmest months of the year 2010 (i.e. from 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2010. Observed were altogether 70 Holstein dairy cows with the average daily milk production of 34.48 kg of milk, which were kept in loose housing boxes with bedding (size of boxes: 2500 mm x 1250 mm. Animals were directly observed once a week (always at 9.00 a.m.. In the course of observation, the position of dairy cows in the barn was exactly recorded. In case of laying animals, it was recorded on which body side they were resting. Altogether 1,239 records of laying position of individual dairy cows were analysed and it was found out that the experimental animals preferred the left body side of their body (left and right laterality was observed in 671 and 568 animals, respectively. This left-side laterality was more frequent among animals in later stages of lactation (more than 200 days and also in dairy cows with a higher number of lactations (4th and more. Dairy cows with a below-average milk performance rested on their left body side more frequently than those with a high level of milk production. As compared with average and/or low air temperatures, the left laterality was more frequent in periods of high ambient temperatures.

  9. Effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentration on the third month's weight and blood pressure in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidoun, H.

    2009-01-01

    In utero alterations in fluid and electrolyte endocrine systems may result in permanent effects on offspring. A low sodium intake during prenatal life jeopardizes growth in young rats, prenatal high-salt diet in Sprague-Dawley rats caused an increase in MAP at postnatal day 30. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure in Wistar rat. This study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran, over a period from 1998 to 2003. Six groups of rat, 1 male and 5 female in each group were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 percent of salt concentrations during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation period, another test group consumed distilled water and control group used Isfahan tap water, other living conditions for all groups were similar. Exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure was evaluated. Prenatal exposure to 0.5 and 1% salt concentrations gives birth to more alive and healthy infants, and third month's weight increased significantly, but blood pressure was not influenced significantly. Salt concentrations higher than 1% increased the maternal and infant mortality rate and blood pressure significantly, but some concentrations decreased third month's weight significantly. Level of dietary salt during intrauterine development can influence on the number of alive and healthy infants, birth weight, third month' weight and blood pressure significantly. There is no need to introduce a salt restricted diet in prenatal care, a balanced diet in sodium during pregnancy is recommended, high salt diet creates harmful effect. (author)

  10. Comparison of lactate and bicarbonate buffered haemofiltration fluids: use in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A N; Guy, J M; Kishen, R; Geraghty, I F; Bowles, B J; Vadgama, P

    1997-06-01

    To compare acid-base balance, lactate concentration, and haemodynamic and O2 transport variables during haemofiltration with replacement fluid containing 44.5 mmol/l Na+ lactate or 40 mmol/l Na+ HCO3- and 3 mmol/l lactic acid. A prospective, randomized trial. A multidisciplinary, adult intensive care unit in a university hospital. Forty acidotic patients who required haemofiltration, were dependent on mechanical ventilation, and had PA catheters in situ. During haemofiltration patients received lactate or bicarbonate replacement fluid at a mean rate of 1.7 l/h (SD 0.3). Arterial blood gases, plasma lactate, and haemodynamic and O2 transport variables were measured before and after 12 and 24 h haemofiltration. Ultrafiltrate was collected for lactate estimation. As means (SD). The net gain of lactate was 63 mmol/h (12 mmol) with Na+ lactate and 0 mmol/h (0.3 mmol) with Na+ HCO3-. There was a significant increase in pH and [lactate] in both groups, but [lactate] was higher in patients receiving lactate. Twenty-one patients survived to ICU discharge, these patients were significantly less acidotic after filtration (lactate group: 0 h: pH 7.23 (0.09), [lactate] 2.4 mmol/l (1.7); 12 h: pH 7.34 (0.09), [lactate] 4.7 mmol/l (2.4); 24 h: pH 7.36 (0.07), [lactate] 4.7 mmol (2.7). HCO3 group: 0 h: pH 7.23 (0.09), [lactate] 2.3 (1.3); 12 h: pH 7.32 (0.06), [lactate] 2.9 mmol/l (1.8); 24 h: pH 7.35 (0.08), [lactate] 2.8 mmol/l (2.0). Base deficit: survivors: 0 h: 9 mmol/l (4); 12 h: 2 mmol/l (3). Non-survivors: 0 h: 10 mmol/l (3); 12 h: 6 mmol/l (3)). Haemodynamic and O2 transport variables were not significantly affected by treatment group or outcome. The degree of correction of acidosis during the first 24 h of haemofiltration was determined by patients outcome but was not affected by the substitution of bicarbonate- for lactate-containing replacement fluids.

  11. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of a three-month football training program on some trace elements in the serum in male kids aged between eight and twelve years. The study registered eight boys whose mean age was 10.25 ± 0.75 years, mean height was 138.63 ± 3.28 cm and mean weight was 32.13 ...

  12. Central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in the toad Bufo paracnemis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, L G; Steiner, A A

    1999-04-01

    Hypoxia induces a regulated decrease in body temperature (Tb; anapyrexia) in organisms ranging from protozoans to mammals, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Several candidates have been suggested to mediate hypoxia-induced anapyrexia, among them lactate, which is a classical compansion of hypoxic stress in vertebrates. The present study was designed to assess the central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in Bujo paracnemis. Toads equipped with a temperature probe were tested over a thermal gradient (10-40 degrees C). Lactate injected systemically (4.0 mmol kg-1) caused a significant reduction of Tb from 24.6 +/- 2.1 to 17.4 +/- 3.9 degrees C. To assess the role of central thermoregulatory mechanisms, a lower dose (0.4 mmol kg-1) of lactate was injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle or systemically. Intracerebroventricular injection of lactate caused a similar decrease in Tb, whereas systemic injection caused no change. The data indicate that lactate may play a role in hypoxia-induced anapyrexia in central rather than peripheral sites.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  14. Seasonal and Lunar Month Periods Observed in Natural Neutron Flux at High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkin, Yuri; Alekseenko, Victor; Cai, Zeyu; Cao, Zhen; Cattaneo, Claudio; Cui, Shuwang; Giroletti, Elio; Gromushkin, Dmitry; Guo, Cong; Guo, Xuewen; He, Huihai; Liu, Ye; Ma, Xinhua; Shchegolev, Oleg; Vallania, Piero; Vigorito, Carlo; Zhao, Jing

    2017-07-01

    Air radon concentration measurement is useful for research on geophysical effects, but it is strongly sensitive to site geology and many geophysical and microclimatic processes such as wind, ventilation, air humidity and so on inducing very big fluctuations on the concentration of radon in air. On the contrary, monitoring the radon concentration in soil by measuring the thermal neutron flux reduces environmental effects. In this paper, we report some experimental results on the natural thermal neutron flux as well as on the concentration of air radon and its variations at 4300 m asl. These results were obtained with unshielded thermal neutron scintillation detectors (en-detectors) and radon monitors located inside the ARGO-YBJ experimental hall. The correlation of these variations with the lunar month and 1-year period is undoubtedly confirmed. A method for earthquake prediction provided by a global net of en-detectors is currently under study.

  15. Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in offspring of mice dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Arine M; Benatti, Rafaela O; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia M; Okino, Caroline; Torsoni, Adriana S; Milanski, Marciane; Velloso, Licio A; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the presence early of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and insulin resistance in the offspring from dams fed HFD (HFD-O) or standard chow diet (SC-O) during pregnancy and lactation. To address this question, we evaluated the hypothalamic and hepatic tissues in recently weaned mice (d28) and the hypothalamus of newborn mice (d0) from dams fed HFD or SC during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight, adipose tissue mass, and food intake were more accentuated in HFD-O mice than in SC-O mice. In addition, intolerance to glucose and insulin was higher in HFD-O mice than in SC-O mice. Compared with SC-O mice, levels of hypothalamic IL1-β mRNA, NFκB protein, and p-JNK were increased in HFD-O mice. Furthermore, compared with SC-O mice, hypothalamic AKT phosphorylation after insulin challenge was reduced, while markers of ERS (p-PERK, p-eIF2α, XBP1s, GRP78, and GRP94) and p-AMPK were increased in the hypothalamic tissue of HFD-O at d28 but not at d0. These damages to hypothalamic signaling were accompanied by increased triglyceride deposits, activation of NFκB, p-JNK, p-PERK and p-eIF2α. These point out lactation period as maternal trigger for metabolic changes in the offspring. These changes may occur early and quietly contribute to obesity and associated pathologies in adulthood. Although in rodents the establishment of ARC neuronal projections occurs during the lactation period, in humans it occurs during the third trimester. Gestational diabetes and obesity in this period may contribute to impairment of energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A case series of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis and a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Kamimura, Mikio; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis is a rare disorder whose precise etiology and treatment are largely unknown. We herein report two such cases occurring in the early postpartum period that led to multiple fragility compression fractures. Combination therapy of vitamin D and vitamin K enabled a marked gradual increase in bone mineral density. PMID:26379439

  17. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Lactate in the brain: from metabolic end-product to signalling molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2018-03-08

    Lactate in the brain has long been associated with ischaemia; however, more recent evidence shows that it can be found there under physiological conditions. In the brain, lactate is formed predominantly in astrocytes from glucose or glycogen in response to neuronal activity signals. Thus, neurons and astrocytes show tight metabolic coupling. Lactate is transferred from astrocytes to neurons to match the neuronal energetic needs, and to provide signals that modulate neuronal functions, including excitability, plasticity and memory consolidation. In addition, lactate affects several homeostatic functions. Overall, lactate ensures adequate energy supply, modulates neuronal excitability levels and regulates adaptive functions in order to set the \\'homeostatic tone\\' of the nervous system.

  19. Lactation transcriptomics in the Australian marsupial, Macropus eugenii: transcript sequencing and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley Jane C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation is an important aspect of mammalian biology and, amongst mammals, marsupials show one of the most complex lactation cycles. Marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii give birth to a relatively immature newborn and progressive changes in milk composition and milk production regulate early stage development of the young. Results In order to investigate gene expression in the marsupial mammary gland during lactation, a comprehensive set of cDNA libraries was derived from lactating tissues throughout the lactation cycle of the tammar wallaby. A total of 14,837 express sequence tags were produced by cDNA sequencing. Sequence analysis and sequence assembly were used to construct a comprehensive catalogue of mammary transcripts. Sequence data from pregnant and early or late lactating specific cDNA libraries and, data from early or late lactation massively parallel sequencing strategies were combined to analyse the variation of milk protein gene expression during the lactation cycle. Conclusion Results show a steady increase in expression of genes coding for secreted protein during the lactation cycle that is associated with high proportion of transcripts coding for milk proteins. In addition, genes involved in immune function, translation and energy or anabolic metabolism are expressed across the lactation cycle. A number of potential new milk proteins or mammary gland remodelling markers, including noncoding RNAs have been identified.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphorylation and Lactate Accumulation During Sprint Exercise in Normoxia and Severe Acute Hypoxia: Effects of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morales-Alamo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normoxia, during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia the glycolytic rate is increased leading to greater lactate accumulation, acidification, and oxidative stress. To determine the role played by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH activation and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS in muscle lactate accumulation, nine volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test on four occasions: two after the ingestion of placebo and another two following the intake of antioxidants, while breathing either hypoxic gas (PIO2 = 75 mmHg or room air (PIO2 = 143 mmHg. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before, immediately after, 30 and 120 min post-sprint. Antioxidants reduced the glycolytic rate without altering performance or VO2. Immediately after the sprints, Ser293- and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylations were reduced to similar levels in all conditions (~66 and 91%, respectively. However, 30 min into recovery Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation reached pre-exercise values while Ser300-PDH-E1α was still reduced by 44%. Thirty minutes after the sprint Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation was greater with antioxidants, resulting in 74% higher muscle lactate concentration. Changes in Ser293 and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylation from pre to immediately after the sprints were linearly related after placebo (r = 0.74, P < 0.001; n = 18, but not after antioxidants ingestion (r = 0.35, P = 0.15. In summary, lactate accumulation during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia is not caused by a reduced activation of the PDH. The ingestion of antioxidants is associated with increased PDH re-phosphorylation and slower elimination of muscle lactate during the recovery period. Ser293 re-phosphorylates at a faster rate than Ser300-PDH-E1α during the recovery period, suggesting slightly different regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  2. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary energy supplementation on hormones that are considered to be the main signals of a shift in energy balance around parturition. Sixty dry cows, 15 days before calving, were chosen and divided into two eaqual groups: control and experimental (GLY. Both groups were fed a standard ration balanced in accordance to the stage of the productivereproductive cycle. Additionally, each cow in the GLY group was given glycerol based dietary energy supplementation (250 mL daily during the dry and 300 mL daily during the lactation period, which provided additional 9.30 MJ NEL during the dry and 13.95 MJ NEL during the early lactation period. Milk production was measured on days 30 and